Psy 201 - Mind and Brain Lecture Notes
Psy 201 - Mind and Brain Lecture Notes 201
Popular in Psychology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 121 Owen Bradley-History of the U.S. Since Reconstruction
verified elite notetaker
BIOL 100 Holly Harris-Human Biology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Morgan Grimsby on Sunday April 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dasa Demircan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
Reviews for Psy 201 - Mind and Brain Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/12/15
WEEK 1 33115 Lecture 1 Psychological Science The Scientific Study of Mind Brain and Behavior Science Objective study of Observable Phenomena to determine the cause and e ect laws that govern a set of events The MindBody problem 0 Are they separate and distinct 0 Or is it a subjective experience Dualism The belief that world is composed of two distinct categories of substance 0 Mental substance The soul 0 Physical substance The body Monism The belief that all of the world can be explained by one category of substance 0 Hippocrates Brain Seat of thought and emotions o Aristotle Heart Seat of emotions Brain is just a cooling organ Philosophical debate in 1600 s 0 Descartes Formalized dualism gt Soul controls body through an interface with the pineal gland o Hobbes Argued monism gt Materialism Nothing exists except matter and energy all human thought and behavior is explained by process of the body gt Brain Modern Psychology science is based on materialist view of mind Phrenology Study of the structure of the skull to determine a person s character and mental capacity 0 Brain organ of the mind 0 mind composed of distinct innate faculties 0 Each faculty has distinct organ in brain 0 Size of organ is a measure of the power Failed attempts to localize cognitive functions in the brain gt Still has some truth to the theory Modularity of mental functions Mental functions can be divided into separate categories or independent processes Localization of functions Bumps are not functions gt still good evidence for cognitive functions are located in the brain Broca s Aphasia First evidence of localization came from Paul Broca 1861 o Damage to left half of patients brain prevented patient from saying speci c words gt Important for speech production Speech production different from Speech comprehension o Damage to Broca s Area gt Dif culty with speech production but not with speech comprehension gt Speci c part of the brain is responsible for the production of speech Wernicke s Aphasia Patients can produce speech but the content is relatively meaningless 0 Specific part of the brain is responsible for language comprehension Observing brain Will not provide insight to the mind unless you know the thought process 0 Observing the behavior is just as important as observing the brain Psychology began as a formal eld of scienti c study in mid 1800 s by Wilhelm Wundt o Reasoned that mental events take time Introspectionism Wundt Study of conscious mental events by looking Within observingrecording one s own thoughts and experiences Structuralism Titchener Uses introspectionism to break apart and examine individual components of conscious experience Problems With Introspectionism amp Structuralism o Variability one persons impressions are different from another 0 Verification lack of public introspections misinterpretations can never be detected 0 Reliance on consciousness Many interesting mental events are unconscious Gestalt Psychology Assumes that the Whole of experience is more than the sum of its parts Behaviorism Emphasizes the study of observable environmental effects on behavior 0 Mind is like a black box gt Contents cannot be observed scienti cally gt Concentrate efforts on understanding relationship between stimulus and response 0 Formulated by John Watson 1913 Skinner Box BF Skinner 4215 Lecture 2 Latest developments in Psychology 0 Biology increasingly important 0 Evolutionary thinking 0 Effect of Culture 0 Crossing levels of analysis mixing ways of looking at phenomenons 0 Biology is Increasingly Important 0 Brain Chemistry Hundreds of molecules in the Brain 0 Neuroscience Increasingly taking into account biology to describe behavior reaction time 0 Human Genome How genes and genotype in uences how we perceive and our mental life New view of nurture vs nature debate Interactions between environment genes and behavior Genes can be turned on and off depending on which environment you are in o Evolutionary Thinking o The human mind has been shaped by evolution 0 Many behaviors and biological changes evolved to aid survival and reproduction Adaptive Behaviors Increases chances of survival and reproduction o Evolutionary Heritage 0 Understanding the challenges our ancestors faced helps understanding our current behavior 0 Modern humans homo sapiens can be traced back 100000 years to the Plestocene era 0 Many current behaviors re ect our evolutionary heritage some of which may not be maladaptive ex the preference for sweet fatty foods which can lead to obesity 0 Some behaviors do not re ect our evolutionary heritage driving reading 0 The effect of Culture 0 Social interaction gives rise to culture which is transmitted from one generation to the next through learning 0 Culture affects throughout and behavior musicfood preferences ways of emotions tolerance of body odors 0 Cultural rules re ect adaptive solutions worked out by previous generations 0 Cultural Neuroscience 0 Studies the ways that cultural variables affect the brain mind genes and behavior 0 Cognitive consequences of individualism vs collectivism People from Japan are better and judging the length of a line relative to the size of a box which it s drawn Americans are better at judging the absolute length of the same line Other studies showed that Americans pay more attention to details and Asians pay more attention to context 0 Psychology Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis 0 Researchers can explain behavior at many levels of analysis 0 Four common levels Biological level of analysis Individual level of analysis Social level of analysis Cultural level of analysis 0 Example Listening to music can be studied at all levels Research Methods 0 The Goals of Psychological Science 0 Description Detailing our cataloguing mental processes and behaviors 0 Understanding explaining Developing theories of how the mind works 0 Prediction Using the theories to predict behaviors and thoughts 0 Application Applying the theories to in uence behavior and thought 0 Scientific Method 0 Systematic and dynamic procedure of observing and measuring phenomenon with the goals of description explanation prediction and application 0 Research gt theory gt hypothesis gt research 0 The Scientific Method has three essential elements 0 Theory Interconnected ideas or concepts used to explain prior observations and to make predictions 0 Hypothesis A testable prediction about the outcome that would best support the theory 0 Research The systematic and careful collection of data 0 The Scientific Method Cyclical Process 0 Theory An explanation or model of how some phenomenon works gt Hypothesis A specific testable prediction about the outcome of some event gt Data results of an objective and verifiable test of a hypothesis 0 Good Theories Should Generate Testable Hypotheses 0 Jean Piaget s theory of infant and child stages of development generated thousands of hypotheses and scientific papers 0 Freud s theory that dreams served a wish ful llment function generated few testable hypotheses 0 Theoretical framing is important but some significant findings were a result of serendipity 0 Late 1950 s Physiologists Wiesel amp Hubel hypothesized certain brain cells in cats would respond when cats looked at dots on slides After much effort they were not getting the expected results When their projector jammed the slide produced a visual edge on the screen 0 They discovered that the 0 Types of research designs 0 Observational naturalistic or participant o Correlational measure two different variables and looking for relationship between them 0 Experimental 0 Correlational Studies Examine How Variables Are Related 0 Correlational Studies Examine how variables are naturally related in the real world 0 Researchers do not attempt to alter variables 0 Researchers cannot draw causal conclusions from correlational studies 0 Ethical Reasons for Using Correlational Designs 0 Some research questions require correlational research designs for ethical reasons 0 Example Do soldiers who experience severe trauma during combat have more difficulty learning new tasks after they return from war 0 Directionality Problem 0 Directionality Problem Researchers find a relationship between two variables but cannot determine which variable may have 0 Third Variable problem 0 A third Factor different from the two correlated variables is causing both Example 0 Studies suggest that students who take latin in high school often get above average grades in College 0 Experiment 0 Experiment Researcher manipulates one variable to examine its effect on a second variable to establish causeand effect relationship Independent variable variable that is manipulated Dependent variable Variable that is measured 0 Experiment design 0 Experimental groups The treatment groups that receive the intervention 0 Control group a comparison group that does not receive the interventionor receives on unrelated to the independent variable Also referred to as experimental condition and control condition 0 Steps in a research study 0 Formulate theory Cognitive processing relies on a limited store of mental resources 0 Formulate hypothesis Cell phone use during driving increases braking distance Causing more frequent accidents How is data analyzed 0 Inspection for errors in data recording 0 Summarize Descriptive Statistics Provide a summary of the Data 0 Central tendency describes a typical response mean median mode 0 Variability describes how how widely dispersed the values about the mean range standard deviation Correlations 0 Describe the relationship between two variables Correlation Coefficient 0 Measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables 1 to 1 Relationships may be strong even when the correlation coefficient is zero Correlation does not imply causation There could be a third factor a confound that plays a causal role in the other two Even if there is a causal relationship its direction is often uncertain Could be a random relationship that only appears correlated Behaviorist approach studies the effects of consequences and the environment on behavior The social level of analysis studies interpersonal relationships and the effects of groups and social settings on individuals 4 7 1 5 Lecture 3 WEEK 2 Inferential Statistics Permit Generalizations o Inferential Statistics Used to determine Whether differences actually exist in the populations from which the samples are drawn 0 Observed differences are likely due to chance 0 Results that are unlikely due to change are statistically significant Neurons amp Synapses o Nervous system Cell Types 0 O O Neurons Information processingtransmitting cells of the nervous system Basic building blocks integrate and fire Communicate via electrical and chemical signals Glial Cells Supporting Cells Many kinds but they hold things in place and protect neurons from the environment Neurons Cell Nucleus Dendrites catch information Axon Neuron communicates information through this Axon terminals Communication Electrical Wire that transmits information o Membrane Potential Charge across membrane 0 Protein gates Ion Channels and pumps embedded in cell membrane control movement of ions SodiumPotassium Pump places more Na outside axon and more K inside axon Neuron is negatively charged compared to the outside Which is positively charged More sodium outside the cell and more potassium inside the cell Ions Will try to move to equalize concentration and charge Ions have very limited ability to travel across the membrane Travel through sodium Ion channels SodiumPotassium Pump Pumps 3 Na out of the neuron for every 2 K into the neuron Drives the neuron to become negatively polarized 0 Action Potential 0 Excitation causes membrane to become depolarized polarized less than it was When membrane potential reaches threshold 55mV action potential is triggered Action potential consists of rapid reversal of membrane potential Action Potential a very brief sudden reversal of the membrane potential The Action Potential Mechanism vaerpolarization o 1 Membrane reaches 55 mV 0 Channels open to let Na molecules through 0 Na ions rush in until 50 mV reached 0 Channels close 0 2 When Membrane reaches 50 mV channels open to let K through Action Potential Propagation 0 Positive inside potential spreads to nearby part of axon causing a depolarization and triggering another 0 Action potential jumps across axon Synapse 0 Most neurons do not touch but rather communicate via chemical signals across synaptic cleft space between each neuron Synapse site of chemical communications between neurons Neurotransmitter molecule that carries the neuronal signal across the synaptic cleft o Excitatory postsynaptic potential becoming more positive 0 Inhibitory postsynaptic potential becoming more negative Effect of Neurotransmitter on Postsynaptic neuron o Neurotransmitter travels across the synaptic cleft o Neurotransmitters stimulate specific receptors like a key fitting a lock 0 The binding of a o Integrates into cell body and decides whether to fire or not Integrate and fire 0 One neuron s input has very little effect on whether the postsynaptic neuron will fire 0 Change in postsynaptic membrane potential will re ect sum of all inputs positiveexcitatory and negative inhibitory o Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potential can be Graded Neural Code 0 Single action potential is an all or none event 0 However frequency rate and timing of action potentials is variable and can be used as a neutral Code Stopping signal Transmission 0 Neural code requires precision in signaling timing of events 0 Presynaptic neuron contains autoreceptors to stop release of neurotransmitter once sufficient concentration is reached 0 Remaining neurotransmitter is removed from synaptic cleft by reuptake or enzymatic breakdown Drugs affect behavior by modulating neurotransmitter function 0 Agonists Increased transmission increased effect on postsynaptic neuron o Antagonists Decreased transmission decreased effect on postsynaptic neuron 0 Can act on all stages of synaptic transmission 4 9 1 5 Lecture 4 Brain 0 Major divisions of the nervous system 0 Nervous system Central Nervous system 0 Brain Parts of the brain 0 Forebrain cerebrum Evolutionary youngest consists of gray matter cell bodies and White matter axon fibers Gray matter is located on the surface cerebral cortex and in subcortical nuclei Cerebral Cortex is convoluted Cortex gray matter outer layer of cell bodies dendrites and short axons White matter long myelinated axons connecting neurons in distant locations of the brain Sulcus plural sulci concavity groove in the cortex Gyrus plural gyri convexity bump in the cortex Consists of two hemispheres connected by The Corpus Callosum The thick band of myelinated axons that connect the two cerebral hemispheres Brainstem Midbrain pons Medulla oblongata Survival Heart rate breathing blood pressure Produces dopamine regulates motivation reticular formation alertness arousal sleep Parietal Lobe top of brain touch motion perception and spatial information processing Temporal Lobe bottom of brain Face perception Object perception Hearing and comprehension and Memory Occipital Lobe Back of brain Vision primary visual cortex Frontal Lobe Front of brain Motor control Goal directed behavior Cognitive control Problem solving Impulse control amp Personality And Hindbrain Cerebellum Control of balance smooth movement and coordination timing gaze fixation motor learning and memory o Homunculus little man The distorted map of the body stretched out across primary motor and primary somatosensory cortex responsible for the sense of touch 0 Left hemisphere controls the right side of the body amp Viceversa Subcortical Structures Subcortical nuclei 0 Subcortical nuclei are masses of gray matter that lie below the cerebral cortex embedded in white matter Thalamus 0 Gateway to the cortex 0 Receives all incoming sensory information except smell and relays it to the cortex 0 During sleep the thalamus partially shuts the gate on incoming sensations while the brain rests Hypothalamus o Brian s master regulatory structure 0 Affects the functions of many internal organs regulating body temp body rhythms blood pressure and blood glucose levels 0 Also involved in many motivated behaviors including thirst hunger aggression and lust Hippocampus greek sea horse 0 Spatial navigation 0 Formation of new episodic 0 Memory amp formation of new memory retrograde amnesia 0 May grow larger with increased use Amygdala latin almond o Emotional processing 0 emotional memories 0 fear 0 Perceptions of faces displaying strong emotions The Basal Ganglia o Crucial for planning and initiating voluntary movement 0 Learning of habits retrieval from memory does not require memory 0 Damage can produce tremors and rigidity uncontrollable jerky movements 0 Dopamine is the major neurotransmitter in basal ganglia Many neurological disorders result from dysregulation of dopamine in basal ganglia parkinson39s disease Huntington s disease Nucleus accumbens Part of the basal ganglia Important for experiencing reward and motivating behavior 0 Major player in drug addiction 0 Lesion Studies Phineus Gage 0 An accident With dynamite drove an iron rod into his cheek and through his frontal lobes 0 He survived the accident but his behavior and personality changed after the accident lack of ability to plan control and assess behavior 0 Spinal Cord Interface between the central and peripheral nervous system Controls simple re exes and repetitive motion Peripheral Nervous System 0 Somatic Nervous system c Autonomic Nervous system 0 Sympathetic Nervous System 0 Parasympathetic Nervous system
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'