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Anatomy Study Guide for Midterm 1

by: Abby Notetaker

Anatomy Study Guide for Midterm 1

Marketplace > University of Washington > Anatomy > Anatomy Study Guide for Midterm 1
Abby Notetaker


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About this Document

Here is the complete study guide for our upcoming test. It covers the introductory lectures through muscles. I went through the lecture objectives and made sure to cover everything on the guide.
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Thursday April 24, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 180 views.


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Date Created: 04/24/14
B STR 301 Study Guide Introductory Lectures 0 Learn the anatomical terms for different directions 0 Dorsa towards back Ventra towards stomach Media side closer to midline of body Latera side farther from midline of body Anterior frontPosterior back Superior topnferior bottom Proxima closer to center of body Dista farther from center of body Rostra towards tai Cauda towards nose I Used when talking about quadrupeds or could be used to talk about brain stem OOOOO 0 Anatomical Position 0 Standing to front with hands in supinated position 0 Supinated front of hands facing forward pronated back of hands facing forward 0 Prone Laying on Stomach Supine laying on back 0 Body Regions 0 Abdomina lower trunkabdomen region Axiary armpit Brachia upper arm Carpa wrist Cephaic head Femora thigh upper leg nguina groin Pectora chest upper chest by clavicle Pubic pubic bone region Thoracic Chest 0 Umbiica belly button region 0 Planes of Section 0 Frontal Section vertical section front from back 0 Sagittal Section vertical section right from left 0 Transverse Section horizontal 0 Imaging Methods 0 X RAY I Shows dense parts of tissue ex bone 0 CT Scan Computed tomography I Built of many x rays 0 MRI magnetic resonance imaging I More detailing of soft tissue I Takes longer so used less often I More expensive 0 Organ Vs tissue OOOOOOOOO 0 Four kinds of tissue o Epithelial Tissue o Connective Tissue o Muscular o Neural 0 Epithelial Tissue o Functions I Barrier between body and world I Layer separating different components of one organ I Surrounds organ o 3 kinds of epithelium I Simple 0 Tightly packed one layer I Pseudostratified 0 One layer but it looks like more because each cell extends to basement membrane I Stratified 0 Multiple layers 0 Can be many cells thick to withstand mechanical trauma ie childbirth o CeHshapes I Squamous flat corresponds to simple epithelium I Cuboidal like a 3d cube corresponds to pseudostratified epithelium I Columnar like a 3d rectangle corresponds to stratified epithelium o Practical example tubues inside kidney are lined with simple epithelium I Blood vessels are lined with simple epithelium I All blood vessels regardless of size thin squamous epithelium layer in capillary Has to be thin so the nutrients like Oxygen and glucose can reach cells o Serous membrane slippery membrane filled with serous fluid I Why would we want a slippery membrane 0 Many of the organs in the abdominal cavity are moving waves of muscles of contrations in stomach and intestines 0 Serous membrane prevents friction and irritation when organs are moving 0 ConnectiveTissue o Kinds I Fibrous Connective Tissue I Cartilage I Adipose Tissue I Bone I Blood o Fibrous Connective Tissue 1 Dense Regular Connective Tissue found in tendons and ligaments i Packed tightly ii Made of collagen iii Force on tendonsligaments is always going to be in the same direction iv Not a lot of blood vessels takes a long time to heal 2 Dense Irregular Connective Tissue found in skin i Collagen bundle ii Randomly dispersed iii Few cells iv Lots of blood vessels easier to heal v Found primarily in skin Cartilage 1 Hyaline Cartilage a Made up of fine collagen bundles b Chondrocytes in cartilage c Found between different bones glassy and smooth d Attaches ribs to sternum 2 Elastic Cartilage a Less in body than Hyaline b Elastic fibers in cartilage c Found in tip of nose and ears 3 Fibrous Cartilage a Found in pads between vertebrae intervertebral discs b Function shock absorption c Bundles of collagen going in one direction in matrix Adipose Tissue Fat 1 Made up of many adipocyte cells a Organelles in each adipocyte cell are pushed up agoinst the sides of the cell beacause each cell is filled with one drop of fat b Most fat in under the skin subcutaneous fat Or Stomach intra abdomina visceral fat cushions organs in abdomen especially kidneys Fat layer around heart While you39re growing you keep adding adipocyte cells after about age 20 you sto adding adipocyte cells Gastric Band stomach Reduction o Put band around stomach I Fill it up with saline o Person can now only eat smaller amounts Skin Lecture Objectives Largest organ in the body Functions o Barrier against infection trauma Sensory organ As protection against UV Thermoregulation Protection against water loss As insulator o Site of Vitamin D synthesis Epidermis o Outer Layer of skin o Visible layer is dead keratinocytes o Deeper layers contain stem cells and melanocytes Dermis o Under the epidermis o Contains sweat pores hair follicles blood supply sebaceous glands Hypodermis o Not skin o Under Dermis layer o Contains adipose tissue fat and connective tissue CoHagen o Most abundant protein in the dermis o Deeper down the collagen is the less elastic it is o Helps give skin its flexibility in the dermis o Rigid and tough in tendons to absorb force Skin Adaptations o Skin can sense and adapt to a number of environmental factors o Callusing I Calluses are formed by the accumulation of keratinocytes I Skin senses extra usage which causes epidermis to thicken by increased cell division thickens 35 times as much o Tanning I UV radiation damage is responsible for 90 of the changes people find medically or cosmetically troubling I Melanin is able to block over 999 of absorbed UV radiation OOOOO I Rapid response UV light causes conversion of pre existing melanin to oxidized state darker color I Slow response Skin makes a higher concentration of melanin takes about 3 days o Heat I Excessive heat can cause heat stroke I Rapid Response sweating and vasodilation which brings hot blood to surface and away from organs I Slow response remodeling of sweat glands I Rapid Response Vasoconstriction of surface blood vessels to keep heat in body only skin adaptation I Body starts shivering and increases metabolic rate muscular response I Slow response buildup of subcutaneous fat 0 Roles of dermal papillae o Interlock with epidermis to keep skin from sliding o Create ridges in finger tips for grip 0 Cornification o Process of keratinocytes being oxidized by the air o Creates tough barrier against bacteria and infection o This is one reason that dead keratinocytes are still functional Bone Tissue Objectives 0 Compact Bone o Orderly bone with tunnels running through its length central canals o Blood supply to all parts of compact bone o Endosteum lines central canals and makes new bone o Responsible for 75 of bone weight o Completely covers spongy bone 0 Spongy Bone o Made up of lots of little trabeculi o Marrow fills cavities between trabeculi o Endosteum covers outside of trabeculi and new bone is formed in circular pattern I Youngest bone is on the outside opposite of a tree 0 Parts of a long bone o Ephysis head of bone o Diaphysis shaft of bone o Long bones found in limbs 0 Periosteum o Made up of two layers I Tough outer layer made from collagen fibers I Inner cellular layer that is responsible for bone formation o Functions of periosteum I Sharpey fibers collagen fibers of periosteum penetrate into bone 0 Continuous with collagen fibers of tendons or ligaments o Endosteum O 0 Lines central canals Lines trabeculi o Also responsible for making new bone just like periosteum 0 Bone Remodeling 0 O O Osteoclasts break down old bone I Formed from made up of many pre cursor cells fused together I Comb like structure I Function destroy bone 0 Releases Hydrogen ions acid from comblike side 0 Acid works away at the bone 0 Leaves and osteoblasts come in and remodel Osteoblasts build up new bone I Secrete substance called osteoid I Minerals crystallize on collagen fibers of osteoid 0 Hydroxyapatite 0 calcium I This is what forms new bone matrix I Located in inner layer of periosteum Osteocytes I Osteoblasts that get trapped in matrix 0 Stop secreting osteoid 0 Can still pass nutrients and wastes through tiny canals 0 Maintaining Healthy Bones 0 O 0 Exercise Calcium Vitamin D 0 Bone Repair after a fracture O O 0 Step 1 Blood forms a hematoma clot and new blood vessels invade it Step 2 Collagen and fibrocartilage are deposited soft callus Step 3 Osteoblasts deposit temporary bony collar hard callus around fracture zone to hold bone together during repair spongy bone is created by osteoblasts interstitial growth Step 4 Osteoclasts work with osteoblasts to remove bony debris build spongy bone and convert it to compact bone 0 Osteoporosis O osteoclasts breakling down bone faster than osteoblasts can rebuild it bone more fragile Fractured vertebral compact on itself forming quothunchback Common fracture sites vertebrae and wrist More common in women I lower bone density to begin with I loss of estrogen after menopause sharply reduces bone depsotion Vertebral column ribs amp pelvic girdle Objectives 0 Main functions of the vertebral column o Structural I Key part of body scaffold o Flexibility I Allows some movement in trunk and head o Protects Spinal Cord 0 Vertebral Regions o Cervical 7 vertebrae o Thoracic 12 vertebrae o Lumbar 5 vertebrae o Sacrum 5 vertebrae fused together o Coccyx 1 vertebrae 0 Shape of Vertebrae o Vertebral Body o Articular Facet I Where adjacent vertebrae contact each other o Spinous process I Attachment site for back muscles I Attachment site for ligaments that hold vertebrae together o Transverse process I Thoracic vertebrae have two transverse processes where o Costal Facet Skull Objectives Know bones of skull and facial bones Functions of the Skull o Enclose and protect brain o Orbits for eyes o Enclose middle and inner ear o Airway for breathing o Mouth for chewing and swallowing Bones of Skull and Face 0 Foramen Magnum o Hole in floor of cranium o Where spinal cord joins with brainstem Fossae of Cranium o Anterior Fossa depression at front of skull o Middle Fossa depression in middle of skull o Posterior Fossa depression at back of skull Cavities of the skull o Orbits sockets for eyes o Auditory Cavity cavity for ear o Nasal Cavity linked to sinuses o Oral cavity mouth Nasal Cavity o Curving bones in nasal cavity increase surface area and air turbulence o Mucous membranes in nasal cavity and ethmoid bone trap air particles and warm up air before it goes to lungs Paranasal Sinuses o Sinuses in 4 different bones of skull frontal ethmoid sphenoid maxillary o Air filled spaces o All connected to nasal cavity to be able to get air o Functions are to amplify voice and make skull lighter Flow of air o 1 Nose o 2 Nasal cavity o 3 Pharynx o 4 Larynx What separates nasal and oral cavities o Nasal and oral cavities are separated except for at the back of the throat o Palatine bone and maxillary bone separate cavities o They form roof of mouth Temporalis Muscle o Chewing muscle o Strongest muscle in skull o Shortens and bulges when you shut mandible Mandible o Forms onlyjoint with cranium in face o Surrounded by three muscles including temporalis Skull Fractures o Types of fractures I Depressed I Linear I Basal o Problem with fractures in skull is that it causes bleeding in skull o The accumulation of blood causes the brain to be squished o Epidural Hematoma I Tears vessels between dura and skull quoton top of dura o Subdural Hematoma I Doesn39t invade brain tissue I Squishes brain I Underneath dura o Subarachnoid hemorrhage I Can bleed into blood tissue Limbs and Joints Objectives 0 Appendicular Skeleton o Limb bones and bones that attach them to axial skeleton o Pelvis scapula clavicle 0 Hip Joint o Stable joint I Deep socket I Lots of articular cartilage o 13 muscles attach femur to hip bone o quotbroken hip almost always refers to a break in the femoral neck o Synovial Joint 0 Synovial Joints o Joint capsule surrounds joint o Outer layer is fibrous connective tissue that is continuous with perosteum of bones on either side ofjoint o Inner layer is synovial membrane I Lines all parts of the joint cavity except where there is articular cartilage o Joint cavity filled with synovial fluid to reduce friction 0 Knee Joint o Biggestjoint in the body Simple synovial joint Not as stable as hip joint Tendons of quadriceps 4 muscles connect over patella Hinge Joint needs accessory things to hold it together I Patellar ligament I Anterior cruciate ligament ACL I Posterior cruciate ligament PCL I Collateral ligament running along sides o ACL is often torn due to rotational stress or impact from the back I Torn 10 times as much as PCL o Meniscus tears I Often have to be clipped off because they won t heal 0 Low blood flow to inner part of meniscus 0 Doctor often clips off torn part so it doesn t get caught in the joint 0 If it is on the peripheral part of the meniscus sometimes it can be stitched back together more blood supply to peripheral part of meniscus OOOO o Bursas o Capsule filled with synovial fluid o Acts as a cushion o Bursitis when a bursa becomes inflamed I Comes from harsh treatment of bursa I In the knee this can come from kneeling a lot or hitting knee really hard 0 Osteoarthiritis o Damage to articular cartilage on bone at a joint o Common degenerative condition of finger joints o Symptoms are similar to rheumatoid arthritis but cause is very different 0 Rheumatoid Arthritis o Autoimmune disease in which body attacks synovial membrane in joints o Leads to inflammation articular cartilage worn away can erode bone Foot and Ankle joints 0 Tibia Fibula and Talus o Tibia does all of the weight bearing o Tibia articulates with superior and medial side of Talus ankle joint o Fibula articulates with lateral side of Talus 0 Maleoulus o Maleoulus of tibia and fibula connect to ankle joint I Prevent most but not all rotation in medial and lateral rotation 0 Arch of the Foot o Functions I Helpful for walking and running I Propels your foot off the ground by flattening out when you step on it and springing back up to push you off the ground Glenohumeral Joint 0 Shoulder Joint o Very shallowjoint o Allows for more rotation of arm o Ball and socketjoint I Bahead of humerus I Socket formed by scapula 0 Pectoral girdle o Made up by two bones I Scapula I Clavicle 0 Rotator Cuffs o Muscles attached by tendons to shoulder joint o Primary function is to stabilize joint o Go around joint in an almost full circle 0 Tendons of Biceps Brachii o Most important for stabilizing joint o One tendon runs up to humerus o One tendon runs up to scapula 0 Common Shoulder Injuries o Dislocation of shoulder I Humerus is shifted out of place I Most frequently dislocated joint in shoulder I Have to hit with a lot of force I Treatment is to shift it back into place o Separated Shoulder I Scapula and clavicle are torn apart I Damages ligaments that hold them together 0 Most severe form is when ligaments are completely torn 0 Common causes o Football o Fall from moving fast ex bike or horse Elbow Joint o 2 joints in one o Trochlea of humerus connects to Ulna to form the hinge joint o Captiulum of humerus connects to radius to form quotspinning joint I When you rotate forearm ulna stays still while radius crosses over Carpal Bones 0 Carpal bones don t move much similar to ankle bones 0 Lots of tendons run through wrist o Carpal tunnel can be a result of the tightly packed carpal bones Muscles 0 642 muscles in the body 0 Terms o Flexor I Brings insertion closer to body o Extensor I Increases angle o Adductor I Pulls joint closer to body o Abductor I Pulls joint away from body o Supinator I Rotates muscle to supinated position o Agonist I Prime mover I Responsible for moving a given joint in a given direction o Antagonist I Opposes prime mover at a joint 0 Sometimes can work with agonist to stabilize a joint or complete an action 0 Example Ifjumping they would both contract to stabilize knee joint Or in running quads contract first and then hamstrings o Synergist I Muscle that works with agonist to contribute to same over all action at a joint 0 How Muscles are named o Mostly named first after its bone and then its location I Example Tibialis Anterior o Can be named after action and shape I Example Flexor Hallucis Longus 0 Flexor action it takes 0 Hallucis bone 0 Longus shape 0 Origin and Insertion o Origin Where the muscle attaches to immovable bone o Insertion Where the muscle attaches to movable bone Muscles of the Abdomen 0 Abdominal wall muscles o Tendons of all 4 muscles go in different directions to give extra protection to abdominal organs o External obliques outermost muscle of ab wall I Stabilized spinal column amp pulls chest downward I Fibers run forward and down o Internal Obliques I Fibers run backwards and down I Rotates and bends trunk to the side the muscle is on helps during forceful exhalation coughing throwingup o Rectus Abdominis quotsix pack muscle o Transversus Abdominis I Fibers run horizontally I Muscle of abdominal wall that rotates trunk to same side if muscle contracts on just one side compresses abdomen if both muscled contract Muscles of the Upper Arm and Shoulder 0 Brachialisz o Prime flexor of the elbow o Bulges up under biceps when you flex o Origin at humerus o Inserts at Ulna 0 Triceps Brachii o Extensor o Extends elbow 0 Forearm supinators o 2 muscles supinate the forearm I Biceps brachii I Supinator o Biceps brachii inserts on medial side of radius o Supinator inserts on lateral side or radius o These two muscles force radius to rotate radius in counter clockwise direction Leg Muscles 0 Quadriceps o 4 muscles 1 group o Can classify by 1 group because they are innervated by a single nerve femoral nerve o Act to extend the knee and flex the hip 0 Deep View Vastus intermedius medialis lateralis don t attach to hip o Superficial View Rectus femoris attach to hip 0 Hamstring Group o Antagonist group to quadriceps o 3 posterior thigh muscles I Flex the knee bending I Extend the hip like in a lunge o Semimeembranosus semitendinosus biceps femoris o 2 tendons that you can feel on the back of a bent knee are tendons that are from semimembranosus medial side and biceps femoris lateral side 0 Foot muscles o Gastrocnemius and Soleus I Very powerful when working together I Soleus behind Gastrocnemius calf muscle I Posterior side of leg o Tibalis Anterior I Prime mover of dorsiflexion of the foot I Major shin muscle I Injury to muscle shin splints I Can act on Tibia ankle bone or big toe metatarsal 1 I Attaches to big toe and ankle bone Hip Muscles 0 Hip adductors adduct the thigh o Located medially to bone it acts on o Adductor magnus brevis longus 0 Lateral compartment of Thigh o Tensor fasciae latae TFL I TFL and Gluteus maximus form IT band I TFL role in abducting thigh and extending thigh 0 Anterior Trunk hip flexors o 2 interconnected hip flexors I Illiacus origin on illiaus I Psoas I These two form the illiopsoas muscle I Prime mover of hip flexor I Strongest of muscles which flex the hip 0 Antiversion o If you sit too much and don t let the illopsoas muscle relax it can cause a forward tilt of the pelvis Strains your back and hamstrings o Hip flexors thread through middle of body and attach to lumbar vertebrae and hip bone Gluteus Group 0 Powerful muscle group 0 Extendabduct femur 0 Used in running climbing weightlifting 0 Named in order of size not lateral to medial location o Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus 0 Piriformis o Strong muscle o Important in stabilizing hip o Occupies sciatic notch where sciatic nerve runs through o If piriform is overused it can swell compress nerve and caue sciatica I Sciatica is shooting pain down back of leg Back Muscles 0 Trapezius o Stabilizes clavicle and scapula during arm movements o Elevates top of shoulder shrugging o Fibers that run along it can move shoulder anteriorly slightly o Overhead lifting 0 Latissimus Dorsi o Armpit to waist Broadest muscle in back Sheetlike Tendon insertion to anterior side of humerus wraps around Extend adduct medially rotate humerus o Raises body towards arm when climbing 0 Erector Spinae o Superficial group o Long o Extends from sacrum to skull OOOO 3 major muscles Stability of spine Extending back straightening Rotate spine one side or other small contribution


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