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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Haleigh Hamad on Friday April 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 3410 at Ohio State University taught by Bellair in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/15
Chapter 8 42415 305 AM 04162015 S1 Critical Thinking Question 0 We have studied although far from exhaustively the history of racial relations in the US 0 Do you think that the historical treatment of African Americans in the US is a crime that should be addressed 0 Is It realistic to think that we can reduce police shootings of unarmed blacks S2 Critical Conflict Criminology 0 Crime is a political concept designed to protect the position of the upper class at the expense of the poor 0 It is rare to receive prison for White Collar crimes Prison is primarily for street criminals 0 Yet many white collar crimes far exceed street crimes in cost Enron Banking Industry S3 Critical Conflict Criminology Criminal Justice System is a mechanism of social control used to maintain control Racial Threat Blalock and peculiar institutions Loic Waquant 0 As the African American population increases up to tipping point they are increasingly viewed as a social threat to Whites o Slavery sharecroppingJim Crow the northern industrial ghetto war on drugs expand prisons S4 Critical Conflict Criminology Prevalence of bias in justice system is evidence that the system favors the powerful 0 Poverty concentrates policing increases surveillance of poor minorities increases contact with CJS which becomes part of record which can be further used as evidence 0 Unequal sentencing outcomes for minorities SS Critical Conflict Criminology 0 Capitalism aided by government at all levels or elites causes crime by concentrating poverty and marginalizing significant portions of the population 0 Monetary policy quantitative easing is financial repression that transfers wealth to affluent 0 Public housing concentrates poverty 0 Tax financial policies and other factors facilitate outmigration of manufacturing S6 Critical Conflict Criminology 0 Critical criminology redirects attention to rea crimes Racism corporate crime substandard housing pollution defective products etc These crimes are punished with lenient sentences 0 Segregation increases crime and significantly harms African Americans Very few extremely poor white neighborhoods but many extremely poor African American communities 0 Firms emitting pollution more likely around poor neighborhoods environmental crime 0 We worry most about NSA but Corporations freely trade our personal information accounts etc III S7 Origins Historically linked to writings of Karl Marx Intensified during the social upheaval of the 19605 0 Critical of positivist criminology which supports the status quo Unequal distribution of power and wealth produce crime 0 The key crimeproducing element of modern corporate capitalism is efforts to increase surplus value 0 The global economy through transnational markets and politicallegal systems intensifies the process 042115 S1 Origins Historically linked to writings of Karl Marx Intensified during the social upheaval of the 19605 Unequal distribution of power and wealth produce crime The crimeproducing element of modern corporate capitalism is efforts to increase surplus value Instrumental Theory Sees criminal law and the criminal justice system as capitalist instruments for controlling the lower class Enables the powerful to impose their morality of standards of behavior on the entire society Structural Theory 52 Based on the belief that criminal law and the criminal justice system are means of defending and preserving the capitalist system The law keeps the system operating smoothly which is in the long term interests of the powerful Law against corporate crime seems to diverge from the interests of the powerful but are designed to appease Globalization of economy transnational markets and political legal systems intensifies the process Globalization provides opportunity for transnational crime technology cultural Shrinking middle class concentration of affluence State crime mass deceptionquot in Iraq war illegal domestic surveillance extraordinary renditionquot Economic policies favor banks and the wealthy Currency wars as economies falter countries devalue currency by printing moneyquot Crime and Social Institutions racial threat dropout factories stop and frisk mass incarceration S3 Critical Thinking Question Would crime be reduced in a less marketdriven type of socialist society S4 Emerging Forms of Critical Criminology Left Realism Sole focus on the ruling elite is misguided Should not ignore street crime Crime is a function of relative deprivation under capitalism Favors pragmatic communitybased crime prevention and control Can lead to terrorist recruitment Critical feminist theory Unequal power of men and women under capitalism renders women a commodity Patriarchal system pushes women into unpaid domestic labor Double marginality Messerschmidt capitalists control workers and males control females produces low rates of serious female offending but higher rates of victimization Hegemonic masculinity increases male crime doing gender increases sexual victimization PowerControl theory The view that gender differences in crime are a function of economic power and parental control The gap between male and female delinquency is greater in lower class households Girls are controlled more closely than boys in lower class male dominated households and there is gender equity in contemporary egalitarian homes Middle class females most likely to violate the law relative to poor females Peacemaking criminology Approach that considers punitive crime control strategies to be counterproductive and favors the use of humanistic conflict resolution to prevent and control crime Offers a new approach to crime control through mediation Reintegrative shaming when punish people shouldn t be completely isolating people from society SS Restorative Justice 0 Reduce conflict and competition in society 0 Reduce harsh punishment of offenders Using humanistic nonpunitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony Balanced and Restorative Justice BARJ The justice system should give equal weight to offender accountability competency development and community protection Principles of Restorative Justice 0 Crime is an offense against human relationships Victims and the community are central to justice processes 0 The first priority ofjustice processes is to assist victims 0 The second priority is to restore the community 0 The offender has personal responsibility to the victims and to the community 0 The offender will develop improved competency and understanding Notes 42315 51 Restorative Justice beyond retribution o A theory ofjustice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by criminal behavior 0 Involve and restore those who have been injured 0 Involve all stakeholders 4 KEY VALUES 1 Encounter Create opportunities for victims offenders and community members who want to do so to meet to discuss the crime and its aftermath 2 Amends Expect offenders to take steps to repair the harm they have caused 3 Reintegration Seek to restore victims and offenders to whole contributing members of society 4 Inclusion Provide opportunities for parties with a stake in a specific crime to participate in its resolution Balanced and Restorative Justice BARJ The justice system should give equal weight to offender accountability competency development and community protection Principles of Restorative Justice 0 Crime is an offense against human relationship Victims and the community are central to justice processes 0 The first priority ofjustice processes is to assist victims 0 The second priority is to restore the community 0 The offender has personal responsibility to the victims and to the community 0 The offender will develop improved competency and understanding of the harm caused Restorative justice wants to shame the offender in order to reintegrate them back into society S2 Critical Thinking Question Should our criminal justice system embrace restorative justice more than it has to help move away from the punitive approach of the crime control era S3 Restoration Programs Negotiation mediation consensus building peacemaking sentencing circles Varieties all circumstances are different 0 Facetoface conferences of victims offenders and stakeholders Facetoface mediation without supporters present 0 Indirect shuttle diplomacyquot mediation Victimabsent discussions with offender and supporters about crime 0 Offenderabsent discussions with victim and supporters about crime Sentencing circles led by a judge Programs have been used As a final warning to youthful offenders For disputes in school A method of handling police disputes Diversion technique At sentencing as an add on to a postconviction sentence Part of probation Preparation for release from prison S4 Reintegrative shaming Shaming is a central powerful component of punishment But is counterproductive when offender feels defective such as when punishment comes from neutral third parties court Punishment from court does not always force offender to take responsibility due to adversarial nature of proceedings ie they maintain their innocence Need to shame offender but then reintegrate them back into community rather than ostracize Consistent with social control theory strong emotional bonds and social ties help constrain individuals from their impulses and criminal decision making Traditional retributive punishment tends to severs ties to community Chapter 9 Sl Background Psychologists have known for a long time since the 1970580 5 that antisocial behavior emerges in childhood Olweus Robbins Use longitudinal design to study the relationship between childhood and adult aggression using ageappropriate measures Discover STABILITY AND CHANGE in behavior STABILITY BUT ALSO CHANGEgt CHANGE IS MOST COMMON Key Points When we look at RETROSPECTIVELY ie backwards in time we find that those most involved in crime as adults have a STABLE history of involvement stretching into childhood Prior behavior is generally the strongest predictor of future behavior 0 When we look PROSPECTIVELY ie follow a cohort or sample over time we find that the most typical pattern reflects CHANGE Remember Wolfgang s finding that after 1 arrest most subjects stop S2 Criminal Careers 0 Marvin Wolfgang Delinquency in a Birth Cohort 0 Alfred Blumstein s volume Criminal Careers and Career Criminals The Glueck s research was rediscovered by Robert Sampson and John Laub 3 Key Questions How does a criminal career begin early onset versus late bloomer 0 Biological andor psychological traits family attachment differential association Why does a criminal career continue and escalate 0 Differential association drug use criminal opportunity gang membership How does a criminal career end desistence 0 High quality job dedication to wife cognitive change criminal opportunities dry up 0 Virtually everyone stops eventually S3 Developmental theory refers to Different models seeking to have same facts Stability in deviance but also change Life Course Theoriesstate dependence 0 Changes in criminal offending patterns over a person s entire life reflect changing social and psychological conditions experiences and perceptions Emphasize early adulthood transitions such as high quality employment and marriage with potential to change antisocial trajectories 0 Doesn t deny stability but assumes that people are capable of change PropensityLatent Trait Theories population heterogeneity Doesn t make assumption that person becomes offender can change if in and out of prison have deficits that affect throughout life course opportunities change over time that can make other changes happen 0 Master Traitquot present at birth or soon after that is table over the life course directs behavior IQ Low selfcontrol 0 Behavior fluctuates over time in response to opportunity for crime 0 Assumes people don t change their fundamental nature Trajectory Theory 0 There are multiple trajectories in a criminal career 0 Subgroups follow distinct developmental trajectories adolescents limited and life course persistent S4 Life Course Theory 0 The view that criminality is an interactive and changing process influenced by individual characteristics and social experiences in cultural and historic context 0 Life course is AGEGRADED because people mature and change Influences vary depending on stage in the life course Family important early school and peers in adolescence in adulthood vocational and employment relationships Trajectory emerges in childhood 0 Long term patterns of stability and change in a person s life influenced by biological psychological and social structures and processes Role transitions reinforce or change trajectories o For instance follow rules starting school making friends completing each grade extracurricular leaving school getting a high quality job leaving home marriage and children career ladders 0 Timing of transitions is key 1 orderly transitions foster prosocial trajectories but life can be bumpy 2 current transitions impact the timing of future transitions 4915 Chapter 9 Developmental Theories Things Change Or Do They START SLOWING DOWN BEGIN PROCESS OF DESISTANCE doesn t happen over a day IT IS A PROCESS THAT REQUIRES TIME decline in rate of offending til it reaches 0 S1 Age of Onset Continuity Specialization The earlier the onset of criminality the more frequent varied and sustained the criminal career 0 Poor parental discipline and monitoring are keys to the early onset of criminality Well known pathway starts from left to right but can move in the opposite direction over time 0 Family problems 9 antisocial 9 bad transition into school 9 low school attachment 9 delinquent peers 9 delinquency crime 0 Specialist vs generalist ongoing debate There is evidence that delinquents participate in multiple peer networks Each network tends to specialize in somewhat distinct acts of delinquency Because the delinquent is part of multiple networks their delinquent acts are varied ie general S2 Agegraded theory of informal control Robert Sampson and John Laub Weave social and individual difference variables into a complex explanatory chain Crime begins early in life as a result of 0 Individual traits Breakdown of social control in poor overwhelmed families Labeling official record incarceration Acquisition of delinquent peers Turning points and social capital can alter the development of a criminal careers Factors that may reverse a Criminal Trajectory 0 Positive high school experience 0 Escape from poverty 0 Stable employment military 0 Maintenance of a successful marriage diminishes peers S3 Gender Crime and Desistance Toward a Theory of Cognitive Transformation 0 Peggy Giordano 0 Solid line reflects objective structural opportunities 0 Dotted line represents cognition 0 She says we are more likely to desist when we get the good job and the cognitive open and willingness to change 0 Have to have openness to change CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION 0 Which theory Sampson and Laub s or Giordano s provides the best life course explanation for offending over the life course S4 Latent Trait Theories Theoretical views that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that remains stable and unchanging throughout a person s lifetime 0 Though the propensity to commit crime is stable the opportunity to commit crime fluctuates over time 0 People don t change opportunities do S5 Types of Latent Trait Theories Crime and Human Nature by James Q Wilson and Richard Herrnstein 0 Behavior determined by its perceived consequences rational choice 0 Personal traits such as genetic makeup body build intelligence and impulsivity impair choices and may outweigh the importance of social variables as predictors of criminal activity 0 Close link between decision to commit crime and biosocial factors A General Theory of Crime by Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi Ineffective parenting failure to monitor discern between pro and antisocial behaviors and to correct children in noncoercive and nonharsh ways impairs development of selfcontrol ability to defer gratification to think before acting and to look towards the future 0 Selfcontrol develops and is solidified by age 810 remains stable across the life course 0 Opportunity for crime varies Crime is high among those with low selfcontrol because its easy and gratifies short term needs 41415 51 A General Theory of Crime 0 The general theory argues that employment may help reduce the likelihood of crime by reducing criminal opportunity Social incapacitation but not by increasing social capital and social bonds People with low selfcontrol don t fundamentally change 52 IQ and Self Control 0 Scatterplot of the relationship between childhood and adult IQ and self control scores 0 The assertion of stability in selfcontrol ahs become a controversial issue with much evidence that it changes 0 It has become common wisdom that lowselfcontrol is important for understanding the behavior of offenders Childhood IQ is tightly correlated with adult IQ in contrast childhood selfcontrol is significantly correlated with adult self control but shows more room for change The fact that a child with lowselfcontrol can still become an adult with high selfcontrol indicates that selfcontrol may be a more malleable and teachable characteristic than IQ Scores are normalized around a mean of 0 S3 Trajectory Model AdolescentLimited and LifeCourse Persistent Offenders Terrie Moffitt The agecrime curve conceals 2 distinct populations Adolescent limited offender the most common criminal trajectory in which relatively nonserious delinquency emerges and peaks in adolescent and then rapidly declines 0 Body comes of age but society says stay in school and tow the line Leads to rebellious delinquent behavior imitating the persistent offenders Age out because they are developmentally normal 0 Life course persistent offender a small group of offenders whose criminal career continues well into adulthood similar to Wolfgang s Chronic recidivistsquot Diminished executive function interacting with negative environment family crime maternal drug use lead or other toxins poverty leading to LOW VERBAL ABILITY AND SELFCONTROL CUMULATIVE CONTINUITY precludes aging out S4 Trajectory Models Pathways to rime Loeber 0 Authority conflict pathway path to a criminal career that begins with early stubborn behavior and defiance of parents 0 Covert pathway path to a criminal career that begins with minor underhanded behavior and progresses to fire starting and theft 0 Overt pathway path to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression leads to physical fighting and eventually escalates to violent crime 0 Some kids progress from one path to another or enter multiple paths simultaneously which puts them at a higher risk for persistent offending SS Critical thinking question 0 Which assumption about the offending population is most useful 0 A There is one offending population life course and latent trait o B There are distinct subpopulations each requiring a distinct explanation model S6 Policy Implications of Developmental Theories 0 Provide multisystematic treatment efforts designed to provide at risk youth with personal social educational medical and family services
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