Race And Gender
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Haleigh Hamad on Friday April 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 3463 at Ohio State University taught by dywer in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Social Stratification in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/15
How do social scientists think about what race is Race is a boundaries 0 They aren t so self evident and don t always look as what they mean Terms that are used WhiteBlackHispanicAsian AfricanAmerican LatinoNative American Indian 0 Use some physical and cultural characteristics REFERS TO RaceRefers to biology or physiology Ethnicity Refers to culture tied through nationstates Tend to be hierarchical ideas of race have ideas of superiority and hierarchy but NOT ALWAYS 0 Ideas of race come out of colonialism of western European people and their encounters with others 0 Ideas of ethnicity come from rise of nationalism HISTORIES Colonialism Nationalism Ideas of both can translate and start to melt into each other 0 Over time become more ethnic than racial issues DEFINITOINS Omi and Winant Racial Formation Race is a concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodiesquot 0 they are saying race is an idea basically a conflict theory Telling us that we see and put definitions between differences 0 Reason for this is because of social conflicts and interests Racial formation is process that various ideas about race get attached to different types of bodies 0 EG ideas of race shift a lot over time Black and whites blacks are physically inferior to white people today blacks are physically capable more than whites but maybe not cognitively superior 0 People are getting shorter used to be Japans now North Koreans Americans are getting shorter now from deficiencies of poor 0 His argument on average slave holders feed slaves when they are working psychology weakness is from this assumption huge growth spurt of kids once they start working in field 0 When does this get challenged Jesse Owens What kinds of social conflicts and interests get attachedturned into race Bonovich neomarxist ppl are separate come back into contact with each other 0 Ethnic antagonism is not inevitable o If relatively equal especially in military might will trade 0 If one has more military might and the other has nicer stuff the group with the military might is going to take over 0 Ideas of race justify the conqueror s actions and conquered groups treatment 3 10 15 S1 Racial ID of the US Population 2000 2010 Most people say WHITE race graphs show increase of minority population throughout time and how ppl identify themselves on census S Median Family Income by Race and Ethnicity 2009 Implications why is it that African Americans haven t seen as much mobility since Civil War Populations such as Germans Irish came at late 18005 come to America and take advantage of the golden age more than AA can AA are highly segregated only a bit of time before clobbered by UTURN 0 As big as income and graphs are wealth graph dwarfs it Wealth gap is striking and large The past is not dead It s not even past William Faulkner Whyhow does racial inequality persist 0 Past racial oppression shapes contemporary class inequality 0 Ongoing persistent new discrimination William Julius Wilson Hidden significance of race ECONOMIC SYSTEMLEGAL SYSTEM FORM THAT RACIAL INEQUALITY TAKES 1Preindustrial Period up until Civil War 0 Econ Plantation Slavery Legal Slavery in Constitution 0 Form Racial Caste system born a slave die a slave rigid rules bound around slavery 2 Early Industrialization Civil War to Civil Rights 0 Econ shift to industrial 0 Legal Race confers second class status Jim Crow segregation 0 Form Racial oppression a little bit of mobility small middle class grows 3 Modern Industrial Post industrial Civil Rights to Today Econ Capitalist industrial and service economy 0 Legal formal racial equality Form Racial inequality perpetuated increasingly by class mechanisms Wilsons argument Golden Age UTurn in 3 0 Huge migration to North 0 Savings 0 1 Not saving at all 0 2 Saving a bit scraping by to survive o 3 Starting to be able to move up and experience some mobility but do not have a lot of wealth because their parents do not middle class is having to save and sent money to parents in ways that whites do not have too O 0 His message even with formal racial equality now people still struggling to move up 31215 Class Discussion for Paper 0 Discuss the disaster and select one and assess if enough evidence to show harm in book inequality and mortality 0 We can look at property damage displacement 0 Be clear on inequality that the natural disaster is intersecting with don t talk about physiologybiological processes O 0 Strong socialstructural causes How racial inequality persists 1 past racial oppression affecting contemporary 2 continuing active discrimination Slide 1 Recap of William Julius Wilson s discussion of contemporary racial inequality 0 How do class mechanisms perpetuate blackwhite inequality 0 1 Material deprivation inherited from past can happen under any circumstance where there isn t capital equality class inequality general principles of inequality 0 EG Wealth inequality especially S2 How do class mechanisms perpetuate blackwhite inequality 0 2 Blacks disproportionately exposed to negative effects of deindustrialization 0 EG Great migration racial segregation most severe are in industrial cities of north particular history when and how equality was reached Wilson argues that once formal legal equality occurred higher income AA left the poorest neighborhoods in the city but the poor ones are left 0 Timing and location matters Wilson says its important AA were in manufacturing before restructuring they were experiencing upward mobility but living in bad areas S3 Racial inequalities persist but there is a also a growing black middle class S4 Middle class by race 19832010 0 In white collar occupations graphs S5 Continuing Discrimination Today 0 New discrimination today and the persistence of it it could be changing form but things from past are still being believed today S6 Mass incarceration Michelle Alexander OSU law professor o A new racial caste system has emerged in the mass imprisonment system 0 New Jim Crow is name of book michelle alexander 0 Although CJ system doesn t have race blindness race words in the laws and statutes cj system is designed to catch and control minorities 0 Reasons why she thinks it s a racial caste system Color blindness in the law once swept up cant get out 0 Status collateral sanctions things other then just going to jail Incarceration rates felonies lose right to votehousingjob opportunities reporting on applicationscan t get student loans or financial aid TIMING new discrimination Location consistent discrimination Castelike collateral sanctions S7 Imprisonment rates 19152005 graph Racial disparities graphs over the years HS dropouts are more in prison especially black WHY THE RACIAL DISPARITIES in imprisonment o A lot of factors pushing in the same direction but not pulling away from it o RACIAL DISPARITIES Sentencing disparities by different types of drugs disparities in treatment of drugs EGgt crack vs cocaine 100x of cocaine as crack to get the same amount of time o disparities in arrest prosecution and sentences Racial segregation collects minority ppl and puts them in a recognizable spot poor whites are spread around rich white neighborhoods not as segregated as poor blacks are 0 Fiscal stress on municipalities and police departments Consequences 0 Increasing budgets for corrections takes away from other areas Becky Pettit 0 Because most social statistics exclude the incarcerated population we underestimate levels of racial inequality by wages income unemployment health disparities And we underestimate the overall incidence of unemployment poor health and other social problems Notes 32415 Discrimination Studies 0 Study is done by assessing equal opportunity commission works and studies 0 Audit Study 0 A scholar comes up with fictitious identities and then applies for various conditions 0 Fake person could be an actor with fake data or just on a resume 0 Real positions or houses are being applied to with these fake people 0 Test for different effects by social status 0 Measures different rates of successful outcomes for different social classes and races 0 The Mark ofa Criminal Record seen on the power point is an example of an audit study 0 Compares white and black applicants with a criminal record and whether or not each one of these demographics received a job 0 Also compares white felons with Latino and Black applications with clean records Immigration 0 The United States is very diverse and is what separates us from other countries 0 The United States is the melting potquot 0 You can get ahead in this country but if you can t then there is something wrong with you 0 Late 1800 s to early 1900 s is when a rise in immigrants in the United States 0 WWII and the Great depression are two factors that led to the decrease in immigration 0 Graphs on the power point demonstrate where the highest percentage of immigrants comes from and the rates of growth Asian immigrants are also looked at in a slide to show the diversity of the amount of Asian immigrants in the United States 0 Diversity in the United States is age stratified 0 Different age groups have different levels of diversity Ex 014 has lowest levels of white population whereas 65 has the highest Generational divides come into play here Immigrant incorporation How do Immigrants become part of American Society 0 Classic theory Modest beginnings Hard work by first generation creates mobility for second and later generations Cultural assimilation gradually occurs and fosters mobility 0 Contemporary Theory See value in classical but say it does not work for every group There are multiple paths to incorporation segmented paths Segmented paths As these differ pathway to incorporation differs a Government policy a Societal reception a Class of origin a Coethnic community a Assimilation benefits you You have to be American in order to get ahead 0 From Modes of Incorporation A Typology slide 0 Governmental Policy 0 Societal Reception how society receives an ethnic group 0 Coethnic communities either have a weak or strong affiliation with their people 0 From Class of Origin slide 0 Not everyone comes from the same background Some poor and some advantaged o The US rejects a lot of poor immigrants and selectively chooses people who are more advantaged o Enclave Economies Chinatown Little Havana and other places with high ethnic concentration with Entrepreneurial class origin 32615 Gender Boundaries 0 Reproductive function 0 Fast changes SEX biological differences between male and females GENDER social differences between men and women boys and girls Femininity masculinity and androgyny SEX CATEGORIES social markers that communicate biological status 0 EG Children bluepinkbows We stratify each other by sex and gender We do this by 0 Assessing people by sex and gender female but not femininemale but unmasculine The kind of man or women they are S1 What is NaturaL Slide graph S2 Inequality as Structure Individual Level Socialization identities Interactional LevelCultural expectations takenforgranted situational meanings Institutional level Distribution of organizational structures ideology very complex 2 types of biological effects hormonal differences deep level structural level 3312015 Ideas of gender difference vs ideas of gender hierarchy 0 Gender hierarchy male dominance and patriarchy 0 Gender Hierarchy essentialism Fundamentally different 0 These two things are intertwined Gender division of labor in the Family division of labor 0 Idea that there is women s work men s work and gender neutral work 0 In some societies men cater to men women cater to women 0 Ex Male doctors take care of men 0 Idea affects individual interactional and institutional inequality 0 Individual boys play with tractors and girls play with dolls 0 Institutional what are the ideas that shape social roles 0 One of the ways that gender difference and inequality is produced and reproduced Takes place even in intimate relationships Gender division of labor 0 What work is assigned to women compared to men girls compared to boys varies widely o Healer are obviously women in some societies in some societies and men in others Caring work more common but this varies too What is the origin of US ideas about the gender division of labor 0 The particular ideas that are still influential today arose with the market economy with capitalism and the transition to industrialization History of gender division of labor 0 Preindustrial o Agrarian Social Order 0 Home vs Work had no boundaries Integrated Fluid spatial boundaries everything is seen as work 0 Women and children s work seen as productive Family structure of production 0 Marriage was an economic relationship Transition to industrialization Home and Work are separated 0 Spatial separation is insufficient but ideological shift 0 What happens when you take men out of the familyquot 0 It Is bad to separate men and women 0 It is also bad for the children 0 Fundamental shift 0 Republican mother hood and Cult of Domesticity Ideology of the separate spheres Home and work are morally separate 0 Home is a haven in a heartless worldquot 0 Women who are out in the labor market are seen as suspect and not protecting the family 0 Women are elevated morally but are devalued economically Industrialization to 1950 s 4215 S1 Historical Black Families Gender ideologies during slavery Masculinity 0 Black vs White A husband s adequacy rested in economic support If a husband provided passably for his dependents he fulfilled the most important requirement of his manhood in marriagequot 0 Femininity 0 Black vs White That man over there say a woman needs to be helped into carriages and lifted over ditches to have the best place everywhere Nobody ever helped me into carriages or over mud puddles or gives me a blest place And ain t I a womanquot Relations between black men and women 0 Their Eyes were Watching God 0 Honey de white man is the de ruler of everything as fur as Ah been able tuh find out Maybe it s some place way off in de ocean where de black man is in power but we don t know nothin but what we see So de white man throw down de load and tell de nigger man tuh pick it up He pick it up because he have to but he don t tote it He hand it to his womenfolk De nigger women is de mule uh de world so fur as Ah can seequot Black Women in Trouble For US black women constructed knowledge of self emerges from the struggle to replace controlling images with selfdefined knowledge deemed personally important usually knowledge essential to black women s survival Self Love and Self Care Women supported each other take care of themselves The effects of slavery on slave family life 0 Single Parent Families 0 Most slaves were not married white men were in charge 0 But those who were married had many strains on their relationships 0 Most partners were in distant relationships 0 These patterns persisted after slavery o The means used to reunite families ranged from placing ads in black newspapers to the trek of one ex slave who walked six hundred miles during a twomonth stretchquot THE 50 S THROUGH THE 70 S Black Civil Rights Movement 0 Gender Tension 0 Civil rights activist Ella Baker s experiences in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference illustrates one form that suppressing black women s ideas and talents can take Ms Baker virtually ran the entire organization yet had to defer to the decisionmaking authority of the exclusively male leadership groupquot 2nd Wave of Feminism Women Rights not all women poor were considered feeblemindedness 2nd Black Feminist Movement 0 Im for beauty contest but then again maybe I m against themBonnie Allen Gender Relations today Graph of Rising Share of NeverMarried Adults Growing Gender Gap Public Divided over Value of Marriage for Society Gender Relations Today Strain in gender relations still persist for blacks 0 But Why 0 White People Black Families Theories behind Black Familly Relations 0 Stress Models 0 Education and Employment 0 Sex Ratio Incarceration 0 Gender Relations Interpersonal Trust A combination of the theories 0 A Part of Korries research is looking at gender ideology differences among black men by educational differences and marriage rates of traditional and egalitarian black men gender ideologies 0 Black educated men have more egalitarian gender ideologies 0 Black men with egalitarian gender ideologies have higher marriage rates than black men with traditional gender ideologies 407 Gender Inequality in the Labor Market 3 Major forms of gender inequality in Labor Markets 3 forms of gender 3 forms of gender segregation in jobs 1 Gender PAY gap 2 Gender AUTHORITY gap 3 Gender SEGREGATION in jobs Gender PAY GAP measurement women make 80 cents on the 1 to men 0 Ratio of male to female earnings 0 Gap between average male and female earnings One line for ratio 1979 62 cents to the men dollar 2013 82 cents to the men dollar Earnings By Gender per year full time Gap is going down so women have seen earning growth and men have stagnated and gone down Next graph Median hourly wages for men and women 19792013 Graphs vertical axis is zoomed out on second graph After 20005 both men and women have very little growth Gender AUTHORITY GAP 0 Glass ceiling for women look bossy harder to get to the top 0 Glass escalator for men tier in jobs are easier to reach cuz they are being pushed along route to top in female dominated occupations How best to measure small numbers and change Most growth is jagged GENDER SEGREGATION AT WORK gender division of labor at work WHY caused by authority and segregation at jobs Third source discrimination unequal pay for equal work Occupational Sex Segregation in the US 2008 Dissimilarity index asking the question what percent of all workers are womenquot then look at jobs then calculate for each occupation the percent female Measures what percent of women would have to leave female dominated occupations Greater then 40 women to go to an occupation that is less than 40 to even out the amount of female workers in the economy to represent how many women are actually in the workplace 40 Male 60 So same percent female is the same in each occupation Graph of GENDER Occupational Segregation Employed Men and Women aged 2554 0 Graph says in 2000 466 of women would have to move occupations to reach the 4060 equilibrium GENDER INEQUALITY IS declining in the labor market but there is still significant level left Are measures of 49 HEATWAVE we can pick our own harm and one or more inequality Social Autopsy identify the social factors that influence who is harmed and in what way during and after a natural disaster What was the HARM Deathmortality rates 2ndary hospitalization neglect inattention Who was harmed most Elderly especially living alone isolated socially African American segregated neighborhoods 0 Poor or low income MEN What structures of inequality mattered Age 0 Race ethnicity 0 Class Poverty SES 0 Gender What specific mechanisms linked inequality structures to unequal harm HOW 0 Class Poverty9 no air conditioning in homes and apartments H20 shortages hard to leave home because of transportation fear 9 Poor more likely to dehydrate Die 0 Elderly9 social isolation smaller networks 9 elderly more likely to dehydrate die 0 Distal 9 Smaller social networks 9 Proximate Distal individualism nuclear family Proximate Isolated not getting checked on 0 Gender Men 9 masculinity gender roles 9 more isolated networks living alone less likely to ask for help SRO single residence occupancy hard to leave 0 Race Ethnicity9 more fear of empty lots Jane Jacobs neighborhood segregation WILSON population densities age structures deindustrialization fewer businesses farther social networks 9 race differentials and death 41415 NOTES Social Distance9 Spatial Distance 0 In other words Inequality by race class nativity gender 9Spatia inequality How and Why does Social Distance Become Spatial Distance 0 Resource inequality 0 Who can buy the best places 0 Preference differences 0 Where do people want to live HomophilyPrejudiceInterestwealth 0 Power inequality 0 Who controls access and makes the rules Racial residential Segregation American Apartheid 1993 Massey and Denton Segregation particularly important in the industrial phase of racial oppression remember William Julius Wilson timing Legalized Segregation Redlining govt and banking institutions start using neighborhood residents as criteria as giving loans based on what neighborhood you are in red lines around riskiest neighborhoods and were not given loans Blockbustingreal estate shady practice of bad operators going into white neighborhoods and saying that blacks are moving in your property value will go down if this becomes minority neighborhood encourage ppl to sell for inflated price then estate agent goes and sells to black family coming In 0 Racial steeringrea estate shady taking ppl to particular neighborhoods that are appropriate for them use coded words now kids in this neighborhood play xyzquot Racial covenants How segregated are US metros Dissimilarity index Blackwhite seg average mid60 most segregated places high 805 LatinoWhite seg average low 505 AsianWhite seg low 405 Stuck in place by Patrick Sharkey 0 Persistent multigenerational racial segregation explains persistent race gaps in income employment wealth and educann Racial segregation produces different housing areas for blacks Income segregation Lower than blackwhite segregation but increasing 0 The affluent and poor are more segregated than the middle 0 The affluent are more segregated then the poor Looked at census tracts THURSDAY 4162015 Intersections between class race and gender inequalities Affects lived experience 0 But also affects interactions between institutions that sharpen social exclusion or social closure 0 Significantly drives social change intended and otherwise Social distance turns into spatial distance But also spatial distance helps create social distance Stratification structures linked to place of residence 0 Access to jobs 0 Access to health care 0 Exposure to environmental benefits and harms 0 Social capital 0 Education 0 Deep American value of equal opportunity 0 these are not just focused on social exclusion but also social closure Education and spatial inequality 0 Neighborhood Education Property tax funding segregation Education inequality 0 Placebased education Property tax funding segregation Education inequality 0 Private schools charter schools 0 Trying to detach where you go to school from where you live Policy prescriptions Attempts to change the formula 0 What is the solution to educational inequality 0 Tendency to focus on the institution of education itself 0 Reproductionist versus compensationist approaches 0 Reprductionist schools cause and worsen reproduce social inequality 0 Compensationist schools reduce compensate for social inequality How can we measure school effects 0 Spatial inequality in education means schools have very different populations of students 0 Problems with test score gaps between schools as a measure of school effects 0 If we want to understand the effects of schooling we need to account for differences in students 0 A possible solution to different populations in different schools Compare school year and summer learning as a kind of natural experiment 0 Look at stuff that people don t do in class 0 Differences that are produced because of SES culture experiences etc summer learning is what you learn when you learn if you didn t have schools 0 As you look at advantaged and disadvantaged kids there is a greater retention for advantaged and larger loss for disadvantaged 0 Starting Point argument 0 Kids start school with different skill levels Reproductionist schools are making the gap grow Compensationist schools are putting a break on the gap What is to be done 0 Some say there s too much focus on schools and we should tackle social inequality directly 0 Some say schools are the best policy lever we have and they can do better TUESDAY April 21 Graph gap increasing in bachelor degrees Only 20 of any culture have bachelor degree Women just got over 50 for PHds Mas are higher Pattern is happening for all racial groups top two lines are whites WHY is there a female advantage Demand Side dynamics 1 College wage premium is greater than men 2 Marriage income premium is higher then men 3 increased class homogamy of educational college graduates Supply side dynamics less definitive why ppl make choices they make 4 changing family investments girls now able to translate achievement attainment 5 gender socialization classinteracting working class vs elite family structure Persistent segregation in higher education STE Not really Care relationships things more relationship Care and Gender Inequality Integration has happened in middle class jobs V occupation segregation Gender discrimination socialization Class integration 9 growing jobs 42315 S1 Class inequality The stagnating something Social Policy Affects Civil Rights Acts 0 Immigration Restrictions but demography may outpace policy Gender Inequality An Uneven and Stalled Revolution Social Policy Affects SLIEDE Effectiveness of Social Policies in Changing Structures of Inequality Who benefits What is the benefit Who benefits Some are targeted to specific groups means tested social policy Some are universalist for all Research shows that Universalist social policies receive much more public support than targeted social policies Even though universalist social policies cost less universalist medicaresocial security after a certain age Universalist universal health care public education Targeted programs much less support and easier to attack Eg food stamps affirmative action Social security has come under attack cuz its been reframed as winlose What is the benefit Fair Play making sure rules of the game are fair no regulation eg Civil rights hiring laws to not discriminate for jobs Fair shares making sure that the outcome is fair the end is fair reduce the benefits of winning so we can reduce the cost of losing eg food stamps social security eg Insurance if things go lousy we wont leave you out in street reduce cost of losing by reducing cost of winning 0 EVEN IF YOU MAKE RULES FAIR CANT ALWAYS MAKE THE OUTCOME FAIR theres a floor that we don t want our citizens to fall below that floor even if some ppl that are responsible for being in bad shape the others that are in bad luck lost job from like deindustrialization want fair fix for them WHATS THE AGE GROUP THAT HAS THE HIGHEST POVERTY IN AMERICA CHILDREN NOT ELDERLY BECAUSE OF SOCIAL SECURITY US ideology often emphasizes fair play But US social policy is a mix of fair play and fair shares 4 fold table Targeted Universalist Fair play civil rights public education Fair shares social security Fair play everyone plays Fair shares trophies and ribbons for winners v losers Growing risk luck appears to be mattering more can experience upward and downward mobility more Real Utopias What is possible 0 Radical ideas of social change often emphasize clean breaks with the past Revolutions 0 Contemporary thinkers focused more on the idea that change grows up within existing systems 0 Erik Olin Wright others 0 You can only create worlds you can imagine Wright s real Utopiasquot Principles etc look at slides Ex public libraries wikipedia
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