Class notes Com 482
Popular in Computer Mediated Communication
Popular in Communication Studies
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Haley Godlove on Friday April 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Com 482 at Washington State University taught by Jessica Willoughby in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Computer Mediated Communication in Communication Studies at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/15
Computer Mediated Communication Com 482 Computer Mediated communication CMC any communication that can occur via computer mediated formats What are some computer mediated formats Reddit Facebook Instagram Twitter Skype Text messages live chat email Types of CMC Synchronous Asynchronous Synchronous Real time communication 0 Rapid Usually informal Asynchronous 0 Non real time 0 Response can be delayed Bene ts 0 Ability to proof read convenience saves time Drawbacks 0 Cyber bullying anonymity everything is permanent cost barrier What are some challenges to CMC o No internet connection crowded market don t know which is helpful for different users Multitasking Recent study students in distracted conditions performed signi cantly worse on recall tests 0 Scores 0 Notes on paper 71 0 Notes on laptop 68 0 Just listening no notes 65 o Distracted multitasking online 41 February 2 15 HCl 0 Human Computer Interaction 0 Study of how people interact with computer interfaces 0 Aims to help satisy needs 0 What disciplines could be related to HCI Ex Communication The media equation 0 People may treat computers tv and new media like real people Often unaware Politeness Same rules apply to media 0 Computer study Nega vhy People tend to dwell on negative situations 0 Automatic Requires more attention to process than positive experiences 0 Can take away from remembering positive events 0 Viewed news videos with negative content 0 Better remember info that comes after the negative event Showcases that this media experience is similar to non mediated expedences Teammates Being part of a team makes people think they are more similar to each other 0 Two main characteristics 0 Identity 0 Interdependence One group had computer as quotteam memberquot 0 Had to complete desert survival guide 0 People who completed with computer viewed computer as o More like them 0 Similar style 0 More cooperative o Friendlier o More likely to change behavior Reciprocity and Disclosure Principle of Reciprocity and Disclosure People disclosed high risk info to a computer 0 People who used the computer throughout the experiment had greater purchase intention and higher attraction to the computer Ties back to kickstarter In part due to quotmindlessnessquot Mindlessness 0 Speci c context triggers persons need to rely on categories associations and habit 0 Little to no conscious awareness 0 Become oblivious to novel situational aspects February 4 15 Umbrella eld affective design 0 Turkle 0 Computers and the human spirit 1984 How this works 1 Pick a social science nding theory or method that concerns behavior or attitudes 2 Change human to computer in the statement of theory 3 Replace one or more humans with computers in the study 4 Provide computer with characteristics associated with humans a language bresponses croes dother aspects 5 Determine if social rule still applies Politeness People either used one or two computers for tutoring and testing 0 3X1 experiment Methods breakout bene ts of experiments over other research methods Findings 0 people said politeness norms don t apply to computers 0 people who rated on same computer said tutoring was more friendly more competent also less variation in this group other two groups signi cantly different but not from each other 0000 New example 0 gender 0 RQ will users apply gender stereotypes to computers Praise from males is more convincing than praise from females Males who praise are more likeable than females who praise Females know more about love and relationships than males Gender example 0 Testing session had no voice Tutoring and eval either female or male counterbalanced by gende Topics tested included love and relationships mass media and computers DVs were subjects perceptions of tutor and evaluator Findings 0 People said they knew the quotrulesquot would not t 0 Still followed them though 0 Tutors evaluated by male voice seen as more assertive dominant forceful affectionate cheerful sympathetic and warmer than tutors evaluated by female voice 0 Evaluators with a male voice seen as more dominant assertive sympathetic and warmer 0 Also in line with relationships 0 Female tutors of love relationships seen as more sophisticated and as having chosen better broader and lessknown facts than male tutors Takeaway Gender stereotypes applied in humanhuman interaction are applied in humancomputer interaction with computers employing gendered voices Other examples 0 Self v other criticism v praise o I vs the programmer What do these studies tell us Politeness study social norms are applied to computers 0 Gender study computers can be seen as gendered social actors gender is a powerful cue I study computer users don t see computer as medium for social interaction with programmer Theoretical implications 0 Primitive cues are powerful Social responses are automatic and unconscious Findings in social psychology are relevant to human responses to computers HCI is socialpsychological Design implications 0 Usability testing shouldn t be same machine based 0 Choice of voices including gender is highly consequential Criticisms What are some possible criticisms of the computers as social actors approach 0 Think about this in terms of viewing them this way as well as the research February 6 15 Erikson s stages of psychosocial development lnfancy trust v mistrust Early childhood autonomy v shame Play age purpose initiative v guilt School age competence industry v inferiority Adolescence delity identity v role confusion Young adult intimacy v isolation Mid adult generation v isolation Late adult ego identity v despair P gt P Pquot39gtS l lquot 4 things that happen with multitasking 1 Timing takes longer to complete a task 2 Mental fatigue takes a while to get back into mind set 3 Memory impaired of what you are doing 4 Store and process information poorly in less useful ways Feb 18 2015 Overview Talked about the different types 0 Social news micro blogging etc Experienced three waves of social media Social media Landscape 2012 0 Three big players Facebook twitter and Google Facebook interacting with friends Google manage online identity twitter content discovery How best to use 0 Build a consistent social architecture 0 Its not about the platform 0 Need objectives and appropriate resources 0 Consider diversifying 0 Think long term Capitalize on opportunities Strategic communication 0 Social media as hybrid element in promotion mix 0 Content timing and frequency are outside managers control 0 Contrary to traditional integrated marketing communications perspective 0 Bene ts 0 Communication directly with customers 0 Develop mutual understanding 0 Creates enduring relationships Four Cs 0 Connections consumers make with each other 0 Content users create 0 Consumption of other users content 0 Control of their own onine experiences Case study 0 Old spice 0 2010 ad campaign 0 75 years old but used social media in a very effective manner February 20 2015 Social Media and the Future 0 Woman created algorithm to help predict who would win the X Factor How useful 0 Predicting the u 0 Previously done monitoring 0 Nowcasting Predicting elections Journalism 0 More than just story promotion 0 Examples 0 New york times and Instagram instacane o Storify as a reporting tool Social media and selfpresentation Possible to predict personal information based on Facebook likes 0 Best with race gender sexuality political leanings and religion 0 60 accuracy for determining whether parents had divorced Intelligence 0 The daily show Morgan freeman s voice science Lower intelligence 0 Clark Griswold Harley Davidson Brett Michaels Extrovert 0 Beer pong Chris tucker cheer lntrovert 0 Anime Neurotic 0 Kurt Cobain vampires everywhere Competitive 0 Sun Tzu I hate everyone What about selfpresentation Identity Goffman 19221982 Tension between how person de nes self as individual and connects to others Individual identity est me Affiliative identity est we Hyperpersonal Model Interpersonal communication Suggests cmc can become hyper personal Exceeds FtF situation face to face Sender has ability to strategically develop and edit self presentation enabling a selective and optimized presentation to others Cmc users selectively selfpresent Channel facilitates editing discretion and convenience Timing What facilities selfpresentation Cmc is editable Amount of time Personal isolation masks involuntary cues Reallocation of cognitive resources Reading Audrey 0 Likes to quotappear a certainquot way 0 How much of our selfpresentation online do you thin is a conscious effort 0 How many quotversion of selfquot do you think we have 0 Audrey had multiple versions 0 What purposes do you think avatars play 0 How does presentation in games differ from presentation on social media Current issues in CMC The Oscars 0 Negative tweets received nonautomated response lncluded advice encouraging positive online habits Social media and self esteem experts Empower women to speak with more con dence optimism and kindness about beauty online Why 0 810 women encounter neg comments that critique looks women 50 more likely to say something neg about self on social media than positive 0 82 of women surveyed feel beauty standards set by social media are unrealistic 45 tweets about bod image neg were women talking about themselves CocaCola MakeltHappy automated social campaign pulled after inadvertently tweeting lines from Adolf Hitler s Mein Kampf Bot MeinCoke 0 Mark negative tweets with MakeltHappy make art 0 Can the internet be made happier Cyberbullying When someone is harassed humiliated embarrassed threatened or tormented using digital technology 0 Not just the internet eg text messages 0 43 of kids have been bullied online 0 1 in 4 has had it happen more than once 0 70 of students report seeing frequent bullying online Cell phones most common medium for cyber bullying 68 of teens argue that cyber bullying is a serious problem 81 think bullying online is easier to get away with than in person Laws and policies key components 0 purpose statement statement of scope may often be on property or through school owned technology speci ed prohibited content policies reporting investigating responding local policy review communication plan training and preventive transparency and monitoring other resources 0 0000000 Revenge Porn the posting of nude or sexually explicit photos or videos of people online without their consent even if the photo was taken with consent Websites for this speci c purpose Men are more likely to post than women Also sites for wives to share photos they suspect are their husbands affair Different than quotsextingquot Sending sexually explicit messages via cell or IM May be consensual between adults but legislation against minors In 2012 13 bills were introduced and 4 states enacted legislation In many places considered child porn 21 of teen girls and 18 of teen boys send nude photos Revenge porn laws many states don t have laws protecting adult victims 13 states have tried to pass laws this past year in britiain this feb it became a crime quotanyone who shares private and sexual images wout permission with the intent of causing distress may face up to two years in pnsnon turkle would agree that internet is a very negative place What have you seen online that might combat this idea February 25 2015 Current issues 2 0 Overall people are happy on the internet 0 On a scale of 16 the majority of people on twitter were a 6 happy even when bad things have happened that day 0 More stories are positive than so negative Online dating How effective do you think online dating is What do you think helps make online dating more effective Dating sites 0 Eharmony o Matchcom 0 Farmers only Christian Mingles Black people meet Stats 0 Eharmony members 155 million 0 Match 215 million 0 Annual revenue of online dating industry 0 124900000 percent of current relationships that began online 0 20 Relationships 0 study of 20000 people 0 35 met spouse online 0 nearly 8 of marriages initiated of ine ended in breakups 0 percentage of breakups from those initiated online 6 0 meeting online also associated with slightly higher marital satisfaction 0 people may be more honest when interacting online 0 pool of prospective partners is likely larger 0 those on dating sites may be more focused on nding a long term mate Deceonn 0 men personal assets income relationship goals personal interests and personal attributes women weight 0 what in uences misrepresentation o agreeableness conscientiousness and openness 0 self monitoring greatest predictor Dating apps Tinder o 200 word pro les 0 users swipping 15 billion times a day resulting in more than 22 million matches 0 downloaded 10 million times 0 some feel it is like quotwindow shoppingquot Who uses online dating 0 Not related to income and education 0 3050 year old most active users 0 people low in dating anxiety were more active online daters than people high in dating anxiety The future of online dating 0 Will continue to grow February 27 2015 4 cultures of people who shape internet 1 Techno elites generally opening up the world to scientic advancements Innovators and early adaptors 2 Hackers not just people who try to deystroy but overall people who are updating content Not always for pro t or helpful 3 Virtual communitarians shaped social procesies and uses Fight for self directed networks and easier acess for things 4 Enteprenurs a lot to do with internet and development ln uence scale at large 5 Authors claim there is 5th group participators Make up 13 of internet who post content that is meant to help and in uence others Networked lndividulism We can use systems as we have in place individually to come together 0 Computers support this 0 Internet involves choice 0 Internet is a synchronous form of communication Gives you the opportunity to have time and change how you write Your in control March 2 2015 Interactivity One concept multiple perspectives The extent to which something is interactive the extent to which a computer program and human being may have a dialog o No one de nition De ning feature of online technologies Focus on o Tailoring content to users 0 Increasing engagement in decision making 0 Improving learning 0 Increasing attractiveness and o Enhancing experience Key elements 0 Exchange of information o Responsiveness 0 Some variation of user control Interactivity includes ConUngency Participation Synchronicity Proximity Four main types 1 2 3 4 User to user User to content User to medium Medium to medium Loci of interactivity User Memum Conwnunka on Theoretical elements Preference Information processing Interactivity in advertising Perceived activity what people perceive Functional and Perceived Attitude toward the website Attitude toward the brand Interactivity and products 0 Interactive Barbie Metaverse de nition virtual reality space in which users can interact with a computer generated environment and other users Augmented reality the way we see our real world and using technology to help us Ex the yellow line on the football eld during games on television to help show you what yard the play is on Also looking up restaurant menus online March 23 15 Symposium april 2 if you go to one of the sessions on meet the pros write 1 page double spaced paper how it relates to cmc Health Communication What is health communication 0 Uses communication strategies Informs and in uences health decisions 0 Links communication and health 0 Can improve personal and public health 0 Ice bucket challenge is relevant What health com alone can do 0 Increase knowledge and awareness In uence reinforce refute beliefs attitudes social norms 0 Demonstrate healthy skills show the bene t of behavior change Prompt action initiate behavior change individual group policy What health communication cannot do alone Effectively address all health issues 0 Correct social inequities Produce sustained change especially with complex health behaviors Compensate for inadequate health care or access to health care 0 Ask yourself how can communication help Areas of health communication Interpersonal communication 0 Patient provider communication 0 Social support New media 0 Also can be seen as a form of mass media 0 Can include social networking sites blogs news sharing sites eHeaHh Using technology to improve health care 0 Using electronics to transmit health information receive support 0 Computer based tools and systems that can address health behavior change March 25 14 Health and CMC Telemedicine India and US Apdl615 Ap l13 Privacy and security online 0 Right of personal privacy concerning the storing repurposing third party use and displaying of information pertaining to oneself on the internet Subset of computer privacy 0 Ability to control the ow of info and reasonable acess Who should be concerned Everyone Internet privacy risks 0 Phishing 0 Internet hacking used to steal secure data 0 Pharming 0 Internet hacking used to redirect legitimate site visitor to different address 0 Spyware 0 Of ine application that obtains data without consent Malware 0 Application used to illegally damage computers through Trojans viruses and spyware anacyissues Identity Personal data Data matching Minimizing risks Use of preventative software applications eg anti virus mwmb Avoid shopping unreliable Avoid exposing personal data on websites with low security Always use strong passwords with letters numbers and characters Facebook tracked users without an account Cookies were sent to people when they weren t on facebook Claimed it was a bug Breached European data privacy laws Belgian privacy commission will decide to act on April 29
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