Notes for Katie Eicher's Psych 105
Notes for Katie Eicher's Psych 105 Psych 105 - Katie Eichner
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Psychology 105 notes EXAM 1 NOTES 11315 Biological Psychology Behavioral neuroscience the study of links among brain mind and behavior Biological psychology the study of the relationship between bodily system and chemicals and how they influence behavior and thoughts Clinical and Counseling Psychology Clinical Psychology the diagnosis and treatment of mental emotional and behavioral disorders and the promotion of psychological health Cognitive psychology the investigation of mental processes including reasoning thinking problem solving perception and language Developmental Psychology the study of how thought and behavior change or remain stable across the lifespan Evolutionary Psychology the application of principles of evolution including natural selection to explain psychological processes in phenomena Forensic Psychology field that blends psychology law and criminal justice Health Psychology the study of the role psychological factors play in regard to health and human illness believing you are going to get better can actually make you better lO Psychology lndustrialorganizational psychology application of psychological concepts and questions to work settings Personality Psychology the study of what makes people unique and the consistencies in people s behavior across time and situations Sports Psychology the study of psychological factors in sports and exercise Emphasis often on group dynamics and performance Social Psychology the study of how living among others influences thought feeling and behavior Subdisciplines All of these subdisciplines are concerned with how people think and behave Many of them are closely intertwined Which areas are of most interest to you Page 1 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Page 2 of 20 Psychology 105 notes 11515 Origins of Psychology Early Beginnings Prehistoric Stone Age humans already tried to treat mental problems Shamans Supernatural Explanations for mental illness Would use Trephinafion drilling hole in skull to release evil spirits Ancient Views Greeks Egyptians and Chinese were the first cultures to focus on natural and physical explanations for disorders Hippocrates Greek physician Acrophobia fear of heights coined by Hippocrates Imbalance of the humors bodily fluids led to disorders Example black biledepression yellow bilefever etc History of Early Clinical Psychology Middle Ages 400 to 1400 and Renaissance 1400 s to 1600 s Possession by demons spirits and the devil Witch Hunts float test floatwitch drownsnot witch Asylums 1500s to 1700s Bedlam in London Madmen s Pound storage house for mentally ill and social castaways Patients chained to walls whipped dunked in water Call for moraltreatment emerged in Europe amp US Late 1700s History of Modern Scientific Psychology Philosophical Understanding Philosophy Aristotle and Locke Empiricism all knowledge and thoughts come from experience Page 3 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Aristotle 300s BC To gain knowledge we must observe the world De Anima John Locke 1600s England Established Empiricism Measurement and Observation Mind is tabula rasa blank state Babiesblank slate Philosophy Plato and Descartes Knowledge comes from thinkingreflection Plato 400s300s BC To gain knowledge we must think about the world Descartes 1600s France Innate Ideas opposite of tabula rasa Babiesborn with innate ideasstore of knowledge accessible by reflection Interactive dualism Split between mindspirit and body Early Perspectives Psychophysics Psychophysics lab studies of subjective experience of physical sensations 1860s The first scientific form of psychology Created out of influence of empiricism John Locke s outlook on the world Ernst Weber Investigated smallest change in weights or length that people could discern People could discern different lengths depending on what part of the body is being analyzed Gustav Fechner Refined Weber s principles of perception Hermann von Helmholtz Studied memory physiology and color vision Perception of physical properties is not the same as physical properties themselves Example What weighs more a pound of feathers or a pound of bricks Page 4 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt Founded first psychology research lab at University of Leipzig in 1879 Edward Titchener Wundt s studentprotege Structuralism Conscious experience can be broken down into components structures Method of introspection Looking into your own mind for information about conscious experience Put yourself through a sensation Notice details of sensation Describe it in words Relates with Descartes view on the world Gestalt unified whole form shape Example hand waving as one fluid motion our minds don t break things down into components but completes figures for us Why does our mind do this Easier to see dangerHelped our survival Early 19003 Germany Focused on sensationperception Gestalt psychologists thought that Structuralism was incorrect Functionalism William James Influenced by Darwin s ideas about evolution and adaptation Functionalism 1890 s Why does the mind work the way it does What are the functions of the mind Example Why do we have hands Structuralism would split the hand into parts Stream of consciousness Can t split consciousness into parts Must look at it as a whole to understand function Page 5 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Ongoing stream of mental activity that constantly changes Modern Perspectives Behaviorism Early 19003 Study of observable measurable behaviors No focus on consciousness thought emotion subjective experience Radical form of environmentalism All behavior comes from learning Environment determines how we behave lvan Pavlov Classical conditioning Pavlov s dog bellfood Experience molded behavior John Watson Founder of Behaviorism Watson proposed that scientific psychology should focus solely on observable behaviors and abandon the study of consciousness Nature vs Nurture Behaviorists thought it was all about nurture Failed at raising his children to be the people he wanted them to be Regimented upbringing Scheduled feeding No affection One committed suicide One became a Freudian psychoanalyst One sponged off his parents for his entire life One died to bleeding ulcers from stress in his 50s BF Skinner Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes Operant Conditioning Free will is just an illusion Page 6 of 20 Psychology 105 notes We do what makes us feel better not worse Behavior is shaped by our environment Can t actually make our own decisions Air crib Cognitivism Focuses on higher mental processes Memory language information processing reasoning problem solving decision making creativity etc To understand behaviors must examine how people acquire store and process information The NatureNurture Debate Nature Who we are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically based traits Nurture We are all essentially the same at birth and we are the product of our experiences Nature through Nurture The environment constantly interacts with biology to shape who we are and what we do Page 7 of 20 Psychology 105 notes 1202015 History of Modern Psychology Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud 18561939 Everything is motivated by the unconscious mind Personality is formed in childhood Psychoanalytic Personality Theory Behavior is motivated by the unconscious Iceberg Metaphor Conscious level Preconscious Level Unconscious Level Freudian slip accidentally saying something revealing what you truly think An error in speech that reveals an unconscious belief Other ways to get to unconscious beliefs Hypnotism Hystuterus Free association Dream Interpretation Dreams reveal the unconscious mind Symbolic Hidden wishes Id Ego and Superego Three aspects of the self working in tandem to reveal personality Idbasic instinctual drives I WANT Examples Babies attention sleep food etc Superegoconsciencelsense of morality I SHOULD Examples control violence do homework etc Egothe self mediating between the Id and Superego I WILL Defense Mechanisms The unconscious mind distorting reality to defend against feelings of anxietyunacceptable impulses Denial Denying that there s any kind of issue Displacement Transfer your feelings from one person to another Page 8 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Regression Change back to a childlike emotional state Projection Accuse someone else of having a flaw you have Rationalization Try to explain something away Rationalizing an addiction or any kind of bad behavior Reaction formation Change unacceptable feelings to the opposite Sublimation Turn negative impulses into positive outcomes Psychosexual Stages The personality develops in childhood 05 Libido sexual energymotivation Desire for sexual pleasuregratification Starts at birth Psychosexual stages Birth1 Oral 13 Anal 36 Phallic 711 Latency nothing really going on 12 Genital A child had to move through these stages to develop normally If not this would cause fixation Oral 01 Pleasure from the mouth Breast feeding Fixation Smoking cigarettes binge eatingovereating etc Anal 13 Pleasure from the anus Toilet training Fixation Page 9 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Phallic 36 Pleasure from the genitals Oedipus Complex Sexual attraction to mother Desire to kill father Castration anxiety Resolution Identification with father Penis Envy Latency 711 Repression of desire for pleasure Genital 12 Pleasure from the genitals Seeking monogamous heterosexual relationships Karen Horney Penis Envy Power Womb Envy Men wish they could carry a child Problems with Freud Evidence Upper class Victorians white Testability Circular Logic If you don t remember your Oedipus complex you repressed it Sexism Classism Heteronormativity Humanistic Psychology Emphasizes unique qualities of behavior Response to Behaviorism Freedom and potential for growth selfdirection Given free will and no obstacles people desire to be good Human behavior governed by selfconcept Beliefs about self Page 10 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Focus on healthy personalities In contrast to Freud s concentration on unhealthy personalities lf fundamental needs aren t met psychological disturbance Humanistic Maslow Maslow s Hierarchy of Needson review slides Humanistic Carl Rogers on review slides Personality Theory of Carl Rogers Basic Human Needs Other s Responses Result Conditional positive regard leads to SelfDiscrepancies Unconditional positive regard leads to SelfActualization Selfefficacy your own belief in your ability to do something Mastery experiences if you believe you can do something and do it well Gives you a sense of fulfillment Page 11 of 20 Psychology 105 notes 12215 Research Methods in Psychology Science v Pseudoscience Pseudoscience claims presented as scientific that are not supported by evidence obtained within the scientific method Pseudopsychologies Pseudopsychologies systems of explaining human behavior that are not based on or consistent with scientific evidence Phrenology reading bumps on the skull to figure out personality Palmistry reading palms Graphology analysis of personality through handwriting What is Science Scientific thinking process using cognitive skills required to generate test and revise theones Principles of research design Research design plans of action for how to conduct scientific study Empirical evidence accurate knowledge can be acquired through objective observation measurement andor experimentation Variable a characteristic that changes or varies Population the entire group a researcher is interested in Sample subsets of the population that are actually studied Steps in the Scientific Method Step 1 Formulate a Testable Hypothesis Hypothesis specific informed and testable prediction about the outcome relationship between variables in research design Variables A factor that can varychange in ways that can be observedmeasured Stuff you re manipulating andor observing Hypotheses predict changes in variables Operational Definition defines the variable in very specific terms as to how it will be measuredmanipulatedchanged Step 2 Design the Study and Collect the Data Must decide which type of design you will use Experimental or Descriptive Page 12 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Collect Data Step 3 Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions Statistics mathematics used by researchers to organize summarize interpret data Statistically Significant mathematical indication that results did not likely occur by chance plessthan05 MetaAnalysis pooling the results from multiple studies into a single analysis Step 4 Report the Findings Publish or Report Findings Must describe the study accurately in these reports Useful for Replication repeat the study to increase confidence in findings Research Strategies Descriptive strategies for observing and describing behavior Naturalistic observation Case studies Surveys Correlation methods abused children Experimental strategies for inferring cause and effect relationships among variables Descriptive studies Descriptive designs designs in which the research defines a problem and a variable of interest Usually occurs during the exploratory phase of research and leads to predictions and experiments Limitation Cannot look at cause and effect Case Study Case study a design in which a researcher observes one person over a long period of time Phineas Gage famous case study from the 1800s Limitation not all cases are generalizable Naturalistic Observation A study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world Page 13 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Interview and Survey Involves asking people what they think or feel or how they behave Questions are asked the same exact way to each respondent Limitations May not have a representative sample Correlational Studies Correlational design studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another Correlation is not the same thing as causation Correlation coefficient a statistic ranging from 1 to 1 that assesses the strength and direction of an association between two variables Positive correlation one goes up the other goes up Negative correlation one goes up the other goes down high school gpadetention How to interpret a correlation Correlation coefficient r a stat that ranges from 10 to 10 and assess the STRENGTH and DIRECTION of association between 2 variables The number tells us the STRENGTH of the association and the sign tells us the DIRECTION chart on review slides Perfect positive correlation As one increases the other increases As one decreases the other decreases Perfect negative correlation As one goes up the other goes down As cigarettes you smoke per day goes up health goes down Correlational Studies Often a beginning point Correlation is not the same thing as causation Causality mistakes The more firemen fighting a fire the bigger the fire is observed to be Therefore firemen cause fire positive correlation between the size of the fire and the amount of firemen Reverse causation incorrectly stating that an effect occurs before its cause Page 14 of 20 Psychology 105 notes As ice cream sales increase the rate of drowning deaths increase sharply Therefore ice cream causes drowning Third variable interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between to other variables Pros Useful when unable to manipulate variables Can make predictions about things when we know about correlations 39 Cons Cannot look at cause and effect Experimental Studies Experiment a research design that includes independent and dependent variables One variable is manipulated while another is measured with effects indicative of causa on Participants are randomly assigned to control and experimental groups Benefits Can infer cause Limitations Results come from a highly controlled usually unnatural setting and are therefore less generalizable Page 15 of 20 Psychology 105 notes 12715 Admin Stuff Thursday Guest Speaker Exam 1 is Tuesday Experimental Studies Independent Variable IV a variable that is manipulated by the experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it causes the predicted outcome Dependent Variable DV the outcome or response to the experimental manipulation ConfoundingExtraneous Variable a variable whose influence on the DV cannot be separated from the IV Motivation and Intelligence Practice Experimenter A sets up a study to test which is more effective in treating symptoms of depressionmedication or therapy Over the course of 6th months 20 participants receive Wellbutrin while 20 participants participate in therapy What is the IV Type of treatment What is the DV Depression symptoms Random assignment assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any group Limits the impact of confounding variables Experimental groups a group of participants who receive the treatment or whatever is predicted to change behavior Control group a group of participants who are treated the exact same as those in the experimental group without the treatment IV May receive a placebo fake medicine Participants or experimenters knowing which group is control and which is placebo affects results Placebo effect a person who gets a fake treatment gets better because they think the treatment will work Page 16 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Singleblind studies studies in which participants do not know their group assignment Doubleblind studies studies in which both the participants and the experimenters do not know the participants group assignments Technique developed to counter experimenter expectancy effects Correlational Experimental Descriptive BioPsych Topics The Neuron The Nervous System The Endocrine System The Brain Neurotransmission Three major principles 1 Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system 2 Information travels within a neuron in the form of an electrical signal 3 Information is transmitted between neurons by means of chemicals Serotonin Dopamine Types of Neurons 3 types 1 Sensory neurons communicate between sensory organs and brain 2 Motor neurons communicate between brain and muscles 3 lnterneurons carry messages between neurons Usually found in the brain Parts of the Neuron Diagram ON TEST on review slides tree branch looking Dendrites fingerlike projections that receive messages from other neurons big core Cell body soma contains cells nucleus DNA Long thin spine looking cord Axon long projection where the electrical message travels toward other neurons Ending looking like thin tree with thin branches coming off Axon terminal end of the axon where the message gets sent to other neurons picked up by other neurons dendrites Page 17 of 20 Psychology 105 notes bubbles at end of axon terminal Axon buttons bubbles of neurotransmitters Myelin sheath fatty insulation for the axon Make the nerve impulse travel faster Multiple Sclerosis Electrical Communication 4 Phases EX Male Orgasm 1 Resting Potential 2 Depolarization due to neurotransmitters changing charge in cell 3 Action Potential 4 RepolarizationRefractory Period cell CANNOT fire again during this period All or nothing law it fires or it doesn t no in between Neurotransmitters Naturally occurring chemicals in the nervous system that specialize in transmitting information between neurons The electrical impulse signals release of neurotransmitters from axon terminal Chemical Communication Between Neurons Synapse point of communication between two neurons Synaptic gap space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron Firing neuron releases neurotransmitters into the synapse which float across and bind to receptor sites on the dendrites of the next receiving neurons Neurotransmitters can have different effects Each receptor site only accepts specific kinds of neurotransmitters A neurotransmitter can have multiple types of receptors Reuptake Recycling of leftover neurotransmitters The Nervous System diagram on review slides Up to 1 trillion neurons Central nervous system AND Peripheral nervous system 1 Central nervous systemCNS The brain and spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System PNS all of the nonCNS nerves in the body Made up of nerves bundles of axons Sensory nerves contain the axons of the sensory neurons Page 18 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Carries signals from the sense Motor nerves contain the axons of the motor neurons Carries signals from muscles Two subdivisions in the PNS Somatic NS voluntary anything you can decide or control Autonomic NS involuntary breathing heartbeat digestion etc Selfregulated AUTOMATIC functions and bodily processes Controls involuntary muscles organs glands Divided into Sympathetic amp Parasympathetic nervous systems ANSSympathetic Nervous system AROUSES Prepares body for action in threatening or stressful situations Fight or flight system Organs stimulated for fight or flight Pupils Dilate take in more lightincreases efficiency of eyes Heart pumps faster Lungs pump more oxygen Hormones released Organs shut down to conserve energy Digestion shuts down Salivation stops PNSParasympathetic Nervous System CALMS Restores the body to normal resting state after arousal Maintenance system Recovery processes Pupils constrict Heart rate slows Breathing slows Digestion reactivates Sweat diminishes Day to day maintenance Regulates heartbeat Page 19 of 20 Psychology 105 notes Breathing Digestion ParasympatheticPARALYZED calmtrick to differentiate Parasympathetic is active most of the time CNS Brain and spinal cord Life sustaining functions coordinates thought emotion behavior Brain Complex perceptual motor emotional and cognitive functions Spinal Cord Connects brain to body relays commands Can function without brain Spinal Reflex A simple involuntary behavior that is processed in the spinal cord without brain involvement processes in spinal cord before being sent up to the brain The endocrine system Endocrine system organization of glands that release and regulate bodily hormones Hormones chemicals that travel in the bloodstream and carry messages to tissues and organs Metabolism growth rate digestion blood pressure sexual development and reproduction emotional responses stress Pituitary gland master endocrine gland that controls the release of hormones from other glands in the body cocaineincreases dopamine Page 20 of 20 EXAM 2 NOTES 2515 Admin Stuff Assignment1 grades posted Email if not there Learning Learning enduring changes in behavior that occur with experience Conditioning learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses 3 Main Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Dog Operant Conditioning Skinner Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Classical Conditioning Repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a responseproducing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response 4 Parts Unconditioned Stimulus UCS Unconditioned Response UCR Conditioned Stimulus CS Conditioned Response CR The Unconditioned Response and Conditioned Response are ALWAYS the same behavior Unconditioned Stimulus UCS Stimulus that evokes UCR without previous conditioning someone blows air in your eyebink loud unexpected noisejump loud noiseunconditioned stimulus jumpunconditioned response Page 1 of 28 Unconditioned Response UCR unlearned reaction to UCS without previous conditioning Conditioned Stimulus CS previously neutral stimulus that has through repeated pairings with UCS acquired capacity to evoke CR flicking lights on and off Before hand no reaction After paired with loud noisestartling Conditioned Response CR earned reaction to CS that occurs because of conditioning Pavlov s Dogsaivating dog Unconditioned Stimulus Meat something that evokes a reaction without the dog having to learn it paired with Unconditioned response Salivation Paired neutral stimulus Bell that becomes a conditioned stimulus when ringing the bell before giving the food The Unconditioned Response and the conditioned response are the SAME Extinction gradual weakeningdisappearance of conditioned behavior when conditioned stimulus presented without unconditioned stimulus giving dog food without bell public speaking without suit Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of previously extinguished conditioned response WITHOUT exposure to conditioned stimulus Little Albert case study in learning John Watson Can we condition him to fear a white rat Presented him with lots of animals including a white rat No fear Then presented him with a white rat amp made loud noise next to baby immediately afterfear response to loud noise crying Does this repeatedly so Little Albert associates fear with white rat Stimulus Generalization Next presented him with similar objects white fluffy Page 2 of 28 Rabbit Santa Clause Mask etc After stimulus becomes a CS similar stimuli may produce similar reaction Generalized fear to similar objects Stimulus Discrimination Opposite of stimulus generalization After stimulus becomes a CS for some response other related stimuli DO NOT produce a similar reaction CATS NAME IS DIZZY extra credit for exam 2 Example Dog attack Neutral stimulus Rottweiler UCS Dog Bite UCR painfear CS Rottweiler after Rottweiler and bite CR Rottweilerfear pain Stimulus generalization before extinction Other big dogs elicit fear Stimulus Discrimination before extinction Small toy dogs do not elicit fear Biological Preparedness the idea that an organism is innater predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses evolutionary conditions Easier to condition people to have a fear of spiders or snakes than electricity This is naturalhelped our ancestors survive Animals have evolved to associate certain stimuli more easily than others Operant Conditioning How can I train my dog to sit Rewards Food PraiseAffection Toys Etc Page 3 of 28 We do things that make us feel good not that make us feel bad Edward LThorndike 1905 Law of Effect Once stimulus and response are associated response is likely to occur in the same situation IF pleasant result If unpleasant result response less likely to occur again in situation Behavior strengthened if followed by reinforcement diminished if filled by punishment Reinforcement increases frequency of behavior Punishment decreases the recency of a behavior Negative taking something away Positive adding something Primary Reinforcernot learned Eg Food water sex etc Secondary Reinforcerlearned Eg Money grades approval etc Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcers People learn to do the things they get rewarded for Studying for a test Mowing the Lawn Extrinsic reward comes from external environment Watching a comedy Eating chocolate Intrinsic reward comes from within yourself Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement stimulus that when presented after a behavior strengthens the behavior Addition of a pleasant stimulus ADDING something to increase frequency of a behavior Negative Reinforcement stimulus that when removed after a behavior strengthens that behavior Page 4 of 28 Removal of an adverse stimulus TAKING AWAY something to increase frequency of behavior Reinforcement something that you do to INCREASE the frequency of a behavior Positive ADD something good Negative TAKE AWAY something bad Negative Reinforcement Examples Beeping to get you to put on your seatbelt Negatively reinforced to put on seatbelt put on your seatbelt and something BAD has been removedtaken away Nagging to get you to do the dishes Take aspirin to get rid of a headache Example I want my son to do his homework He does his homework so Positive reinforcement Give him a cookie Praise him Buy him something Negative Reinforcement Tell him he doesn39t have to take out the trash Stop nagging about homework Punishment Stimulus that when presented after behavior decreases the frequency of that behavior Positive addition of adversive bad stimulus Adding something they don t want Negative removing a positive good stimulus Taking something they like away Examples Page 5 of 28 Parents want their son to stop swearing Positive punishment When Tony swears he must do the dishes for the week Negative punishment When Tony swears parents take away his xbox Effective Punishment Immediately following behavior Not overly severe Consistency Explain reasons for punishment Page 6 of 28 m Admin Stuff Exam 1 grades posted Free tutoring at Multicultural Student Services Assignment 2 due Thursday February 19th Remember to email TA s ahead of time if you d like to meet Feel free to email TA s with any questions about assignment 2 Figuring it Out What is the behavior Are we trying to increase it REINFORCEMENT Are we trying to decrease it PUNISHMENT How are we trying to change this behavior Are we adding something POSITIVE Are we taking something away NEGATIVE EX A child is given an allowance for good behavior behavior good behavior increase or decrease increase Positive Reinforcement An athlete is benched for coming to practice late behavior coming to practice decrease behavior taking something away Negative Punishment BF Skinner Skinner Box Apparatus created to study operant conditioning in lab animals Try to get rat to push button to release food Page 7 of 28 Shaping Procedure in which reinforcement is given for closer and closer approximations of desired behavior dancing dog rewards behaviors that are steps on the way to the behavior you want a person to do Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing a desired behavior every time it occurs Vending machine Turning on tv Fixedratio Behavior reinforced only after a specified number of occurrences Car salesperson gets a bonus after selling every 5th car Variableratio behavior reinforced after unpredictable number of occurrences Slot machine Dogs begging Fixedinterval behavior is reinforced after a specified amount of time has elapsed Getting a paycheck at the end of the week Variableinterval behavior is reinforced at unpredictable time intervals Rat presses a lever after 1 min gets food next time interval is 3 min then 4 then 1 etC Random drug tests Which reinforcement schedules work best Well with variable interval and ratio it takes longer to learn the behavior But it also means extinction takes a LOT longer Why use operant conditioning Behavior Modification using operant conditioning to help people develop more effectiveadaptive behaviors Sheldon and Penny on Big Bang Theory Token Economies What are token economies Good behavior tokens Tokens can be traded in for rewardsprizes Where do we see token economies Page 8 of 28 Inpatient hospitals Treating autism Schools Learned Helplessness Martin Seligman Phenomenon in which exposure to inescapableuncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior Dog learns to associate warning light and shock Transferred to a box where escape from shock is possible by stepping over divider Dog doesn t try to escape the shock Dog has LEARNED to be HELPLESS learned that shock is inescapable One explanation for depression Cognitive Maps and Latent Learning Edward Tolman Showed that rewards aren t necessary for learning to occur Rats learning a maze Group of rats wander the maze with no reward at the end When a reward is presented they go to the end immediately Created a cognitive map of the maze Latent learning learning that is not immediately demonstrated through behavior Shows up when a reward is present Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Observational Learning Learning through observing actions of others Modeling Observing and imitating specific behaviors Little girl putting on makeup like mommy Bandura s Bobo Dolls Children observed adults acting aggressively Children played aggressively with doll after observing Page 9 of 28 Children who did not see adults acting aggressively were less aggressive themselves Mirror Neurons Neurons that fire while watching someone else do an activity Some neuroscientists believe this aids observational learning Your neurons learn how to fire by watching someone else perform the activity Learning and Prejudice Association children associating a particular ethnicity with a bad action poverty crime violence other bad things Reinforcement Children may be reinforced for telling derogatory ethnic jokes others might laugh and think they re cool Modeling Children may simply imitate the prejudices of their older family and popular fnends Page 10 of 28 M Chapter 6 Memory What is memory Early view Either you remember or you don t Memory as a unitary construct Case of HM Henry Molaison changed that Removed Hippocampus No long term memory Could learn tasks but not remember he knew them What does this case illustrate Memory is not just conscious recall How to tie a shoe ride a bike etc Memory the ability to store and use information Acquire retain retrieve information Three processes in memory 1 Encoding transforming information into form that can be enteredretained 2 Storage process of retaining information in memory 3 Retrieval bringing stored information into conscious awareness Three Stage Model of Memory Classification of memories based on how long the memory lasts Sensory memory Information from sensory neurons Lasts 14 seconds Makes actions look continuous for a certain amount of time lconic memory Visual record Echoic memory Retention of sound Shortterm memory Longterm memory Information transfers from one stage to the next Page 11 of 28 21215 Admin Stuff Assignment 2 due Thursday February 19th ShortTerm Memory AKA Working Memory 2 30 seconds Temporary storage for information that is being used currently Reading Planning speech Maintenance rehearsal Repeating information to yourself keeps it in short term memory Phone Number What happens to information after being in your shortterm memory It gets moved to long term memory sometimes We forget the information Decay Interference New memory getting in the way of an old memory Limited to between 5 and 9 digits letters or chunks or information 7 2 Chunking the process of breaking down a list of items to be remembered into a smaller set of meaningful units 9523184719 vs 952 3184719 Elaborative Rehearsal Focusing on the meaning of information linking it to previous knowledge to transfer it to longterm memory Excellent study strategy Think of own examples Relate concepts to things you already know Think about implicationsapplications of material Page 12 of 28 Serial Position Effect Tendency to better recall items at the beginning and ends of lists Primacy effect easier to remember things at the beginning of a list Recency effect easier to remember things at the end of a list Longterm Memory Information stored from 30 seconds a lifetime Two Types Explicit conscious recall Conscious Recall facts and events AKA declarative memory Semantic Memory for Facts and Knowledge Episodic Experiencebased Autobiographical memory 16th birthday party etc Implicit without conscious recall Procedural Remembering how to do a task perform skills operations actions subconsciously Sports tying a shoe riding a bike Conscious recall not necessary Priming Prior exposure aids recall You can see something not remember you saw it but it will still affect you Advertising Stages of LongTerm Memory 2 Encoding attending to taking in and integrating new information Automatic Processing Page 13 of 28 Little effort or attention Not improved with practice Effortful Processing Careful attention and conscious effort Semantic memory and rehearsal Impacted by aging Mnemonic Devices ROY G BIV Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge 2 Consolidation Process of establishing stabilizing or solidifying a memory 3 Storage Retention of memory over time Three methods 1 Hierarchies a way of organizing related pieces of information from the most specific feature they have in common to the most general food breakfast cerea cocoa puffs 2 Schemas mental frameworks that develop from our experiences with particular people objects or events Ex shy person sees others as loud obnoxious never listening etc 3 Networks a chain of associations between related concepts 4 Retrieval Recovery of stored information Depends on previous processes and working memory lmplicit vs Explicit memory retrieval Retrieval Cue a prompt that helps trigger recall of information Some info is stored but inaccessible without a cue Failures of retrieval Tip of the tongue phenomenon Page 14 of 28 Retrieval is not an all or nothing process sometimes is inaccessible unless accessed in a particular way Encoding Specificity Principle ON TEST It s easier to retrieve information when the cues match the original learning conditions Context effect Same setting Mood Congruence Your mood evokes memories that are consistent with that mood Depressedtimes you were depressed sad messed up Happygood times friends family happy memories EncodingRetrieval Flashbulb Memories Recall of very specific detailsimages surrounding a significantrarevivid event Seem more accurate to us Actually decay like normal memories Three Stages of Memory Sensory Memory Short Term Memory LongTerm Memory Forgetting The weakening or loss of memories over time Why we forget Encoding Failure Encoding failure information didn t make it to long term memory Absentmindedness Car Keys Parking Spot Blackout Drunk Retrieval Cue Failure Prospective memory remembering to do something in the future Retrieval cue failure inability to recall a memory because of inadequate retrieval cues Page 15 of 28 Oven timers Post it notes Phone alarm Page 16 of 28 2172015 Why we Forget Decay Decay Theory Memories fade as we don t use them Memory Trace chemical andor structural change in the brain Over time the traces fade Decay theory can t be the whole story Rate of forgetting decreases over time Retrieval cues can help you remember information from a long time ago Why We Forget Interference Interference Theory Disruption of memory because other information competes with the information we are trying to recall Retroactive Interference new information pushes out old information Learning different languages Teachers Names Trying to ski again after learning to snowboard Proactive Interference Previously learned information interferes with learning remembering new information New cell phone number Calling your boyfriend your ex s name The more similar the information is the more likely that there will be interference Why We Forget Motivated Forgetting Suppression Deliberate conscious effort to forget Try not to think about a car crash you were in Try not to think about your ex Repression the unconscious act of keeping threatening thoughts feelings or impulses out of consciousness Page 17 of 28 Imperfect Memories Errors Distortions False Memories Deja Vu and Source Confusion Feeling of familiarity in a new situation Source Confusion Indirectly experienced aspects of the situation Forgotten source of the memory Dreams Movies lnattentional Blindness Not paying attention then start paying attentionsense of familiarity Misinformation Effect Information we are given after an event can affect or change our memory of that event Memory is constructed and reconstructed Suggestive questions misinformation Elizabeth Loftus Car Crash Study Results Did you see any broken glass Subjects who d been asked smashed said yes even though there was no broken glass bumped no broken glass answer New information distorted the reconstruction of the memory Schema Schema beliefs about the world influence how and what remember Fill in details that are consistent with our schema False details in our memory Better remember details inconsistent with our schema Something out of the ordinary Page 18 of 28 False and Recovered Memories False Memories memories for events that never happened but were suggested by someone or something Eg hear a story about childhood create a memory Lost in the Mall Loftus s mother drowning Recovered memories memories from a real event that were encoded stored but not retrieved until some later event brings them back to consciousness Rape memory recovery grad student Eyewitness Testimony Mistaken or flawed identification cited in 78 of nation s first 130 cases turned over by DNA evidence Problems Memories are prone to suggestibility Role of detective leading questions Lineups promote relative judgments Rehearsal of the story Crossracial identification difficulties Amnesia Memory loss due to brain injury or disease Anterograde amnesia forgetting things that happened after the eventdisease Example Car Accident cant remember anything that happened for the next 5 days in the hospital Retrograde amnesia forgetting things that happened before the eventdisease The Biology of Memory Biological Basis of Memory diagram on review slides Simple memories are localized but complex memories are distributed throughout the brain Memory at the Neural Level Longterm potentiation strengthening of synaptic connection Page 19 of 28 Chemical neurotransmitters Structural more synapses more connections Neurons that fire together wire together The more that neurons are activated in the same pathways the easier it is for the pathways to be strengthened Brain Areas and Memory Hippocampus encodes memories lf damaged explicit memories cannot be moved into the cortex for longterm storage Cortex stores memories lf damaged deficits in specific knowledge systems can occur Amygdala encodes emotional aspect of memories lf damaged people no longer recall emotional events better than nonemotional events Cerebellum stores procedural memories lf damaged people no longer recall how to do regular things Chapter 7 Thinking Language and Intelligence Cognitivity Cognition General term that refers to the mental activities involved in acquiring retaining and using knowledge Thinking and Cognition Thinking manipulation of mental representations to draw inferences and conclusions Mental Representation how we represent ideas knowledge and memories Mental Images Mental representation of objects that are not physically present Visual Pictures Other Sensory Images We manipulate mental images the same way we manipulate real ones But they re memories so they are prone to error Page 20 of 28 2192015 Concepts Mental category of objects or ideas based on shared properties Formal Concepts defined by specific rules or features We decide what s a dog by a specific set of rules DNA Professorspecific rules that makes them a professor Natural Concepts form as a result of real world experience fuzzy Rules or attributes that define natural concepts are not always sharply defined Rating a professornot sharply defined knowledge gained through your own real world experience Problem Solving Problem solving cognition used to reach goal by thinkingbehaving in certain ways Several Methods Trial and Error Trying a variety of solutions and eliminating those that don t work Algorithms Using a specific rule procedure or method such as a mathematical formula that inevitably produces the correct solution Try every combination on a lock 46656 potential combinations Not very efficient Heuristics Following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions Trying someone s birthday as a combination for a lock Restarting the computer to fix the problem Eliminating possibilities that are much less likely or impossible Important to be flexible Insight Sudden realization about how to solve a problem Similar to a previous problem Thinking of a new way to solve problem Intuition Coming to a conclusion without conscious awareness of the thought process Guiding Stageyou perceive a pattern in information but not consciously Page 21 of 28 Integrative Stage a representation of pattern becomes conscious usually in form of a hunch or hypothesis Functional Fixedness Tendency to view objets as functioning only in their usual or customary way Attach the candle to the wall so it doesn39t drip on the table DecisionMaking Models SingleFeature make your decision based on one single feature Eg buy the cheapest brand Efficient but risky Additive model systematically evaluate the important features of each choice Procon lists Eliminate by aspects rate features of the options eliminate options that don t have the most important features Making Predictions Some decisions involve uncertainty We use heuristics rules 0 thumbmental shortcuts to help us predict the most likely outcome Availability Heuristic Judge probability of an event by how easily you can recall previous occurrences of that event Our exposure to events doesn t always reflect how often they occur Winning the lottery Stranger rape versus acquaintance rape Which is more common Fatalities due to shark attacks Fatalities due to vending machines Representativeness Heuristic Estimate the likelihood of an event by comparing it to the prototype of that event I m not likely to get pulled over because I m driving a minivan ls Joe more likely to be a truck driver or an Ivy League English Professor Not overweight Wears glasses Reads Poetry Page 22 of 28 Can produce faulty estimates if Possible variations from the prototype are not considered The approximate number of prototypes that actually exist are not considered Why do we keep believing things that aren t true The BeliefBias Effect Occurs when people accept only the evidence that conforms to their belief rejecting or ignoring any evidence that does not The Confirmation Bias We tend to seek out notice and weight evidence that supports our beliefs and avoid evidence that doesn t The Fallacy of Positive Instances We remember uncommon events that confirm our beliefs and forget events that disconfirm our belief I hate cops so I remember the one time a cop was rude and forget all the times cops helped me Old telephone picking up phone and the person you called is already on the other line telepathy Language System for combining symbols for the purpose of communication Social Species communicate Food Predators Mating Human language Complex structure Words for intangible things Uniqueabstract ideas Languagelsquot Opendynamic and free to change Gay Page 23 of 28 Yolo Hookup Symbolic No real connection between sound and the meaning or ideas Ton Kilogram Pragmatics The way context contributes to meaning Turn taking gestures Different ways of speaking to certain people Intonation rhythm and emphasis way we say things effects context just as much as anything else in the situation Tonal languages meaning of word changes The structure of language is important Punctuation contextual clues gestures Gestures mean different things depending on the country you re in Page 24 of 28 22415 Language Development Continued Sensitivity period for language Infancy through age of 12 Effects of severe neglect What does this mean There is a window of time long window when children have the capacity to learn language and communication If this is not accomplished in the period words are able to be learned but not language There is a sensitivity period for language development Conditioning and Learning BF Skinner language develops because of reinforcement Shaping Nativist Theory Brains are wired for language Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition Device LAD innate biologically based capacity to acquire language easy to learn language Universal grammar Crosscultural similarities in development Not completely denying the role of reinforcement Reinforcement has a role in language BUT reinforcement can t account for grammar syntax etc any of the more complex elements in language Overregularization extending regular grammatical patterns to irregular words mouses incorrect word taken from correct grammar rule adding es to make plural First mimic and say ran broke Then learn the ed past tense He runned It broked Page 25 of 28 Language and Perception Linguistic relativity hypothesis Language determines the way we think and perceive the world Piraha no words for numbers higher than 2 But only having 2 words for color doesn t keep people from differentiating colors May be better to say language impacts thinking Animal Language Communication instinctual Language deliberate symbolic Chimp sign language Alex the parrot Lack of evidence that animals can learn syntax which some feel means that animals are not truly learning and using language May be more capable than we think Intelligence What is Intelligence Intelligence the ability to learn from experiences acquire knowledge and adapt ls intelligence one ability or many Theories of Intelligence early to mid 1900 s Spearman s Theory two abilities General Intelligence reason and solve problems Specific Intelligence excel in certain areas Gardner s Theory multiple intelligences verbal linguistic mathematical interpersonalfiguring out what s going on in others minds and lives intrapersonalfiguring out what is going on in your own mind etc Defined related to a specific culture Certain cultures value the different kinds of intelligence more than other types Page 26 of 28 Some cultures do not have systems set up for certain types of intelligence so they are not valued Eg Mathematics Sternberg s Triarchic theory of intelligence Analytical intelligence break problems down into components Creative Intelligence deal with novel problems in new ways Practical Intelligence use information for success in life street smarts Types of Intelligence Testing Achievement Test Test designed to measure a person s level of knowledge skill or accomplishment in a particular area WCAP Aptitude test test designed to assess a person s capacity to benefit from education or training SAT IQ Tests Intelligence Quotient IQ Mental AgeChronological age X 100 Allows for comparisons Main IQ Test Today WAIS IQ Test Construction Reliability tendency of test to yield same results given same conditions Validity the degree to which a test measures what it s suppose to measure Standardization large representative sample of people under uniform conditions for the purpose of establishing norms Uses of IQ Tests Predicting Academic Success Correlation between IQ score and grades SAT ACT GRE scores income jobs Identify individuals who greatly differ from average Heredity and Environment Heritability degree to which variation in trait stems from genetic differences Environment Degree to which variation is due to environmental effects Page 27 of 28 Twin Studies used to distinguish between inherited abilities and environmentally given abilities Genetic Identical twins raised together have more similar le than fraternal twins raised together Environment Identical twins raised together have more similar lQ s than identical twins raised in separate homes Fraternal twins have more similar IQ scores than nontwin siblings raised together Genes and Environment both matter Stereotype Threat Stereotype Threat Fear that you will be evaluated in terms of a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong creates anxiety and selfdoubt and can lower performance in a particular domain Processes Fear that you might confirm stereotype which creates psychological stress self doubt and anxiety Physiological arousal and distracting thoughts interfere with concentration memory and problemsolving abilities Group Differences in IQ Average IQ scores can differ between identifiable racial and ethnic groups Unless the environmental conditions of two racial groups are virally identical it is impossible to estimate the overall genetic differences between two groups Problems with IQ Tests Difficult to define intelligence Don t measure ALL types of intelligent behavior Army Alpha Beta Tests Beta Test for the illiterate Given to poor people of color in the south Difficult to do well because based on white middle class familiarities Page 28 of 28 EXAM 3 PSYCH NOTES Horses name Kahlua Victor Frankl Austrian Psychiatrist in early 1940 s Imprisoned by the Nazis in a concentration camp Man s Search for Meaning 1946 Even when none of our basic needs are met we strive for higher needs Thinking of his wifepeace and joy Prisoners practicing violin without a violin Attempt to recreate his dissertation in the cell Critique of Maslow don t always have to meet needs in the order that Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs states Deci and Ryan s SelfDetermination Theory Optimal human functioning occurs only if the following psychological needs are satisfied Autonomy the need to controlorganize own behaviors so they re in harmony with your own interestsvalues Competence the need to learnmaster appropriately challenging tasks Relatedness the need to feel attached to others Belongingness security intimacy If you can t meet these needs Maladaptive behaviors eg buying stuff because you re lonely Page 1 of 17 Some Types of Motivation Competence Motivation desire to direct behaviors toward demonstrating competence and exercising control Motivational push to prove to yourself you can do it Achievement Motivation desire to direct behavior toward excelling succeeding or outperforming others want to do something that puts you on top of others Power Motivation desire to control or influence others eg sibling rivalry Achievement Motivation and Culture lndividualistic Cultures US emphasize personal success I am beating you Collectivistic Cultures achievement is socially oriented we are beating you all Gender and Sexuality Some Terms Biological sex Male or female Based on genetic codereproductive organs Gender the cultural social and psychological meaning associated with maleness or femaleness Gender roles the behaviors attitudes personality traits roles that a culture determines as masculine or feminine Sexual Orientation direction of a person s eroticromantic attraction Examples of Gender Stereotypes Women stay at home with the kids Boys don t cryMen are not emotional Men are expected to be masculine Women are emotional beings Women are expected to be feminine Page 20f 17 Are gender stereotypes based on fact Personality traits no difference between men and women Except for assertiveness and being nurturing Cognitive Differences Women better at verbal reading writing skills Men better at spatial skills Men slightly better at math Where do gender differences come from Nature Biologically based Inevitable Unchanging Nurture Learned Socially constructed Changeable It s true that more women are stay at home parents WHY Because women are born to raise children Because women have been taught their role is to raise children Gender is at least partly learned and socially constructed Social construction of gender society and culture create gender roles Women shaving Introduced by razor companies in 19203 Title IX Until the 703 most women didn t play sports When schools were forced to offer sports women played sports How do we learn gender roles Media TV shows movies advertising music Page 3 of 17 Our Parents Parents treat boys differently than girls toughen up vs you re so beautiful Schools Women are interrupted more than men More eye contact with male students Teachers are more likely to know and use the names of their male students Women are often asked fewer or easier questions than males How are gender roles maintained Gender policing What would happen if a man wore a dress to class What would happen if a woman tried out for football professionalism Social ostracism Double Standards Application of a different rule for the same situation Bachelor vs spinster Player vs slut Awoman slaps a man a man slaps a woman A woman cries at a movie a man cries at a movie So What This is bad for men AND for women Women taught They re weaker and more delicate Don t take as many risks Page 4of 17 Their appearance is the most important thing Selfworth comes from attractiveness rather than competence Men taught They shouldn t be emotional Sadness and fear often expressed as anger They don t need other people Don t reach out for the help they need Gender Identity The degree to which a person sees himherself as masculine or feminine Transgender person who s gender identity conflicts with biological sex Transsexual person who has undergone sex reassignment surgeryhormone therapy to transform the body to the opposite sex 31015 Sexual Orientation Direction of a person s eroticromantic attraction Heterosexualstraight Homosexual Gay 10 of men Lesbian 4 of women Bisexual Pansexual Asexual Gender Identity is NOT Sexual Orientation That s so gay Page 50f 17 Not all lesbians are butch Not all gay men are effeminate Social Construction of Sexual Orientation David Halperin Is there a History of Homosexuality We think about sexual orientation in terms of preference for partners of a certain gender The Greeks didn t have the same concept of sexual orientation sex was about power not deske Our cultural context shape how we think about sexuality and sexual orientation Why are some people gay lt s complicated read we don t really know for sure Genes play some role Exposure to certain hormones before birth Not due to family problems Set before adolescence Conversion therapy aka praying away the gay doesn t work Whether it s biological or social it s not a choice Sexual Fluidity Men s sexuality isn t too fluid Women s sexuality IS Attracted to Men Women Gay male couples Lesbian Couples Page 60f 17 Gender Identity within SameSex Relationships Lesbian women 1950s Butch Femme Gay men Top Bottom Sexual Roles with gender implications Based on the mainstream model of relationships Paraphilias Sexual gratification contingent on deviant not socially acceptable sexual behavior Exhibitionism exposing genitals to strangers Fetishism arousal to inanimate objects or unusual body parts underwear shoes feet etc Pedophilia desire for children under 13 Voyeurism secretly observing someone while changing bathing etc Sadism sexual pleasure from inflicting pain Masochism sexual pleasure from feeling pain The Charmed Circle The Outer Limits Stereotypes around HIVAIDS Myth gay men are the only group likely to contract HIV HIV first recognized through cases for a rare cancer in gay men Known as GRID gay related immunodeficiency Sexual Identities are not the same as sexual acts Anal sex is risky Page 7of 17 Gay men aren t the only ones to have anal sex HIV in the United States 12 Million people in the US infected with HIV 9 of all HIV infected people are teenagers 1319 years of age 46 of teenagers infected are women Greatest risk factor highrisk sexual behavior Other risk factors homelessness incarceration and having an HIVinfected parent The infection rate is increasing most rapidly in young black heterosexual women Pornography Men like porn more Porn is made for men More people watch internet porn than visit Netflix Amazon and Twitter COMBINED Affects standards of beauty Can increase acceptance of interpersonal violence and rape myths As countries gain internet access rape rates decrease Also VHS over Betamax Coercive Sexuality 1 out of 4 women 25 will be sexually assaulted at some point Many women don t label their forced sex experience as rape 3 of men will be raped at some point WAY underreported Page 80f 17 32415 Assignment 3 due Thurs Exam 3 Next Thurs Motivation and Emotion Gender and Sexuality Social Chapter 12 Social Psychology Branch of psychology that studies how people think feel and behave in social situations Two key research areas SodalCognMon Social Influence The psychological study of how our behavior is influenced by the social environment and by other people Minority Influence The influence of an individual or small group Obedience the performance of a behavior in response to a direct command Majority Influence Conformity The Stanford Prison Experiment In 1971 21 male college students were recruited Assigned to either prisoner or guard Wanted to study how assigning people to roles affects their behavior Milgrim s Obedience Study Obedience Study Nazi regime to figure out why Nazi s obeyed their commanding officers when told to commit atrocities Presence of Authority Under which conditions would a person follow authority and go against their consdence Deception Page 9 of 17 Confederate actor pretending to be participant Authority Results They predicted only 373 would get to 300V What actually happened 65 2640 went to final 450V What did we learn Milgram Obedience People obey authority figures Zimbardo Social roles Why do ordinary people do evil things What factors contributed to the events that occurred at Abu Ghraib prison and other genocidesabuse Blind Obedience Milgram Implied social norms and roles Zimbardo lngroup versus outgroup thinking Dehumanization Majority Influence Conformity Adjusting your opinions judgments or behavior so that it matches that of other people or the norms of a social group or situation Which line is equal in length to the standard line on the left Asch 1951 Groups of 7 Asked to rate which line matched a standard line 18 consecutive trials after 6 trials confederates started giving the wrong answer Results Page10of17 76 went along with group at least once Answered incorrectly 37 when in the group but only 1 of the time when alone Factors that promote conformity Normative social influence the desire to be accepted as part of a group Informational Social Influence other people can provide useful and crucial info New job look to others to figure out the culture of work environment Facing a unanimous group Ambiguous Evidence More likely to fall in line and try and figure it out later Giving your response in front of a group Factors that decrease conformity Having an ally Any opposition lessens conformity even if some opposition is incorrect Majority Influence Bystander Effect Group size in crisis situations Kitty Genovese s story NY 1964 Stabbed to death over a period of 35 minutes 38 witnesses The greater the number of bystanders the less likely an individual is to help Factors that increase the bystander effect Being in a big city Diffusion of responsibility Ambiguous situations When the personal costs for helping outweigh the benefits Page lf of17 Factors that decrease the bystander effect The feel good do good effect Feeling guilty Seeing others who are willing to help Perceiving the other person as deserving of help Knowing how to help and being capable Personalized relationship with the victim Majority Influence Norms Social Norms rules about acceptable behavior Vary by culture Page12of17 32615 Exam 3 Next Thursday Motivation and Emotion Gender and Sexuality Social Psychology Social Loafing People tend to expend less effort on collective tasks than they do when performing the same task alone The more people the lower each individual s output Diffusion of responsibility occurs among group members working on a collective task Social Facilitation The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance Happens when a task is relatively simple or wellrehearsed Complex or poorly learned tasks presence of other people is likely to hinder performance Deindividuation When group members feel anonymous Masks darkness crowds Reduction of selfawareness and inhibitions KKK Riots Halloween Attraction and Liking What makes one person more attractive Personal characteristics such as warmth trustworthiness adventurousness and social status Physical appearance especially facial features most significant factor in attraction Symmetry Aspects of Attraction Page130f17 We are attracted to People whom we perceive as being like us Matching hypothesis Height weight attractiveness education incomepersonaities attitudes People who are nearby proximity People who like us reciprocity of liking Socioeconomic and cultural environment Weight preference and resources Sternberg s Theory of Love Intimacy feelings of emotional closeness Passion emotional amp sexual arousal Commitment making decisions based on your relationship on review slides Liking Romantic Love lnfatuation Fatuous Love Empty Love Companionate Love Consummate Love Active Constructive Responding determines relationship success Social Cognition Mental processes that people use to draw conclusions about others Person perception Page14of17 Attribution Attitudes Social categorization Stereotypes Prejudice Discrimination Person Perception Four factors that influence your decision Characteristics of the person you are trying to evaluate Your own selfperception Your goals in the situation Specific situation in which the interaction occurs Your expectations about how people willshould act Attribution Process of inferring the causes of behavior Two kinds of explanations Situational external attribution tolerant Dispositional internal attribution intolerant Fundamental Attribution Error When explaining other people s behavior Underestimate the impact of the situation Overestimate the role of personal factors Attribution Style lnternal vs External Car breakdown my fault vs the car is old Page150f17 Global vs Specific Lose basketball game I suck at all sports vs I suck at basketball Stable vs Unstable Bad grade I always fail vs I didn t have time to study Attribution Biases SelfServing Bias People tend to credit themselves for their successes and to blame their failures on external circumstances SelfEffacing Bias lnvolves blaming failure on internal personal factors while attributing success to external situational factors Blaming the victim Tendency to blame the victims for causing their own misfortune Justworld hypothesis assumption that life is fair Hindsight bias the tendency to overestimate one s ability to have predicted the outcome Attitudes Learned tendency to evaluate objects people or issues in a particular way Cognitive dissonance your beliefsattitudes don t match with realitybehavior We hate this so we Change behavior Change attitudes Add new attitudes EX Attitude Smoking is bad for you Behavior Smoking Change behavior Quit Smoking Page160f17 Justify smoking by changing cognitions associated with it Smoking is not that harmful Results of research on smoking and cancer are not as conclusive as people think they are Change cognitions so as to justify smoking It makes me feel good so it s worth it whatever the risk Festinger and Carlsmith 1959 Participants completed dull tasks Paid to tell person confederate in the waiting room that the task was really fun Paid 1 or 20 Results People paid 1 reported that the task as more fun Conclusion Being paid 1 and lying resulted in dissonance so they changed their attitudes convinced themselves it was fun Receiving 20 was enough of an external incentive to justify lying Social Categorization Mental Process of categorizing people into groups on the basis of shared characteristics Natural cognitive process to simplify social information Explicit cognition Deliberate conscious Implicit cognition Automatic nonconscious fMRl studies prefrontal cortex activated when person tries to avoid thinking in a categorized way When we stereotyping we re not thinking Attractiveness Attractive people are perceived as more intelligent happier and better adjusted Page17of17 Exam 4 Psych Notes M Positive Psychology The scienti c study of 0 Positive experience 39 Studying happiness laughter contentment etc 39 Just as important to understand as those associated with disease and so on 0 Positive individual traits 39 Character strengths 0 Perseverance 0 Humor 0 Kindness etc 0 The institutions and practices that facilitate their development A brief history 0 About 15 years ago Marty Seligman as president of APA christened the PP movement From the empirical study of depression and pessimism to the empirical study of happiness and optimism 39 An alternative to mere prevention of distress and disorder 39 Humanistic psychology was a forerunner 3 Tasks of Psychology Prior to WWII Curing Mental Illness 39 Identifying and Nurturing High Talent 39 Towards a Science of Happiness 0 Yet psychologists have scant knowledge of what makes life worth living They have come to understand quite a bit about how people survive and endure under conditions of adversity However psychologists know very little about how normal people ourish under more benign conditions Seligman and Csikszentmiya 39 Bringing Balance to the Field 0 Studies tend to focus on the negative 39 Eg psychological disorders depression problems in relationships moral violations Important but not complete 0 Most people 910 Americans are happy Fundamental Principles of Positive Psychology 0 Happiness is n01 the opposite of unhappiness 0 Positive emotions are not the opposite of negative emotions 0 Building strengths is different than xing deficits 39 Response to the medical model Philosophical roots 0 The idea of happiness has m through Western history 39 Ancient Greeks 0 Happiness Virtue Romans 0 Happiness Prosperity and divine favor Christians 0 Happiness Godliness 39 Contemporary Americans 0 Happiness An Obligation Declaration of Independence Three Pillars of Positive Psychology 0 Positive subjective eXperiences Pleasure 0 Positive Traits Engagement 0 Five Pillars PERMA 0 Positive emotions 0 Engagement Relationships 0 Meaning Accomplishment 0 Positive traits 39 Character Strengths 0 Cultural similarities 0 Cultural speci city Talents 39 Values Interests 0 Criteria for Strengths l Ubiquity Widely recognized across cultures 2 Morallv valued valued in its own right 3 Does not diminish others elevates those Who Witness it 4 Traitlike an individual difference with generality and stability 5 Measurable Has been measured as an individual difference 6 Distinctiveness not redundant conceptually or empirically 7 Paragons strikingly embodied in some individuals 8 Prodigies precociously shown by some children or youth 9 m missing altogether in some individuals 10 Institutions societal practices and rituals that try to cultivate it VIA Strengths Wisdom and Knowledge 39 curiosityinterest 39 love of learning 39 openmindednessjudgment originalityingenuitycreativity 39 perspective 0 Courage 39 braveryvalor 39 industryperseverance integrityhonesty 39 zestenthusiasm Humanity loveintimacy kindnessgenerositynurturance 39 social intelligence Justice citizenshipdutyloyaltyteamwork 39 equityfairness 39 leadership Temperance forgivenessmercy 39 modestyhumility 39 prudence caution se1fcontrolselfregulation Transcendence 39 appreciation of beautyawe gratitude 39 hopeoptimism humorplayfulness spiritualityreligiousness Positive Institutions Marriage 39 Religion 39 Education 39 Government Judicial system The Hedonic Treadmill 39 We predict that huge events will seriously impact our wellbeing 39 They dofor a little while 0 Lottery Winners 0 People who become paralyzed Affective forecasting 0 We suck at predicting how we ll feel 39 We adapt Leads us to pursue things that won t bring happiness 39 Money doesn t bring happiness above the stop worrying level Flow Intense and focused concentration on present activity Merging of action and awareness Distortion of time Activity is intrinsically rewarding 0 Sense of control Positive Interventions Gratitude Letter Hunt the Good Stuff 4 Good things Signature Strengths Active Constructive Responding The Negativity Bias Resilience PRPResilience Training 0 Army Resilience Project 39 Selfawareness 39 Selfregulation 39 Optimism 39 Mental agility 39 Character strengths Relationships 39 Some cool studies Baseball card smiles living longer If you make less you appreciate the little things more If you have enough to not worry about bills more money does not mean you re happier Better friendships healthier living longer Relationship Styles 0 Based on how you interact with caregivers 0 Strange situation 39 Attachment in Children Secure 65 Explore freely when caregiver is present upset When caregiver leaves Resistant 10 39 Stays close to caregiver Distressed When caregiver leaves but reacts ambivalently upon return Avoidant 20 39 Little to no distress When caregiver leaves 0 Disorganizeddisoriented 5 39 Combination of resistant and avoidant 41415 MAdmin Things Positive Psychology Assignment Due Thursday In Class Research Participation Assignment 4 Due Next Thursday 423 in class Check your Grades Psychological Disorders Chapter 14 Psychopathology 0 Scienti c study of originssymptomsdevelopment of psychological disorders 39 Stigma around mental illness Determined by socialcultural context Shouldn t label people as crazy Abnormal Psychology Psych 333 0 What is disordered 39 Psychological Disorders Behaviors or symptoms causing distress andor impairing our ability to function Must Meet The 2 Ds in order to be a psychological disorder 0 Behaviors must cause distress to self or others 0 Behaviors must cause disfunction maladaptive 0 Diagnostic amp Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM Is a work in progress Describes more than 300 disorders 39 Must meet exact criteria to meet the diagnosis 1O 0 Prevalence rates of Mental Disorders 39 26 of people suffer from diagnosable disorder 0 Anxiety disorder mood disorder impulse control disorder substance abuse disorder 39 46 of adults in US Will experience at least 1 psychological disorder in their lifetime 0 Almost half of the population suffer from some kind of mental disorder in their life 0 How disorders develop A combination of l biological contribution genetic 2 Social environment and 3 Psychological contribution Anxiety disorders 0 Comorbidity Having more than one disorder at the same time 0 Anxiety 39 Unpleasant emotional state characterized by 0 Physical arousal 0 Feelings of tensionapprehensionworry Anxiety disorders extreme anxiety is the main feature 0 Causes signi cant disruptions in cognitive behavioral andor interpersonal functioning 39 Irrational 39 Uncontrollable Disruptive 11 Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD Contrast avoidance model afraid of the drop between really happy and really upset 0 Therefore try not to ever be really happy so they don t have to deal with the fall to really sad Pervasive and excessive state of anxiety Anxiety not attached to speci c objects or situations 0 After stressful situation is over someone with GAD will begin to worry about something new right away 0 free oating anxiety Worrywarts Must persist at least six months to be characterized as GAD Female outnumbers males 21 31 of the population qualifies for GAD diagnosis Panic Disorder Panic Attack 0 Sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity Pounding heart Rapid Breathing Breathlessness 39 Choking 39 Sweating 39 Trembling LightHeadedness Feelings of Terror Belief that one is going to die Losing control going crazy Panic Disorder 0 Characterized by frequent and unexpected panic attacks 39 Fearanxietyembarrassment about having another attack 39 27 of the population suffers from this disorder 39 66 female 34 male 0 Agoraphobia Anxiety disorder involving the extreme irrational fear of experiencing a panic attack in public places and not being able to escape get help 0 13 panic disorder patients 0 Many don t leave their homes because of this fear 0 Avoid Elevators Crowds Cars Airplanes Etc Explaining Panic Disorder 0 Triple Vulnerability Model 12 13 Biological Predisposition 39 Low Sense of control over potentially lifethreatening events 39 Hypersensitive to signs of physical arousal Phobias 0 Persistent and irrational fear of a speci c object situation or activity 39 It s common to have fears Only meets criteria for phobia IF interferes with functioning 0 Speci c Phobia 39 Excessive intense irrational fear of speci c object situation or activity that is actively avoided or endured with high anxiety Can provoke panic attack Person having the panic attack knows fear is excessiveirrational 13 eXperience some kind of speci c phobia in their lives 0 Women outnumber men 21 5 different categories Fear of particular situations Fear of features of the natural environment tornadoes hurricanes lightning etc Fear of injury or blood different than other phobias Will often faint When eXposed to phobia Fear of animals and insects Other e g vomiting Most prevalent phobias 14 0 Snakes heights mice ying on an airplane being in enclosed spaces spiders and insects thunder and lightning being alone in a house at night etc 0 Social Phobia Anxiety disorder involving extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed judged or scrutinized by others in social situations Interferes with functioning Situations avoided or endured with high anxiety Speci c or generalized 121 population suffers from social phobia Slightly more females than males suffer from this disorder 0 Explaining Phobias Learning Theories 0 Neutral stimulus Traumatic experience gtfear response 39 What type of conditioning is this 39 CLASSICAL conditioning 39 Generalization 0 Avoidance is negatively reinforced 39 Reduces anxietyfear 39 What type of conditioning is this 39 OPERANT conditioning 0 Observational Learning 39 Some become phobic by watching fearful reactions of others 39 OR by hearing seeing traumatic experiences of others 0 Biological Preparedness 0 PostTraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD 39 Chronic and persistent symptoms of anxiety in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma 0 Reexperiencing eg memories nightmares ashbacks intrusive Emotional numbing and interpersonal problems Increased physical arousal Hyper vigilance Only diagnosed after one month posttrauma 39 Acute stress disorder 42115 PTSD 39 can happen following any kind of trauma Many people with PTSD experience Avoidance 0CD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 39 Symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain actions 0 0CD cycle Obsessions gtAnxiety gtCompulsions gtRelief 39 continuous cycle obsessions repeatedintrusiveuncontrollableirrational thought or images causing extreme distress 15 0 Farfetched with little basis in reality 39 compulsions repetitive behaviors eg cleaning or mental acts eg counting performed to preventreduce anxiety 2 of the population has OCD 34 OCD patients have multiple obsessions Irrational Belief failure to perform ritual will lead to catastrophic or disastrous outcome 39 Prone to superstitiousquotmagical thinking 39 Most know that this is irrational You can have obsessions alone or compulsions alone or both Mood Disorders Unipolar 0 Major Depressive Disorder 0 Dysthymia 39 m 0 Bipolar Disorder 0 Cyclothymia 39 Mood Disorders Unipolar 0 Category of mental disorders in Which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive behaviors and physical functioning Emotions violate normal moods in 0 Quality feels different 16 0 Duration lasts a lot longer 0 Intensity difference Maj or Depressive Disorder 0 Characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency worthlessness and hopelessness 39 Causes impaired emotional cognitive behavioral and physical functioning 0 Major Depressive Episode 39 Symptoms present for at least two consecutive weeks Common Symptoms Low mood 0 Anhedonia 0 Lack of motivation 0 Feelings of Worthlessness 0 Excessive feelings of guilt 0 Sleep disturbance Suicidality 0 Weight lossWeight gain 0 Difficulty concentrating Lifetime prevalence 0 819 0 21 female ratio 0 Most common psychological disorder 17 18 CourseEpisodic 0 Possible to have only one major depressive episode but not common Dysthymic Disorder 0 Milder but longer lasting depression 39 Subjective discomfort 39 No serious functional impairment At least 2 years 39 No more than 2 months Wo symptoms 0 Double Depression dysthymia major depression 39 Mood Disorders Bipolar 0 Bipolar Disorder Involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria excitement mania Manic Episode 0 Sudden rapidly escalating emotional state with extreme euphoria excitement physical energy rapid thought and speech In ated selfesteem Require little sleep Grandiose ideas 39 Rapid speech Flight of ideas InappropriateUncharacteristic Impulse Behavior 0 Bipolar Disorder Prevalence 0 Lifetime prevalence O4l6 0 No major seX differences 39 Episodic course cycle between hypomania and depression 0 Hypomania Less severe mania 0 Abnormally elevated mood at least 4 days 0 Cyclothymic Disorder 39 Moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar depression Explaining mood disorders 0 Genetic Predisposition for all mood disorders 0 Disruptions in Brain Chemistry 39 Antidepressants increase availability of 0 Norepinephrine Serotonin Butaspirin gets rid of a headache but the cause isn t aspirin deficiency Bipolar Glutamate treated with lithium 39 Stress triggered by trauma stressful event Mood Disorders Review 0 Major Depressive Disorder 19 Major depressive Episode 0 Dysthymic disorder Chronic lowgrade depression 0 Bipolar Disorder Manic Episodes Depressive Episodes 0 Cyclothymic Disorder 39 Recurrent but less severe mood swings Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms Intense fear of gaining weight Disturbed body image Refusal to maintain body weight at or above minimal normal weight below 85 body weight Amenorrhea loss of menstrual cycle Denies seriousness of weight loss Bulimia Nervosa Binge Eating Disorder 42315 Anorexia Nervosa 39 2 subtypes 20 21 0 Restricting Type 0 BingeingPurging Type 12 lifetime prevalence rate But maybe more resistant to treatment Anorexia often time is linked with a need for control Distorted thinking don t think they need help Often begins with dieting Life threatening Bulimia Nervosa 0 Symptoms 39 Periods of objective bingeing eating more than normal with a sense of a loss of control Inappropriate compensatory behaviors Selfevaluation unduly in uenced by body weightshape 39 Binges occur at least twice per week for 3 months 0 12 lifetime prevalence 90 female 0 Most within 10 normal body weight 39 Not conducive to weight loss 0 More likely to seek treatment than anoreXic patients Feeling of loss of control 0 In uenced by media 39 Philippines or Fiji Binge Eating Disorder 0 Recurring episodes of binge eating 39 Much larger amount of food than most people would consider normal Eating may continue for several hours feeling of loss of control 0 Eating may occur 39 Until uncomfortably full 39 When not even hungry 39 Despite feelings of disgust depression or guilt after overeating 0 Like bulimia but Without compensatory behaviors 0 About 3 lifetime prevalence rate 0 Most common in middleage 39 Causes of Eating Disorders 0 Reduced serotonin levels 0 Genetic factors 0 Family interactions Critical comments 39 Modeling of disordered eating 0 Cultural attitudes toward thinness 0 Anorexia Perfectionism rigid thinking poor peer relations social isolation low self esteem 22 23 Dissociative Disorders 39 ExtremeFrequent disruptions of awareness memory and personal identity impair ability to function Dissociative Experience breakdisruption in consciousness during which awareness memory and personal identity become separated and divided Dissociative Amnesia 0 Partial or total inability to recall important personal information Not due to medical condition 0 Usually in response to stresstraumadistress Dissociative Fugue Sudden and unexpected travel away from home extensive amnesia and identity confusion Unable to remember the past Unable to remember how they arrived at new location Often assume a new identity 0 Stress is thought to be the trigger for this dissociation Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Presence of 2 distinct identitiespersonalities that recurrently take control of the person s behavior 0 Inability to recall personal information 0 Very controversial diagnosis Explaining Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Extreme form of associative coping High percentage report extreme physical sexual abuse in childhood Alternate personalities created to deal with memoriesemotions Difficult to test empirically Schizophrenia not to be confused with DID Ability to function is impaired by severely disordered beliefs perceptions and thought processes Prevalence 0 Lifetime O5l5 0 Same crossculturally 0 No gender difference 39 8085 heritability present for siX months Positive symptoms 0 Hallucinations auditoryvisual Delusions 39 Grandeur 39 Persecution 0 Disorganized speechthoughts 39 Word Salad Echolalia repetition 39 Negative Symptoms Catatonia excitation or stupor Nonresponsive Flat affect Alogia reduced speech Types 0 Paranoid Presence of delusionshallucinations 39 Virtually no cognitive impairment Catatonic highly disturbed movements or actions 0 Disorganized disorganized behaviors speech at affect 39 Sometimes delusionshallucinations but not well organized Undifferentiated combination of positive amp negative symptoms Residual no strong current trace of symptoms 39 What causes Schizophrenia 0 Biological factors HUGE genetic component 39 Excessive dopamine dopamine hypothesis Enlarged ventriclesdecreased cortical volume 0 Environmental Factors Multiple Stressors Paternal age Prenatal environment 0 Infection 25 0 Season of Birth 0 Psychological Factors 39 Unhealthy family 4282015 Personality Disorders 39 Characterized by stable in exible amp maladaptive ways of thinking feeling amp behaving 39 PERVASIVE needs to effect every area of the individuals life to apply 0 Consistent across most life domains Usually develop in childhood or adolescence very early on Making personality disorders very difficult to treat 0 Interpersonal main type of disfunction that comes along with personality disorders 39 10 Personality Disorders PDs OddEccentric Cluster A considered odd or weird Paranoid Schizoid Schizotypal 0 DramaticEmotional Cluster B common and extreme emotions Antisocial Borderline Histrionic Narcissistic 0 AnxiousFearful Cluster C have anXiety and are fearful 39 Avoidant Dependent ObsessiveCompulsive 26 27 39 Cluster A Paranoid PD 0 Unwarranted tendency to interpret the behaviors of other people as threatening eXploitive or harmful Suspiciousness and mistrust of others 0 Tendency to see self as blameless 0 On guard for perceived attacks by others 0 Males gt Females 0 Without delusions or hallucinations distinct from paranoid schizophrenia 39 Cluster A Schizoid PD 0 WANTS a solitary life 0 Schizoid rhymes with avoid they want to avoid other people 0 Does not want close relationships 0 Emotionally aloof 39 Often unable to express emotions and seen as colddistant 39 Do not understand others emotions Reclusive Lack social skills seen as loners or introverts 0 Males gt Females 39 Cluster A Schizotypal PD 0 Isolated and asocial similar to schizoid 0 ADDING odd thoughts and beliefs 0 Eccentricities in communication and bX 28 Awkward in social situations 0 Personalized and superstitious thinking 0 Strange to interact with 39 Wear inappropriate clothing for the weather or circumstance 0 Church in pajamas 0 Winter coat in summer 0 Etc 0 Come off as aloofcold in social interactions 39 Normal social interaction is very difficult for them 0 Male gt Female 39 Experience some of the same things that people with Schizophrenia eXperience 39 Cluster B Antisocial PD 0 Antisocial gt rejecting widely held social norms 0 A pervasive pattern of violating the rights of others 0 Can be socially charmingmagnetic but are very manipulative and do these things only to get what they want Ted Bundy 0 Lack of remorse very intense 0 ImpulsiveAggressive Behaviors 0 Manipulation of others 0 Not all that have Antisocial PD are dangerous some are very successful and can climb quickly to the top of the corporate ladder successful psychopath 29 Illegal activities often come along with this PD 39 Start in childhood 0 children that like to hurttorture animals Job instability Unstable relationships Sexually promiscuous amp predatory behavior Males gt Females Cluster B Borderline PD 0 Highest risk for suicide of ANY disorder 0 Out of control emotions 0 Deep seeded fear of abandonmentbut not unfounded 39 Get abandoned all the time 39 Constantly depressedmaking suicide threats 39 need a lot from people in their lives 39 people can t handle it and they leave 0 Vacillate between idealizing and despising drastic mood shifts 39 Immense love for someone and viewing them as perfect gt one small issue happens gt they hate that someone and they are the worst person ever 0 Interpersonal issuesintense stormy relationships Frequently changing and intense relationships quick marriage crazy blowups and breakups with partners 0 Impulsive 30 Unstable sense of self 39 Describe themselves as one way but say things that completely contradict 39 Don t have a good sense of Who they are 0 Selfmutilating behaviors suicidal gestures and attempts suicide used as a manipulation factor 0 Females gt Males 39 Cluster B Narcissistic PD 0 Pattern of grandiosity 0 Need for admiration Oversensitive to evaluation 0 Need to feel like you39re important 0 Lack of conscience 0 FragileUnstable sense of self 39 Deep down actually very insecure 39 Often hidden Males gt Females 39 Cluster B Histrionic PD NEED is to be the center of attention at all times Unlike narcissism they act in dramatic seductive amboyant and exaggerated behavior in order to get this attention Emotional Intense SelfCentered 39 But they do not lack empathy for others or trample on others to get Where they want to go they simply want the attention to be on them 0 Shallow in emotions and relationships 0 Females gt Males 39 Cluster C ObsessiveCompulsive PD 0 Preoccupation W Orderliness rules trivial details 39 Perfectionism MentalInterpersonal Control Males gt Females 39 Cluster C Avoidant PD 0 Afraid of being criticized hypersensitive 0 Avoid interacting with others 0 Become socially isolated often times 39 Common to have pets in place of people 0 Feel inadequate 0 Have very low selfesteem 0 How does this differ from schizoid 39 Care about opinions of others Really WANT relationships but are too anxious to get them unlike those with schizoid 0 Males Females 4302015 39 Cluster C Dependent PD 0 Fear being rejected 39 Strong need to be cared for 0 Form clingy relationships W others Feel safe only in relationships but tend to drive others away because they re too demanding 0 Discomfort of being alone 0 Indecisive 0 Males Females Therapies 39 What is Therapy 0 Psychotherapy use of psychological techniques to treat emotional behavioral and interpersonal problems 0 Biomedical therapies use of medication to treat the symptoms of psychological disorders 39 Psychotropic medication 39 Who provides therapy 0 Doctoral Degree PhD PsyD of ED Clinical and counseling psychologists 0 Medical Degree MD Psychiatrists 32 33 39 Psychiatric nurse practitioner 39 Can prescribe medications 0 Master s Degree Psychiatric Social Workers 39 Counselors 0 Marriage and family 0 Pastoral 0 Substance abuse 39 Have usually been through substance abuse themselves Psychoanalysis 0 The origin of talk therapy 0 Cause of mental illness is unconscious con ict Defense mechanisms protect against anxiety 0 Repression 39 Goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to help the client achieve insight 0 How does the therapist help the client to gain insight Therapist helps interpret and analyze information 0 Free association 0 Dream interpretation 39 Transference client projects feelings about someone else onto the therapist eg parent 0 Therapist stays neutral in order to allow client to project feelings 0 Work through themes of old relationships 0 Originally 36 times per week for years Humanistic Psychotherapies 0 Mental illness personal growth is being blocked 0 Personcentered approach 39 Move away from client is sick therapist will fix 0 Moved toward focus on the client s perceptions Nondirective Carl Rogers 39 Active listening echo restate clarify Empathy genuineness unconditional positive regard 0 Goal of therapy is to help clients reach selfactualization Very different from psychoanalysis 39 Motivational Interviewing 0 Help clients overcome reluctance to change Client centered perspective 39 More directive than traditional humanistic therapy 39 Steer the conversation toward areas of the persons life they might want to change 39 Explore pros and cons what the future would look like with and without change 0 Especially useful for substance abuse disorders eating disorders etc Behavioral Therapies 0 Maladaptive behaviors are the problem not the symptom 0 Focus on the things they re doing not the root of the problem 34 Goal of therapy modify problematic behaviors 39 Need to unleam certain behaviors 39 Operant and classical conditioning 39 Modeling Exposure Therapy Anxiety Disorders are treated well by exposure therapy 39 Expose client to the feared stimulus until fear stimulus is extinguished Behavior Modi cation 39 Childhood disorders autism spectrum disorders health psychology 0 Exposure therapy Flooding Extreme exposure to a phobic object situation Exposure Therapy Systematic Desensitization Pairs relaxation with gradual exposure to a phobic object Hierarchy of aversive stimuli 39 Exposure can be imagined virtual or real Behavior Modi cation 0 Use operant conditioning to reinforce behaviors 0 Childhood disorder eg pulling out hair 0 Token economies to solve problem give incentive 39 Cognitive Therapies 0 Cause of mental illness maladaptive thought process belief Automatic thoughts 35 36 0 Goal identify and change maladaptive thoughts 0 Role of therapist Challenge maladaptive beliefs Search for evidence to support or refute thoughts Identify and help change distorted perceptions black and white thinking 0 Patterns of Problematic Thinking Catastrophizing 0 taking a small thing further until it seems really big 0 thinking husband got in a car accident because he is home late All or nothing thinking Overgeneralization unimportant for now 0 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Integration of cognitive and behavioral therapies 0 Triangle of thought behaviors and emotions Most commonly used therapy Also looks at the interaction between thoughts and behaviors 39 Group and Family Therapy 0 Group therapy one or more therapists working with a group of clients More cost efficient Can provide microcosm of social environment Help clients feel less alone BUT can sometimes magnify problems 0 Family Therapy 39 Focuses on the family as a unit more than the sum of parts 39 Focus on rules of communicationinteraction 0 Couples Therapy 39 Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT Passing an electrical current through brain in order to induce localized seizures 0 Side effect memory loss 0 Currently used for severe depression If other things haven t worked 39 Why does it work 0 Brian reboot 39 Controversial treatment 0 Effects don t last relapse in 4 months 39 How successful are biological approaches 0 Medications may not be as effective as we think File drawer effect 39 13 of FDA studies most with negative results not published 39 Antidepressants may not be more effective than placebos Atypical antipsychotics best at treating positive symptoms 39 Issue medication compliance 0 ECT treatment of last resort Which approach is Best 37 38 Dodo Bird Verdict psychotherapy tends to work but which kind of therapy one has does not appear to matter much But there do appear to be some differences Psychodynamic gt Personality disorders Behavioral gt Phobias CBT gt depression and anXiety 39 Drug treatment gt schizophrenia
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