Intro to Cinema
Intro to Cinema
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Date Created: 04/25/14
Friday April 25 2014 Midterm Study Guide Intro to Cinema Format of this study guide 1 How to Study for the Midterm Midterm on Tuesday April 29th at 5pm 2 Notes taken from our assigned reading of Film Art Chapters 17 to help you answer the study questions provided by Brusutti 3 The key terms section of this study guide These are quick definitions to some terms you can use in your responses How to Study for the Midterm What s on the midterm According to my TA the midterm consist of an analysis of a clip of one of the feature films we ve seen and 4 short essay questions based on material we ve covered in class I believe that Brusutti may give us the question about the clip either on gauchospace or in class My TA says that we must analyze the form and style of the clip using details that include the mis en scene cinematography editing and sound and how the narrative form or certain themes shown in the clip fit within the entire movie What to study Since you ll be writing I recommend getting familiar with key terms and concepts that you can use in your responses Practice recognizing different elements of cinematography mis en scene sound editing etc by watching clips of film See if you can notice for example what camera movements are happening what the sound is accomplishing if there are elaborate color schemes or high keylow key lighting etc and then say what these techniques accomplish If you re unsure about one of these terms check my notes on Film Art Chapters 17 below or find the section in Film Artthat discusses it Definitely look over the study questions that Brusutti gave out as similar questions will most likely be among the 4 short response essays You can answer the questions based on the info on this study guide and the movie notes I didn t answer the study questions for you in this study guide because it s the Friday April 25 2014 best way to practice for the midterm and many of the questions rely on examples from the movies that you can remember It s much easier to write about a scene you remember than vague details you read about in notes Recommended Go over your notes or mine on the movies we ve watched refresh your memory of what stood out to you Rewatch them if you have the time Or just watch clips on youtube to refresh your memory Have fun pointing out the motifs See if you can match director names with the movie titles Film Art Notes Chapters 17 Form overall patterning of a film the ways its parts work together to create specific effects Style involves the film s use of cinematic techniques Falls into 4 categories misenscene arrangement of people places and objects to be filmed cinematography use of cameras and other machines to record images and sounds mostly anything to do with the camera itself editing the piecing together of individual shots sound the voices effects and music that blends on a film s audio track These all integrate to create overall film style Illusion Machines film consists of a series of frames still pictures critical flicker fusion the threshold of which the speed that still pictures turn into motion apparent motion when the eye is fooled into seeing movement if a visual display is changed rapidly enough ie the Las Vegas light arrows that move Photographic vs digital film photographic Friday April 25 2014 an analog medium light is captured on actual rolls of film quality measured by how large the film is 35mm 16mm 70mm and the speed of the film costs more film cannot be reused digital film captured on video tape hard disks flash memory etc that can record digital data light captured by a sensor containing microscopic diodes that transform the data in binary code quality measured by number of pixels in photo correlates with spatial resolution costs less can be reused HD highdefinition digital formats of 720p and 1080p pprogressive scan numbers refer to number of horizontal lines in the display digital intermediate when film is scanned frame by frame into computer files a hybrid of digital and photographic Making the movie 3 stages production distribution exhibition Production the entire process of filmmaking 1 Scriptwriting amp funding 2 Preparation for filming preproduction director plans physical production hire cast and crew choose locations come up with a schedule 3 Shooting filmmakers create film s images and sounds 4 Assembly images and sounds are combined in their final form including special effects inserting music adding titles etc editing process Different modes of production documentary director only controls certain parts of the preparation shooting and does not write what interviewees say etc fiction film more control over preparation and shooting phases compilation film assembles existing images and sounds that provide historical evidence on a topic Friday April 25 2014 animated film created frame by frame by drawings claymation computer graphics etc People involved with movie production see pg 24 for more scriptwriter prepares screenplay pitches idea to producer script stages treatment synopsis of script full length script shooting script final version of script producer handles financial aspects of film hires the people who will work on the film usually handles the distribution promotion and marketing for film executive producer arranges financing for film line producer oversees daytoday activities of directorcrewcast director directs the preproduction and coordinates the staff to create the film production designer heads the production design unit in charge of visualizing the film s setting graphic artist creates a storyboard a series of comic strip like sketches of the shots in each scene cinematographer director of photography an expert on photographic processes lighting and camera technique gaffer head electrician who supervises the placement and rigging of lights key grip carry and arrange equipment props and elements of the setting and Hgh ng production recordist heads the sound unit records dialogue during shooting Foley artist soundeffects specialist who creates sounds of movement by walking or shifting materials Added in as postproduction sound spotting a process of adding in music and effects into the movie editor catalogues and assembles the takes produced during shooting Takes a long time due to the amount of footage often shot by director outtakes unused shots inserts footage to fill in at certain places Distribution Friday April 25 2014 5669 features are released theatrically in a year distributors form the core economic power in commercial film industry wold major distributors Disney Warner Bros Paramount Universal Sony Columbia Twentieth Century Fox they sell contracts that allows exhibitors to show the films in theaters DVD s Internet sites total box office receipts gross Ancillary Markets payperview cable DVD release network broadcast Internet Netflix Hulu and iTunes are both distributors and exhibitors Film Style Affected by Distribution and Exhibition film is aimed at a wide audience the way the audience views the films can affect the film style ie puzzle films like Donnie Darko can now be watched over and over again with DVDs some films allow the viewers to view different endings and bonus material on DVDs With the internet short story telling is now a popular narrative form Movies can be designed for small mobile phones Video games can uncover insights into the films big screen vs small tv screen is the difference between incredible long shots and easier to see up close shots of actor s faces on smaller screens which happens more often now as the films are targeted to end up on smaller screens effects of transitioning from a theatrical screen to smaller screen singles shots showing only one character action on a widescreen format is more centralized letterboxed dark bands at top and bottom of screen to approximate the theatrical proportions of the image ie wide screen Experimental Cinema one person does many jobs at once including directing writing acting etc and financing it themselves or through friends lowbudget films small scale production using cheaper technologycameras Friday April 25 2014 sometimes becomes a collaborative effort with a group of people acting in several different jobs over the course of production and making executive decisions about the film together Documentary Conventions voiceovers directindirect interviews archival footage ie stock footage film attained from a library or archive reenactment reconstructions of events montage sequences exposition at the beginning Film Form Form the way parts work together to create an overall effect giving the audience a structured experience Function roleeffect of any element within a film s form Narration the process through which the plot conveys or withholds story information The narration can be more or less restricted to character knowledge and more or less deep in presenting characters perceptions and thoughts narrator some specific agent who purports to be telling us the story narrative form a type of filmic organization in which the parts relate to one another through a series of casually related events taking place in time and space plot All the events explicitly presented including the nondiegetic material ie the material that is not part of the story ex credits story viewer s imaginary construction of all events that occur elements of narrative form causeeffect space time duration order of events frequency of eventssituations narrative elements events that involve the characters that form the story Narrative closure all the questions posed at the beginning are answered at the end stylistic elements including the way the camera moves arrangement of colors in the frame use of music and other devices suspense a delay in fulfilling an established expectation Friday April 25 2014 conventions common traits dominant styles popular forms common to several different artworks meanings referential meanings when the film refers to things or places already invested with significance in the real world ie in Sherlock Junior the woman referring to the dollar with the eagle on it which doesn t exist anymore Explicit meaning an openly asserted meaning Implicit meaning more abstract hidden meaning that is discovered through interpretation Symptomatic meaning a particular set of social values can be considered a social ideology Func on motivation what justifies anything being in the movie Patterns motif any significant repeated element that contributes to the overall for can be object color sound person trait can involve cinematography editing mis en scene etc Examples of motifs cinematography a repeated movement of the camera ie in Atonement the camera would often take the POV of Briony in Citizen Kane there would be a crane shot from the outside of the building into where the characters are through a window editing ie lots of cross cutting or the jump edits in After Life mis en scene anything you see visually that reoccurs such as windows mirrorsshoes in Atonement narrative could be a character s trait sound ie typewriter in Atonement use of sound bridges in Cabaret parallels similarities in two or more distinct elements staging of a shot can reinforce this Friday April 25 2014 variations changes that disrupt patterns most apparent when characters clash or setting present stark color opposites Can be variation in motifs formal development a progression moving through middle to end places similar and different elements within a pattern of change Mystery drives the development as we are given a question and come to the answer that leads to another question etc Segmentation a written outline of the film that breaks it into its major and minor parts see pg 101 for Citizen Kane s segmentation Unity and Disunity A film has unity when all the relationships we perceive within a film are clear and economically interwoven every element fulfills its particular function no superfluous elements and the form develops ogically gives a sense of completeness Disunity can result in lack of closure or contain unmotivated elements Diegesis In narrative film the world of the film s story The diegesis includes events that are presented to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen Diegetic sound any voice musical passage or sound effect presented as originating from a source within the film s world nondiegetic sound Sound such as mood music or a narrator s commentary represented as coming from a source outside the space of the narrative nondiegetic insert a shot or series of shots cut into a sequence showing objects that are represented as being outside the weld of the narrative OpeningsClosing setup first quarter or so of a film often includes exposition and current situation Can start in medias ras in the middle of things to heighten excitement and curiosity backstory actions that took place before the plot started revealed by exposition patterns of development change in knowledge trying to achieve a goal in a goal oriented plot or making a deadline following the investigation these develops expectations for the viewer climax the development s high point then the resolution happens after Friday April 25 2014 See pgs 99109 for breakdown of Narrative elements in Citizen Kane MisenScene see pg 154157 for examples of how misenscene drives narrative misenscene means putting into the scene means the film direction what is seen in front of the camera including the lighting costume makeup staging and performance can evoke an authentic feel to the film or a fantastical feel Melies Voyage to the Moon used highly original misenscene to create an imaginary world on film prop short for property an object in the setting that has a function within the ongoing action ie the snow globe in Kane s hand when he dies costume can help pick out the character from the background making color design important Lighting lighting and darker areas help create the overall composition of the shot must change the cameras every time the actors change position creating an unrealistic lighting highlight patch of relative brightness on a surface shading portions of darkness on objects Four aspects of lighting quality direction source amp color quality relative intensity of the illumination hard light clearly defined shadows sharp edges soft light diffused illumination direction Frontal lighting tends to eliminate shadows sidelight sculpt character s features backlighting comes from behind subject could be at various angles Used wo other lights makes a silhouettes with lights it creates a subtle contour edgelighting Friday April 25 2014 underlighting light comes from below subject tends to distort features toplighting comes from above ie a spotlight source ie lamps on set not strong enough to properly light up characters studio lights must supplement them 2 primary sources key light provides brightest illumination casts the strongest shadows Most directional light usually suggested by a light source in the settings fill light less intense illumination that fills in softening or eliminating shadows cast by key light three point lighting used by classical hollywood cinema using at least 3 light sources key light back light and fill light Mostly eliminates or creates light shading on objects faces See pg 128 for diagram high key lighting an overall lighting design commonly used in Classical Hollywood Cinema Uses fill light and backlight to create relatively low contrast bt light and darker areas low key lighting creates stronger contrasts and sharper darker shadows Often light is hard Common in film noir One effect is chiaro scuro an effect when low key lighting produces extremely dark and light regions within the image very high contrast color can be realistically soft hello room light white sunlight or be unrealistic color change to express emotion Acting Actor s performances consist of visual elements appearance gestures facial expressions sound voice effects and style It is a graphic element in the film actor s performance can be individualized and stylized typecasting actors were selected and directed to conform to what audiences expected Motion capture the whole body is filmed IO Friday April 25 2014 Performance capture camera concentrates on the face Composition the way in which a shot is made up Screen Space Balancing the shot distributing various points of interest evenly around the frame bilateral symmetry symmetry line is a vertical line in the middle how a face is symmetrical Unbalanced shots create expectation of movementchange monochromatic color design filmmaker emphasizes only one color ie red flag in Battleship Potemkin movement attracts attention depth cues elements that make picture appear 3D Suggests the space has volume through movement and shading and distinct planes layers of space occupied by persons or objects Planes described as foreground middle ground background linear perspective a strong impression of depth coming from when parallel lines converge at a distant vanishing point shallow space a composition in which the misen scene suggests comparatively little depth the closest and most distant planes seem only slightly separated deep space a composition in which there appears to be a significant distance between the foreground plane and background plane Cinematography see pgs 204209 for examples of cinematography functioning in the form of a movie Includes movement of the camera the film or digital sensors the images are captured on Affects the range of tonalities manipulation of the speed of motion and transform perspective Tonalities how light is registered on the film the control of the image s range of tones and shades therefore lighting is a factor of misen scene that s connected to cinematography 11 12 Friday April 25 2014 contrast the comparative difference between the darkest and lightest areas of the frame help guide the eye to outlines and shapes in frame elements used to control contrast lighting filters type of film stock postproduction processing exposure regulates how much light passes through camera lens underoverexposed too littletoo much light filters affect exposure are little slices of glass put in front of camera lens or printer to reduce certain frequencies of light reaching the film day for night a technique of using blue filters in the sunlight while shooting night scenes during the day changing tonality postproduction tinting dipping developed film into dye dark areas remain blackgray and light areas have color toning dye added while film is developing making darker areas colored while lighter areas remain faintly colored Speed of motion ie slow mo rates calculated in frames per second the rate of projection can be manipulated for effects Perspective lens does roughly what your eye does transmits light Captures size depth and other spacial dimensions and can adjust to change these dimensions focal length alters the size and proportions of the things we see as well as the depth wide angle lens vs medium lens vs telephoto lens zoom lens enlarges part of a shot depth of field a range of distances within which objects can be photographed in sharp focus deep space the way the filmmaker has staged the action on several different planes regardless of whether all these planes are in focus racking focus changing the focal length so that attention is diverted between foreground and background 13 Friday April 25 2014 Special effects superimposition images laid over one another rear projection shooting a scene then filming the actors and placing them in front of the faux background front projection creates a more realistic background matte work a type of process shot in which different areas of the image are photographed separately and combined in laboratory work Framing ie you don t want to cut off people s heads from the frame The use of the edges of the film frame to select and to compose what will be visible onscreen aspect ratios the ratio of frame width to frame height academy ratio 1371 the establish ratio for aspect ratios Modified the format to include room for a soundtrack masking in exhibition stretches of black fabric that frame the theater screen Masking can be adjusted accruing to aspect ratio of frame Anamorphic process to create a wide screen frame a special lens squeezes the image horizontally either during filming or in printing Projector uses a comparable lens to unsqueeze image Offscreen space the areas not shown inside the frame continuous audience can fill in what is not shown based on continuity character looksgestures to something offscreen suspensesurprise of something that s offscreen Camera Positions Angled to the ground Level with the ground tipped one side to the other is called canted Height from the ground Distance from the objects we are looking at extreme long shot long shot medium long shot medium shot medium close up close up extreme close up see pg 190 for examples can be used to signify something about the moment in the film point of view shots taking a shot of what appears to be the view through a character s eyes Friday April 25 2014 Mobile Framing changing camera s angle level height distance during the shot camera movement pan panorama movement swivels the camera on a vertical axis side to side tilt rotates camera on a horizontal axis updown trackingdolly shot the whole camera changes position traveling along the ground in any direction simulates movement of viewer crane shot camera moves above the ground level handheld shot a bouncy shaky movement of a handheld camera reframing minimal camera movement that slightly pans or tilt to adjust to a movement of a character movements of the camera can play with ideas of timespace long takes a long run of the camera that records a single shot wo cutting Editing see pg 224 2445 amp 2613 for editing examples Editing 1 In filmmaking the task of selecting and joining camera takes 2 In the finished film the set of techniques that governs the relations among shots 14 manipulates time space and pictorial qualities Joining the shots cut an instantaneous change from one shot to another most common can be used to isolate elements of the same scene by cutting from one to the other ie in the Birds clip we saw of the shots of the gasoline running across the ground interspersed with shots of the women looking out the window fade out gradually darkens the end of a shot to black fadein lightens shot from black dissolve briefly superimposes the end of a shot with the beginning of the next shot wipe shot B replaces shot A by means of a boundary line moving across the screen 15 Friday April 25 2014 Dimensions of Film editing 1 Graphic relations between shot A and shot B 2 Rhythmic relations between shot A and shot B 3 Spatial relations between shot A and shot B 4 Temporal relations between shot A and shot B Graphic Relations graphic match linking shots with close graphic similarity ie the scene bt the nazis beating up old man and the show girls dancing in cabaret in similar nazi uniforms similar positions colors shapes or overall movement graphically discontinuous more noticeable transitions either by sudden bright lighting from a dark shot or vivid colors etc Rhythmic relations Rhythm could be used for how long the shots are in relation to the shots around it ie how the Birds clip the cuts got shorter and shorter as the gasoline spread and then finally blew up flashframes a few frames of pure white or another color marking transitions between segments or signal flashbacks or subjective sequences Spatial Relations editing can construct film space artificially by not putting in an establishing shot intraframe editing elements from different shots can be blended together Kuleshov Effect cutting together portions of a space in a way that prompts the spectator to assume a spatial whole that isn t shown onscreen With held an establishing shot not sure where the things are in relation to each other exactly as shown in Battleship Potemkin Temporal Relations Can control time and order of action presented in the film manipulates the story time through I6 Friday April 25 2014 order duration frequency Order order of events chronology manipulations flashbacks flashforwards Duration elliptical editing presents an action in such a way that it consumes less time on the screen than it does in the story can create an ellipsis 3 ways show man bottom of staircase cut immediately to him at the top show man at bottom of staircase hold on the empty stairs as he moves out of frame then cut to the top of the stairs holding the empty frame until he comes into view up the staircase empty frames on either side of cut cover elided time create an ellipsis by a cutaway or insert a shot of another event elsewhere that will not last as long as the elided action ie man at bottom cut to woman in apartment back to man at top of stairs Expanding storytime overlapping editing the action of the end of one shot is partly repeated at the beginning of the next prolongs the action Continuity Editing invisible editing a particular set of editing choices that dominates film history aims to transmit narrative info smoothly and clearly over a series of shots keeps graphic qualities tonality lighting roughly continuous and composition balanced and the action occupying the central zone of the screen spacial continuity the 180 degree system axis of action the center line 180 line that the filmmaker builds the scene s space around Passes through the main actors or the principal movement Defines the spatial relations of all the elements of the scene as being to the right or left The camera is not suppose to cross the axis at a cut and thus reverse those spatial relations Friday April 25 2014 180 system the continuity approach to editing dictates that the camera should stay on one side of the action to ensure consistent leftright spatial relations between elements from shot to shot ensures relative positions remain constant consistent eyelines consistent screen direction Continuous editing techniques Establishing shot A shot usually involving a distant framing that shows the spatial relations among the important figures objects and setting in a scene Eyeline match A cut obeying the axis of action principle in which the first shot shows a person looking off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees If the person looks left the following shot should imply that the looker is offscreen right shotreverse shot Two or more shots edited together that alternate characters typically in a conversation situation In continuity editing characters in one framing usually look left in the other framing right Overtheshoulder framings are common in shot reverseshot editing match on action A continuity cut that splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement making it seem to continue uninterrupted reestablishing shot A return to a view of an entire space after a series of closer shots following the establishing shot Cheat cut a cut that presents continuous time from shot to shot but that mismatches the positions of figures or objects still follow the 180 system though and doesn t cross the axis of action line cross cutting Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places usually simultaneously Temporal Continuity Order Frequency Duration 17 continuity editing often only presents what happened only once one for one frequency Order is usually 123 Friday April 25 2014 Duration usually presented continuously plot story time or is elided story time gt plot time indicators the duration of scene is continuous narrative progression has no gaps soundtrack indicates temporal continuity match on action shots Montage sequences a form of ellipsis montage sequence A segment of a film that summarizes a topic or compresses a passage of time into brief symbolic or typical images Frequently dissolves fades superimpositions and wipes are used to link the images in a montage sequence Alternatives to Continuity Editing films that use abstractassociational form emphasize graphic and rhythm dimensions of editing single frame films each shot is only 1 frame long violate 180 system Battleship Potemkin is an example as is some aspects of After Life Alternative editing techniques breaking 180 degree rule jump cut An elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot Either the figures seem to change instantly against a constant background or the background changes instantly while the figures remain constant nondiegetic insert A shot or series of shots cut into a sequence showing objects that are represented as being outside the world of the narrative replaying past scenes or the future with alternative endings inconsistent match on action Sound see pg 298306 for examples of sound in film Sound track constructed separately from the images can be manipulated independen y 18 19 Friday April 25 2014 helps to synchronize the senses with what s going on in the movie How sound affects viewing experience shapes our understanding of images directs our attention create anticipation through sound or silence Aspects of sound Know difference between diegeticnondiegetic internalexternal simutaneous nonsimultaneous synchronousasynchronous Sonic texture the overall interactions between the loudness timbre and pitch of the sounds in a film loudness amplitude volume of noise shifts in volume is dynamics pitch the perceived highness of lowness of sound helps listeners pick out distinct sounds in a film ie music speech distinguishes hollow objects with smoothrough surface etc timbre the harmonic components of sound Gives a sound a certain color feel or tone quality ie nasal Altering and Combining Sounds sound in cinema is usually 3 types speech music and noise sound effects a bit of sound can be processed to change its acoustic qualities sound effects can be added in ie the Wilhelm Scream selection of sound effects can draw our attention ie the clip we watched of people in an airport the different sounds drew our attention ambient sound background noise mixing combining different tracks of sound Usually many different layer of sound dialogue overlap a continuity editing technique where the filmmaker continues a line of dialogue across a cut smoothing over a change of the shot different camera angles with different delivered lines can put emphasis on certain lines of dialogue Friday April 25 2014 sound perspective the sense of a sound s position in space yielded by timbre pitch volume and binaural information which ear hears the sound more e the closer the camera is to a source the louder the sound sound motif ex A melody or musical phrase can be associated with a particular character setting situation or idea settings can be evoked in musical terms ie the shire music in lord of the rings Dimensions of Film Sound Rhythm fidelity spatial conditions temporal dimension Rhythm a beat pulse tempo or pace a pet tern of accents or stronger and weaker beats could be found in music sound effects and dialogue Rhythm could be coordinated with movements in the visual images and editing or there could be disparities bt the rhythms of soundimagesediting sound bridges dialogue overlap offscreen sound etc Fidelity the extent to which the sound is faithful to the source as we conceive it even though the barking of a dog is most likely a sound added in the postproduction stage it is still faithful to audience expectations Lack of fidelity disparity between sound and image Can be used to represent or dramatize moments Spatial Conditions Sound has a spatial dimension because it has a source Diegetic vs nondiegetic diegetic sound is sound that has a source in the story world such as the words spoken by the characters sounds made by objects in the story and music represented as coming from instruments in the story space diegetic sound can be either onscreen or offscreen depending on the location of its source Offscreen sound can describe the bigger space of the set ie sounds of an airplane believe they re in an airplane can also be subjective is it coming from only inside a character s mind Is it a character s thoughts 20 21 Friday April 25 2014 external diegetic sound a sound that has a physical source in the scene internal diegetic sound sound coming from inside the mind of character nondiegetic sound sound coming from a source outside the story world such as music added to enhance the film s action without a relevant source in the story world films can blur the lines between diegeticnondiegetic for surprise humor ambiguity thematic implications typewriter noise in Atonement Temporal Dimension mostly it is diegetic sound that relates to time of plot synchronous sound sound synced with the images relate to the screen duration viewing time asynchronous sound out ofsync with the images Singing in the Rain used this for comedic effect Can manipulate story and plot time in 2 ways simultaneous sound the sound takes place at the same time as the image nonsimultaneous sound when we hear events that occurred earlier or later than the present moment that is being shown sonic flashback hearing sounds that happened earlier ie hearing a character s voice from an earlier scene like Cecilia telling Robby to come back to her in Atonement sound bridge sound from a previous scene that lingers briefly while the image is already presenting the next scene or sound that occurs in the next scene while the previous scene is still lingering May smooth transitions over through expectations sound in a flash forward can depict events that occur in the future or the sound of a grownup narrator describing their childhood events etc Friday April 25 2014 For help writing critical analysis see pages 450456 in book Key Terms Narration the process through which the plot conveys or withholds story information The narration can be more or less restricted to character knowledge and more or less deep in presenting characters perceptions and thoughts plot All the events explicitly presented including the nondiegetic material ie the material that is not part of the story ex credits story viewer s imaginary construction of all events that occur motivation what justifies anything being in the movie justifies elements function usually provided by traits Classic Hollywood Cinema narrative Has a clear beginning middle and end There is typically only one or two main characters who want something Emphasize conflict Take characters on emotional journey Be sure that ending resolves the initial situation Usually psychological causes motivate most events Narrative strives for unity continuity and employs invisible editing Surprise when established expectations are not met suspense a delay in fulfilling expectations hierarchy of knowledge who knows more than who among the characters and the audience Information can be held by restricted narration depth how far we go into a characters mind range how much the audience knows about the story Deadlines a specific duration by which time an action must be completed creates a goal protagonist must struggle towards can drive narrative development film noir dark film a term applied by French critics to a type of American film usually in the detectivethriller genres with low key lighting high contrast and a somber mood restricted narration ex we only see what one character seestheir point of view unrestricted narration we see all the aspects that the characters don t know motif any significant repeated element that contributes to the overall form can be object color sound person trait etc 22 Friday April 25 2014 German Expressionism A number of related creative movements beginning in Germany before the First World War that reached a peak in Berlin during 1920 s Influenced elements in Cabret an example of the artist Grosz39s comics were shown in class 23 Academy ratio the standardized shape of the film frame established by the Academy of Motion picture Arts and Sciences Now the width is normalized to 185 times the height 1 851 MisEnScene Vocab Other Elements of misenscene lighting space time how long we see things costume makeup staging and performance composition the way in which a shot is made up balancedunbalance Deep Space An arrangement of misenscene elements so that there is a considerable distance bit the plane closest to the camera and the one farthest away Any or all of these pleas may be in focus shallow space staging the action in relatively few planes of depth Deep focus a use of the camera lens and lighting that keeps objects in both close and distant planes in sharp focus Shallow focus a restricted depth of field which keeps only one plane in focus 3 point lighting system a common arrangement using three directions of light on a scene from behind subjects backlighting from one bright source key light and from a less bright source that balances the key light fill light chiaro scuro an effect when low key lighting produces extremely dark and light regions within the image very high contrast off screen space the six areas blocked from being visible on the screen but still part of the space of the scene to each side and above and below the frame behind the set and behind the camera Lighting also connected with cinematography key light provides brightest illumination casts the strongest shadows Most directional light usually suggested by a light source in the settings fill light less intense illumination that fills in softening or eliminating shadows cast by key light Friday April 25 2014 backlighting comes from behind subject could be at various angles Used wo other lights makes a silhouettes with lights it creates a subtle contour edge lighting high key lighting an overall lighting design commonly used in Classical Hollywood Cinema Uses fill light and backlight to create relatively low contrast between light and darker areas low key lighting creates stronger contrasts and sharper darker shadows Often light is hard Common in film noir Cinematography Vocab omniscient camera ie when the camera takes a 3rd person s perspective scans around the room seeing everything that happens in the story usually enhances an objectivetruthful perspective framing the use of the edges of the film frame to select and to compose what will be visible onscreen reframing short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the figure s movements keeping them onscreen of centered tilt a camera movement with the camera body swiveling upward or downward on a stationary support It produces a mobile framing that scans the space vertically long shot the distance from what the camera is looking at long take all one shot wo cutting POV point of view shot Point of view shot POV the camera takes the character s point of view we hear and see what they hearsee sound perspective Can take on blurred effects ie character is drunkdrugged tracking shot when the camera moves simulating movement of the viewer zoom inout when the camera lens adjust to enlargeshrink the picture camera does not move Editing Vocab graphic match Two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements eg color shape 24 25 Friday April 25 2014 rhythmic The perceived rate and regularity of the series and duration of shots and movements within the shots Rhythmic factors include beat or pulse accent or stress and tempo or pace spatial editing can construct film space artificially by not putting in an establishing shot Kuleshov Effect cutting together portions of a space in a way that prompts the spectator to assume a spatial whole that isn t shown onscreen Withholding an establishing shot not sure where the things are in relation to each other exactly as shown in Battleship Potemkin temporal the editing manipulation of plot time vs story time expands or ellipsis time continuous editing invisible editing A system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action Continuity editing relies on matching screen direction position and temporal relations from shot to shot Specific techniques of continuity editing axis of action crosscutting establishing shot eyeline match match on action reestablishing shot shotreverse shot eyeline match A cut obeying the axis of action principle in which the first shot shows a person looking off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees If the person looks left the following shot should imply that the looker is offscreen right cutinAn instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space 180 degree rule The continuity approach to editing dictates that the camera should stay on one side of the action to ensure consistent leftright spatial relations between elements from shot to shot The 180 line is the same as the axis of action 30 degree ruleA guideline that states the camera should move at least 30 degrees between shots of the same subject occurring in succession making shots different enough to avoid a jump out Used in continuity editing scene A segment in a narrative film that takes place in one time and space or that uses crosscutting to show two or more simultaneous actions shot 1 In shooting one uninterrupted run of the camera to ex pose a series of frames also called a take 2 In the finished film one uninterrupted image whether or not there is mobile framing Friday April 25 2014 conceptual editingSoviet montage an approach to film that relies heavily on editing ie Sergei Eisenstein s Battleship Potemkin match on action A continuity cut that splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement making it seem to continue uninterrupted cross cutting parallel editing Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places usually simultaneously fade out gradually darkens the end of a shot to black fadein lightens shot from black dissolve briefly superimposes the end of a shot with the beginning of the next shot wipe shot B replaces shot A by means of a boundary line moving across the screen screen direction The right left relationships in a scene set up in an establishing shot and determined by the position of characters and objects in the frame by the directions of movement and by the characters eyelines Continuity editing will attempt to keep screen direction consistent between shots iris A round moving mask that can close down to end a scene iris out or emphasize a detail or that can open to begin a scene irisin or to reveal more space around a detail Sound Vocab Sound and viewing time synchronous sound Sound that is matched temporally with the movements occurring in the images as when dialogue corresponds to lip movements asynchronous sound Sound that is not matched temporally with the movements occurring in the image as when dialogue is out of synchronization with lip movements Sound and Story time simultaneous sound Diegetic sound that is represented as occurring at the same time in the story as the image it accompanies 26 27 Friday April 25 2014 non simultaneous sound diegetic sound that comes from a source in time either earlier of later than the images it accompanies diegetic sound Any voice musical passage or sound effect presented as originating from a source within the film s world nondiegetic sound Sound such as mood music or a narrator s commentary represented as coming from a source outside the space of the narrative sound bridge 1 At the beginning of one scene the sound from the previous scene carries over briefly before the sound from the new scene begins 2 At the end of one scene the sound from the next scene is heard leading into that scene mixing Combining two or more sound tracks by recording them onto a single one post synchronization The process of adding sound to images after they have been shot and assembled This can include dubbing of voices as well as inserting diegetic music or sound effects It is the opposite of direct sound Sonic texture the overall interactions between the loudness timbre and pitch of the sounds in a film loudness amplitude volume of noise shifts in volume is dynamics pitch the perceived highness of lowness of sound helps listeners pick out distinct sounds in a film ie music speech distinguishes hollow objects with smoothrough surface etc timbre the harmonic components of sound Gives a sound a certain color feel or tone quality ie nasal fidelity the extent to which the sound is faithful to the source as we conceive it mos mitoutsound shooting without sound a film segment that has no synchronous audio track nonsimultaneous diegetic sound examples sonic flashback hearing sounds that happened earlier ie hearing a character s voice from an earlier scene like Cecilia telling Robby to come back to her in Atonement sound bridge sound from a previous scene that lingers briefly while the image is already presenting the next scene or sound that occurs in the next scene while 28 Friday April 25 2014 the previous scene is still lingering May smooth transitions over through expectations sound in a flash forward can depict events that occur in the future or the sound of a grownup narrator describing their childhood events etc narrators voice over of characters not shown but who are in the storyplot
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