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Chapter 2

by: hjh

Chapter 2 PSYC 101

introduction to psychology
Kate Lieberman

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introduction to psychology
Kate Lieberman
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by hjh on Saturday May 2, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 101 at George Washington University taught by Kate Lieberman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 05/02/15
Chapter 2 Lecture Notes Theories of Personality September 3 2014 De ning Personality and Traits Personality distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior thoughts motives and emotions that characterizes a person throughout life Trait a characteristics of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving thinking and feeling features of personality that tend to persist through maturation and development Psychodynamic Theories Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual Psychoanalysis a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy originally formulated by Sigmund Freud emphasizes unconscious motives and con icts Freud father of psychoanalysis many of his theories have been disproved today not actually scienti c research thought his work was quotscientificquot because he was a doctor The Structure of the Personality Id basic most animalistic layer of human nature a reservoir of unconscious energy divided into two drives 0 The sexual instinct fueled by the libido o The death instinct fueled by the desire for protection Ego referees between instinctive needs and social demands helps rein in the impulses of the id Superego moral ideals conscience and social standards Defense Mechanisms Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness Repression the conscious or unconscious repression of socially unacceptable acUons Projection placing one s feelings onto another Displacement directing emotions feelings or impulses towards a less threatening object Regression moving backwards in the states of maturation Denial denying feelings or emotions towards the subject matter Sublimation essentially how Freud thought that culture developed how we displaced our innate energies and instincts through art and literature Psychosexual Stages Stages of personality development posited by Freud Freud states that if a human does not go through these natural phases they can become quotstuckquot in a stage Oral stage babies breastfeeding Anal stage controlling bodily impulses 23 yo learning how to function appropriately in society Phallic stage 56 yO Oedipus complex Latency stage nonsexual stage of development prepuberty Genital stage around puberty developing healthy adult sexual impulses Jungian Theory Jung Youngquot colleague of Freud s believing in addition to individual unconscious there is a collective unconscious Collective unconscious the universal memories symbols and experiences of the human kind represented in the symbols stories and images archetypes that occur across all cultures Some examples of the archetypes o Mandala o The hero 0 The nurturing Earth Mother 0 The powerful father 0 The shadow Generally disproved in modern society The ObjectRelations School Emphasizes the importance of the infant s rst two years of life and the baby s formative relationships especially with the mother Points out the need for a child to learn the difference between himherself and others Departed from Freud s ideas of the nature of male and female development Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories Three scienti c failings o Violating the principle of falsi ability 0 Drawing universal principlesLook at slideshow Popular Personality Tests MyersBriggs Type Indicator 0 Popular in business at motivational seminars and with matchmaking services 0 Assigns people to one of 16 personality types depending on how the individual scores on the dimensions of introverted and extroverted logical or intuitive 0 Low reality not a good measure of true personality Objective tests inventories o Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses 0 They typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves 0 Produce a personality profile Core Personality Traits Extroversion vs lntroversion Neuroticism vs Emotional stability Agreeableness vs Antagonism Biolo Conscientiousness vs Impulsiveness Openness to experience vs Resistance to new experience gy amp Animal Traits It is evolutionarily adaptive for animals to vary in their ways of responding to the world and those around them Like humans bears dogs pigs hyenas goats cats and of course primates have distinctive characteristic ways of behaving that make them different from others in their species Evidence has been found for most of the Big Five factors in 64 species Nature or Nurture Nature it s a matter of genes Nurture it s how they were raised Both are applicable and in uential in developing the full personality Direct genetic in uences Direct environmental in uences childhood experiences growing up Epigenetics experiences in the environment can actually affect which genes are expressed in a person Heredity amp Temperament Temperaments physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways 0 Way we describe infant personalities they don t fully have personalities because they re still developing present in infancy o Assumed to be innate Includes 0 Reactivity o Soothability 0 Positive or negative emotionality Relatively stable over time throughout childhood


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