Popular in Psychology of Sex Differences
Popular in Psychlogy
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INTRODUCTION gt classify the differences between some of the organisms that cause STls including bacteria viruses parasites and other organisms o Bacteria tiny singlecelled microorganisms that can cause infections in animals and humans ex chlamydia gonorrhea and syphilisO can be cured with antibiotics but can be reinfected once cured o Viruses submicroscopic infectious agents that need a host to grow and reproduce invade host cell and cause the cell to produce new viral particles that spread to other cells HPV herpes hepatitis and HIV 0 Parasitic insects parasites need a host to survive feed off the blood of their human host and can be spread by close contact with an infected individual lice or scabies o Protozoa single celled animals that are more complex than bacteria Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection caused y protozoa gt Differentiate between the terms Incidence amp Prevalence 0 Incidence refers to the number of new cases that occur within a speci ed time usually within a year 0 Prevalence the percentage of people who currently have the condition 0 most cases of STls are not reported because many STls are Asymptomatic and undiagnosed o US has the highest rate of sexually transmitted infection in the industrialized world up to 19 million new STls occur each year almost half in those aged 1524 0 Factors that affect spread of STls some infections are more communicable than others ex more chance of contracting gonorrhea from a partner than HIV The site of the infection health age genetics and sex practices of the individual and the prevalence of the STI in different groups also affect transmission rate gt Identify the groups who are most susceptible to infection with sexually transmitted diseases Minorities women men who have sex with men and young adults particularly affected by STI Minorities esp AA more likely to be infected with gonorrhea chlamydia HIV and other STI Women 2X likely as men to acquire an STI during unprotected sex also more often asymptomatic than men Men who have sex with men high risk of STI represent 53 of HIV infections and almost 23 of syphilis cases BACTERIAL INFECTIONS gt Listcommon bacterial infections 0 Chlamvdia o Gonorrhea o Syphilis 0 Bacterial Vaginosis gt Modes of transmission common symptoms health consequences and ways to treat chlamydia gonorrhea syphilis and bacterial vaginosis o Chlamydia Transmission 0 unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse childbirth common symptoms 0 75 of women and 50of men are asymptomatic symptoms occur 521 days after exposure to bacterium o lnfected man swollen amp tender testicles tip of penis is red thin wateryclear white discharge from penis or pain and burning during urination o Infected Woman vaginal discharge and bleeding between periods or after sex pelvic pain abdominal or lower back pain fever and nausea as infection spreads to fallopian tubes Both men and women may experience trachoma health consequences more severe for women than men leading cause of preventable infertility and ectopic pregnancy untreated develop pelvic in ammatory disease due to untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea ltreated with antibiotics Longterm complications in men are uncommon though untreated chlamydia can lead to epididymitis which can cause pain fever and rarely sterility 39 treatment 0 Gonorrhea antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin important both partners get treatment and use a condom for at least 1 week once on antibiotics Transmission caused by bacterium Meisseeria gonorrhoeae which grows and multiplies in warm moist areas such as the cervix uterus fallopian tubes urethra and anus as well as the eyes throat and mouth almost always transmitted through unprotected vaginal oral or anal intercourse women more susceptible than men symptoms Most women and some men have no symptoms symptoms appear within a few days of infection but may not develop for 34 weeks in women mild and nonspeci c usually similar but more severe than chlamydia pain or burning when urinating or bowel movement spotting between periods release of a yellowareen puslike discharge in Men more frequent urination and experience pain or burning with urination and bowel movement redness at tp of penis as well as penile discharge thick puslike discharge that is white or yellowgreen health consequences symptoms usually subside within a few weeks without treatment the bacterium is still present in body and damages organs untreated in males leads to epididymitis which can result in infertility untreated women at risk for Pelvic in ammatory disease which can lead to chronic pain ectopic pregnancy and infertility treatment 0 Syphilis Transmission easily treated with an antibiotic such as cipro oxacin or ceftriaxone most contagious during its early states and is passed by direct contact with a syphilis sore usually by oral anal or vaginal intercourse or by touching the infected area Symptom symptoms may go unnoticed whle the bacteria wreak havoc on pody Primary a painless ulcer or chancre appears at the poing of the infection usually small sores rm and round and typically appear on the penis scrotum vagina labia and anus but can also appear on the mouth breasts and ngers Secondary ulike symptoms fever fatigue headache gastrointestinal upset loss of appetite and sore throat in ammation ofjoints or eye itchless painless copper colored rash Health consequences if left untreated it can lead to serious longterm problems including coordination problems blindness heart disease dementia insanity and death increases a person39s susceptibility to HIV by 25times because sores disrupt the skin and allow easier access t HIV virus pregnant women can transmit it to babies I treatment penicillin injection those allergic to penicillin can be treated with doxycycline or tetracycline 0 Bacterial Vaoinosis transmission technically not a sexually transmitted infection though women who are sexually active especially multiple partners are at higher risk a number of things that destroy lactobacterial and disturb the normal vaginal ora douching poor hygiene the use of an IUD strong antibiotics and even wearing nylon underwear or pantyhose symptoms pain itching and burning slightly grayish vaginal discharge that has a shy order and a loss of acidity in the vaginasome may incorrectly assume yeast infection because of similar discharge health consequences can raise a woman39s risk of other gynecological problems including PID and increase susceptibility to chlamydia gonorrhea and HIV Pregnant women with BIV have increased risk of miscarriage premature delivery and low birth weight babies 39 treatment Antibiotics such as clindamycin or metronidazole administered orally or vaginally VIRAL INFECTIONS gt List the common viral ST Is 0 More than 66 million Americans are currently affected Human papillomavirus HPV herpes hepatitis B and HIV gt Describe the incidence modes of transmission common symptoms health consequences and ways to treat and prevent HPV herpes viral hepatitis and HIVAIDS 0 HPV world39s most common sexually transmitted virus transmission 0 oral anal and vaginal sex as well as skitoskin contact during sex with an infected partner 0 rare cases can be transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth common symptoms 0 genital warts most common visible manifestation very contagious and are spread by skintoskin contact during sexual activity 0 usually 3 weeks to 6 months after infections health consequences 0 High risk HPV can cause precancerous changes of cervix vagina penis anus mouth and throat o cervical cancer 0 those with HPV 32 times more likely to develop cancers of the mouth and throat I treatment 0 no cure but most people will clear the infection on their own within 2 years after exposure 0 Gardasil vaccine protects against eh HPV types that cause 70 of cervical cancer and 90 genital warts among those who haven39t gotten virus 0 Herpes transmission skintoskin contact with an infected person kissing and touching ral anal or vaginal sexual contact and childbirth common symptoms rst outbreak can give ulike symptoms as well as reddish painful bumps or blisters around the genitals or anusturn into small ouid lled blisters lled with active virus health consequences pregnant women have greater risk of miscarriage and premature labor make people more susceptible for acquiring HIV infection and make HIVpositive individuals more infectious I treatment no cure once infected you have virus for live to prevent never touch or come in contact with an open sorethough it can be transmitted whether a person is having symptoms or not 70 happen this way 0 Viral Hepatitis Transmission transmitted by body uids including blood semen vaginal secretins and saliva usually passed by sexual contact with an infected person by sharing needles during childbirth or in a health care setting common symptoms early symptoms ulike including fever fatigue and achiness later symptoms abdominal pain Jaundice yellowing of skin and whites of eyes Health consequences about 95 have acute hepatitis clear infection on their own cant39s transmit the disease after it is cleared and can never get reinfected 6 months Treatment 0 most people don39t have symptoms and don39t know they are infectedmost don39t get treated but should get rest healthy diet and avoid drugs and alcohol to reduce stress on liver 0 prevention safe sex aovid contact with blood and don39t share razors toothbrush with infected person hep V vaccine will prevent contracting virus 0 HIVZAIDS Transmission 0 contact with infected blood semen vaginal secretions or breast milk 0 sexual contact is the most common form of transmission common symptoms 0 Acute infection 24 weeks after exposure to virus ulike symptoms nausea and vomiting diarrhea weight loss skin rash and muscle pain 0 clinicaly asymptomatic stage lasts for an average of10 years no apparent signs of the disease but virus is multiplying infecting and killing cells of immune system still contagious o symptomatic stage Minor skin and constitutional symptoms like rash fatigue slight weight loss and sores in the mouth 0 AIDS Health Consequences Treatment 0 No cure for or vaccine against eh virus there are a number of antiretroviral drugs that have increased the life expectancy of a person with HIVAIDS gt Describe the way the HIV virus affects the immune system 0 HIV works by destroying cells39 helperT cells CD4cells these cells of the immune system coordinate the body s immune response to foreign invaders without these cells diseases that would normally be destroyed are able to run rampant in the body opportunistic infections gt Identify ways to reduce the risk of HIV transmission 0 Practicing safer sex avoiding contact with body uids that may contain the virus and being educated about risk factors OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS gt List the common parasitic fungal and protozoan infections 0 Parasitic infections Pubic lice crabs Sabies o Fundal infections Candidiasis aka yeast infection 0 Protozoal infections trichomoniasis gt Describe modes of transmission common symptoms and ways to treat and prevent public lice scabies and trichomonasis 0 Public lice aka Crabs Transmission sexually through direct and prolonged skinto skin contact but can be acquired through nonsexual means as it can survive for up to a day in clothing towels or bedding of an infected person common symptoms tiny white specks at the base of his or her pubic hair these are the eggs of the lice itching Treatment easily selfOtreated with an over the counter anti parasitic tropical cream or shampoo o Scabies Transmission direct prolonged skintoskin contact or by sharing infected towels bedding or clothing common symptoms few weeks after infection body39s immune response will produce itching and a rash in the genital region around the waist on the hands and wrist and in the web between ngers itching worse at night and after a shower treatment coating body with a prescription insecticide cream a Tricomoniasis Transmission most common curable STI in the world almost always transmitted through sexual contact women can get it with either men or women men usually get it from female partners can also be passed during childbirth symptoms 12 weeks after infection women may experience redness burning or itching of the vulva as well as yellowgreen frothy discharge that has a shy odorselling of lymph nodes in their groin mild pain with intercourse MEN rarely notice symptoms by my occasional notice discharge or burning during urination treatment easily treated with a single dose of oral metronizadole if untreated can led to in ammation and scar tissues in a man39s urethra and can increase a woman39s susceptibility to HIV and increase risk of passing HIV to partner gt understand the symptoms and causes of yeast infection 0 an overgrowth of the yeast organism quot Candida albicans that normally exists in body occur because the normal lactobacteria of the vagina is disrupted allowing yeast to overgrow can occur as result of douching or the use of antibiotics or oral contraceptives wearing tight poorly ventilated nylon underpants men can also get fungal infections of the penis characterized by itchy red aky patches of skin on the penis or testicles jock itch gt Dealing with STI Intro 0 during an STI examination will be asked about medical and sexual history given a physical exam Can prevent STI be knowledgeable about STIs and aware of their modes of transmission and common symptoms be honest with partner and communicate about your past and present sexual life Don39t take risks that could increase your chance of being infected correct and consistent use of condoms and dental dams greatly lowers your chances of being infected with an STI sexual coercion occurs when power whether physical emotional or occupational is used against another to force her or him into unwanted sexual activity abuse of sexual power can include sexual harassment or sexual assault and rape against adult r children most sexually coercive behaviors are done by men and by people we know RAPE gt De ne Sexual assault rape and age of consent 0 Sexual Assault encompasses a number of crimes from unwanted sexual contact to forced intercourse can include unwanted touch of sexual body parts or the penetration of the vagina mouth or anus may take place with the use of threats or fore or if the victim is unable to give consent due to intoxication mental impairment or being below the age of consent 0 Rape de nition has been expanded and refers to nonconsensual sexual penetration fo a man or woman39s body by physical force or the threat of harm Can include forced penetration y objects other than the penis and penetration of the mouth or anus as well as the vagina exact legal de nition varies from country to country and from state to state gt Report the incidence and prevalence of rape and understand the dif culties in getting an accurate assessment of its scope 0 actual number of women who are raped each year in the US is estimated to be between 300000 and 683000 which would mean a woman is raped every 6 minutes of women 0 as many as 27 of women in the US experience a completed or attempted rape making rape more common than lefthandedness and alcoholism 0 frequency of rape appears to be declining and has decreased by more than 85 since the 19705 decline may be due to greater education and awareness as well as increased punishments for rapists may be simply due to a change in the way the justice department gathers statistics about rape o Difficulties in getting an accurate assessment of its scope Most rapes are never reported hard to accurately assess occurrence of rape because of under reporting and because of variations in the way relevant data are gathered o Experts believe 6195 of rapes are never reported to police and are thus not part of the government39s estimates of the crime Rape estimates also vary due to differences in data gathering such as the operational de nition the sample used and the wording of the survey 0 ex FBl s description of rape is forced vaginal intercourse with a woman implying that only women can be raped FBI also does not consider forced oral or anal sex statutory rape or the use of drugs to subdue a victim to be rape incidence and prevalence incidence may better re ect the scope of rape because 39 of women who have been raped have been raped more than once gt understand some theories as to why rape occurs 0 Feminist Theorv According to this theory rape is a tool used by men in our society to keep women submissive and powerless Rapists are primarily motivated not by a desire for sex but by the eed to dominate and control women in an attempt to preserve a system of male supremacy goal of rape is power dominance and control over women violence and sex are the means and tactics used to assert that power 0 Evolutionary Theory rape is an evolutionary strategy to increase the reproductive success of lowstatus men who would otherwise have little chance of mating aka some men are drawn to rape in order to spread their genes theory based on the reproductive differences between men and women women have only one egg men have many sperm and need to spread their offspring blabla suggests that rape is inherent in men s nature and not simply a consequence of patriarchal society structures Motivation behind rape is primarily sexual rather than a means of establishing and maintaining power over women list some popular myths about rape o Rape myths deny the existence or gravity of rape blame the victim assume that rapists are overwhelmed by sexual desires and give a false impression of the typical perpetrator women reallv want to be raped women bring rape upon themselves Men who rape do so because thev can39t control their sexual desnes rape is committed by psychopathic strangers Onlv women can be raped characterize and de ne stranger rape acquaintance and date rape partner rape gang rape statutory rape and prison rapte o stranger rape the assailant is unknown to the victim as few as 17 of rapes against women and 23 of rape against men are committed by strangers most likely to be tried and convicted reoffend and general receive harsher punishments than acquaintance rapists o acquaintance and date rape acquaintance rape when the victim knows the rapist date rape when the sexual assault happens on a date up to 86 of rape is by someone you know vast majority of date and acquaintance rape is not reported seen as a quotlesserquot crime than stranger rape some even deny it is wrong and some don39t really acknowledge it as a rape o partner rape or marital nonconsensual sexual activity in which the assailant is the victim39s spouse or partner 0 an until 1993 it was legal in some US states for a man to demand that his wife have sex with him whenever he wanted it regardless of their wishes parner rape spousal or marital rape accounts for 25 of all rapes in the US about 8 15 of women are raped by their husbands or exhusbands man s motive for marital rape include domination and degredation of all rapes spousal rape is least likely to be reported and draws the least response from law enforcement and support groups while many people deny problem of partner rape the victims actually suffer longerlasting trauma than those raped by strangers rae rape of a single victim by a group of assailants tend to be more violent than sexual assaults committed by one attackerusually share a group identity 55 of gang rapes of college students are committed by fraternity members and 40 by members of a college athletic team more than 20 of women who are raped and more than 16 of men who are raped have more than one assailant o statutory rape de ned as sexual intercourse that occurs with someone who is not a child but who is below the age of consent even if the sex as not physically forced age at which someone is not considered a child differs from state to state though usually around 14 age of consent also differs but typically ranges from 1418 0 prison rape Refers to the rape of inmates by other prisoners or by penitentiary staff male prisoners are most likely to be sexually assaulted by other male convicts amp female inmates are most often raped by prison employees Underreported because of the victims shame and fear of retaliation from assailants as well as prison of cials because gt gt sexual activity between prisoners is prohibited and those who repot may receive punitive sanction prison rape is about power not sex consider the issue of rape on campus and the role of alcohol in these sexual assaults o Rape on Campus a woman runs the greatest risk of rape during her rst semester in college 50 of assaults are associated with alcohol Between 725 of college men admit to forcing sexual intercourse on a woman Many of these rapes are committed by fraternity members or athletes 0 Drugs amp Alcohol amp Rape Alcohol is one of the strongest predictors of acquaintance rfape and sexual aggression alcohol sexualizes an environment men expect to feel more powerful sexual and aggressive after drinking and more likely to interpret a woman39s irtation or even normal conversation in a sexual way increases rislq behavior Date rape drugs a drug such as rohypol and GHB that can be used to assist int eh commission of a sexual assault 0 usually contain amnesiac causing memory impairment disinhibiting leads to a loss of inhibition and dissociative hallucinations and feelings of unreality factors describe some typical characteristics of rapists o majority are men under the age of 30 0 hard to generalize because most data is about those convicted 0 most have raped more than one victim many want t gain power and control and use sex as their weapon to do so some use sexual violence as an expression of their anger toward women others are socially inadequate and have low selfOesteem and rape is an expression of those fantasies may believe victims will enoy the experiencef 0 Characteristics feel less empathy towards others more likely to hold a sense of entitlement and exploit others for their personal gain more likely to accept traditional gender roles mbelieve masculinity means power and aggression and feel dominoent over or anger toward women more likely to accept rape myths and more accepting of violence towards women more likely to be sexually aroused by images of rape more likely to be pslitically conservative and treat outsiders gays phsyciallyd isabled and refugees aggressively use of alcohol or drugs family history of phsycial violence and sexually aggressive peers gt explain the effect of rape of survivors O 0 physical emotional and psychological effects bruises and contusions gastrointestinal irritability cystitis headaches and sleep disturbances STI infection pregnancy 32000 rape pregnanciesyear 3 times more likely to suffer from depression 6 times likely to develop PTSD and 13 times more likely to have ever attempted suicide or have alcohol or drug dependency problems gt understand ways to protect yourself from rape O O O O O O void dangerous situations trust vour insticns and don39t be nice maintain control avoid peoble who treat vou badlv be con dent in vourself and recoonize vour value attend a rape awareness seminar or selfdefense gt consider the role of rape through history and the effect of societal forces on rape O Rape throughout history rape was not always considered a serious crime rst rape laws were not seen as criminal acts against women but as if a man39s property had been damaged rape is seen as both a spoil of war and as an act of aggression designed to dominate and humiliate the enemy in Old Testament women of conquered tribes were kidnapped and raped and forced to marry their captors even today women re seen as prizes to be taken from the enemy just as land or property 0 Rape and Societv rape is also an expression of cultural forces rapefree societies 0 in cultures where rape is rare women are treated with respect and there is little interpersonal violence women39s contributions in society are admired and valued Ra peProne societies 0 women are afforded a lower status and may be treated as property 0 natural environment is more likely to be exploied rather than treated with reverence its as though if one is willing to rape the land they are more willing to rape women US is a rapeprone society Genderroles in America matc those of rapeprone cultures one of dominant and assertive man attaining his dreams at any cost5 0 also a violent society and has weak sanctions against sexually violent women 0 Africa Women in South Africa have a greater chance of being raped than of learning to read 1 in 4 will be raped before the age of 16 SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN gt De ne childhood sexual abuse and incest 0 Child sexual abuse CSA inappropriate sexual behavior between a child and an adult may include exhibitionism sexual touching and oral anal and vaginal intercourse usually by someone familiar because of the power disparity between adults and children adultchild se is seen as coercive even if the child does not resist 0 Incest sexual contact between people who are related by blood or adoption or stepparents and stepchildren gt consider the prevalence of CSA and understand the dif culties in getting an accurate assessment of its scope O CSA range from 736 of girls and329 of boys most likely that approximately 20 to 25 of women and one of every six men were sexually abused as a child exact prevalence of CSA hard to determine the most underreported form of child abuse with as many as 88 going underreported 0 children taught to respect elders CSA offenders usually trusted adults who usually tell them not to tell 0 fear possible punishment or consequences to loved ones 0 sexual abuse of abuse is most underreported perceived homosexuality gt describe some typical characteristics of child sex abusers O O trusted relatives friends or neighbors some are pedophiles and are predominantly sexually attracted to children not all child molesters are pedophiles and nt all pedophiles have committed sexual offenses against children Lower le poorer social skills and lower selfesteem than normal more religious and conservative than average and less knowledgeable about sexuality 96 are male and 98 heterosexual gt describe the effects of sexual abuse on children and on adult survivors 0 no speci c symptoms associated with CSA some children suffer psychological emotional social and sexual problems that persist into adu hood others seem to experience little to no harm some adult victims of CSA have emotional psychological and relationship problems O In general the consequences of CSA tend to be more serious the abuse goes on for a long period if it involve a close relation such as a fatherstepfather if there was violence and if it involved penetration CSA does not need to be violent or painful to be traumatic when there is less physical trauma childhood victims are more likely to see the abuse as their quotfaultquot and that they quotlet it happenquot gt Critically evaluate studies on the effects of CSA on psychological health 0 In general the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric problems is higher in those with a history of CSA than in those without CSA survivors are more likely to suffer from PTSD depression and drug or alcohol problems than nonvictims more aggressive or self destructive behaviors low selfesteem anxiety fear and a need to please others Boys who have been sexually abused are more likely to externalize their suffering y acting aggressively with others whereas girls internalize and become depressed some become more preoccupied with sex others experience sexual aversion or ambivalence girls who were sexually abused have greater risk of same happening as adults no evidence that CSA causes homosexuality gt List the types of treatment for child molesters and ways to prevent CSA 0 O molesters seen as having psychological problems that must be treated more for the good of society than due to any concern for the individual support groups psychotherapy offenders may be trained for social skills and get aversion or cognitivebehavioral therapy pharmaceutical treatments including antidepressants and anti androgen treatments to reversibly reduce testosterone treatments don39t necessarily cure but they help 60 do not reoffend INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE gt De ne physical psychological and economic abuse 0 Physical abuse includes slapping beating kicking threats with an object or weapon and murder stcholooical abuse includes behaviors that is intended to humiliate or intimidate one39s partner and may take the form of verbal aggression or humiliation threats of abandonment or abuse isolation or con nement to the home and destruction of objects Economic abuse includes such acts as denial of funds food or basic needs or controlling access to health care or employment gt understand that men and women of all ages races socioeconomic statuses and sexual orientations experience intimate partner violence 0 Native Americans and AA suffer lPV at higher rates than whites and Asians though it is thought to be the low rate of in Asians is due to underOreportingO incidence f domestic violence in higher income families is under reported lowincome women who are victims of domestic abuse are more likely than ther more well off counterparts to ender domestic violence shelters are apply for social survices more economically privileged women have the option of staying in a hotel or traveling to be with distant family 1824 year olds comprise only about 12 of population they represent the majority of victims of violence committed by a bf or gf same sex domestic abuse may be particularly underreported police of crs taking reports might not know that two men or two women are a couple or couples may be reluctant to expose the nature of their relationship so somesex domestic abuse may be reported as assault or battery than domestic violence gt Compare the incidence of Intimate partner violence around the world and consider the factors that increase the likelihood of its occurrence 0 most societies forbid violence against womenmany socities believe tht men are inherently superior to women and therefore in many developing nations both men and women agree with the idea that a man has the right to physciallyd iscipline is wife ln Egypt more than 80 of rural women share the view that men are sometime justi ed in beating their wives can be dif cult to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in other nations because cultural mores may limit a woman39s ability to report the abuse ln Egypt jordan Lebanon Pakistan Turkey Bangladesh and other countries women may be killed in order to uphold the quothonor of the family honor killings S EXUAL HARASS M E NT gt De ne sexual harassment and differentiate between auid pro quo and hostile environment harassment 0 Sexual Harassment the most widespread of all sexually coercive behavior Unwanted attention of a sexual nature that interferes with an individual39s basic right to employment or education may include unwanted and unsolicited comments inappropriate jokes undesired touch of sexual nature sexual pressure and sexual force 0 Two main tvpes of sexual harassment Quid pro quo 0 when compliance with unwanted sexual advances is required as a condition of employment or advancement 0 involves individuals with differences in power or authority hostile environment harassment occurs when persistent and inappropriate behaviors make the workplace offensive or unbearable may occur between individuals of equal power or authority 0 Women in hostile environments are more likely to be treated as sexual objects and be subject to harassment gt describe the incidence of sexual harassment and explain why most incidents are not reported 0 Between 40 and 60 of women have been affected 0 more likely to occur against those in a job that is nontraditional for their gender like female re ghters or male nursesusually when men holds most of the positions of power over the other gender 0 occurs in workplace armed forces and in schools 0 in a survey of 24000 federal employees 44 of women and 19 of men reported sexual harassment 0 at least half of the women in armed forces have experienced sexual harassment o 81 of students in 811 grade experienced some form of sexual harassment in school 0 vast majority of cases are not reported fewer than 10 le reports many don39t recognize experience as sexual harassment Men and women resolve con icts differently women socialized to put needs of others before them want to maintain relationships and keep peace Men more likely to force a confrontation and seekjustice women just want behaviors to stop fear of reprisal gt list the three main types of harassment in education 0 gender harassment includes sexually degrading hostile and sexist remarks and behaviors o unwanted sexual attention inappropriate and offensive sexual comments behaviors and advances 0 Sexual bribery and imposition including the promise of reward in return for sex or the threat of punishment for withholding sex and forceful physical attempts gt describe the effects of sexual harassment on victims 0 can adversely affect one39s health relationships nances and education or career 0 victims may experience both physical and psychological symptoms similar to the other coercive behaviors 0 some nd it hard to keep mind on job or studies may try to avoid areas Where the harasser is likely to be found can negatively affect performance at work or school pts at sexual contact Pornography gt De ne pornography and consider its prevalence o quotpornographyquot is derived from the Greek word quotpornographiaquot which means quot to write about prostitutesquot 0 De ning pornography very dif cult to classify what is porn and what isn39t even Supreme court is con icted Justice Steward admitted to not being able to de ne hardcore pornography be quothe knew it when he saw itquot con ict of differentiation between pornography and erotica porn is about violence domination and conquest and erotica is about mutually pleasurable activities bw consenting adults amp Goal of pornography is solely for sexual arousal but erotica has artistic or historical merit 0 Today pornography considered to be quotany sexually explicit materialbe it written spoken or visual that is designed for elicit sexual arousal or interest 0 Men consume more pornography than women exposed to porn at a younger age and more likely to watch porn while masturbating psychologically both men and women are sexually aroused by pornographic images women are less likely to admit to it o as many as 40 million Americans regularly visit porn website up to 14 billion a year is spent on pornographic material including 24 billion sexOoriented magazine US produces much of the worlds pornography 72 believe it degrades women by portraying them as sex objects and 77 say laws against pornography in books and movies should be more severe gt catalogue the different genres and media forms of pornography o Hardcore pornooraphv vs softcore pornooraphv hardcore includes graphic and actual images of genitalia or sexual acts including penetration softcore depicts nudity but not always genitalia it shows limited sexual activity that does not include penetration o Genres of pornooraphv many genres in pornography based on sexual orientation explicitness physical characteristics or number of participants or thee speci c acts performed Voyeur pornography sexual images taken of people who are unaware that they are being lmed 0 Media forms of pornooraphv Magazines some intended for general audience others like quotpenthousequot and quothustlerquot more hard core Most pornographic magazines are aimed at men as is most pornography in general Playboy largest selling men39s magazine founded by Hugh Hefner one of the nation39s largest producers of porn through videos and the internet Manga Japanese word for comics popular with children adult manga quothentaiquot sexually explicit video Introduction of videotape greatly increased the availability of porn sexual Pornographic movies are available on cabe or payper view in hotel rooms where about half of all lms rented are pornographic or on video to rent or buy Americans send more than 4 billion on video porn rentals more than the annual revenue of the NFL the NBA and MLB internet one third of all internet use is related to some form of activity OSA online sexual activity use of internet for any activity that involves sexuality such as information entertainment arousal or the search for sexual partners 0 Cybersex subcategory of OSA that involves use of computerized content for sexual stimulation and grati cation usually involving two or more persons Women more interested in educational sites and interactive OSA like chat rooms whereas men are more drawn to visually oriented online sexual activity Reasons why porn is so popular on internet 0 Internet is convenient and easily available 0 anonymity everyone is free to change his or h9r gender appearance and identity 0 Internet sex is physically safer Congress passed the CDA communications Decency Act in 1996 but Supreme court ruled it unconstitutional and gave internet the same fee speech protection as print Videogames according to International Game Developers Association there are more than 300 sexthemed video games few games have sexual conquests as main purpose but many include sexual content in storyline grand theft auto sims etc gt consider the role of changing attitudes on the acceptance of pornography O Kama Sutra ancient Indian text about love and sex dates back as early as the 2nCI Century AD Pornography ourished in the outwardly sexually repressed Victorian era No obscenity laws existed int eh USgt until the middle of the 19th century when Anthony Comstock led America39s rst antipornography crusade 1968 ruling of Stanley v Georgia US Supreme court allowed for the private possession of obscene material PresidentJohnson appointed a presidential commission to investigate the harm of pornography they found that exposure to porn did not lead to rape or sexual assault and there were insufficient evidence that exposure to it plays role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior 1985 President Reagan appointed Attorney general Edwin Meese to head a committee to overturn the 1970 ndings and nd more effective ways in which the spread of porn could be containedquot The Meese commission asserted that exposure to violent porn increases sexual violence some researchers argue that it is images of violence rather than pornography that lead to sexual violence Attitudes about Pornooraphv Antipornographyviewpoint both religious and feminist foundations view that pornography is immoral or demeaning to women Anticensorship may not like pornography but have the view that repressing pornography is rst step on a slippery slope to censorship everyone has right to free speech Prosexuality defend the right of all adults to participate in and consume pornography believe that pornography has potential bene ts for both men and women making porn illegal will further alienate sex workers and reduce their protection and rights gt Assess the legal status of pornography in the US today and compare it to toehr countriesquot pornography Ia ws 0 Denmark in 1967 legal restrictions on porn were lifted making porn much more accessible to the general public 0 Japan sexually explicit material is typically even more violent than that seen in the US 0 Pornography and the law Most countries allow at least form of pornography Almost all countries have laws against child porn Until the mid19th century the USgt had no laws against producing or owning pornography in 1842 the US Congress passed the rst antiobscenity law where of cials could seize 39obscene or immoral prints and picturesquot First amendment of constitution does not apply to material considered obscene distribution of obscene material is considered a crime laws vary based on different aspects of porn different laws for adults and minors regarding possession of porn different laws related to production distribution or ownership of porn different laws related wo what sorts of sexual acts can be shows 0 Child Pornography illegal 2003 Protect Act it is illegal to even use technologies that make it appear as though children are engaged in sexually explicit acts gt list the possible bene ts and harmful aspects of pornography 0 Possible bene ts enhancement of sexual pleasure and relaxation couples may use porn to energize their sexual ful llment either alone r with a partner sexual education and information show viewers the range of sexual possibilities that exist and open up their sexual world safety Porn allows viewers to satisfy their sexual curiosity in a safe way 0 Harmful asoects Degradation and objecti cation of women produces skewed views of reality promotes violence against women gt evaluate the role of pornography on sexual aggression toward women 0 some opponents of pornography promote the view that sexually explicit material especially violent sexually explicit material will increase violence toward women 0 some studies suggest that after viewing pornography viewers are less sympathetic to female rape victims show increased hostility and aggression toward women and are more inclined to agree with rape myths o for most men exposure to porn doesn39t lead t sexual aggression but sexually violent porn is one of many factors that could be involved in developing aggressive inclinations toward women which may have an effect on those who are already predisposed to act violently Prostitution gt De ne prostitution and recognize the dif culty in ascertaining the incidence and prevalence of prostitution o Prostitution the exchange of sexual access to one s body for something of value be it money drugs or other commodities Mostly women women more often socioeconomically dependent and more likely to be forced into prostitution for nancial reasons 0 Incidence and Prevalence hard to estimate number of people working as prostitutes mostly due to illegality of it some think men underestimate prostitution visits on national sex surveys and prostitutes are underrepresented in national sex surveys more common in countries characterized by quotpoverty gender inequality and cultural norms that limit women39s legitimate employment opportunitiesquot Strong religious prohibitions against prostitution may reduce its incidence as might a fear of AIDS or changing sexual mores 0 reasons some traf cked into it against their will others willingly from lack of options economic reasons many sex workers have a history of childhood sexual abuse those who are physically or sexually abused are more likely to be runaways and may enter the life on the street gt compare and contrast the different types of prostitution 0 Outdoor sex workers 0 indoor 0 Male 0 streetwalkers street workers have lowest status of prostitutes and suffer eh greatest risk of physical abuse ad arrest lowest paid most dangerous most stigmatized level of prostitution most research on prostitution is done on street prostitutes even though they only represent 15 to 20 of prostitutes easy access anonymity and low cost sex workers Bgirls a prostitute who works in a bar or hotel usually with the approval of manager who take a cut of the pro ts massage parlors a place where illicit sex is available under the guise of the therapeutic massage brothel also called a whore house it is an establishment speci cally intended for prostitution Men can generally use from a lineup of women escort a prostitute who meets with clients by appointment May work independently or for an agency call girls A sex worker who can be hired over the phone or the internet to engage in intimate interactions tend to be the most attractive and welleducated of the prostitutes and their services are the most expensive rostitutes male or female clients Gigolos escorts or call boys male prostitutes who service female clients may or may not provide sexual services client typically older wealthy women who need a companion Hustlers Male prostitutes who have sex with male clients often solicit clients n streets in bars or on internet not all are gay some identity as heterosexual typically service men who want to give or receive anal or oral sex 0 most common services are hand jobs and fellatio Like female streetwalkers usually enter quotthe lifequot at a young age and have little education or marketable skills 0 compared to female prostitutes male prostitutes are slightly older less dependent on prostitution as source of income and more likely to move between indoor and outdoor prostitution less subject to client violence have pimps etc Transgendered prostitutes occupy the lowest rung on the hierarchy Maletofemale sex workers are most stigmatized and make the least money Tend to get least desirable locations higher HIV infection rates and get exposed to more violence than male prostitutes but less than women most common services oral sex hand jobs and receptive anal intercourse gt characteristics of prostitutes and pimps o Prostitute Characteristics Demographics outdoor sex workersyounger got into prostitution at a younger age engage in more illegal drug use AA are disproportionately represented in streetwalking Victimization and violence 48 of indoor workers and 81 of streetwalkers experience client violence Streetwalkers are 3 times more likely than all girls to experience assault and 11 times more likely to have been raped though indoor sex workers are more likely to REPORT attempted rape Sexually Transmitted lnfection5Streetwalkers who inject drugs have the highest rates of STI infection rates are lower in indoor sex workers Control Over working condition5Brothel works may be the most limited in their choice of clients and in their personal lives streetworkers and escorts may generally choose their clients and refuse those who are intoxicated or who appear violent Psychological adjustment streetwalkers have more psychological problems than indoor sex workers unclear whether it is the work that leads to such problems or if those with emotional problems are more likely to pursue outdoor sex work o Pimps Emotion Work Clients expect and receive more emotional intimacy from call girls and escorts than from streetwalkers Escorts and call girls more likely to have quotgirlfriend experiencesquot to meet at personal locations or engage in conversation and to kiss caress and receive oral sex from customers Pimps are those who organize and bene t from prostitution and usually males 0 sometimes provide room and board bail money or other protection to women 0 control their girls through violence and emotional manipulation often physically assault and take some or all of earnings 0 street prostitutes most likely to be controlled by pimp Madams are usually females who manage massage parlors or brothels may treat workers better in general gt physical and emotional health risks faced by prostitutes 0 physical exhaustion frequent viruses STls backaches headaches eating disorders heightened risk of cervical cancer power differential bw prostitute and client physical or nancial means customers can coerce women into unprotected sex prostitutes have the highest risk of occupational mortality of any groups of women assaultrape o emotional dif culty in maintaining relationships depression esp streetwalkers gt de ne sex traf cking 0 de nition the recruitment harboring transportation or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act O 0 sex traf cking is the fastestgrowing crime category today according to UN a traf cked person is quotsomeone who is transferred or transported across national or international borders by means of threat or coercion for the purposes of economic exploitation in prostitution forced labor slavery or the removal of organsquot gt History of Prostitution 0 quotoldest professionquotgt maybe not but has been around for thousands of years In the past women had 3 options marry join a convent or become a prostitute Ancient Greece and Rome prostitution ourished and men had their choice of different types of women Greece quothetaeraequot sophisticated courtesans sought after for conversation and companionship Rome quotdelicataequot well educated mistresses kept by wealthy men Courtesan a highstatus prostitute with wealthy and or powerful clients courtsans were often known for their beauty and sophistication In the middle Ages prostitution was common in part due to the teachings of St Augustine who felt prostitution was a necessary evil to prevent the greater sins of rape and masturbation Japanese quotgeishas39 traditional female entertainers not prostitutes As women39s independence increases prostitution is subject to more restriction Prostitution was legal in US ujtil the early 20th Century when the Woman39s Christian Temperance Union fought against prostitution Congress passed the Mann Act of 1910 prohibiting the transport of women across state lines for immoral purposes gt issues regarding the abolition legalization and decriminalization of prostitution 0 about 90000 people are arrested each year in the USgt for violation of prostitution laws 90 prostitutes and 10 the customersvast majority are streetworkers three main positions on prostitution abolition seeks to eliminate prostitution through legal penalties legalization in which the state controls prostitution through licenses registration and mandatory medical exams Decriminaization whereby all criminal penalties and regulation are removed from sex work 0 in US prostitution is legal only in some states brothels are legal and heavily regulated in most counties in Nevada Pimps and streetwalking are illegal ln Rhode Island due to a legal loophole the exchange of sex for money is not illegal although it is illegal to solicit sex on the street or to operate a brothel 0 Some pros and cons of legalization of prostitution table 171 pg 454 gt de ne phone sex and sexting Phone Sex a sexually explicit conversation that occurs between two people over the telephone 0 Can take place between two people involved in a romantic relationship or it may involve a person calling a commercial phone sex business Sexting sending sexually explicit messages or images y cell phone or other electronic media 0 Aggravated involve criminal or abusive elements beyond the creation sending r possession of youthproduced sexual images such as adult involvement and criminal or abusive behavior such as adult involvement and criminal or abusive behaviors like extortion threats or malicious conduct 0 Experimental teens take and send pictures of themselves sin order to seek attention irt or create romantic interest no criminal behave beyond the creating or sending of the images 0 even if intention is not malicious or criminal teens who send or receive nude pictures of themselves or others risk felony child pornography charges and being listed on a sex offender registry gt explain the popularity of strip clubs 0 Strip Clubs bars or clubs that feature erotic dancing and entertainment striptease and possibly other related services such as lap dances o a century before modernday strippers the striptease gained popularity at the Moulin Rouge and Flies Bergere in Paris and in burlesque shows in the US Entertainer and Civil rights activist Josephine baker gained fame in the 19205 and19305 by dancing in the folies bergere wearing only high heels and a skrit made of bananas the pussycat dolls got their start as new burlesque dancers o more than 2300 strip clubs in the US are a 5 billion industry more money than Americans spend at Broadway theaters regional and nonpro t theaters and symphony performances combined most of goes to club owners exotic dancers are often considered independent contractors and receive no wags only tipssome even have to pay a stag fee
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