Class notes for Japanese Buddhism
Class notes for Japanese Buddhism CM160
Popular in Japanese Buddhism
Popular in Japanese
This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Lisa K on Wednesday June 3, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CM160 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by William Bodiford in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Japanese Buddhism in Japanese at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 06/03/15
Week 1 16 J 160 Religion has meaning because of evil Naturally sel sh greedy etc Varieties of Religion in Modern Japan Buddhism Shinto Confucianism Daoishtaoism Folk religion Register with the government temples shorthand for buddhists 80000 gt 300000 clerics shrines shinto 85000 gt 90000 celebrants churches 10000 gt 11000 priests Koshin BE EFI every 60 days day of the koshin where the god of the hearth and kitchen reports to the god of destiny if they were good or evil Evil days are deducted from life Associated with monkey saru verb plus zaru negation E256 FEEl 39c lt E10379 protection from koshin Distinction from Buddhism and Shinto and Confucianism falls apart What is Shinto described commonly as Japan s original indigenous religion radically manipulated in 19th century people want powerful gods family power is closely tied to gods of family Gods and family linked to privilege and lands Punish outsiders Buddhism introduces universal gods Medieval times emergence of Shinto after long process of framework of buddhism Early Modern times 1719th ruling regime buddhists were overthrown in 1868 Meiji disestablishment of buddhism with separation of gods from buddhas temples and shrines were separated Returning to prebuddhist past Identity of Japan as unique place Royal family becomes head of state descendants from gods Tensho Daijin god of royal family Three layers of definition pre 1868 buddhists cosmology of gods and heavens 1868 1945 state authorized expression of patriotism after 1945 loses rationale because of war lost nature worship identi ed with local gods Buddha is teacher of gods and humans above all Subdue bad gods control gods and turn them to good ie bring rain Gods are ckle and silly unreliable just as the weather is head temple regional temple local temples make money send to upper temples for training Kinds of Buddhism shu schools 7397 pure lands schools 41 1 Jodoshu honen 2 Jodo shin shu shinran Esoteric 26 3 Shingonshu kukai Zen 20 4 Sotoshu dogen 5 Rinzaishu eisai Lotus 6 Nichiren shu nichiren 7 Tendaishu saicho all lay out their robes etc distinguish by emphasizing founders as geniuses that give birth to the teaching 90 the same addressing comtemporary issues through the founders lips What is Buddhism incorporates asian culture everything you want to nd you can nd in buddhism People are free to create their own version 3 jewels refuge in 3 jewels ll the world with life and valuable hard turns to 3 jewels buddhists 1 Buddha A Butsu All of us are asleep and confused of falsehood Buddha has awakened but we have not Shakamuni embodied in images 2 Dharma if ho truth of reality embodied in scriptures 3 samgha sou community who chants buddhas words People in temples with shaved heads and buddhist robes temples garden 18 Buddhism 3 jewels buddhas awakened ones dharma teachings truth reality words and speech sangha monastics sakyamuni early accounts are in verse easy for repeating mahayana greater vehicle daijyo 7C inferior ID lesser buddhism hinayana followers of mahayana write in sanskrit perfect writing within teachings should teach in local languages Translation now mostly preserved in chinese Taisho edition in Japan comprehensive 60 volumes each with 1000 pages buddhist scriptures eXist in three forms tibetan pali Always talking about chinese scriptures collection of scriptures ji daizoukyou 3 categories 1 sermons discourses 1420 2 discipline ritsu Q 84 3 miscellaneous treatises development of buddhism in india 188 t issaikyo sangha Rules for admitting expelling members all buddhists in same area should be in the same sangha Rules of training evolves 3 marks 3 seals buddhism exceeds reality than our common view of reality might be E shogyou mujyou impermanent hold on to Whatever is important E i all things lack a persistent self identity including yourself tJ7 39 E all eXistence is suffering 5539 nirvana is bliss Whatever causes pain is not What you should be focused on but rather release EE1 E shoaku makusa morality and self control control body and mental cultivation purify and control thinking E g control body and mental cultivation purify and control thinking E l z teaching of all buddhas bodhisattvas bosatsu E I39ZE JR E j ougubodai upwardly seek bodhi quotF1 ls 39 i gekeshujyou downward buddhas and bodhisattva has unique concerns virtue characteristics 353 yakushi helps cure sick bodhisattva jizou gure of bald head side of road to help them pile of stone to help them rescue from hell Week 2 113 karma merit 3 bene ts riyaku WE spiritual or material in genze I 39l 39 3 techniques period circumstances time place determine which technique to use schools of buddhism developed in China and imported to Japan Early Japan provides good government with order Nara Schools represent the diffusion of Chinese buddhist learning in Japan Heian Buddhism esoteric rituals Kenmitsu exoteric plus esoteric 3 gives birth to shinto Schools of buddhism prominent today 3rd century 7th evidence of formation of organized governmental units kofun burial mounds 650 evidence of people writing Buddhism is well established in Japan already 590 first large scale buddhist monastery in Japan China becomes uni ed 660 668 korean peninsula becomes uni ed in ux of refugees migrate eeing warfare to come to Japan bring buddhism that they practice centralized state is more effective in militarism and conquering Tenmu ruler 672 686 931K was the brother of a ruler Ordered to join a buddhist clergy Leaves overthrows brother and seizes the throne advocates non violence but he conquers edicts to promote chanting of scriptures spread teaching of buddhism 690 3000 buddhist clergy 545 temples sponsored by tenmu of his widow kudara odera 7 3 5 7C 9 story pagoda edges gilded in gold built in iron advertise power turns surrounding area to the land of the buddha You can see that the buddha is present 1 Cosmology heirarchy top buddha gods rulers aristocrats slaves 2 Hierarchy enforces the hierarchy by laws 3 Laws 4 institutions with buildings pagoda represents the law heirarchy hierarchy represented in myths lands is wealthy if there are hardworking people People divided wealthy and poor no middle class rich families have family gods which are also gods of the land scripture of golden lights what is a well run kingdom one that has a noble king looking out for the welfare of people by promoting buddhism be kind avoid evil and be good king is protected by sakya and 4 heavenly kings king controls other powerful familys gods kingdom comes under control of one king that has the support of the gods purification king in particular have to be purified buddhist temples have the rst bath houses verses of purification in the bathe Ruler becomes a god unto his people He is born as human but will be known as the descendants of the god jinshin war 671 681 tenmu orders historical records and have a time record El 3533 royal history history of japan presemts rulers as beign there the whole times age of the gods ruler family is descendants of gods 660 bce beginning unbroken dynasty leading to tenmu Doji 421 first 701 Doji translation 718 scripture returned to Japan by him talented people seek and absorb important things and bring to japan in Nihon Shoki heavenly emperor 95 refers to pole star polaris 674 emperor of china referred to himself as this The one to which other people revolves depicts through myth and history the hierarchy centered around tenno and government officials around him describes the well organized bureaucratic state not sure if it existed or a future plan 701 Taiho law code 2 branches of government jingikan RE gods of heaven and earth grand counsel offices of the government bureau of yin and yang calendar lucky and unlucky textiles books library education penal and prison ministry foreign relations buddhism code for monastics soniryo buddhist clergy to be resident of temple you have to have government appointment 115 week 2 1 scripture of golden light roles of ruler 2 mythology history of j apan nihon shoki 3 laws 4 institutions shotoku taishi invention of nihon shoki supposedly 547 622 never direct ruler of japan but acts like one buddhist teacher and lectures writes rst constitution organizes bureaucracy introduces rst confucian government listens to multiple arguments and gives right ruling could not have possibly happened special attributes prayer halls attributed to him Royal ruling family key gure in buddhism how does buddhism become for the japanese people from the buddhism of the rulers taiho law code ecclesiastical concerned with the clergy magistrates sogo 5 2 5 samgha buddhist clergy appoint and determine what the clergy s duties are soniryo codes for monastics 27 articles members of the clergy cannot kill eat meat don t steal reveal what clergy would have been doing when no one is looking no political factions military tactics no bribing government of cials don t appear in court members of clergy cannot have their own temples travel or preach buddhism buddhism serves for purpose of government protect aristocracy 710 government constructs rst capital city of japan EllijljZIJL39I f i TE 740 revolt rule of buddhism to protect government 741 provincial government of ce and temple El every government of ce should have a buddhist temple men shant the golden light and women chant lotus sutra lotus sutra very few buddha scriptures that promise that women can be saved techniques of meditating wash away karmic obstacles techniques government doing most harm police action executing stealing taxes eastern great temple todaiji vairocana main buddha sun wooden version of buddha coat with shell coat with clay bronze but it falls over 8 times hachiman most powerful god in kyushu where there is a revolt says i will protect you gold is discovered buddha completed and rebuilt in 751 53 feet tall head is shomu bow to buddha i am slave to buddha buddha is a constallation linked together nara is main other local buddhas good dosho korean descent in capital of china to study buddhism buddhism works to help ordinary people member of clergy worked for xuanzang gyogi disciple of dosho hard to say if he is clergy follows dosho s example travels to countryside and teaches to ordinary people arrested by government because of taiho code can t go out arrested for teaching people karma offering to buddha and clergy ordinary people are just supposed to follow rulers if people are giving to others they are not giving full amount in taxes popular among peasants lower government of cials and buddhists Government scared and appoints as government clergy so that he does not make his own group Buddhist evangelist Gets people to donate to government to build the buddha the bodhisattva undercurrent for ordinary people ganj in founder of vinaya school interpret the rules category of buddhist scriptures discipline determining who is in the group right to participate in rituals Chinese translate vinaya of different groups milk turned to cottage cheese still liquid or solid etiquette of paying respect mahayana scripture of greater vehicle and hinayana lesser vehicle vinaya does not mention which one it is uses mahayana state of mind without school you do not have proper member of clergy bad genbo goes to china studies has an audience presented to royal and gets purple robe 734 returns to Japan Appointed to court chapel as court physician breathing techniques herbs healthy foods leads to revolt because somehow genbo s supporters who recommended him for appointment were in con ict with people who revolted named by protesters to be kicked out of government he s regarded as outsider meddling in politics 740 dokyo replacement of genbo did not go to China records of him are suspect 761 cure queen of severe illness becomes advent buddhist takes buddhist name and robe not alcohol 764 appoints dokyo as prime minister chancellor and later 766 dharma king In charge of buddhism and total charge of government peak of rulers and buddhist clergy having good relations 770 queen dies and dokyo overthrown El KEEEhistory of royal family EEEE lineage of clans El ZIKEEEEE bist stories of miraculous events teachings didactics western land of bliss sukhavati pure land jodo amida nembutsu namu amida butsu hokkekyo i lotus sutra niebankyo nirvana sutra freed him from karmic bonds fully awakened not trapped in samsara but now in nirvana kannon avalokitesvara reincarnation is dalai lama thousand hands bodhisattva of compassion ERIE karma intent crabs killing the snake to save the girl is not negative karma 120 week 3 rapid change and transformation of j apan barbaric place of civilization China brought knowledge of math engineering to japan Vinaya School ii within religious framework vinaya decides what is sangha samgha is the religious clergy professionals taiho law code de nes clergy government workers buddhists de ne themselves differently rules codes procedures sangha can induct new members not real clergies go to china come back and see that japan doesn t have buddhism properly constituted 10 seniors 733 sends two emissaries to china but they refuse to travel to Japan go to ganj ins temple 687763 master of tiantai and vinaya Ganj in calls forth volunteers to go to Japan disciples refuse Ganj in goes himself Ganj in gets shipwrecked eight times Ganj in loses eye sight China allows Ganj in to travel in a government ship tens of his disciples have died costly ordination platform in china had a pot of earth from india actual soil from india china to japan symbolic spiritual way of completion of j ourney seniority determined by the date of ordination not age heterogeneous clergy because if one were to get proper ordination they would lose seniority over people 3 step ordination process 1 shukke Hz39 leave home and resides in temple gt referred to as doji E boy as in low ranking 2 tokudo EFFE enlistment or induction to clergy gt shami 3 W have to be able to write and chant buddhist scriptures memorize a great deal members of the clergy therefore are very literate have to go to government sponsored temple tonsured 10 rules of training don t kill steal etc 3 jukai ordination get a ordination name Z become monastic member of clergy biku tISE bikunilSEJE ordination are closed to public but the local sangha can attend need 3 masters and 7 witnesses examine the person being ordained someone cannot force someone to be ordained exempt from taxes live at temple Rules of training kai i iprecept embodying morality clergy superior to ordinary people because they embody morality 3 Jewels buddha images dharma soriptures samgha religious clergy people 4 eXpulsion rules 1 sexual impropriety 2 murder 3 stealing 4 false claims of one s attainments say that they have magical powers enlightenment confessing and repenting becomes standard in east asia etiquette for daily life becomes buddhist rules 794 heian kyotonorthern capital southern capital nara nara continues to be the center of buddhism after the nara period Nara buddhism still eXists today nara buddhism provides the foundation properly constituted clergy professor teacher gt ltstate authorized buddhist learning lO ordinances government gives scholarship ordained and become eXperts in a portion of buddhist learning E l children of aristocratic family get karmic merit of family if someone from their family becomes this studied together 6 main schools 7397 shu mainstream buddhist philosophy 1 kusha indict treatises 2 zojitsu indict treatises great vehicle Buddhist philosophy 3 Sanron indict treatises 4 hosso indict treatises mainstream Chinese learning philosophy 5 vinaya school important chinese commentaries 6 kegon uni es in buddhist but chinese twist synthesis of buddhism only one that is sutra discourse words of the buddha important chinese commentaries 7 Doctrinal schools concerned with buddhist ideas academic nara buddhism not for ordinary people Abhidharma kosakusha written by vasubandhu 4 truths dharmas really real actually exist Kusha known as the school for existence things do not exist as everyone thinks is existing you are not individual but of atoms elements and forces contradicts common sense week 3 122 1 kusha from india 2 sanron from india 3 hosso from india kusha from india provides systematic overview of buddhist teaching detailed view of cosmology the way world declines coming and going 4 truths 1 suffering impermanence mujo nonself muga delusion and attachment 2 causality causes and effects driving this is karma action and reaction go i 3 stop gt nirvana 4 path 53 do michi l morality 2 mental cultivation 3 wisdom problem is the suffering and causality cure is the stop and path eightfold path 3 morality 3 cultivation 2 wisdom three fold learning way of moderation middle path middle way EFEE chudo avoid extremes pursuing pleasures asceticism selfdenial living in moderation and cooperate and form community resolve differences without harming one another 3 marks impermanence nonself suffering awakening of buddha is referred to as dou as well EE really real dharma if combinations and recombinations of elements middle way requires a technical meaning thinking that I eXist and thinking that nothing eXists self eXists vs nihilism buddhism rejects self eXistence and nihilism they don t eXists as we imagine but as dharma as combinations tathagarta NEE thus comes promote bene cial dharmas suppress harmful dharmas overview of human psychology dharmas that attract and repel one another what is happening around you sanron developed in India called madhyamaka meaning Middle Way treatises reject eXistence of dharmas fiction and not really real apple word next to it saying apple critique of language and communication and reality itself instead we have the emptiness of dharmas fig between eXistence and noneXistence simply relationships words are not inadequate but inherently false and imply eXistence that does not eXist therefore buddha does not preach refute error revealing the truth they are contradictory because it is not this therefore this eXists 2 levels of truth lordinary truth 2 ultimate truth inethible truth truth of silence direct truth Eiglg u shinzoku nitai everything is wrong but work with one another to get by pretend that things exist sunya zero positionality notion might have played a big role in algebra 0 and 1000000 cannot imagine describe in nity but rather is the way it is knowing in nity is knowing the ingraspability of it in terms of in nity things lose their xed position hosso in india yogacara trance eXperience alternative reality visit heaven hell other worlds appearances of dharmas conceptions dharma is not really real but mental processes way that we perceive reality middle way between eXistence and emptiness middle way is consciousness only mind only 3313 we create things that we perceive and intereact with them school of cognition involved in analyzing psychology with a twist happening inside of you 8 types of consciousness 5 senses encounter organs and objects mouth taste body encounter tactile objects olfactory consciousness 6 mind ground recognizes interaction between organ and objects feelings about things such as that guy is cute or i like this food selfre ective thinks about itself continues where you are in trance and sleeping 7 looks inward at the alaya and sees the alaya as a self clings to the alaya and self permanence sel sh consciousness sense of separation taints one s impression tainted by delusion consciousness self re ection constanttly lookinf back at 8alaya leaving small seeds in alaya 8 alaya WEEK all of these interactions are generating mental impulses bounce into subconsciousness and create ripples constantly change and evolve create agitation mental seeds E turned upside down inside out the consciousness becomes a mirror that re ect surrounding that depict reality as they are normally 7 shows a distorted mirror storehouse of consciousness this or past life buddha does not have consciousness but wisdom transformation from consciousness to wisdom overcoming consciousness requires a pure force purify mind by practicing good no beginning of time in nite buddhas not re ecting inward but outward because you are no longer re ecting on yourself saving others activating buddha nature everyone has the potential to be a buddha 2 types of good tainted good most part that is all we are capable of urozen 7 buddha and bodhisattvas are only capable of this murozen tainted good can energize pure force but we need help of buddha and bodhisattvas to do untainted good 1 auditors inferior buddhism lacking techniques 3 vehicles 2 solitary buddhas withdraw from society and become hermits only intered in saving themselves inferior buddhism lacking techniques 3 vehicles 3 bodhisattva involved in the worlds saving others using techniques greater vehicle 3 vehicles 4 undetermined spiritual potential can go either way depending on encountering the superior or inferior buddhism altogether 5 lack potential how much practicing buddhism don t make any progress beyond hope none giving to the clergy faith worship rituals generate merit and direct it towards the person who gives dreams are diluted eXists in the society that is very hierarchical saicho important for midterm 127 1 common sense etemalism self things eXist eternalism or nihilism suffering or bliss 2 kusha both yes and no impermanence nonself dharmas eXist causality middle way detachment no suffering 3 sanron neither yes nor no emptiness of self amp dharmas middle way bw eXistence and noneXistence wisdom liberation everything is relative nothing to cling onto refute false views 4 hosso consciousness only gt consciousness only middle way between eXistence and emptiness bodhisattva path implied hierarchy not everyone can achieve bodhisattva path people are suspicious of yes or no answers no one is wholly good Saicho 766 822 Dengyo daishi title Only gure to remember name well documented and rich material on his life 778 leaves home 780 inducted 185 ordained standard 3 step ordination members of clergy cannot reside in mountains because government doesn t allow buddhism of nara is corrupt not serving people Saicho wants to become pure When he becomes pure he will leave and help people People heard and joined clergy keeps ruler alive most important ritual 794 Heian Elli saicho named court chappelin zenji 4 Eli nara rst permanent capital new royal family indicate independence from nara get saicho who does not have any connections somehow saicho does not get into trouble no one including nara objects 802 saicho request to go to China since he is self taught if he does not have any lineage will not be fully respected kyo E sutra words of the buddha government places less importance on the lotus sutra nihon ryoiki places more importance lotus sutra has always been popular multiple manuscripts popular in asia and india translated into Chinese When talking about it they usually talk about Kumarajiva s translation not sanskrit ower sinks its root in mud but have beautiful pristine and pure ower above salvation purity is not found by escaping from the world cannot leave the mud behind not philosophical text doesn t talk about emptiness or causality but instead tells parables and stories illustrated sometimes by art performed relatively short profound ideas relationship bw pure and impurity how buddha appears to the world and how he actually is everlasting buddha embodyment of reality highest of all teachings offering universal salvation lotus sutra is only one vehicle not three like hosso by faith becoming a buddha anyone even women or evil people attracted opposition what happens when opposition is preached people who preach the lotus is punished but they are happily punished should be willing to suffer in order to proclaim it lotus buddhism way lotus sutra was interpreted in china Zhuyi lived in a mountain Tientai in China Tendai known in Japan by Saicho that is based on Tientai but different Zhuyi 589 Unification of China northern practiced mental cultivation southern practiced emptiness philosophical textual study Zhuyi uni es chinese buddhism mental cultivation and textual study intertwined seamlessly 3 main texts hokke mongu E3145 the words of the lotus sutra hokke gengi i secret meaning or signi cance maka shikan JEEEIJLEE mahayana greater vehicle calming and contemplation greater technique of mental cultivation progressive revelation of buddhism 5 periods 4 ways of teaching 4 doctrinal systems every teaching of buddha same words have different meaning sanron 2 levels of truth conventional ultimate emptiness 3 levels of truth 1 appearance Fizz diversity 2 middle chu both at the same time 3 emptiness ku unity positive meaning true emptiness marvelous existence EEEM E nonnegation implies possibilities there in Zhuyi but emphasized in japan shouhoujissou E i only buddhas understand reality of all dharmas thus appearance nature embodyance power function Zhuyi reads the lotus sutra in different ways by forcing different punctuation change the verb object and subject lotus sutra does not say what it says but can change nd meaning that ordinary people cannot see interpret in light of Zhuyi s commentaries and later by Saicho s as well 2 half of lotus 1 half traces 5b shaku foot prints scribbles you leave behind clue words tracks 2 half fundamentals hon 2 there are reality behind traces represent gods of Japan become buddhas of Japan buddha does not come and go always here not mysticism no unity ask about it contemplation of in nity 7 Z one instant of thought instantaneous thinking faster than a speed of light embodies 3000 realms of reality brie y eXplain what and why something is signi cant identify topic key elements same one that appears in the syllabus one sentence about each item 1 discourses sutra preached by buddha 2 disclipline vinaya 3 treatises 129 saicho 767822 tendai El ZIKEJEI Tiantai Zhuyi becomes Lotus Buddhism becomes medium to see all of buddhism Saicho arrives in Mt Tiantai of cially registered at the monastery acknowledged as disciple of Daosui so that he can be a teacher undergoes bodhisattva initiation jukai ordination kai morality Vinaya 3 steps third step is jukai ordination someone becomes worthy of merit different from ordinary people vinaya provides detailed rules of training greater and lesser buddhism where does Vinaya t Mahayana or Hinayana Ensure people practice a greater buddhism they added 3 steps of training plus a 4th that is the bodhisattva ordination that focuses on attitude Mahayana and Hinayana difference is benefit others E W vs self benefit Willi bodhisattvas take vows opposed to the rules in vinaya Ritual basis is Brahma Net Sutra Bonmoukyou Vinaya the rules are concrete if there are 7 damages in the bowl replace basis for organizing communal life 10 major vows 48 minor vows which are all universal anyone can aspire to help and save others ordination someone acquires a new status in the boddhisatva initiation they do not esoteric rituals saicho initiated into zen lineage returns to Japan bringing back chinese scriptures and 4 lineages 1 En 2 Mitsu 3 Zen 4 4 Kai only 14 chinese Tiantai 8059 Saicho appears in court conducts esoteric consecration ritual 1 draws boundary of sacred scpace 2 purifies by concecrating the water and pouring in boundaries 3 appread in the room 4 use sancrified water to draw mark forever links participant to water need special training to do this link 43 celebrated by aristocracy because he can perform this kind of ritual Saicho petitions to become a buddhist teacher 8 months to become most celebrated buddhist in Japan 8061 awarded yearly ordinands that government will sponsor 2 disciples l shikan JLEE sponsoring someone who will become a specialist in tiantai 2 shana 55335 vairocana key buddha in esoteric rituals not just tendai esoteric buddhism as well focus in Lotus sutra is sakamuni esoteric is a different buddha which one is more important Saicho will say they will work together and need both to perform identi es Lotus with the traces and fundamental with vairocana Kukai returns from China Saicho s knowledge of esoterism is elementary Kukai is very knowledgeable and comes back as a esoteric teacher Learns under the most famous buddhists of China Saicho calls himself the disciple of Kukai because he does not have the skill Kukai has to teach 814 Saicho makes a request to see Kukai s texts because his is focused on Lotus sutra opposed to Kukai s esoteric buddhism Kukai refuses because that is stealing dharma need to learn frmo mind to mind HIDE Saicho vows to change buddhism preaches the lotus sutra to people Tokuichi says Lotus Sutra is merely a technique Houben 731 no one is actually saved encourages people but an empty promise public debate between saicho and ichi about ie nature of salvation Saicho becomes more extreme by this starts denouncing nara and demeaning Hosso 8183 goes to mt hiei publicly repudiates his ordination with the Vinaya His bodhisattva initiation makes him a clergy not the ordination 8185 wants tendai school to be a mahayana clergy with bodhisattva monastics Saicho says clergy in mthiei should not be registered by nara not a legal clesiastial officials independent models Gyogi went to country side and taught ordinary people 8193 petition of saicho converting from hinayana to mahayana Nara have mixed studies Kusha Hina and Mahayana 2 kinds of ordination vinaya which is human ordination hinayana self mahayana ordination performed by buddhas and bodhisattvas 3 masters 1 sakamuni 2 manjusri and maitreya 7 witnesses ordination continues and timeless Saicho ignored twice but lastly evokes rebuttal and rejection 82264 Saicho dies rejected and defeated angry ghost in mountain looking over capital causing unease seven days later the court grants Saicho s petition furyakuji independence from the Nara 8237 rst boddhisatva invoke presence of buddhanot easily done until eyes bleed blood buddhism re eacts the capital of china and rules of vinaya and government shar distinction between clergy and ordinary people buddhism ni the countryside not th buddhism of china unique to japan not relying to vinaya fuzzy distinction between clergy and ordinary people spiritualization of ordinary life buddhism will be all japanese life freed from the contro of the government mt hiei becomes incorporated into royal family nara and mthiei have everlasting rivalry nara scholastic training saicho mental cultivation and practice esoteric esoteric secret exoteric revealed normally not mixed but saicho says they are mixed exoesoteric buddhism referred as kenmitsu 3 japanese poetry exoteric poetry but esoteric rituals and practice cultural arts will haev eso and exoterc aspect saicho is dead created this but not there to lead it tendai has to evolve and lead it will never be fully forth powerhouse of evolution of buddhist culture Ennin and Enchin are pivotal to the creation studies in China and esoteric buddhism Kukai is the main until now but when Ennin comes back it will shift the main to mt hiei Tendai becomes known as Taimitsu esoteric tendai Kukai s known as kegon Esoteric buddhism centered around practice have to do not just read 1 have to know it for yourself secret cannot be communicated also in the sense tha you have to be initiated by a guru fits vow is secrecy always very limited room purified presence of buddha is invoked connection to buddha learn to do what buddha does 2 need rituals art icons compleX system of practice learning hand signs mudra 3 learn chants and spells known as the mantradharani 4 visualizations become one with the buddha by energizing desire and channel it through body passion are awakening fire concecration powerful way of lotus sutra is sutra of parables Yana in hinayana and mahayana is vehicle vehicles of the auditors goat solitary buddhists deer ox bodhisattvas lotus sutra says that there is only one path one vehicle eka yana and lotus sutra saves everyone Tiantai in China ranked every teaching 1 Kegon 2 Kusha doctrine 3 Sanron emptiness 4 bodhisattva 5 Lotus and Nirvana bibliographic analysis 1 interest 2 what they re proving how strong is their argument how can they improve MIDTERM answer the questions what is important about it why it matters not speci c like 4 noble truths but about kusha Focus on not all information but what is important relationship between govenmment and buddhism imporatntveec of ordicnation politicala nd buddism of people guyogi good and bad monks saicho parable of 3 vehicles cannon nihon ryoiki esoteric secret kusha treatises hosso treatises academic enterprise philosophical revealed in books exoteric saicho mixes and esoteric and revolutionizes buddhism in tendai Kenmitsu mixed ritual mikkyo constitutes totality of everything body voice and mind both in level of human being and buddha sokushin jobutsu El QWA becoming buddha in your own body indicate that esoteric teaching manipulate not just your own body own and voice and extends to the world around you without form i with form and images tools impliments esoteric practice has elaborate agenda have asthetic and appeal to them Uses passions and and goals people are encourages by what they want Kukai parents want him to be successful Gumonjiho Xiilll if everything that he learned in school was wrong Kukai is the rst professor he has great relations with government and schools of nara kukai established ritual halls of esoteric teaching in nara esoteric applies to nara and tendai in royal palace initiates ruler initation that aconverts king to a ruler new year procedure for royal court Japanese ruler has always been buddhist Toji was granted to Kukai for his followers Toji the eastern temple in Kyoto becomes one of the most important temples in Japan Mt hiei against rest of the world Kukai lives long enough that he is able to establish his system of esoteric buddhism not saicho his esoteric buddhism is developed by his followers Kukai s esoteric buddhism gets to be known as shingon Esoteric known as kukai s model ten abiding minds spiritual approaches jujushinron all submits outline of esoteric buddhism but also religion as a whole Beginning of religious studies 1 people without any morals have goat like minds nonreligiouspeople go to hell as a result 2 confucianism focused on human affairs but at best reborn as a human 3 Daoism transcending the worlds leaving human affairs behiund following the way of natural process more broad rebirth in heaven if they are lucky 4 auditors cling to the lietral meaning of the buddha emphasize nonself and detachment do not really acquire wisdom kusha 5 solitary buddhas go off and live in mountains acquire greater understanding but lack techniques 6 Hosso teaches boddhisatva path 7 sanron emptiness words and labels are empty the writing are conveneint notions even the ranking of the teachings 8 Tendai tientai universal salvation one vehicle universal salvation emptiness marvelous reality always diversity not oneness 9 Kegon nara schools most important form of exoteric buddhism Main buddha is vairocana In eastern great temple cosmic buddha in center of everything oneness of all things monism oneness One mind of the buddha IE diversity are mutal absorption interpenetration items plus items are same item surface refects the wold around them mirror like wisdom given a metaphysical value explain mature itself transforming mind is transforming reality 10 Vajrayana diamond vehicle cosmic buddha reality he is infinite all places all times communicates the techniques are the decoding of the words of maha vairocana through object sounds sights time is instant transform into a buddha benefits are real and immidiate who is maha vairocana body 6 greate elements earth wind water fire space and mind we are also maha vairocana but we dont know how to access it apperance 4 great mandala map or diagram depicts where we are were and are going to be it is the world and our understanding of it world cosmos mind human natue qualities of the buddha l dai great everything whole 2 sanmaya EHJ39IEHB individual objects 3 ho if preaching the dharma sounds of the world songs of birds wind sound of the waterfall 4 katsuma karma meaning actions and activity sun rising in the morning phases of moon owers blossoming all the different postures depict physical movements sees from every direction from the buddhas functions activities body shin voice ku and mind language becomes decoding language of relity called shingon true words kukai could not cooperate with saicho because it was contradicting 123 is non buddhist approaches trapper in cycle of rebirth 45 is inferior can escape from rebirth but neither help others 6789 is mahayana greater vehicle all are exoteric buddhism based on sakyamuni 10 esoteric Esoteric buddhism calls vairocana maha vairocana great vairocana sakyamuni is a physical buddha appears in certain time and place so limited in time and place awakening and wisdom cannot be eXplained in words beyond description lacks communication time to awakening but there is no progress in exoteric because no one has the time to wait Bene t s theoritical but karma Wins at the very end
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