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This 25 page Bundle was uploaded by June on Friday June 5, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COM202 at University of Washington taught by Prof.Malcom in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see COM202 in Communication at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 06/05/15
Language and Soc1al Change 6 416 Today we focus on two big ideas about language 1 It is alive it is always changing 2 It is intertwined with identity and culture 1 Language is alive responding to changes in culture over time Languages split into different languages converge into create a new language 1 Fueled by migration isolation invasion colonization travel communication 2 The result is that there are between 6000 and 7000 languages being spoken in the world today Language Families Many languages share common origins creating language families 0 Some are small the Khoisan family includes about 30 languages with 100000 speakers in South Africa 0 Some are very large The Sino Tibetan Family includes some 250 languages Mandarin Chinese alone is spoken by over one billion people 0 Indo European family includes about 150 languages and about three billion speakers Language famin with the most speakers Indo European Single language spoken in the greatest number of countries English gtpower in language Export and import language Single language spoken by the most people Mandarin Chinese Mandarin 12 billion Spanish 329 million English 328 million Arabic 221 million Differences in Language are so important that people fight over them Continuing political divisions and tensions in Quebec between English speakers and French Canadian speakers Urdu speaking West Pakistan and Bangla speaking East Pakistan went to war separating into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971 Dialects a form of a language that shares much with the original language but differs in many ways as well more than an accent Speakers of different dialects will sometimes have difficulty understanding each other Examples Black English or African American Vernacular English AAVE Appalachian English Sometimes dialects evolve into separate languages French and Italian come from dialects of Latin What s the difference between a language and a dialect Not just having different words or pronunciation No clear line between a dialect and a language Calling something a dialect is about politics and culture as much as language 0 Black English is it a dialect or just poor English 0 He been done work vs He finished work earlier Discussions about language vs dialects come down to power 0 Linguist Max Weinreich 1945 A language is a dialect with an army and a navy Regional In uences Sometimes regional differences grow to become dialects Appalachian English as example But there are also many smaller regional differences or regionalisms more likely if the region is isolated 0 Carbonated beverage coke pop or a soda 0 Sandwich sub torpedo hoagie grinder Jargon and technical talk Language is often specialized to facilitate discussion of technical issues in professional hobby sports and other settings 0 legal language medical language ski jargon Jargon is not bad It does 2 good things for the groups that use it 0 Makes communication more precise informative 0 Enhances group cohesion feeling of belonging when you share the same jargon Slang and Colloquialisms Informal language used by people who belong to the same group or share an interest Sharing slang reinforces group membership who s in who s not Difficult to separate sometimes from technical jargon but generally less precise more informal 0 twerking carbon footprint pressitute tubeception hashtag tldr Specialized relationship talk Think of your close relationships do you have special nicknames insults and other words and phrases that you use just with one person or just in you family Dialects and jargon are applied to relatively large groups but this is specialized language for just one relationship Like other specialized language specialized relational talk 0 Makes communication easier more precise 0 Reinforces the relationship by marking a boundary by making it special Language is alive What changes How the first four lines of the Canterbury Tales might sound almost 650 years later 0 And bathed every veyne in swich licour gt and bathed every vein in that liquid 0 Of which vertu engendred is the our gt by whose power is produced the ower Let s make this more personal by thinking of how your own slang changes 0 What s new What s outdated All language changes slang fastest grammar slowest 11 Language is Intertwined with Culture and Identity Language and identity are connected Does that mean that if you change the way you use language you are changing who you are How about culture if we suddenly all decided or were forced to speak a different language would still be the same culture What if anything would be different specifically Should we be concerned when an entire language goes extinct Roughly 50 of the world s about 60007000 languages are in real danger of being lost 0 Either they are not being replaced because the last native speakers are dying off 0 Or Speakers are switching to more widely used languages like Chinese English Hindi and Spanish Standard definitions of culture 1 Culture A unique combination of rituals religious beliefs ways of thinking and behaving that unify a group of people 2 Coculture A group that eXists within a larger dominant culture but differs from it in one or more significant ways replaces subculture Cultures and cocultures miX and in uence each other as never before in history Fueled by migration isolation invasion colonization m communication Soculture A1 39 This makes culture m less important and more important at the same time quot quot Does this sound contradictory It is How could both be true at the same time Standard approaches to intercultural communication Usually we focus on the most visible differences Language use food preferences dress Improving communication using this approach 0 Learning language including pronunciation 0 Learning typical values and attitudes of the other culture 0 Learning customs and etiquette 0 Identifying common errors made by people from your culture when dealing with second culture Small Differences Can Make a Big Difference Social identity theory reminds us surface factors count 0 We use them to instantly classify in group and out group members 0 And that triggers differences in the way we feel and interact with them Shibboleth A word whose pronunciation identifies its speaker as being a member or not a member of a particular goup 0 Haiti FrenchCreole Parsley Dominican Republic Spanish Perejii 0 In Oct 1937 Dominican President Rafael Trujillo wanted to get rid of people of Haitian descent who lived along the border So he ordered his soldiers would hold up a sprig of parsley ask What is this and assume that those who could not pronounce the Spanish word perejii were Haitian 0 Those who failed were killed 20000 people killed during a five day period Looking for Deeper Dimensions of Difference Individualism vs Collectivism 0 Individualism people see themselves as independent favor personal goals and values over group goals think that it is right to follow personal beliefs and to leave groups if they have differences Value directness clarity 0 Collectivism people see their identities in terms of the group prioritize relationships over individual goals emphasize loyalty to group over personal desires follow group norms and rules May value indirectness if it preserves face Vertical vs Horizontal 0 Vertical cultures emphasize power differences hierarchy acceptance of inequalities between individuals amp groups loyalty to one s own group 0 Horizontal cultures seek to minimize power differences reduce hierarchy inequalities not seen a fixed emphasize equality between people An Alternative Approach Culture as ambient communication ambient always there Culture is the stuff you take for granted 0 Information that you hear many times and in many places So it is 0 Information that you assume everybody knows The paradox of intercultural communication 0 You are not aware of what you take for granted 0 So the things that outsiders need to know about your culture are the hardest to eXplain because you are not aware of them Visitors to a culture may be especially aware of what natives take for granted What was something that Americans seem to all know to take for granted but was new or strange to you Thinking of My Home in Ch ang While Traveling with the Army on the Ninth by Ts en Shen 715770 If only I could climb somewhere But no one sends me wine My poor distant garden of mums Blooms by a battlefield now So What isn t this just the old approach about learning words customs 0 Yes and no 0 It is about whether words and behaviors are interpreted in the same way 0 But examples like this also show how shared culture is a resource that allows people to communicate deeper meanings meanings that refer things not being said directly Let s test out ambient cultural knowledge a little bit more When you separate the wheat from the chaff do you gt Decide what is important A vicious circle is gt A chain of events in which the solution to a problem creates a worse problem If you have a skeleton in the closet you gt Have a secret past A Stalking horse is gt A person who tests the market for another person s product or candidacy Conclusions so far Understanding cultural differences has to go beyond appreciating differences in language and customs The real differences are difficult to talk about because we don t think about out own culture It is ambient always there Cultural assumptions form the basis for ways of convincing people for evaluating what they say and who they are Culture is a toolkit for creating shared meanings 1 Identify major types of nonverbal codes 2 Brie y explore an application Spotting lies deception SIX MAJOR TYPES OF NONVERBAL CODES A Body Movement and Facial Expression Called kinesic codes includes facial expressions movements postures gestures Think body movement Five major types Affect displays emblems illustrators adaptors regulators l Affect display affectemotion displays of emotion on the face but may involve other parts of the body as well 0 Anger happiness disgust surprise sadness fear a Capable of many thousand but all are varieties on these six basic emotional displays b These basic emotions are displayed the same way in all cultures but what triggers them varies c May also involve body changes blushing stomping feet etc Emblems gestures that have more or less standardized meanings and can substitute for words 2 l39 l39li I f quot5 a AT x 3 w Mr 3 Illustrators gestures that go with and reinforce verbal messages 0 Not standardized Cannot stand alone always go with speech 0 Illustrators are closely linked to speech both processed in same area of brain We use illustrators even wen the person we re speaking to cannot see us 5 Regulator nonverbal movements that control the pace or direction of interaction 0 May include gestures facial expressions body orientation tone of voice 0 Watch for examples of how people nonverbally signal that 0 It is their turn to talk Turningtaking cues 0 They do not want to be interrupted a 0 They want to leave want to come closer Dance the ultimate form of regulation no look pass The too small dorm room apartment or kitchen turns us all into dancers B Proxemics the use of space and distance to send messages PWPE ji Humans are territorial animals We mark and defend space We judge status based on how much space someone controls 0 Personal Space 0 Proxemics codes are very sensitive to individual gender and cultural differences C Chronemics the organization and use of time for communication Includes our expectations for how time should be organized 0 One activity at a time monochromic vs Multi tasking with several activities at once polychromic 0 Are we texting when we should be talking Chronemics includes rules an expectations about a how quicklv something should happen e g how long can you delay responding to a text or voice messages b how long events should last e g how long do you have to stay at the family dinner table after finishing dinner before you can leave c how events should be sequenced e g Can you just ask someone out or do you need to text first D Tactile Communication communication using touch the first communication code we learn Touch from caregivers is essential for babies and infants to thrive Touch is important both in rituals laying on the hands and in expressing support and affection Large cultural and gender differences in the use of tough a Women touch and are touched more often b Large cultural differences in touch Spanish French gt US gt Japan Touch also conveys power The more powerful touch the less powerful 0 So being touched inappropriately is linked to abuse and discrimination Technology and tactile communication 0 An android phones that vibrate when you type press screen or tap buttons 0 Force feedback on game controllers 0 But how about using technology to touch others by remote control 0 Like A Hug Demonstration projects by Melissa Kit Chow at MIT E Paralinguistie Cues vocal but nonverbal Includes pitch rate in ection volume pronunciation silence etc We often judge people according to slowfast or loudsoft gt in uences our attention judgments of intimacy power Can be sounds alone cries laughing but usually accompany speech F Objects and artifacts also called artifaetual codes Many judgments about individuals and groups are based on the objects and artifacts associated with them Types Personal artifacts such as hair styles and jewelry including body art e g taboos piercing 0 Personal artifacts also include clothing and other objects associated with us as individuals Types Shared artifacts include things we use with others homes offices cars Types Public artifacts includes architecture urban design and other things typical of a place or culture An ApplieationSpotting Liars Detecting Deception Can you spot lies Are there reliable cues that signal deception Many have been suggested that nonverbal codes hold the key 0 Breaking eye contact Rolling eyes up Fidgeting calm voice nervous hands or legs Variations in voice little tremors Licking the lips Long pause Many businesses use lie detectors to test 0 Some require a lie detector test to be considered for employment Over 160 airports in the US are using SPOT Screening Passengers by Observation technique 0 SPOT relies one watching for nonverbal signs that someone might be a security threat might be hiding something 0 Costs about 1 billion Do any of these really work gt NO 0 Humans are poor lie detectors 0 No reliable nonverbal signs of lying 0 No technology has been shown to boost lie detection much above chance 0 Everything happens at once Humans are unique in their ability to communicate in so many different ways at the same time 0 We are multicoders So how do all the pieces fit together Four basic ways that codes can be related 1 One code can repeat or duplicate another either could stand alone 0 Holding up three fingers while saying Yes 3 cups of coffee 2 One can emphasize another make more or less intense 0 Raising your voice while saying This is really important 0 Looking sad while saying You hurt my feelings 3 One code can complement another neither can stand alone need both to interpret message 0 How all the pieces of a look with clothing and jewelry fit together 4 One code can contradict another 0 Saying I m not made anymore in a still angry voice 0 Looking at your watch while telling the other person you want to hear what they have to say Clarity and Ambiguity Is clarity always best 0 Four ways a message can become ambiguous 0 Five reasons people often choose to be ambiguous So what makes a message unclear Ambiguous Suppose someone asks how things are going with a romantic partner And suppose you don t really want to say but have to say something Four ways to be ambiguous or unclear 1 Content is contradictory or difficult to interpret 0 We re fine No problems to speak of 0 Of course sometimes we create ambiguous messages accidently 2 Ambiguous if it is not clear that the opinions being expressed are those of the speaker 0 Most people say we are doing well 3 Create uncertainty about whether your message is intended for the listener 0 Give a verbal response but also avoid eye contact or make it unclear that the response was really directed at the person asking the question 4 Give an indirect answer or one that changes the topic 0 Well we re going to Becky s party on Saturday Clarity is generally good but are there situations where it helps to be ambiguous 1 Politeness you don t want to lie but being completely honest would hurt someone s feelings 0 Being silent would be impolite so you have to say something 0 Politeness is the art of choosing among your thoughts Madame de Stael 2 Selfprotection you don t want to lie but being completely honest would lead to criticism or punishment 3 Maintaining privacy an open response would violate privacy of an individual or relationship 4 Your feelings are still unsettled trying to be too clear forces you to make decisions before you are ready 5 Manage receivers with con icting expectations Letting different people read in the meaning they want Last time 6 major types of codes 1 Body Movement and Facial expressions 2 Proxemics space 3 Chronemics time 4 Tactile Communication touch 5 Paralinguistic codes vocal 6 Objects and artifacts Four Differences between language and Nonverbal Codes 1 Language use is more standardized 2 Language has inner structure grammar and words that nonverbal to do not 3 We usually exert less conscious control over most nonverbal than we do over words 4 Very few nonverbal expressions can be simply translate into words only emblems Sometimes trying to follow body language does not add anything new So popular body language books just repackage and resell what you already know You feel smart but for a price You are not getting any new knowledge Let s go back to body language that supposedly signals deception Many have been suggested that nonverbal codes hold the key Breaking eye contact Rolling eyes up Fidgeting Variations in voice Licking the lips Long pause Not only do these not work but believing they do can make you easier to lie to By focusing on a single interpretation body language books encourage you to 0 Assign meaning where the source may no have had any 0 Assign one specific meaning when there were many other interpretations possible 0 The shoe Fondle So thinking about nonverbal like language can get you into trouble Four real keys to understanding nonverbal codes 1 Think about how they all fit together focus on pattern 2 Think about how they fit with language 3 Recognize that nonverbal do not always have to mean something 4 Remember the context How we see ourselves shapes how we perceive nearly every other aspect of communication Today 1 What self concepts are 2 How they are formed through communication 3 How they in uence the way we communication so it s all about Q But who are you anyway What are selfconcepts All the answers you give to the question Who am 1 Gender sexual orientation ethnicityrace height weight other physical characteristic age family relationship friendship work relationship romantic relationship place of originbirthplace Formal groups you belong to informal groups you belong to religious affiliation political affiliation hobbies activitiessports other interests positivenegative personality traits skills or abilities Above all your list shows what you think is most important most essential about you Some research findings Gender differences 0 w use more statements about personal qualities that do not relate to other people eg I like to play basketball 0 Women use more statements about groups they belong to eg I am a woman or I am fan of amp more statements that relationships with others eg I am kind to others Cultural differences Israelis use more statements about groups and relationships more self critical statements than Americans gtkKeep in mind these are statistical trends and will not apply to every individual On your sheet a count how many of the statements expressed a positivenegative judgment 0 did you notice that you became more judgmental as you went on The evaluative component of selfconcepts is called selfesteem It is how we judge ourselves Different situations bring out different self concepts COIlCCptS 0 Different with family than with friends 0 Different online than face to face Especially anonymous online settings 0 Different at different times even with same person Some selfconcepts are more important to us than others 0 Especially important or perhaps not so important 0 Self concepts change over time WHERE DO SELFCONCEPTS AND SELFESTEEM JUDGMENTS COME FROM Born with them 0 Born with characteristics but the meaning we give them comes from our communication Self concepts are the residue of all the messages we have received Five Sources of self concepts and self esteem 0 Direct Feedback from Others 0 Indirect or implicit Feedback from others 0 Media Images 0 Social roles 0 Social Comparison 1 Direct feedback from others 0 What others say directly to or about us Memorable messages 0 Grades awards other kinds of behavior directed at us as feedback 2 Indirect implicit feedback 0 What we imagine others think of us based on how they act 0 What we infer based on how they respond to us 0 so this is an inference a meaning we assign even if we don t think they are trying to communicate directly 3 Media Images 0 important source of standards for how we should look and act 0 However media images are themselves highly manipulated gtkeven our sense of our physical bodies is shaped by our communication 4 Social Roles 0 A role is a package of ways of thinking acting and relating to others 0 When we play a role it becomes part of us 0 We learn roles training imitation modeling 0 Staying in role is socially rewarded failing to do the role properly is punished 5 Social Comparison 0 How we think we compare to others 0 Media provide many points of comparison but so do people we meet face to face 0 How do you use Facebook for social comparison TWO WAYS THAT OUT SELFCONCEPTS INFLUENCE YOUR COMMUNICATION Self concepts affect 0 Choice of people to communicate with 0 The way you interpret their messages We prefer to associate with people who are like us 0 A form of selective exposure seeking contact with people who are similar to us 0 We prefer those with similar age ethnicity economic position political beliefs tastes interests etc 0 True across all cultures group members stick together 0 Think of how you choose friends select people when you want advice select co workers to hang out with Reinforcement principle we prefer to associate with people who will accept us that is who will reinforce out existing self Think about what kind of political information people seek out Links between political blogs in 2004 elections Bloggers on the political right red and bloggers on the political left blue had very little exchange nearly all the links were between people who basically already agreed with each other Selfconcepts shape how e interpret messages To see how this selective perception works rate how phvsicallv attractive you are Two processes at work here Assimilation effect ignoring small differences between message and out selfconcept Contrast effect treating larger differences as if they are even bigger than they actually are Using mental strategies to reject others messages 0 By challenging source s motives 0 By challenging source s expertise 0 By saying the circumstances are unusual 0 By simply ignoring or forgetting We generally select others for interaction and interpret their messages so as to reinforce out existing views of ourselves 0 Doesn t matter if your selfimage is positive or negative 0 This explains why selfconcepts are so hard to change So how do our selfconcepts actually change 1 Small increments small steps takes time 2 Large number of messages 3 Variety of sources especially those who support new selfOimage Changing a self concept may mean changing your social network 4 Conscious effort to override our own defenses by 0 seeking unbiased assessments 0 Focusing on counterexamples 0 Five Types of Social Power 1 Coercive Power 0 Ability to force obedience 0 Use of force directly Chilling effect of demonstrations of force 0 I don t do something because I worry that Coercive power will happen if I do 0 Health risk from violence 2 Reward Power 0 Providing what the other person wants or desires from compliments to cash 0 Removing or reducing things that are unwanted or unpleasant 3 Referent Power 0 Power based on our desire to be liked or accepted 0 Power based on admiration or wish to be like another 4 Expert Power 0 Providing information technical skills experience 0 Requires trust 0 How do you judge expertise in your personal areas of interest 0 DrPark s dentist example Trust expertise but maybe not the motive 5 Legitimate Power authority 0 based on position role 0 not about the person but about position Must be accepted 0 Must be combined with other forms of power to last Food for thought Power is more about the receiver s dependence than about the source s abilities or resources No one can make you feel inferior without your consent Eleanor Roosevelt They may torture my body break my bones even kill me Then they will have my dead body but not my obedience Mahatma Gandhi New media mobiles social network sites the internet generally can undermine traditional power structures 0 New York Times we can depend on other kinds of news sources 0 Physical video 0 Post office 0 Illegal music downloading undermines recording company artists But are new power structures especially media power structures emerging 0 Do new media bring new forms of dependence Here s looking at you Doing a small habit you re not proud of in front of someone who s opinion of you matters to you a great deal What kind of power are you giving this person over you Referent power 0 Who else has referent power for you That is who s opinion matters enough so that you d change your behavior to gain their approval What is your relationship with each of these people Is it close Do ppl we re not so close to have this same power Core idea Being observed by others has a powerful in uence on our behavior 0 Do you think you can be too open to others in uence can only be answered by ourselves 0 What if important parts of your life were always on display Often to people you didn t know well or care much about To complete strangers Facebook is an online directory for a good chunk of the human race with the names photos tastes and desires of nearly a billion people New York Times May 15 2012 In what other ways is your behavior being observed online and with what effects Key Points from Eli Pariser Talk 1 9599 J gt19 Traditional journalists broadcasters and publishers once acted as gatekeepers Today the internet has shifted from human gatekeepers to algorithmic gatekeepers What you get on the web is not the same as what other people get Today we live in a filter bubble created by the invisible algorithmic editing of the web In the filter bubble 0 You don t decide what gets in 0 You don t know what s left out Software personalizes our experience of Facebook YahooNews Google Algorithms show us what they think we want to see but maybe not what we need to se Filters emphasize what we click on first placing impulsive choices first Two more things to think about 0 If you relinquish your privacy on Facebook about everything from your musical preferences to your sexual hang ups you are less likely to be troubled by an anonymous government agency knowing whom you call or what websites you visit Sherry Turkle Alone Together Why we Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other 2011 0 French social commentator Michel Foucault modern governments don t need as much surveillance because they have created citizens who watch themselves Good Surveillance The Bin Cam Project 0 Kitchen bin wa mobile phone to automatically captures photos of your waste 0 Goal Reduce food waste ampencourage recycling 0 Photos are then tagged using a crowd sourcing service like Mechanical Turk 0 Images amp reports then downloaded to your personal computer of Facebook page gtgtWhat else could be don t with the date 0 Health insurance company can buy the information 0 Raise or cut off insurance rate Even good surveillance sometimes has other edge in the world where we don t know all the info ends up Let s end on a more positive and fun note So far people are very sensitive to how others view them From our study of nonverbal communication 0 Especially sensitive to faces 0 In fact we have special neurons that respond selectively to eyes amp faces gtgtSo how could we use this information to encourage positive behavior 0 Think of situations in which people are on their honor to leave money or clean up after themselves 0 Melissa Bateson and her colleagues decided to test the power of being observed in their department s food area at the University of Newcastle UK 0 People used an honor system to pay for tea coffee and milk 0 Bateson wanted to know if putting up a picture of a face next to the honesty cup made a difference 0 So for 10 weeks they alternated pictures of owers with pictures of eyes 0 They tracked how much money was left each week gtgtResults 0 On average people paid 276 times as much in the weeks with eyes and in the weeks with owers Today we have seen that 0 We often conform in ways we can t easily justify 0 Types of power coercive reward expert referent legitimate 0 Power is not so much something as in a relationship between people 0 Our in uence over other often ows from their knowledge of out interests desires and needs 0 Our willingness to make information about ourselves available makes it easier for others to in uence and control us 0 Our sensitivity to others opinions of us makes it possible to in uence us even with very minimal cues Multitasking is a way of life for most 0 8 18 year olds in the US spend one quarter of their media time using multiple media 0 24 of 12 18 year olds use another media M of the time while watching TV gtgtHow often do you multi task with media of some type 0 Never to rarely 3 and often to nearly all the time 80 past com class Many multitask during classes 0 40 often send or look at text messages during classes 0 35 sometimes send or look at text messages during classes 0 35 check Facebook or other SNS often or very often 0 65 check e mail sometimes or more often 0 25 often or very often look at webpages unrelated to class 0 8 often or very often play games on electronic device Multitasking with homework is the norm 17 no multi tasking 0 65 use their mobile phones 65 listen to music 60 monitor Facebook 40 look at webpages 0 20 watch TV Most believe that they are good at multitasking with media 0 36 good or very good lt you may not know what you are missing 0 32 somewhat good 0 14 neither good or bad 0 18 very bad or bad or somewhat bad Research shows that multitasking 0 Makes each task take longer because of extra time needed to reorient 0 Disrupts learning poorer comprehension less retention 0 Shortens attention span thus reducing creativity 0 Increases stress 0 Generally Reduces productivity Example study Effects of email use among office workers 0 Design 0 Workers in a govt office wore heart rate monitors and a software was installed in their computer to see how often they switched windows 0 E mail was blocked for half for 5 days other half of workers had normal e mail access gtgtResults 0 Without e mail feeling less stressed and being more productive 0 With e mail more stressed less normal heart rates I With e mail were less productive switches screens twice as often 0 Without e mail reported feeling more isolated Risks of media multitasking go beyond stress and lower productivity 0 2013 Ohio State University study of 100 emergency rooms across US Injuries to pedestrians on cell phones have more than doubled in last 5 years Teens who text every time they drive 25 Teens who have extended text exchange 20 0 Parents who have extended text exchange 10 I To reduce accidents 0 Mobile phone sidewalk installed in 2014 in Chongqing China Information Overload 000 I 25amp of students say they often or very often experience information overload I 33 say they sometimes do Definition Exposure to more information than one can meaningfully process and the stress and poor decisions that come from it Three Causes of information overload 1 Dramatic increases in the sheer amount of information 2 Increases in the number of channels sources you feel you need to pay attention to 0 more than one kind of SNS 3 Rapid changes in format and presentation styles Coping with information Overload Step 1 Recognize that more information does not necessarily lead to better decisions 0 Studies of consumers show that giving more information about more brands does not improve decisions I No gain by having more information Step 2 Distinguish essential from non essential information I 28 of students say they have difficulty with this I 72 say are sometimes distracted by unimportant information Step 3 Make distinctions based on source credibility I 60 of students say they sometimes have difficulty sorting out what to believe when sources con ict 0 Source credibility an old technical term that refers to two judgments that we make about speakers or sources or information 0 Expertise I Does source have credentials Experience I Does source have record of knowledge in this area I Can I find a third party endorsement of source s expertise 0 Trustworthiness I Do I trust the source I Does the source have a strong self interest in hisher position I Is there independent confirmation of the source s claims 0 Distinguish credibility from popularity 0 Internet software measures popularity more easily than credibility I 20 30 of reviews on sites like Yelp and Tripadvisor are fake 0 Signs that a review might be fake I Reviewer hasn t reviewed anything else I Multiple reviews with similar language I Too many odd details e g full productmodel names gt boost algorithm I Reviewer uses extreme language positive or negate Step 4 Take control of your media I 66 of students wished you could disconnect from their media but worried they d miss something important 0 FOMO Fear of Missing Out 0 41 say others will be frustrated with them if they disconnect 0 How many hours a day is your cell phone or mobile device on How about your computer 0 Open to distraction habitual 0 Limit your availability to texts e mail phone etc 0 Avoid letting communications applications running in the background 0 Turn off cell phone when engaged in other activities your messages will wait 0 Resist others attempts make your more accessible amp accountable than you wish I What are the barriers 0 People s expectation interconnection job interview So Why are we talking about tough love for our always onalways connected lives 0 Because of the widespread but controversial belief that social media and mobiles detract from deeper human relationships 0 Are our relationships becoming nothing more than an endless series of status updates 0 Do we text rather than really talk 0 DO we surf and sample relationships online as a substitute for sustained face to face conversation Is high connectivity making us more reactive less thoughtful more stressed 0 41 say their electronic connections are sometimes or often a source of stress 0 Are we substituting shallow electronic contacts for more meaningful interpersonal connections Real Conversation Characteristics of real conversation 1 Not driven by a task to be done specific purpose goal 2 Face to face 3 Minimal distractions not broken up not multi tasking 4 Open expression but also active listening fully engages checking interpretation giving feedback 5 90 minutes What are the benefits of real conversation 0 More accurate useful information 0 Reductions in stress greater emotional connection 0 Being fully engaged releases oxytocin a neurotransmitter linked to bonding 0 More benefits study by Matthias Mehl at University of Arizona using electronically activated voice recorders gtgtStudy 0 Participants wore the EAR for 4 days during their waking hours averaged 17 hrs per day 0 EAR record was programmed to record 30 seconds out of every 125 minutes 0 Participants didn t know whether machine was recording or not Mehl and his transcribed each snippet then coded what they heard into these categories 1 m not talking 2 Small talk uninvolved banal conversation in which only trivial information was exchanged 0 What do you have there Popcorn Yummy 3 Substantive conversation big talk conversation that was involved and was about something that seemed important to the participant 0 She fell in love with your dad So did they get divorced soon after They also collected several other measures 0 Satisfaction with life 0 Psychological well being 0 Happiness 0 Informants judgments of participant s happiness gtgtFindings 1 Big talk occurred more often than small talk 355 vs 179 of all conversations remaining fell in between 2 The greater proportion of time al g the lower the well being satisfaction with life and happiness 3 The frequency of small talk was not related to well being happiness and satisfaction 4 But the larger the proportion of small talk and smaller the proportion of big talk the lower the well being satisfaction with life and happiness Goal was not to be some crazy guy preaching about the evils of tech instead you are encouraged to be more conscious and critical of the choices you make but they re your choices 0 Can you be more strategic about multi tasking actually get more done and feel less stressed 0 Are there ways you can cope more effectively when you experience information overload 0 Can reduce habitual uses of social media 0 Can we make more meaningful conversations a priority Network thinking helps us to 0 Better see how we relate to others 0 Connect our personal relationships to larger groups 0 See how our actions may in uence others far beyond the immediate situation 0 See how people and events far away from us may in uence us 0 Help us understand how everything from diseases to new ideas spread Social Networks The structures created by the linkages between individuals or social groups 0 composed of Ldes and m Just two basic elements but they can be defined in different ways for different purposes Nodes the elements being linked 0 Individuals 0 Groups of people 0 Organizations institutions 0 Devices 0 Websites Links connections between nodes 0 Strength of relationship who s close to whom 0 Communication who talks to whom 0 Content behavior who shares information or behavior with whom Roles in Networks 0 Group member a set of people who have most of their communication with each other 0 Bridge group members who have a connection outside the group 0 Liaison not a member of a group but links two or more groups together 0 Most powerful connects the greatest number of people and resources have lots of in uence 0 Most creative don t get the obligation to work on stuff they don t want to work on more freedom 0 Isolate no regular connection with anyone else ltltleast powerful Density of Networks 0 Tightly knit or loosely knit 0 Many connections between members or few 0 Ratio of actual number of links to total number possible Centrality in Networks 0 In the center of things vs being out of the loop 0 Individuals who are directly linked to more people 0 But it is also how many people your links are links to 0 That is you are more central if you know people who know people How you are linked to others in a network will in uence 0 How you behave 0 How much freedompower you have 0 The information you receive 0 The risks and benefits that come your way 0 And it is not just who you are linked to it s also how your links are linked to others Two implications 1 Knowing who the people you are linked to are linked to others is important 0 But people accurately identify only about 4050 of their friends close friends 2 More we know about the structure of our social network the better 0 Who do we know who do they know 0 Does my network open my world or close it in 0 Are there gaps types of people I m missing people I want to connect Let s explore deeply how our networks in uence us 0 British researchers reported in 2007 that they had identified a gene that was linked to obesity People who inherited it from one parent were 30 more likelv to become obese 67 if they got copies from both parents 0 Would you be surprised if I told you that your social network may have an even more powerful effect than your genes The Framingham Health Study ChristakisampFowler 0 Starting in 1948 to the present researchers have followed the people of Framingham MA and their offspring 0 Participants had regular checkups to monitor their health 0 Because people moved participants were asked to give contact information of people who would know how to reach them About 10 years ago researchers realized that this was valuable information about participants social networks behavior doing gtgtThe Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years Christakis and Fowler 2007 examined obesity in a network of 12067 people who were tracked form 1971 to 2003 Findings Your change of becoming obese increases 0 171 if you had a mutual friend who became obese 0 40 if you have a sibling who became obese 0 37 if your spouse became obese What about the links of people further out in the network You gt1gt Friend gt2gt Friend of friend gt3gt Friend of friend of friend 0 Risk of becoming obese increases 0 45 if one of your contacts becomes obese 1St degree 0 20 if one of your contacts contacts becomes obese 21101 degree 0 10 if one of your contact s contact s contacts becomes obese 3r01 degree gtgtObesity is contagious And so is loneliness happiness and smoking Let s take another kind of behavior sex Study of sexual activity in a high school in Midwest US Bearman Moody amp Stovel 2004 832 students completed 18 month study 70 sexually active 582 Of the sexually active 22 were in fully monogamous relationships That is sex with each other but no one else during the 18months 0 78 had sex with more than one person g had sex with someone who had sex with someone else 0 almost 40 in the diagram of 50 of sexually active amp 25 of entire school would say they were monogamous 0 things that you don t think you are connected or indirectly connected to in the network can actually in uence you Why should networks in uence us so much 1 Shared environment People act and feel the same way because they share the same setting or situation 0 Everybody in the neighborhood gets fatter when fast food outlets open We are all happier when the weather is good We are all more anxious at the end of the quarter 2 Selection People choose relationships based on similarity so that people who are linked are more likely to share feelings and 0 We choose friends romantic partners sexual partners based on similarity People who like fatty food will prefer those who also like fatty food Strongly religious people often prefer to associate with those who share their faith 3 Social Comparison amp Norming We judge what s normal or appropriate based on what we see others in our social networks 0 If the people around you are all over weight you are more likely to think that being heavier is normal If the people around you are sexually active you are more likely to assume that it s ok for you too 4 Diffusion of direct messages Ideas or behaviors are passed directly from one person to another spreading through a network A tells B that a movie is great B tells C C tells D Networks and New Ideas Where do new ideas come from innovation creativity Images of the lone inventor are largely myth Innovativeness as a characteristic of networks Low innovation 0 High density few bridges 0 Low density no core lots of new ideas but no resources High Innovation 0 Variable density bridges bring new info in dense areas provide resources Innovation in our professional and personal lives depends on 0 A network with many different kinds of people diversity A network with smaller circles of trusted associates Nearly every experience we have today is mediated in some way The average American 0 Watches more than 4 hours of TV each day Sees 8000 murders on TV by age 12 Will see 2 million TV commercials by age 65 Traditional Model of Media In uence Passive receivers uncritically soak up media messages 1 Usually called the Hypodermic model or magic bullet theory of mass media 0 Celebrity Miley Cyrus smokes weed gtgtTeen sees Miley smoke weed gtgt Teen smokes weed 2 Assumes that media messages have direct and immediate effects on receivers 3 Assumes little feedback little communication among receivers Beyond the traditional model Ex Old Spice ad sales up 107 and lots of spoofsimitati0n Ex Heineken Ad 2011 The Date J aan Pahechan H0 0 Illustrates how modern ads are often called mash up of cultural images themes and products in a creative way 0 Created app on facebook making personalized serenades for Valentines day 640 choices 0 On Fee 9 2012 Heineken hosted an 8 hour YouTube even in which people serenaded the object of their heart s desire live online Heineken spokesman said goal was to provide an opportunity to ask someone out in a witty and legendary way gtgtTransmedia multiple platforms 4 Things to note so far 0 Ads do not explicitly offer reasons why their product is best 0 None of these ads makes comparisons between products 0 Modern ad campaigns increasingly employ multiple media platforms 0 They engage users in new ways including 0 Humor entertainment value 0 Making it ways for users to refer ad to others 0 Leveraging User Generated Content UGCQ gtgtS0 how are these ads appealing to consumers Buy our product because 7 0 we re not buying products rather we re buying images emotions feelings about ourselves 5 problems with the hypodermic model First receivers practice selective exposure Choose media that reinforce our existing opinions attitudes and desires 0 This means receivers look for media sources that will support what they already think or want to do 0 S0 Miley Cyrus can only be a bad role model if you re following her 0 Lots of evidence for selective exposure eg conservatives are more likely to watch FOX News while liberals and independents favor other sources Second receivers practice selective attention filtering out information that is of less interest or that doesn t agree with them 0 S0 Miley Cyrus can only encourage smoking if you notice that she smokes 0 Many commercials for example simply don t capture our attention That s why advertisers work so hard at it Third media choices are attached by our goals 0 Our uses and gratifications for media change 0 Instead of being helpless we re actively making choices about media in order to meet our own individual needs at a particular moment 0 Ex think of how you own movie preferences change from one time to another 0 Five general needs we might try to meet with our media choices 0 Cognitive needs Acquiring information knowledge 0 Affective needs emotion pleasure feelings 0 Personal integrative needs Credibility stability status 0 Social integrative needs Family and friends 0 Tension release needs Escape and diversion Four media messages are often filtered through our interpersonal networks 0 Classic hypodermic models assume that receivers don t talk to each other but we know this is false 0 We actively discuss the media and those discussions almost always change the effect of the message 0 May amplify 0 May diminish 0 May change interpretation Fifth sources get more feedback and are more sensitive to it than hypodermic model assumes 0 Messages are tested with potential audience members even before they go out 0 Sneak previews of movies 0 Focus groups on advertisements 0 Polling on political messages and advertisements 0 Concerns about advertiser or government reactions in uence news coverage 0 33 of US journalists and news directors say thy have been pressured by advertisers 0 New Media give audience new power to help or hurt company reputations 0 Dace Carroll United Breaks Guitars So how do media in uence us A By creating automatic associations that bring a product or idea to mind more easily 0 Ex logos we re walking advertisers 0 Logos travel or can become part of you B Agenda setting the increased Visibility and priority given to an issue as a result of repetition by major media sources Media do not tell you what to think about an issue as much as they tell you what issues to think about 0 Traditional newspapers of record New York Times Wall Street Journal Washington Post 0 Television and the blogsphere have become increasingly important 0 Media set the agenda with 0 Longer articles or stories More frequent coverage Larger headlines placing story in more prominent position Placing stories earlier in broadcast or nearer front of paper C Framing effects emphasis framing In addition to putting some issues in the spot light media sources organize the elements within them in broad ways 0 Provide definitions of the problem 0 Diagnose causes 0 Link elements of a story together 0 Make moral judgments 0 Suggest remedies Framing effects go beyond the terms we use but also in uence our entire approach to issues and stories in the news and elsewhere 0 The game frame approach to national issues 0 Stories are often framed as a political contest between sides and then followed to keep track of the score as the game unfolds Game frames distort our understanding and discussion of important issues in three ways 1 Always need to find two sides and present them as more or less equal even if one is very weak e g climate change deniers 2 By focusing on areas of con ict areas of potential agreement and compromise are ignored 3 We create a class of media sources who are more interested in promoting con ict than in solving problems D Scripting amp modeling effects Ex the effects of sexually explicit music lyrics We learn new behaviors by observing others We imitate behaviors that seem to work for others We often learn scripts from media role models A script is a guide for how to act for what s supposed to happen in an encounter and what should happen as a result 0 Scripting and modeling should be most likely to occur when 0 One type of model is seen much more often than others 0 When the role model is rewarded or at least not punished for the behavior 2006 study by Martino et al focused on effects of popular music lyrics on sexual activity among 12 17 year olds 0 Measured how often they listened to sexually degrading music lyrics 0 Also measured when they became sexually active and what sexual activities they engaged in 0 Over a 2 year period youth who listened to greater amounts of sexually degrading music were more likely to become sexually active and engaged in more advanced sexual activity e g sexual touching vs intercourse 0 And that was after controlling for gender ethnicity amount of parent oversight how religious and a large number of personality variables gtgt Conclusion Sexually explicit and degrading videos and lyrics don t directly cause sex but they do encourage it by providing successful models and ideas about that is appropriate and normal for people who are looking for models How does this shift affect us Some effects are more most obvious 1 Increased efficiency and speed of communication 0 Save time money frees time money for new activities 2 Greater amount of information available exchanged 3 Increased reliance on visual media in place of text But the most profound effect will be on patterns of interdependence that is the ways we relate to each other 6 ways gtgtEach of these brings both desirable and undesirable effects New media create dilemmas The desirable and undesirable effects are different sides the same coin You can t have one without the other 1 Less privacy more surveillance ex cookies tracking web use GPS in cell phones Facebook profiles 0 Easier to locate others let them locate us 0 Don t have to remember so much 0 Harder to hide scandals illegal behavior 0 Police behavior recorded posted online 0 Harder to keep secrets 39 of cell phone users aged 18 29 say they are not always honest about where they are 0 Personal danger cyberstalking cyberbullying 0 Loss of control over personal information 0 Harder to run away from your past 2 Customization amp personalization of information ex recommender systems personalized advertising personalized news 0 Easier to avoid unwanted information 0 Good surprises on Net ix or Amazon 0 Reinforces your personal identity amp autonomy 0 Creates new markets for personalized products 0 Etsycom society6 0 Social fragmentation we share fewer common assumptions and experiences with others 0 Self absorption more isolated less caring 0 Highly targeted creepy abs based on personal tracking 3 Greater interactivity amp accountability ex mobile texting Facebook profiles wikileaks mobile videophotos 0 You can stay touch with your mother and others 0 Harder to hide bad behavior 0 Can organize on the y hyper coordination 0 Crowdsourcing 0 Put question on neighborhood website What should I stock 0 Your mother wants to stay in touch with you 0 Stressful faster pace and the always on life 0 Damaging effects of misinformation are amplified 0 Rumors are hard to kill gtgt Outing Students Racist Tweets good Or bad 4 Greater control over selfpresentation ex Selecting amp manipulating photos avatars ability to time amp edit responses 0 Ability to project a positive identity minimize faults 0 Ability to present different aspects of your identity in different settings 0 To engage in identity play in order to explore different parts of your personality 0 Meghan FreebaCk director of comm at the Shakespeare project of Chicago Avatar 0 False identities hide inappropriate illegal behavior 0 Others are misled feel they don t really know us 0 Our own sense of who we are can become fragmented 0 Additional time and effort needed to maintain self presentation gtgtMegan Meier case 0 13 year old living in O fallon amp Dardenne Prarie Missouri 0 History of psychiatric problems including depression 0 Terminated friendship with classmate Sarah Drew when she changes school in 2006 Shortly after that Lori Drew Sarah s mother created a false MySpace account for a 16 year old boy Josh Evans Josh friended Megan and was nice at first telling her what an attractive person she was sexi But then the tone changed Josh became critical Josh s friends really Sarah Drew and an 18 year girl working for Lori Drew sent mean notes to Megan On Oct 16 Josh aka Lori sent her last message to Megan Everybody in O Fallon knows who you are You are a bad person and everybody hates you Have a shitty rest of your life The world would be a better place without you Megan Meier committed suicide the next day 5 Easier to form groups ex ash mobs intemet based fundraising fan groups support groups protest groups 0 Lower transaction costs effort time resources to connect ampcoordinate 0 Allows us to work with others more efficiently 0 Enables people to resist undesirable organizations amp governments 0 Helps fight crime instant reporting citizen journalism 0 Allows illegal violent groups to form more easily 0 Makes it easier for illegal violent groups to go undetected 6 Existing power structures are undermines ex self publication amp promotion control by parents organizations governments 0 Empowers the individual 0 Smart phones empower Saudi women 0 More innovation social change 0 Helps resist unpopular government action and oppressive regimes 0 Hanoi Vietnam March 2015 Citizens use Facebook to organize campaign to prevent city from cutting 6700 trees 0 Harder to maintain social cohesion amp stability 0 Old power structures may be replaced by new ones that are worse 0 Loss of productivity in the workplace 0 Gallup poll the average employee spends over 75 minutes per day using office computers for non buisiness related activity Losing 75 minutes of work 156 drop in productivity in 8 hours a day Two closing thoughts 1 We have been here before The debates about today s new media echo debates about old media when they were first introduced 0 1879 novel Wired Love By Ella Cheever Thayer 2 Be wary of those who make big simple claims about technology either positive or negative Effects are complex and often go in both directions 0 Utopian beliefs about new digital media 0 More democracy More personal control Better informed citizens 0 Access to information and assistance 247 0 Dystopian beliefs about new digital media 0 Loss of personal control and freedom Buried in too much information Citizens constantly distracted from real issues More scams new threats social instability 0 How new media structure create 1 More personalized service amp content 2 More surveillance less privacy 3 More opportunity less opportunity ltDuring last half of the 20th Centurygt Crude Market Segmentation 0 Ads placed in TV shows or magazines most likely to be seen by target consumer groups 0 Mothers teens outdoor sports enthusiasts ltTodaygt Realtime 0 Tracking profiling 0 Market research 0 Content personalization Over 4 trillion internet ads delivered each year Most are personalized based on the information you disclose and your online behavior Market segments now shrink to the individual level 0 Old women who might be interested in buying a car 0 New Juanita Gonzales at 485 lake Street who is has looked at minivan sites local car dealers and financial sites in last 24 hrs Content around ads is often personalized as well personalized news personalized aggregations like Flipboard cotent farms How do they do that Cookies a small line of text inserted into your computer that triggers other computers to track your actions online and record information you disclose 0 Cookie matching database companies link their cookies to other cookies they find on your machine to build a larger database 0 Zombie cookies recreate the cookies you delete from backups on your machine or externally 0 Misleading Opt Out Even if you say you don t want cookies from a given site you request may be treated as temporary only lasting a few days Web Beacons tiny invisible image commands that trigger tracking as soon as the page is opened also called web bugs Geotags amp Timestamps on pictures mobile phone activity etc allow your location to be tracked even anticipated Enticements to Disclose information 0 Site Registrations fan pages digital coupons Site design Likes as a reward for disclosing personal information 0 Free games or services 0 Pogocom loads their own cookies third party cookies 0 Dictionarycom loads 223 tracking files Q If a service or product is free then the real product is your personal information Combining information from more than one source 0 Tracking follows you as you visit different websites 0 Tracking the websites your social media friends visit 0 Records are linked when you use one site s login like Facebook to login to other sites 9 Database companies combine your web data with data from other sources 0 Shopper s cards amp loyalty programs Credit records Subscriber amp donor lists Census voter other public government data 0 Medical and pharmacy claims data from insurance companies Insurance data is stripped of personally identifying data but companies are now able to link it to Zip codes Together these tolls create what Joseph Turow in his book The Daily You called The Long Click People have mixed feelings about this They do not like 0 Websites showing them personalized ads 0 What they do on one site in uencing what they are shown on another site 0 Information from of ine sources used to personalize their online experience But they like 0 Convenience 0 Receiving discounts tailored to their personal interests 0 Receiving personalized news 0 Getting a discount that s not available to other shoppers Other class survey showed that many of you believed things that were not true 0 26 though that online merchants would let you see the information they had gathered about you 25 thought that a company had to tell you if it shared your information with its affiliates 35 did not know that their supermarket could sell information about what they bought 38 believe that having privacy policy means that a website will not share their information with other companies or websites 47 believe that banks often send their customers e mails asking them to click on a link to verify account information What s the real risk of tracking and pro ling 1 Loss of Privacy 2 Negative effects on self image 0 Ads are status signals 0 If you consistently get ads for budget products rather than higher status items if affects your self image 3 Access amp Price Discrimination 0 You are not shown information or opportunities 0 You may be denied discounts that others receive 4 Weblining assumptions in databases may actually limit your opportunities 0 eX one s credit card limit was lowered because he shopped in places also frequented by those with poor repayment histories 5 Cultivation tracking and retargeting are used to shape your interests you would not otherwise have 6 Filter bubbles content is personalized to work with advertising and you don t get critical news and information Content is shaped by commercial values Aren t privacy policies supposed to protect me 0 Privacy policies make you believe you are protected but actually lay out all the ways companies are violating your privacy 0 You don t see this because they are too long and confusing 0 Facebook s privacy policy 50 setting 170 options 45000 words 0 Unannounced changes to privacy policies are common 0 2009 change in Facebook lead to arrests of dissidents relatives in Iran 0 2010 change in Gmail allowed abusive eX husband to track down wife But leaders of technology companies know we care about privacy right 0 Snapchat hacked in January 2014 after being warned twice by security analysts 46 million usernames amp phone numbers 0 Google CEO Eric Schmidt If you have something that you don t want anyone to know maybe you shouldn t be doing it in the first place 0 Facebook CEO March Zuckerberg Privacy is no longer a social norm 0 Sun Microsystems CEO Scott Mcnealy Privacy is dead get over it 0 Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg They trust me dumb fucks But privacy clearly is important to you Between 60 80 say they 0 don t want companies tracking them from site to site 0 Don t want companies combining online and of ine information even if it means you get discounts 0 Don t know or aren t sure how to protect themselves only about 15 say they 0 Trust companies to follow their own privacy policies 0 Trust the government to protect consumers from marketers who misuse information But what can we do Three areas for political action 1 Let elected officials and others know privacy matters to you 2 Seek new laws and regulations to limit the use of your personal information 3 Demand the right to review and remove information from databases Transmedia Transmedia stories are stories told across multiple media platforms contrast to stories told completely within a given medium 0 A single book or series of books 0 A movie that stands alone no prequels or sequels 0 A video game that is just a game The term transmedia is less than 10 years old but the concept is not new Transmedia Today Once rare not standard Three reasons for the rise of transmedia 1 People consume media in more ways times and places 0 the second screen problem harder to pay attention 2 Media producers have merged and now have large diverse portfolios of movies TV books games etc 3 Producers have more data about consumers and can cross market more effectively Harry Potter is so much more than 0 7 books 8 movies 11 video games 0 Pottermore 0 A website focusing on the unknown parts of the Harry Potter series and re telling the story in an interactive way 0 Harry Potter WiKi 0 Harry Potter Theme Park Orlando Florida 0 Many merchandise 5 Ways that transmedia expand the narrative universe of the original story 0 Creation of interstitial micro stories 0 Stories that fill in a gap in between stories 0 Creation of parallel stories spin offs 0 Creation of peripheral stories distantly related to original story 0 Creation of user generated content platforms blogs wikis YouTube spoofs fan fiction 0 Creation of physical experiences places 0 Merchandise important to the transmedia story because it allows consumers to enter into the story directly gtgtIn all its forms the narrative becomes its own brand 0 Star Wars valued at 30 billion in Feb 2012 and growing 0 Harry Potter movies alone 25 billion as of Nov 2012 and growing Summary What s important about transmedia 1 We control media as never before when where how 2 That encourages storytellers to customize their stories and package them for different platforms transmedia 3 This in turn both re ects and drives conglomeration of media industries 4 And this creates new opportunities for stories to sell products 5 Transmedia allow more people to participate in the story in more ways 6 Transmedia encourages users to create their own content leading to co ownership of the story CultureJamming A form political communication which plays with images and symbols of consumer culture and the politically powerful in an effort to make us more aware of their in uence and to encourage resistance Why do some people think culture needs jamming anyway 1 We are constantly immersed in media 2Media content is determined and paid for by political and economic elites 3 Individuals are thus programmed to be good uncritical consumers 4 Individuals unknowingly reproduce and spread commercial culture 5 This reinforces social inequality and injustice You can resist The culture jammers message to you 0 Use the power of social media to engage in social activism use the media to further your values 0 Create new media content of your own UGC 0 Look for opportunities to turn commercial images against themselves 0 Stop making yourself a billboard for products and ideas you don t believe in Two basic forms of culture jamming Parody Transforms familiar commercial or political images in order to make fun of them and get people to challenge their underlying values Pranking Playing tricks or engaging in demonstrations that directly challenge commercial and political elites and their symbols Essentials of Fast Activism Three social media platforms drive the Buzz Engine 0 Twitter Facebook YouTube But activists still rely on mainstream media especially television Mainstream media coverage still the goal Of course not every prank or parody challenges the dominant culture or does it 0 No pants Subway Ride New York 0 Improve Everywhere is a New York City based prank collective that causes scenes of chaos and joy in public places Is culture jamming just for people who don t like the way things are 0 The Debt Star 0 There are exceptions but yes culture jamming is a protest It is aimed against those in power regardless of their politics Why is culture jamming important 1 Wakes us up to media in uences and images that we routinely take for granted 2 Shows us that we have choices 3 Empowers us to be creative to recognize our own ability to produce and reinterpret media content 4 Gives voice to those who are excluded from mainstream media


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