ENGL 122LE Midterm Study Guide
ENGL 122LE Midterm Study Guide
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Foreign Language
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Nikki Chan on Saturday April 26, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.
Reviews for ENGL 122LE Midterm Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/26/14
Midterm Study Guide for English 122LE Man39s Dominion by Pete Singer reader our practices towards animals is based upon our quotideology of our species the attitudes in which we as the dominant animal have toward the other animals Western attitudes to animals have 2 roots Judaism and Ancient Greece both unite in Christianity which then prevailed in Europe PreChristian Thought Hebrews believed in the biblical creation story God made man in HIS own image meaning that humans are Godlike God also gave humans dominion over every living thing killing animals is permissible Adam and Eve story the Old Testament encourages some kindness towards nonhumans Greece not uniform each school of thought followed the teachings of quotsome great founder Pythagoras vegetarian taught his followers to treat animals with respect believed the souls of dead men migrated to animals Aristotle animals exist to serve the purposes of humans humans are rational animals thought of nature as a hierarchy based on the ability to reason Christian Thought Christianity united Jewish and Greek ideas about animals the slaughter of both humans and animals was normal for entertainment uses believed humans were destined for a life after death human life is sacred After the conversion of the empire to Christianity there was no sympathy towards nonhumans only some Romans advocated kind treatment towards animals Ovid Seneca Porphyry and Plutarch St Thomas Aquinas the only reason against cruelty to animals is that it may lead to cruelty to humans St Francis of Assisi opposed Christian views towards animals believed the gap between animals and humans was less than Christianity supposed Renaissance Humanism value and dignity on human existence man39s central place in the universe on a scale nonhumans are far below humans Rene Descartes 2 kinds of things exist in the universe things of the spirit or soul and things of a physical or material nature humans are conscious consciousness means it has a spirit or soul only humans have a soul animals have no souls they are machines that don39t feel pain or pleasure Descartes dissected animals while they were alive Enlightenment and after experimenting on animals lead to people to see the similarities between humans and animals still no radical change but a variety of influences combined to improve attitudes towards animals David Hume quotwe are bound by the laws of humanity to give gentle usage to these creatures quotGentle Usage can use animals but do so gently Bentham first to denounce quotman39s dominion as tyranny rather than legitimate government first battle for the legal rights of animals were fought in Britain first proposal for a law to prevent abuse of animals was a bill to prohibit the quotsport of bullbaiting the bill failed another proposal for a law that made it an offense to mistreat domestic animals succeeded first time cruelty to animals was a punishable offense first animal welfare organization was created Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals as more scientific evidence of the theory of evolution increased man39s dominion over animals decreased Darwin39s work The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals provided evidence of the extensive parallels between the emotional life of human and animals Discussed in class age of excuses people fail because they can39t overcome the desire to think of a reason to do it we are one of them animals but we are also different since we have reason we can make ourselves think we are doing something right or wrong I and Thou First Part by Martin Buber reader IYou can only be spoken with one s whole being IIt can never be spoken with one s whole being Whoever says You stands in relation has a meaning or connection The world as experience belongs to the basic word IIt the basic word IYou establishes the world of relation 3 spheres in the world of relation 1 life with nature the You we say to them sticks to the threshold of language 2 with men we can give and receive a You 3 life with spiritual beings We hear no You yet feel addressed A tree in referring to it as a You you see the tree as every it is a picture amp movement species and instance law and number included and inseparably fused the tree confronts me bodily and has to deal with me as I must deal with it relation is reciprocity we don39t know if the tree has consciousness similar to humans it doesn39t matter if you experience the soul of a tree nor a dryad to treat it as a You you encounter the tree itself A human encountering a human is a You but when you think about the differences hair color his speech etc he immediately becomes something else It or She or He experience is remoteness from You You is more than it knows You does more and more happens to it than It knows I see You quotnot as a thing among the internal things not as a figment of the imagination but as what is present quotthe form is not quotthere at all but what can equal its presence And it is an actual relation it acts on me as I act on it quotall actual life is encounter quotFor the real boundary runs not between experience and non experience but across all regions between You and It between presence and object quotOnly as the You becomes present does presence come into being In using IIt a human looks into the past and it not present in the moment of speaking about It quotwhat is essential is lived in the present objects in the past Every you in the world is doomed by its nature to become a thing or at least to enter into a thinghood again and again we greet those we encounter by wishing them well or by assuring them of our devotion or by commending them to God But how indirect are these wornout formulas Discussed in class I and It not seeing a person as a whole being humans always refer to IIt because in defining humans there is always an It I and You presence openness to other people treating other people the way you want to be treated It vs You effectiveness of being able to change your III A Foray into the worlds of animals and humans by Uexkull reader Life Cycle senses butyric acid smell falls from a tree branch lands on an animal drinks the animmals blood lays its eggs falls on the ground and dies if the tick does not land on an animal the process starts over A ticks skin senses when there is light since ticks a blind Physiology says ticks are machines but biologists don39t agree every living cell is a machine operator that perceives and produces and therefore possesses its own particular perceptive signs and impulses All animal subjects are inserted into their environments to the same degree of perfection among the hundreds of effects that emanate from the mamma s body only three become feature carriers for the tick to increase the probability that the ticks prey will pass by the tick must be capable of living a long time without nourishment one experiment showed that a tick live up to 18 years without food While the tick waits for a passing animal it is in a sleep zone The butyric acid is what awakens the tick when it senses an animal coming therefore the subject the tick controls the time of its environment quotwithout a living subject there can be no space or time Effect Space There are more than one space and time for all living things Every normal human being carries a coordinate system around with him or her All animals that have 3 semi circular canals have a threedimensional effect space ex Fish insects and mollusks have a sense for their quothouse door or nestingspawning place Tactile Space we connect ourselves to places using tactile space helps with image formation All nocturnal animals and all animals living in caves live predominantly in tactile space ex Cats have whiskers Visual Space animals insects and humans see differently the scale that a child sees is much smaller than what an adult sees we must imagine all the animals that animate Nature around us as having a soup bubble around them which closes off their visual space and in which everything visible for the subject is also enclosed Perception Time Time as a sequence of moments changes from environment to environment according to the number of moments that the subject experience in the same amount of time moment signs expression of indivisible elementary sensations Humans can perceive 18 impacts on their skin as an even pressure Are there animals whose perception time has shorter or longer moments than ours in one experiment a fighting fish did not recognize his own reflection in a mirror the fighting fish does not recognize its own image when it is shown to him 18 times a second what a human sees it must be shown to the fish at least 30 times a second for the fish to recognize itself all processes of motion appear more slowly in their environment Discussed in class Do humans and animals live in the same world we perceive objects differently ex Colors phenomenology trying to understand the same subjects in different ways Husserl we can39t know in a truth value way how a person sees the world Umwelt life world Cubism showing every possible vantage point using film is helpful since we are able to control the speed of the video and see how movement functions Haptic we are always engaged in a tactile world ex Through touch Mountain Lions by Turner reader a marine the author was once hunting at the southeast edge of the Camp Pendleton Marine Corps base in Southern California he saw a mountain lion and all her beauty for the first time in his life he felt no desire to shoot the lion he shot almost everything because he believed that the world was there for his amusement and that killing was fun Years later the author teared up over a stuffed female mountain lion at a visitor center He feed the mountain lions at the zoo at the zoo he no longer knew who felt more caged himself or the cats quotwe come to love before we come to hate When he saw the mountain lion in the wild he fell in loved then came to hate zoos One day at the zoo the author saw a man throwing stuff at a mountain lion the lion did not move the author quotbegan to sink into that deadend fuckit pit of rage that is the trademark of his generation the author grabbed the mans throat but only wanted to terrify him not kill him the lion did not move but her long tail waged in the air twitching the author believes that was his gift to the lion while reflecting the author thinks about the fact that the lion at the zoo had no freedom was far away from home defenseless and was being humiliated all the reasons for the author acting out on that man at the zoo One day while talking to a friend named Terry Tempest Williams the author saw a mountain lion run by on the other side of the road the author went back to the stop twice hoping to see the lion again but she never returned the author calls the world a she quotshea beautiful necessary bewitching claustrophobic She Months later he author went out for a walk he saw large cat tracks he knew it was quothis ion as he followed the cat tracks he noticed that the lion had walked directly over his right ski pole marks the author did not like the fact that the lion had tracked him then the author stops because he feels like he is being watched the author hopes that one day humans are able to have a relationship with predators calls it a peaceful covenant he believes this covenant should be studied by people who love the wild the author thinks a peaceful covenant is possible because of primitive people ex Bushman chose not to kill lions and vice versa ex American Indians failed to establish a peaceful covenant with predators quotNo one has the slightest idea what to do about it the next morning the author went back to look for the lion where he had seen the cat tracks quotWinter was upon us and the old lion was gone The Lives of Animals by Coetzee setting Elizabeth Costello the main character is going to be a guest lecturer at her son John39s school represents the author39s lecture given at Princeton about humanism in the beginning of her lecture Elizabeth compares the Holocaust to animal rights Elizabeth believes that those people who see but do not act should be blamed humans know bad things are happening but we still don39t change our actions Holocaust was caused by a reason in the same way we use reason to justify how we treat animals Nazi39s used a reason to support a theory then found evidence reason can be used to support anything bc animals can39t refute us we see ourselves as superior very few humans are reasonable and can use it in the right way Discussed in class Elizabeth Costello gives her lecture in a narrative form a way of hiding the author39s opinion presents ideas in an indirect form the novel shows us other ways of perceiving ideas ex Through having a lecture and a debate represented through other characters Gode s lncompleteness Theorem no logical system can prove using its own logic that it as a system is consistent system logic uses principles to determine validity but can39t use the same logic to prove itself pg 54 Ecological Phiosophy Elizabeth Costello an individual of a species doesn39t matter the whole species does claim against mainstream conservation and biology more about human interest than interest of of animal ex is neutering dogs and cats the best for that animal or for serving our own purposes Character analysis Elizabeth main character lecturer represents the author mother ofJohn supports animal rights believes in thinking oneself into the other does not have a platform ex When one person questions what the point of her lecture was Elizabeth does not know how to answer trained in academia to see things as the right way John son of Elizabeth works in the English Department remains neutral between his mother and wife Norma s viewpoints defends his mother from his wife represents the average person Norma wife ofJohn philosopher deals with philosophy of the mind is antianimal rights selfenclosure of rationality Reflections in The Lives of Animals by Coetzee Barbara Smuts lived with apes to research them apes remember her when she returns years later apes accepted her into their community at home Barbara talks about her dog Safi and the relationship they have Barbara lets Safi teach her things and she teaches him things she treats Safi with respect to the fact that he is a dog ex Barbara lets Safi decide where to go on walks By walking Safi this way and recognizing that Safi has a better sense of direction than Barbara Safi has led Barbara to places she would have never found if she was in control of walks Peter Singer writes about a conversation between John and his daughter John believes in utilitarianism every for the greater good of humans or judging actions and only doing what benefits the greater good Discussed in class Imaginative sympathy allows Barbara to be connected to the apes perform research in a way that is not invasive to the animal ex Ape stays behind to quotprotect Barbara when Barbara falls asleep shows that she was accepted into the Ape community apes felt like they should protect her The Ape that stayed with Barbara led her back to the group Years later when Barbara sees the Apes again they remember her shows that apes have some sort of logic system that enables them to remember in other words apes have memories Colar and the Chimpanzee researcher tested a chimpanzee to see if he could plan Heidegger once said humans have prioritized thinking but what is thinking Gelassenheit believes thinking is composing oneself or letting be of beings rather than ordering you let things be what they are Jeremy Bentham 1 thinker of modern policing policing is the ability to protect people from themselves created a model for prisons called the Parnopticon guard tower is in the middle of the prison oversees everything serves as a model for our current surveillance systems Bear71 an interactive documentary puts you in it makes you experience the feeling of being watched 247 in addition you follow the life of a bear labeled bear 71 see the bear try to live in the boundaries that have been placed around him watch the bear get tracked by humans then get put back into the wild having humans in the wild make hunting harder for bears the smell of our food make it harder for bears to follow the track of a deer Discussed in class human intrusion has hindered the bear s natural instinct to smell its food a bear can distinguish smells better than a blood hound dog Main point of the documentary animals have adapted to live in the wild and now they do not live in the wild they must learn to accommodate themselves to us they must live between boundaries and be constantly monitored Blackfish SeaWord abuses its animals gives out false information about their animals to protect SeaWord s animals ex SeaWord says a flopped over dorsal fin of an orca is normal in the wild it is very rare to find an orca with this condition SeaWord advertises that the animals live in their families the orcas are pulled from their herd which causes violence in the tanks in addition SeaWord has separated a mother and child orca twice the mother sat in the corner of the tank for days trying to call out to her baby The orca even tried communicating in a whole new way to get her baby back When a trainer is hurt or killed SeaWord always blames the trainer not the animal for the incident All SeaWord orcas have the genes of an orca that has been known to thrash at trainers this orca has even hurt multiple people before it does not take a bunch of requirements to be an animal trainer at SeaWord even though they dislike SeaWord some trainers stay there because they care about the animals SeaWord keeps information from its trainers ex When a new whale came into SeaWord the trainers were not told that the whale might have been the one who killed a person at its previous location Discussed in class the video raised public awareness about human s controlling animals main point SeaWord blamed the killed animal trainer to ensure the show goes on even though it was the animals faults
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'