Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Introduction to Biological Anthropology
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Vocabulary 10 11 12 13 14 15 Savanna A large at grassland with scattered trees and shrubs Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm to hot climates Hominins Colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now eXtinct bipedal relatives Species A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species Bipedally On two feet walking habitually on two legs Anthropology The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology includes cultural anthropology archeology linguistics and physical anthropology Primates Members of the mammalian order Primates which includes lemurs lorises tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Evolution A change in the genetic structure of a population The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species Adaptation An anatomical physical or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment Adaptations result from evolutionary change specifically as a result of natural selection Genetic Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring Genetic mechanisms are the foundation of evolutionary change Behavior Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli the response of an individual group or species to its environment Such response may or may not be deliberate and they aren t necessarily the result of conscious decision making which is absent in single celled organisms insects and many other species Continuum A set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum for example color All life re ects a single biological continuum Culture Behavioral aspects of human adaptations including technology traditions language religion marriage patterns and social roles Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the neXt by non biological means WorldvieW General cultural orientation or perspective shared by the members of a society Biocultural Evolution The mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further in uences the direction of biological evolution this is a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution Applied Anthropology The practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Ethnographies Detailed descriptive studies of human societies In cultural anthropology an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non Western society Artifacts Objects or materials made or modi ed for use by hominins The earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone or occasionally bone Paleoanthropology The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins their chronology physical structure archaeological remains etc Primate Paleontology The study of fossil primates especially those that lived before the appearance of hominins DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid The double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code DNA is a main component of chromosomes Osteology The study of skeletal material Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of skeletal remains from archaeological sites skeletal anatomy bone physiology and growth and development Some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology to study early hominins Bioarcheology The study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites Paleopathlogy The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal or occasionally mummified remains from archaeological sites Forensic Anthropology An applied anthropology approach dealing with legal matters Forensic anthropologists work with coroners and others in identifying and analyzing remains Primatology The study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates Science A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation Hypotheses A provisional explanation of a phenomenon Hypotheses require verification through testing Empirical Relying on experiment or observation Scientific Method An approach to research whereby a problem is identified a hypothesis is stated and is tested by collecting and analyzing data Data Facts from which conclusions can be drawn scientific information Quantitatively Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties as size number and capacity When data are quanti ed they re expressed numerically and can be tested statistically Theory A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses Scientific Testing The precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification the procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified modified or discarded Quadrupedal Using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion basic mammalian mode of locomotion Ethnocentric Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one s own 36 10 11 12 13 14 15 culture Ethnocentrism often causes other cultures to be seen as inferior Relativistic Viewing entities as they relate to something else Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts Natural Selection The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change first described by Charles Darwin the term refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals Fixity of Species The notion that species once created can never change This is diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution Paradigm Shift A transition from one conceptual framework or prevailing and widely accepted viewpoint to another Reproductively Isolated Pertaining to groups of organisms that mainly because of genetic differences are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other such groups Binomial Nomenclature In taxonomy the convention established by Carolus Cinnareus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to living things Taxonomy The branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships Catastrophism The view that the earth s geological landscape is the result of violent events Uniformitarianism The theory that the earth s features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past Elaborated on by Lyell this theory opposed catastrophism and greatly contributed to the concept of immense geological time Fitness Pertaining to natural selection a measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals Fitness can be measured by an individuals genetic contribution to the next generation when compared with that of other individuals Reproductive Success The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age or an individual s genetic contribution to the next generation Selective Pressures Forces in the environment that in uence reproductive success in individuals Fertility The ability to conceive and produce healthy offspring Genome The entire genetic makeup on an individual or species Biological Continuity A biological continuum When expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories they create a continuum Color is one such phenomenon and life forms are another Christian Fundamentalists Adherents to a movement in American Protestantism that began in the early 20th century This group holds that the teachings of the Bible are infallible and should be taken literally 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Proteins 3D molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules Nucleus A structure organelle found in all eukaryotic cells The nucleus contains DNA and RNA among other things Molecules Structures made up of two or more atoms Molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures RNA Ribonucleic acid A single stranded molecules similar in structure to DNA Three forms of RNA are essential to protein synthesis Cytoplasm The semi uid gel like substance contained within the cell membrane the nucleus and numerous other structures involved with cell function are found within the cytoplasm Protein Synthesis The manufacture of proteins the assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules Directed by DNA Mitochondria Structures contained within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that convert energy derived from nutrients into a form that can be used by the cell Ribosomes Structures composed of a form of RNA call rRNA and protein Ribosomes are found in a cell s cytoplasm and are essential to the manufacture of proteins mtDNA mitochondrial DNA DNA found in the mitochondria MtDNA is inherited only from the mother Somatic Cells Basically all the cells in the body except those involved with reproduction Gametes Reproductive cells developed from precursor cells in ovaries and testes Zygote A cell formed by the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell It contains the full complement of chromosomes and has the potential of developing into an entire organism Nucleotides Basic units of the DNA molecules composed of a sugar a phosphate and one of four DNA bases Replicate To duplicate The DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself Enzymes Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body Complementary In genetics referring to the fact that DNA bases form pairs in a precise manner For example adenine can bond only to thymine These two base pairs are said to be complementary because one requires the other to form a complete DNA base pair Hemoglobin A protein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen molecules Hormones Substances usually proteins that are produced by specialized cells and that travel to other parts of the body where they in uence chemical reactions and regulate various cellular functions Amino Acids Small molecules that are the components of proteins mRNA messenger RNA A form of RNA that is assembled on a sequence of DNA bases It carries the DNA code to the ribosome during protein synthesis Codons Triplets of messenger RNA bases that code for specific amino acids during 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 protein synthesis tRNA transfer RNA A type of RNA that binds to speci c amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis Mutation A change in DNA The term can refer to changes in DNA bases as well as to changes in chromosome number and or structure Gene A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein a portion of a protein or any functional product such as RNA A gene may be composed of thousands of DNA bases Noncoding DNA DNA that does not direct the production of proteins However such DNA segments produce thousands of molecules that are involved in gene regulation Thus the term is misleading Exons Segments of genes that are transcribe and are involved in protein synthesis Introns Segments of genes that are initially transcribed and are involved in protein synthesis Regulatory Genes Genes that in uence the activity of other genes Regulatory genes direct embryonic development and are involved in physiological processes throughout life They are critically important to the evolutionary process Homeobox Genes An evolutionarily ancient family of regulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues There are at least 20 families of homeobox genes Sicklecell Anemia A severe inherited hemoglobin disorder in which red blood cells collapse when deprived of oxygen It results from inheriting two copies of a mutant allele The type of mutation that produces the sickle cell allele is a point mutation Point Mutation A change in one of the four DNA bases Chromosomes Discrete structures composed of DNA and proteins found only in the nuclei of cells Chromosomes are visible under magnification only during certain phases of cell division Autosomes All chromosomes except sex chromosomes Sex Chromosomes In mammals the X and Y chromosomes Locus The position or location on a chromosome where a given gene occurs Alleles Alternate forms of a gene Alleles occur at the same locus on paired chromosomes and thus govern the same trait but because they re different their action may result in different expressions of that trait Karyotype The chromosomes of an individual or what is typical of a species viewed arranged in pairs and according to size and position of the centromere Mitosis Simple cell division The process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells Meiosis Cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and tested Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells each containing only 12 the original number of 55 56 57 58 59 10 chromosomes These cells can develop into gametes Recombination The exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes during meiosis also called crossing over Clones Organisms that are genetically identical to another organism The term may also be used to refer to genetically identical DNA segrnents molecules or cells Random Assortment The chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis Along with recombination random assortment in an important source of genetic variation but not new alleles PCR polymerase chain reaction A method of producing thousands of copies of a DNA sample Human Genome Project An international effort to sequence and map the human genome finished in 2003 Selective Breeding A practice whereby animal or plant breeders choose which individual animals or plants will be allowed to mate based on the traits such as coat color or body size they hope to produce in the offspring Animals or plants that don t have the desirable traits aren t allowed to breed Hybrids Offspring of parents who differ from each other with regard to certain traits or certain aspects of genetic makeup also known as heterozygotes Principle of Segregation Genes alleles occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs During gamete formation the members of each pair of alleles separate so that each gamete contains one member of each pair Recessive Describing a trait that isn39t expressed in heterozygotes it also refers to the allele that governs the trait For a recessive allele to be expressed an individual must have two copies of it ie the individual must be homozygous Dominant In genetics describing a trait governed by an allele that39s expressed in the presence of another allele ie in heterozygotes Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes This is the definition of complete dominance Homozygous Having the same allele at the same location on both members of a pair of chromosomes Heterozygous Having different alleles at the same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual Genotype usually refers to an organism39s genetic makeup or alleles at a particular locus Phenotypes The observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism the detectable expressions of genotypes frequently in uenced by environmental factors Principle of Independent Assortment The distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not in uence the distribution of another pair The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Mendelian Traits Characteristics that are in uenced by alleles at only one genetic locus Examples include many blood types such as ABO Many genetic disorders including sickle cell anemia and Tay Sachs disease are also Mendelian traits Antigens Large molecules found on the surface of cells Several different loci govern various antigens on red and white blood cells Foreign antigens provoke an immune response Codominance The expression of two alleles in heterozygotes In this situation neither allele is dominant or recessive so they both in uence the phenotype Pedigree Chart A diagram showing family relationships It39s used to trace the hereditary pattern of particular genetic usually Mendelian traits Polygenic Referring to traits in uenced by genes at two or more loci Examples include stature skin color eye color and hair color Many polygenic traits are in uenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and exposure to sunlight Pigment In this context molecules that in uence the color of skin hair and eyes Pleiotropy A situation where the action of one gene affects several different traits Variation ln genetics inherited differences among individuals the basis of all evolutionary change Allele Frequency In a population the percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele Population Within a species a community of individuals where mates are usually found Gene Pool All of the genes shared by the reproductive members of a population Microevolution Small changes occurring within species such as changes in allele frequencies Macroevolution Changes produced only after many generations such as the appearance of a new species Tandem Repeats Short adjacent segments of DNA within a gene that are repeated several times Gene Flow Exchange of genes between populations Genetic Drift Evolutionary changes or changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors in small populations Genetic drift is a result of small population size Founder Effect A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from larger populations or are remnants of the latter Sicklecell Trait Heterozygous condition where a person has one Hbquot4 allele and one Hbquot5 allele Thus they have some normal hemoglobin Classification ln biology the ordering of organisms into categories such as orders families and genera to show evolutionary relationships Chordata The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates Vertebrates Animals with segmented body spinal columns these include fishes amphibians reptiles including birds and mammals 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Homologies Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor Analogies Similarities between organisms based strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent Homoplasy homo meaning quotsamequot and plasy meaning quotgrowthquot The separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms Evolutionary Systematics A traditional approach to classification and evolutionary interpretation in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters Cladistics An approach to classification that attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters those considered to be derived characters Ancestral Referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups lineages that diverged after the character first appeared also called primitive Clade A group of organisms sharing a common ancestor The group includes the common ancestor and all descendants Monophyletic Referring to an evolutionary group clade composed of descendants all sharing a common ancestor Polyphyletic Referring to an evolutionary group composed of descendants with more than one common ancestor and thus not a true clade Derived modified Referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages Theropods Small to medium sized ground living dinosaurs dated to approximately 150 mya and thought to be related to birds Shared Derived Relating to specific character traits shared in common between two life forms and considered the most useful for making evolutionary interpretations Phylogenetic Tree A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics It contains a time component and implies ancestor descendant relationships Cladogram A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis It39s based solely on interpretation or shared derived characters It contains no time component and does not imply ancestor descendant relationships Biological Species Concept A depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups Speciation The process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species Speciation is the most basic process in macroevolution Recognition Species Concept A depiction of species in which the key aspect is the ability of individuals to identify members of their own species for purposes of mating and to avoid mating with members of other species In theory this type of selective mating is a 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 component of a species concept emphasizing mating and is therefore compatible with the biological species concept Ecological Species Concept The concept that a species is a group of organisms exploiting a single niche This view emphasizes the role of natural selection in separating species from one another Ecological Niche The position of a species within its physical and biological environments A species39 ecological niche is defined by such components as diet terrain vegetation type of predators relationships with other species and activity patterns and each niche is unique to a given species Together ecological niches make up an ecosystem Sexual Dimorphism Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species For example humans are slightly sexually dimorphic for body size with males being taller on average than females of the same population Sexual dimorphism is very pronounced in many species such as gorillas Intraspecific Within species refers to variation seen within the same species Interspecific Between species refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species Paleospecies Species defined from fossil evidence often covering a long time span Genus A group of closely related species Fossils Traces or remnants of organisms found in geological beds on the earth39s surface Mineralization The process in which parts of animals or some plants become transformed into stone like structures Mineralization usually occurs very slowly as water carrying minerals such as silica or iron seeps into the tiny spaces within a bone In some cases the original minerals within the bone or tooth can be completely replaced molecule by molecule with other minerals Taphonomy The study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils Geological Time Scale The organization of earth history into eras periods and epochs commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists Continental Drift The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth39s surface As a result the positions of large landmasses have shifted drastically during the earth39s history Epochs Categories of the geological time scale subdivisions of periods In the Cenozoic era epochs include the Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene and Pliocene from the Tertiary Period and the Pleistocene and Holocene from the Quaternary Period Neocortex The more recently evolved portions of the cortex of the brain that are involved with higher mental function and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory organs Placental A type subclass of mammal During the Cenozoic placentals became the most widespread and numerous mammals and today are represented by upward of 20 orders including the primates 64 65 66 0 U 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Heterodont Having different kinds of teeth characteristic of mammals whose teeth consist of incisors canines premolars and molars Endothermic Able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells characteristic of mammals birds and perhaps some dinosaurs Adaptive Radiation The relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches Primates Members of the mammalian order Primates which includes lemurs lorises tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Anthropoids Members of the primate infraorder Anthropoidea which includes monkeys apes and humans Morphology The form of anatomical structures can also refer to the entire organism Omnivorous Having a diet consisting of many food types such as plant materials meat and insects Diurnal Active during the day Olfaction The sense of smell Nocturnal Active during the night Stereoscopic Vision The condition whereby visual images are to varying degrees superimposed This provides for depth perception or viewing the external environment in three dimensions Stereoscopic vision is partly a function of structures in the brain Binocular Vision Vision characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by forward facing eyes Binocular vision is essential to depth perception Hemisphere One of the two halves of the cerebrum which are connected by a dense mass of fibers The cerebrum is the large rounded outer portion of the brain Neocortex The more recently evolved portions of the corteX outer layer of the brain that are involved with higher mental function and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory organs Sensory Modalities Different forms of sensation touch pain pressure heat cold vision taste hearing and smell Arboreal Tree living adapted to life in the trees Adaptive Niche An organism39s entire way of life where it lives what it eats how it gets food how it avoids predators and so on Dental Formula Numerical device that indicates the number of each type of tooth in each side of the upper and lower jaws Cusps The bumps on the chewing surface of premolars and molars Brachiation Arm swinging a form of locomotion used by some primates Brachiation involves hanging from a branch and moving by alternately swinging from one arm to another 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Strepsirhini The primate suborder that includes lemurs and lorises Haplorhini The primate suborder that includes tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Rhinarium The moist hairless pad at the end of the nose seen in most mammalian species The rhinarium enhances an animal39s ability to smell Cercopithecidae The taxonomic family that includes Old World monkeys Cercopithecines Common name for the members of the subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes baboons macaques and guenons Colobines Common name for members of the subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the African colobus monkeys and Asian langurs Hominoids Members of the primate superfamily which includes apes and humans Territorial Pertaining to the protection of all or a part of the area occupied by an animal or group of animals Territorial behaviors range from scent marking to out right attacks on intruders Frugivorous Having a diet composed primarily of fruits Natal Group The group in which animals are born and raised Intelligence Mental capacity ability to learn reason or comprehend and interpret information facts relationships and meanings the capacity to solve problems whether through the application of previously acquired knowledge or through insight Behavior Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli The response of an individual group or species to its environment Such responses may or may not be deliberate and they aren39t necessarily the results of conscious decision making Ecological Pertaining to the relationships between organisms and all aspects of their environment temperature predators nonpredators vegetation availability of food and water types of food disease organisms parasites etc Behavioral Ecology The study of the evolution of behavior emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection Behaviors and behavioral patterns have been favored because they increase the reproductive fitness of individuals they are adaptive in specific environmental contexts Social Structure The composition size and sex ratio of a group of animals The social structure of a species is in part the result of natural selection in a specific habitat and it guides individual interactions and social relationships Metabolism The chemical processes within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use When nutrients are broken down into their component parts such as amino acids energy is released and made available for the cells to use Matrilines Groups that consist of a female her daughters and their offspring Matrilines are common among macaques Life History Traits Characteristics and developmental stages that in uence reproductive 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 rates Examples include longevity age at sexual maturity length of time between births etc Dominance Hierarchies Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another Higher ranking animals have greater access to preferred food items and mating partners than low ranking individuals Dominance hierarchies are sometimes called quotpecking ordersquot Communication Any act that conveys information to another individual Frequently the result of communication is a change in the behavior of the recipient Communication may not be deliberate but may instead be the result of involuntary processes or a secondary consequence of an intentional action Autonomic Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control An example in chimpanzees would be the erection of body hair during excitement Blushing is a human example Both convey information regarding emotional states but neither is deliberate and communication isn39t intended Grooming Picking through fur to remove dirt parasites and other materials that may be present Social grooming is common among primates and reinforced social relationships Displays Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states Nonhuman primate displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agonistic behavior examples include chest slapping in gorillas or in male chimpanzees dragging and waving branches while charging and threatening other animals Language A standardized system of arbitrary vocal sounds written symbols and gestures used in communication Affiliative Behaviors Amicable associations between individuals Affiliative behaviors such as grooming reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion Reproductive Strategies Behaviors or behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection to increase individual reproductive success The behaviors need not be deliberate and they often vary considerably between males and females KSelected Pertaining to K selection an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring in whom they invest increased parental care Although only a few infants are born chances of survival are increased for each one because of parental investments of time and energy Birds elephants and canids wolves coyotes and dogs are examples of K selected nonprimate species RSelected Pertaining to r selection a reproductive strategy that emphasizes relatively large numbers of offspring and reduced parental care compared with K selected species K selection and r selection are relative terms for example mice are r selected compared with primates but k selected compared to insects Sexual Selection A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species It39s the result of competition for mates and it can lead to sexual dimorphism with regard to one or more traits 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 10 Polygynous Pertaining to polygyny A mating system in which a male mates with more than one female This is the most common mating pattern found in mammals including most primates Polyandry A mating system wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male usually two or three with whom she mates Among nonhuman primates polyandry is see only in marmosets and tamarins It also occurs in a few human societies Encephalization The proportional size of the brain relative to some estimate of overall body size such as weight More precisely the term refers to increases in brain size beyond what would be expected given the body size of a particular species Anthropocentric Viewing nonhuman organisms in terms of human experience and capabilities Emphasizing the importance of humans over everything else Core Area The portion of a home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable supplies of food and water The core area is defended Territories Portions of an individual39s or group39s home range that are actively defended against intrusion especially by members of the same species Prosocial Behaviors Actions that benefit other individuals and or a society as a whole Loosely speaking the term quotprosocialquot is the opposite of quotantisocialquot Altruism Actions that benefit another individual but at some potential risk or cost to oneself Empathy The ability to identify with the feelings and thoughts of another individual Strepsirrhines Members of the primate suborder Strepsirhini which includes lemurs and lorises Haplorhines Members of the primate suborder Haplorhini which includes tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Derived Being or having a feature that is not present in the ancestral form Orthograde Referring to an upright body position This term relates to the position of the head and torso during sitting climbing etc and doesn39t necessarily mean that an animal in bipedal Superorder A taxonomic group ranking above an order and below a class or subclass Sister groups The relationship of new clades that result from the splitting of a single common lineage Last Common Ancestor LCA The final evolutionary link between two related groups Crown Group All of the taxa that come after a major speciation event Crown groups are easier to identify that stem groups because the members possess the clade39s shared derived traits Taxa A taxonomic group of any rank Stem Group All of the taxa in a clade before a major speciation event Stem groups are often difficult to recognize in the fossil record since they don39t often have the shared 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 derived traits found in the crown group Semiorder The taxonomic category above suborder and below order Euprimates quotTrue primatesquot This term was coined by Elwyn Simons in 1972 Postcranial Referring to all or part of the skeleton not including the skull The term originates from the fact that in quadrupeds the body is posterior to the head the term literally means quotbehind the headquot Subfossil Bone not old enough to have become completely mineralized as a fossil Bilophodont Referring to molars that have four cusps oriented in two parallel row resembling ridges or quotlophsquot This trait is characteristic of Old World monkeys Paleoprimatologists Anthropologists specializing in the study of the nonhuman primate fossil record Biostratigraphicfaunal correlation A method of dating strata that relates the fossil content of an unknown stratum to a like one that has been securely chronometrically dated Catarrhine Member of Catarrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini It contains the Old World monkeys apes and humans Platyrrhines Members of Platyrrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini These include only the New World monkeys Parvorder A taxonomic group below infraorder Island hopping Traveling from one island to the neXt Y 5 Molar Molar that has five cusps with grooves running between them forming a Y shape This is characteristic of hominoids Zygomatics cheekbones Terrestrial Living and locomoting primarily on the ground ANTH 270 Midterm Study Guide Weee One 1 Anthropology The eld of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology includes cultural anthropology archeology linguistics and physical anthropology 2 The Scientific Method 1 Hypothesis 2 Data collection 3 Test hypothesis 4 May become theory 3 Science 1 Young age of earth creationism 2 Fixity of species once created nothing changes 3 Geography stratigraphy 1 Catastrophism earth s geological landscape was shaped by violent events 2 Uniformitarianism the earth s features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past Elaborated on by Lyell this theory opposed catastrophism and greatly contributed to the concept of immense geological time 4 Evolution 1 Natural selection The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change first described by Charles Darwin the term refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals 1 production of variation random selection of variation not random modification of what already exists species produce offspring faster than food resources increase biological variation in all species always struggle for existence competition possession of favorable variation is an advantage 2 Inheritance of acquired characteristics theory of use and disuse of parts animal tries to perfect itself used organs would be more developed increased development would be inherited by offspring 3 Evidence experimental dog breeding biogeographic animal distribution around the world geology amp paleontology fossils old earth comparative anatomy homologous traits vestigial structures comparative embryology 5 Reproductive Success The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age or an individual s genetic contribution to the next generation 6 People to Know 1 Nicolas Steno amp Wilham Strata Smith Stratigraphy 2 Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon external environment and living forms change is possible biogeography questioned young earth mentioned common ancestor 3 George Cuvier extinction still believed in fixity of species modern animals not related to extinct ones 4 Charles Lyell founder of modern geology Uniformitarianism old earth 5 Thomas Malthus Human population size cannot increase forever due to limited food source constant competition for food controls population sizes 6 Jean Baptiste Lemarck species evolved due to environment simple organisms evolved spontaneously but complex organisms evolved from simple ones inheritance of acquired characteristics 7 Charles Darwin natural selection theory of evolution common descent elimination of type theory mechanism for evolution 8 Alfred Russel Wallace co discoverer of natural selection discovered under malarial fever Weee Two 1 Genetics study of heredity and inheritance of traits from parents to offspring 1 Mendelian Genetics inheritance from one generation to the next 1 traits not blended offspring get traits from both parents some traits dominant or recessive 2 Cellular amp Molecular Genetics genetics at level of basic building blocks DNA 3 Population Genetics variation in observable traits and DNA level within populations 4 Phylogenetics evolutionary relationships through observable traits and DNA level 5 Behavioral Genetics genetics in uence on behavior 2 Recessive Describing a trait that isn39t expressed in heterozygotes it also refers to the allele that governs the trait For a recessive allele to be expressed an individual must have two copies of it ie the individual must be homozygous 3 Dominant In genetics describing a trait governed by an allele that39s expressed in the presence of another allele ie in heterozygotes Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes This is the definition of complete dominance 4 Homozygous Having the same allele at the same location on both members of a pair of chromosomes 5 Heterozygous Having different alleles at the same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes 6 Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual Genotype usually refers to an organism39s genetic makeup or alleles at a particular locus 7 Phenotype The observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism the detectable expressions of genotypes frequently in uenced by environmental factors 8 Polygenic Referring to traits in uenced by genes at two or more loci Examples include stature skin color eye color and hair color Many polygenic traits are in uenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and exposure to sunlight 9 Sexual Dimorphism Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species For example humans are slightly sexually dimorphic for body size with males being taller on average than females of the same population Sexual dimorphism is very pronounced in many species such as gorillas 10 Geological time scale The organization of earth history into eras periods and epochs commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists 11 Epochs Categories of the geological time scale subdivisions of periods In the Cenozoic era epochs include the Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene and Pliocene from the Tertiary Period and the Pleistocene and Holocene from the Quaternary Period 12 Neocortex The more recently evolved portions of the cortex of the brain that are involved with higher mental function and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory organs 13 Placental A type subclass of mammal During the Cenozoic placentals became the most widespread and numerous mammals and today are represented by upward of 20 orders including the primates 14 Heterodont Having different kinds of teeth characteristic of mammals whose teeth consist of incisors canines premolars and molars 2 The Cell 1 basic building blocks of life eukaryote single cell prokaryote multi cell 2 cell membrane allows water molecules to pass through cytoplasm contains organelles nucleus 3 The Nucleus contains DNA 1 DNA double stranded helix James Watson amp Francis Crick universal code base pairs A G C T information storage and transfer DNA replicates itself 4 DNA Replication 1 Enzymes break bonds pull DNA strands apart 2 DNA is copies repaired with free oating nucleotides 3 Necessary for growth development cell repair 5 Mitosis 1 Only in somatic cells NOT seX cells 2 produces identical cells diploid 3 chromosomes duplicate 4 chromosomes join align and separate 5 cell divides into two cells 6 Meiosis 1 forms gametes sex cells 2 results in four gametes haploid 3 initial duplication 2 separations 4 recombination results gene Variation 7 Protein Synthesis 1 Transcription DNA separates attracts free oating nucleotides DNA code is copied mRNA carries DNA outside of nucleus 2 Translation copied DNA code is translated into groups of 3 mRNA bases codons codons specify which protein is made 3 Transfer RNA grabs amino acid that matches codon transfers to what is being translated carries to ribosomes ribosome joins amino acids together form polypeptide chains and proteins ANluIearr pure Fi m5nrm 2 41 Nuclear 4 munalupa wusees the base uracil Lrj instazfad nrf 39lh rrnrmB ITI VERINA C39ETfg39lFQ a p ft cz amine acid lags ISer 7 V Game ew 55 jquot quot 39397E d EQguCI E quot3 according to the E0 IEJI391Jquotamprquotll H ld D ltfl lg 8 Mutation Ultimate source of all genetic variation Weee Three 1 Modern Synthesis merging of natural selection with genetics 2 Forces of evolution 1 Gene Flow Exchange of genes between populations migration seX to spread genes movement of individuals between populations 2 Genetic Drift Evolutionary changes or changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors in small populations Genetic drift is a result of small population size chance event causes difference in allele frequency massive death contradicts survival of the fittest survival may be unrelated to genotype 3 Bottleneck Effect significant part of population dies more likely to experience genetic drift 4 Founder Effect A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from larger populations or are remnants of the latter 3 Microevolution change in allele frequency between generations 4 Hardy Weinberg Principle HardyWeinberg Principle The original proportion of genotypes in a population remains oonstant if 39 population size is large random mating is oeeurring no mutations no genes are introduced or lost no seleotion ooours means all genotypes can survive and reproduce equally Well 5 Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium l3395l2 I32239339q39 l21 Where p the frequency cf allele A q the frequency cf allele a p2 the frequency cf incliyiclual AA q the frequency cf indiyiclual aa 2pq the frequency cf individual Aa 6 Macroevolution evolution over a long period of time 7 Speciation new species arise over time species produce VIABLE offspring Cladogenesis 1 Allopatric Speciation speciation among populations living in two different ranges or territories Geographic isolation leads to reproductive isolation 2 Sympatric Speciation Species living in the same or overlapping ranges adapt to different ecological niches Anagenesis change in allele frequency in entire population without splitting continuous evolution into a descendent species gradual changes through natural selection gradualism no increase in diversity can be difficult to distinguish from extinction 8 Phylogenies 1 Phenetic explanation based on existing phenotypic traits 2 Cladistic explanation more concerned with genotypyes 9 Morphological species concept Morphological characteristics shared between individuals indicate interbreeding 10 Evolutionary species concept A species is a series of ancestor descendent populations passing through time and space independent of other populations each of which possesses its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate 11 Epigenetics Controls the way genes are expressed by controlling access methyl blocks acetyl initiates transcription 1 epigenetics and inheritance epigenetic tags reprogramming erased most genetic tags so that egg can develop into any type of cell Experiences of parents may affect offspring smoking Weee Four 1 Fossils provide direct evidence of organism existing several dating methods used must know exact location 2 Stratigraphy layers of strata geological age Laws of Stratigraphy 1 Original horizontality all rocks originally deposited horizontally 2 Lateral Continuity sedimentary rocks are laterally continuous over large areas 3 Superposition layers usurp each other as they are formed 4 Cross cutting Relations anything cutting across a stratum must have been formed after the stratum 5 Law of lnclusions rock fragments must be older than the rock containing the fragments 3 Taphonomy act of moving from biosphere living world to lithosphere rock Death Decay Remains BURIED bone replaced by minerals rock 4 Dating Fossils 1 Relative Dating something is older or younger than something else but not by how much 2 Absolute Dating chronometric gives an estimate in actual years 3 Combination paleomagnetism biostratigraphy 5 Geological Epochs 1 Paleocene 6555 MY Amillion years ago 2 Eocene 5533 MYA 3 Oligocene 3323 MY A 4 Miocene 23 53 MYA 5 Pliocene 53 25 MYA 6 Pleistocene 25 O1 MY A 7 Holocene 10 KYA thousand years ago present 6 Primates Members of the mammalian order Primates includes lemurs lorises tarsiers monkeys apes and humans I 539lt 39 g W n Tmzazrnrnmic ICI39I4Jr I39 all Living F39I39in miIE5 F IrIr39quotI 39IES I I I I I I 7 T amp quot Errepisirhimea 4quot 0 c E Huaplcrrhinnzvas Wcrld Memkerys Dla l IIquot39quotcrIIIi Nmnikeys I Apes and IIlumms i5quotI Tgrgiigfdea I I eImiIIeu 39IIIEI I3IPI II39IEICDIIEIEE H7amirruirIec u quot 1 5 t 39 3 7 I E D H lt 1 I I 1 I 3 I I I I I I emILur IIIEfTiLl II3939JE1E Lamas I Lrii5InI 4IeII Tgursier Capuc iins and Iain Iiielssiclcael GIIEIISWIE IHI39I IIIET iCI39 EI 0 IF IemurIIIeircgg IIicII1e1l IEIiign5 Ig l fg ld l l Tr5IIcIue Sukis u39nvI kin PiIHeicueI GFEUI E1FE 52 39339FquotEiiT39 ILI1 5iI GUTIIIID p We II jigIagn1IraiidgEII I Iquot IIquotIuir39I1 I5I3 I5 IrId TmnurimsI39CI1IIIiIriI 1iII JEI quotII39I iI39IquotIfJIIJII39IIE 3a EIEIITDIJIiquot IPEHQIICIIE Hm Indriidqg I IIgawller and S5idIr mnnkegprs and kin II EII39IIC5IEI I Hnmin ids I393miniIIcIe I L Dld Wiearld I II39Iur1Im2rr5 CerupiIlquotnecigzluee EuIIIrn1iIr Cglalznijncia EiIIInIn1iIj quotfer4nai i1 I1eir1sE 51quot ArIhmpIII5 IaIrigur5 unIIeu Fmng1Ig J IIiac gques E IIrrenjs39i iIuVrnqfIs cit If I I I I I I I I Pmsimiualns L 39 39 I K quot 1 Archaic Primates suborder Plesiadapiformes Range approx 7030 MY A most from 6050 Distribution North America Europe Asia Body Size 20 g 5 kg Dental Formula 2 1 3 3 Families 1112 approx 120 species Plesiadaformes Features Long snout Small brain No postorbital bar strut around eye socket not fully enclosed Claws at the end of the digits Thumb and big toe not Very opposable in some species Ankle Some with nail on big toe only Some with grasping big toe Molar tooth morphology lIiddle ear maybe Large procumbent protrude horizontally more than Vertically incisors with a diastema space or gap between adjacent teeth in dental row Many dental specializations and highly reduced dental formulae All but Pmggaforiom had too few premolars to be ancestral to true primates 2 Euprimates Primates of modern aspect First appear in fossil record in earliest Eocene Adapiforms and Omomyoids 3 Eocene Climate 65 MY A 8 degrees C warmer than today Ice free poles Tropical forest at high altitudes Up to 52 MY A temperatures had increased now global cooling 33 MY A dramatic cooling Antarctic ice sheet appears 4 Strepsirrhini wet nosed Adapiformes Lemurs Range 56 approX 7 MY A Distribution North America Europe Asia Africa Body size 100 g 8 kg Dental formula 2 1 4 3 some reduced 3 families 34 genera 75 species Features Basically lemur like lack dental comb front teeth arranged in a way similar to a comb Some are diurnal Include many frugivores and folivores fruit and leaves One lineage probably represents the ancestors of modern Strepsirhines 5 Haplorrhini dry nosed Omomyoids Tarsiers Range 5523 MY A Distribution North America Europe Asia Africa Body Size 30 g 25 kg most under 300 g Dental Formula 2 1 4 3 many reduced 3 families 34 genera approx 70 species Features Most are smaller than adapiforms tarsier like but lack many tarsier specializations Small canines big incisors Some with euprimate ears some later forms with haplorhine like ears May be ancestral to haplorhines tarsiers or neither 395 3 Esau H 56 P LIL ECU U1 cw CIJ UM racy 3396 LG E E G 53 we 3 93 vs 3 as 3 9m Em Ea u Sm Em gm EN Bun EV Em an aci n39L 391 L 13 n39EL tJquotf I 39 Catarrhmi Strepslrlhilni Anthropoidea Haxplorhilni Euprlmates U rm U1 617 E7 033 Ti 31 317 E9 9 E6 W CE 2 3902 LL 91 50 9 Eu 3939u an on tax n Du q am can Eta an rm e m Ln all cL mu U39I D D 3ui Um Em Em EN gm 5quot quot 39m an 0 39 39 42 r E niquot2 mt I Cauta rrhl in i Anthropoldea Strepslrhilni Haplorlhini U M quotU quot1 39Ua39amp 6 CLI Em ow v39 mm cum E9 1 0396 1 9 2 131 Lu Eu qJ v9 Eu Eu Eu 5quotC1 jQ quot 313 CL 09 5 Equot W QI 42 U Em Bm EN ED 5quot gm an own L n 39 OE E39quot nE u3939 I 39 Caata rrh in i Strepsirhini Antlhropoideai Haplorhini 1 Anthropod Origins The Fayum Egypt 3631 MY A 5 families 15 genera including anthropoids adapids omomyoids early catarrhines 2 Early Anthropoids Features Postorbital closure de nite anthropoid feature Tympanic ring similar to platyrhines Fused frontal bone feature shared by all anthropoids 3 Late Eocene Fayum Anthropoids Range 3633 MY A Distribution AfroArabia Body Size 0330 kg Dental Formula 2133 some 2123 3 families 12 genera 18 species Features Some have unfused mandible Some have prosimian teeth 3 Family Propliothecidae Range 3433 MY A Distribution Africa Body Size 47 kg Dental Formula 2123 2 genera 6 species Features Fused mandible Anthropoid teeth Earliest Catarrhines 4 Platyrhines First in South America approx 27 MY A simultaneous with caviomorph rodents Closest relatives in Africa 5 Pliopithecids Primitive sister catarrhine radiation in Europe and Asia 6 genera 17 species 2610 MYA SUMMARY a Plesiadapforms a major radiation in North America and Europe 6555 MY A a period of increasing global temperatures i Most are too derived to be ancestral to Euprimates 2 As a group the sister taXon to primates Continent of origin UNICNOWN b Euprimates appear 55 MY A with Eocene global warming i Adapiforms are generally lemurlike and probably ancestors to strep sirhines wetnosed 0b Omomyoids are small and tarsierlike and may be ancestral to haplorhines dry nosed just tarsiers or just anthropoids J North American and European forms largely go extinct during late Eocene global cooling c lda nice transitional stage between Prosimians strepsirhines and Anthropoids haplorhines d De nite anthropoids at Fayum by 36 MY A i Had prosimian teeth but postorbital closure First catarrhines also present at the Fayum but about 33 MY A Platyrhine problem i Several older Asian forms may be more primitive anthropoids 1 Strepsirrhines Members of the primate suborder Strepsirhini which includes lemurs and lorises 2 Haplorhines Members of the primate suborder Haplorhini which includes tarsiers monkeys apes and humans 3 Bilophodont Referring to molars that have four cusps oriented in two parallel row resembling ridges or quotlophsquot This trait is characteristic of Old World monkeys 4 Catarrhine Member of Catarrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini It contains the Old World monkeys apes and humans 5 Platyrrhines Members of Platyrrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini These include only the New World monkeys 6 Y 5 Molar Molar that has five cusps with grooves running between them forming a Y shape This is characteristic of hominoids 7 Zygomatics cheekbones Weee Five 1 The Comparative method By comparing similarities and differences between species we can get information When traits evolved did they evolve before or after common ancestor why they evolved how do niches of species with traits differ from without how likely they were to evolve analogous traits 2 Primate Trends Grasping hands and big feet opposable thumbs and big toes nails tactile pads Reliance on vision binocular stereoscopic color Reduction of olfaction decreased snout size decreased whisker number Generalized dentition generalized diet omnivorous Increased encephalization especially for memory thinking and learning Increased parental investment reduced litter size one offspring long gestation Primate life history trends Single offspring Extended Ontogeny prolonged life history Learning behavioral flexibility 3 Why are primates social Disadvantages competition for food visibility to predators competition for mates risk of social tension and violence Advantages predator defense access to food mate access assistance in care of young defense of food 4 Primate social systems 1 In general primate social systems evolve based on food resources a Females group where food is b males group where females group 2 Semi Solitary N oyau a ie Orangutans and nocturnal strepsirhines 3 Single male polygyny one male multi female a Gorillas colobus monkeys howler monkeys 4 Multi maleMulti female groups a baboons and macaques 5 Fission Fusion a Type of multi malemulti female group b Chimpanzees spider monkeys 6 Monogamous pair bonded a Gibbons and tarsiers 7 Polyandry multi male one female a Marmosets and tamarins 8 Social Structure a Dominance rank system as norm b Dominance hierarchies i reduces actual violence P males and or females c High rank i greater food access growth and survival mate access 9 Type of social interaction a grooming b play c displays d aggression e cooperation f reproductive strategies i reproduction requires survival mating rearing offspring l male vs female strategies 0 e maximizing reproductive success 1 Males emphasize mating a rarely contribute to the cost of gestation so may father more offspring 2 Females emphasize rearing of offspring a once fertilized females will not increase reproductive success by repeated mating iv Male Strategies 1 Single Male groups a become dominant male b recruit new group c infanticide 2 Multi Male groups a monitor estrus cycles b friendship consortships c peripheral mating Sexual Selection A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species It39s the result of competition for mates and it can lead to sexual dimorphism with regard to one or more traits Polygynous Pertaining to polygyny A mating system in which a male mates with more than one female This is the most common mating pattern found in mammals including most primates Polyandry A mating system wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male usually two or three with whom she mates Among nonhuman primates polyandry is see only in marmosets and tamarins It also occurs in a few human societies Encephalization The proportional size of the brain relative to some estimate of overall body size such as weight More precisely the term refers to increases in brain size beyond what would be expected given the body size of a particular species
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