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Conservation Biology NotesTest 1 03242014 De nition Protection and documentation of earth s diversity species genetics and ecosystems Keys Documenting biodiversity investigate human impact protect 20 0 Applied science of maintaining the earth s biodiversity Documenting the earth species Why is it important Supplies 0 Recreation 0 Inspiration 0 Value of nature for itself 0 Religion Fundamental Dependency of ecosystem High threat of extinction in short span of time Cause of extinction Habitat degradation 0 Also invasive species 0 Hunting and exploitation 12 million described species 80 are undescribedony know about Estimated 87 million know before extinction 0 Document range of species diversity 0 Investigate impact on species genetic variation and ecosystems Research to protect biodiversity and ecological processes It is a NORMATIVE discipline there are certain vales that are embraced and uses scienti c method to achieve theses values medicine of the earth It is a CRISIS discipline under a time pressure may have to act without complete understanding must have longterm vision beyond immediate crisis Study with eld work or recreation in lab computer modeling statistical analysis GOALS of the class 0 How to think like a scientist What conservation bio is as a scienti c discipline and why it s important Terminology concepts challenges 0 Improve ability to research info 0 Lab experience of actual conservation biologists Assumptions of the eld Ethical principles 0 Diversity is good Biophilia hypothesis Untimely extinction is bad 0 Evolution change in allelic frequency over time is good Ecological complexity is good 0 Biological diversity has intrinsic value species have a right to exist doesn t have to have a speci c value to humans Origin of the eld of conservation bio Religion PhHosophy Ethics John Muir 18381914 father of the eld Wanted to be an academic man of books accident affected eyes healed eyesspiritual awakening appreciation for the natural world divine creations focus of the rest of his life Founded the Sierra Club in 1892 protect the beauty of nature Began conservation movement Muir was founder of the PRESERVATION ETHIC We are part of nature spiritual symbolic inspirational Nature has intrinsic value and of itself is superior to tangible material values 0 This is the basis of deep ecology a search for a quality life in nature Contrast Muir Gifford Pinchot 18651946 very academic Became head of the division of forestry Under Roosevelt fundamental for the creation of reserves Not about beauty and spirituality but rather producing and the responsible use of nature for the service of man 0 Father of RESOUCE CONSERVATION ETHIC Multipleuse sustained yield doctrine 0 what is best for people in the longest period of time o ef cient use Aldo Leopold 18871948 US Forest Service 1901 Sportsman hunting and shing also had a spiritual transformation after killing a mother wolf Thinking about ecosystems in an academic way Integrate humans into ecosystems Beginning of modern ecology Conservation is state of harmony between man and the land Not keep humans out but healthily integrate THIS IS THE EVOLUTIONARYECOLOGICAL LAND ETHIC combined the two previous perspectives Rachel Carson 19071964 concern of use about pesticides author of Silent Spring dangers of DDT etc Start of discipline Society for Conservation Biology Soule and Diamond developing scienti c and technical means for the protection maintenance and restoration of biodiversity The spectrum of Conservation Attitudes a conceptual model not just one way to approach it Conservation Organizations Natural Resource Defense Council WWF Nature Conservancy Ducks Unlimited etc How should we deal with nature Multiple ends of spectrum foci are different shared end Conceptual model can t really assign them a place on a line but this is used very often in consbio Models are ways of Simplifying complex systems or processes NOT perfect explanations of reality NOT mutually exclusive human constructs Can be mathematical time number predict number of individuals or ymxb or conceptual overlap circles between basic biological sciences and applied management sciences with arrow in uences from physical environ social environ and politics Reason for hope knowledge and ability to protect biodiversity and species is increasing Yellowstone Natural Park President Ulysses S Grant signed into law 1872 First national park Rachel Carson Silent Springs Film Overuse of pesticides Poison earth un t for life biocides Polarized nation still affects thinking and policymaking Come to terms with nature work with it and not against it Scientist with literary genius fascination with natural world as a child 19205 challenging time for women in eld of science masters in zoology with bio undergrad Marine bio study Not what people expected feminist before her time Adopted son sisters Way of looking at things became philosophy THE SEA AROUND US Comfortable life revolutionized thinking Highlighted true nature of planet where humans are not involved Not all followed her thinking DDT in WW2 used for Typhoid and ice successful massive use aggressive push Worked wonders for production miracle drugs but killed wildlife People thought it was good saw action in a conceived problem Insisted they did no harm in the way the gov was using them People who poke up ost jobs Mindset against insects even though integral Can t pay god with DDT Farm animals dying drinking DDT water Could spray private lands Pesticides in milk couldn t se Exacerbated danger of insect Carson fought this ex re ant Only a nuisance But gov wanted IRRADICATED Ignored protests Ag Department Appalled by ease of getting chemicals Grocery stores Carson was constantly sick breast cancer Bravery Book written as a rst draft before this Spent time away from book looked for way to write simply determination Love of music When written felt relief Had contributed Attempt to save Called into question the integrity of pesticide industry Threat Many claimed she was lying Tried to prove her insanity or not a chemist etc Bestseller win 2 weeks 0 Hard work to get action in white house and presence in the conscious thinking of people Harsh attacks from industry scientists This series illustrates the desperate need for a balance between the needs of people and the environment to ensure a healthy productive society Three main themes are intertwined dwindling farmland due to urban development a shortage of water for the residents of huge cities and the pollution of and human intervention in waterways This second series looks at environmental issues in a new way without regard for national political or cultural boundaries The third series investigates a growing national security threat throughout the world how environmental pressures can lead to terrorism and regional con ict examines the devastating environmental political and economic effects of the degradation of the world39s grasslands examines how recent trends in globalization and the altering of ecosystems have led to dramatic increases in the spread of infectious diseases 1 What is the central question the lm is addressing How can humans reverse or prevent the destruction of the ocean How humans have disrupted the ecosystem of the ocean Disappearance of biodiversity and species 2 What are the quotkilling machinesquot referred to in the lm What is quotby catchquot What affect do these have on developing countries 0 Giant trollers 9000ft nets catching everything in path clear cut deep sea 1 million lbs of sh a day 0 Track and extract Floating factories process and freeze Unmarketable by catchquot 50 billion lbs of sh killed and thrown back 0 Lost 90 of big sh in ocean Impact on developing world small coastal villages in Africa can t compete with the big boats which means there are severe food shortages for those along the coast 3 What is quotthe last buffalo huntquot referred to in the lm What is the main thing being harvested and for whom Shark Demonized in Jaws Although perfect for 300million years 0 Caught ns cut off thrown back in to die 0 Killed only for n like how buffalo were killed Shark n soup Asia 4 What are the main threats to the turtles referred to in the lm What is being done about it What are the data taken on them What is the success story here and how did it happen 0 Many turtles killed in shing nets or as bykill Trying to monitor and track 0 Study long term trend genetics Attempting to study how to help reproduce etc 0 Study breeding and capabilities Melbourne beach FL shared ancestral breeding grounds with tourists Successful because they mark off parts of beach for nesting site Allows for coexisting 5 How is global warming contributing to species extinctions as discussed in the lm What are the species discussed and how is global warming threatening them speci cally Will nesting beaches remain in the future 0 The edge of the sea extends or falls back so where will the turtles nest Turtles need location to breed and reproduce Could affect multiple species 0 Penguins study nesting site and underwater 0 Sea ice melting no place to raise babies 6 What caused one of the largest salmon dieoffs in American history in September 2002 Salmon aren t traveling down Dam electricity and water for farming Drought not enough for farmers and native American shers Farmers won 2002salmon spawn no water drowned 1005 of salmon on shore Researching measure and tag to study migration patterns 7 What do the Japanese do with the dolphins they trap Why does HardyJones lm the slaughter Has he been successful Beautiful Dolphins are sent to Aquariums Kill the rest for the meat Films to make world aware educate Attracted much attention Hunt has been limited to a single village Though still legal 8 Why are sea otters so important to the kelp forest ecosystem Why were sea otters so close to extinction Why are scientists monitoring sea otters at Monterey Hunted for pelts Sea Otters are important because they eat a ton of seafood such as fresh shell sh They prevent overgrowth and save the kelp forest The kelp forest maintains the biodiversity because it is a sanctuary Track sea otters because the otter population is slowing down growth In the news Oceana Report need more bycatch accountability for waste high discard rates not harvested and thrown back In the lm by catch featured cod and sea turtles What is biodiversity Three levels 0 Genetic diversity of alleles within a species for speci c characteristics morphological and hidden 0 Species all the different things in the community Ecosystems looks at entire region what the are ecosystems involved How to measure genetic diversity Quanti ed by looking at DNA Cladogram Measure diversity of ecosystem Variety of ecosystems mountain semiarid desert riparianriver How they are all interconnected Measure diversity of species 0 Counting species richness 0 Alpha number of species in a local area EX trees on campus species per mountain average 0 Gamma large scale species count ex N America a whole mountain range species per region 0 Beta see g 26 How does alpha diversity change over geographic space Up a mountain v down a mountain rate of change along an environmental gradientquot sometimes calculated as gammaalpha EX Alpha average 6 for region 1 4 for region 2 3 for region 3 o Gamma add up all different species af region 1 7 region 2 10 region 3 9 0 Beta gammaalpha 12 region 1 25 region 2 30 region 3 Region three has the least amount f overlap as there is no redundancy along the mountains or repeating species Region 1 Alpha Gamma Beta species per species per gamma mountain region alpha E DE E C F C F C F 6 7 12 B B G A A Region 3 C F i A W G 3 9 30 Richness incorporating HETEROGENEITY relative proportion of species from different areas Composed of parts having dissimilar characteristics or properties heterogeneous de nition How to de ne complexity of diversity 0 Simpson Index D D1Epiquot2 incorporates Richness and Heterogeneity o ShannonWeiner H HE pi npi incorporates Richness and Heterogeneity o Evenness e eHlog S Pproportional abundance of a species I each species SigFigs One more signi cant digit than the numbers that went into the calculation Simpson ect recognize equations but do not memorize is it the greater the value the higher the diversity Simpson s and ShannonWeiner yes includes richness and evenness value Alpha and gamma if they re are big lots of species just richness Beta gammaalpha how does richness change over space a large means you have a greater rate of change over a certain area Species richness v alpha Richness number of species Alpha species richness at a local scale Global species diversity not well described Bacteria insects fungi Vertebrates are fairly well described Describing a new species Explain Collect museum Catalogued First individual of a species is the TYPE SPECIMEN will be used to compare with others found Plants go to herbariums Label the who what where when ecosystem soil surroundings What is a species There are at least 26 different species concepts or ways of de ning unique species Most common 0 Morphological species definition based on appearance morphologically physiologically or biochemically distinct from other groups 0 Biological species definition organism is reproductively isolated from other species no gene ow between it and other groups Dif culty with plants who hybridize easily 0 Dependent on frame of reference ex Evolutionistmorphological 0 Why is identifying species important to conservation bio Can become extinct by some de nitions Die before we can describe them Ex red wolf all red wolves are hybridized with coyotes Can we de ne them separately as a species or are they a form of coyote Could loose funding for protection When a species de nition makes a difference Gunnison Sage Grouse Sage grouse v Common Grouse 0 Different plumage longer tail feathers Clearly de ned white bars on tail feathers 0 Could this be identi ed as a new species Biological species de nition requires no interbreeding no gene ow Looked at mitochondrial DNA and gene frequencies slower evolution rate inherited maternally no recombination Similar gene proportions logical to assume there is gene ow Difference in gene proportions lack of gene ow 0 From mitochondrial sequencing data Compare Crawford and Gunnison Basin areas 0 Very different gene frequencies between birds 0 Was accepted as a new species morphologically behaviorally and genetically different This work determines if the bird will get protection Endemic species to Gunnison Federal protection endangered species Actionable issue right now con ict with oil and gas cannot work in that area How do we decide what biodiversity to protect and how Crisis discipline conservation triage categorize the immediacy of the emergency and the order of care Can choose to focus on 0 Speci c species Approach Does species require immediate attention DUE Distinctiveness how special are they Utility value endangerment how severe EX Komodo Dragon tourism endemic priority for protection UTILITY Value raises money through tourism Economics Ecosystem value Value focus on keystone species for protection a Keystone Species Often Predators disproportionate impact on it s local ecosystem relative to its abundance Not many but take them out and you get overpopulation Ex how wolves affect rivers Trophic cascade how upper members of food chain affect below High numbers of deer reduce vegetation wolves hunt dear behavior changed avoiding parts those places regenerated vegetation growth birds returned beavers created niches for other species sh otters killed coyotes more rabbits more hawks bears batted clean up berries rivers changed due to regenerated forests stabilizing banks Less erosion Changes ecosystem and geography Ecosystem engineer is the keystone species cause fundamental change Could also be dung beetles or prairie dogs a Indicator Species very fragile or prone to change frogs may ies from pollutants If they are surviving then the ecosystem is healthy Cheat grass is a bioindicator of over grazing it s absence is an indicator as well as it s presence I Umbrella Species if you protect it you will be protecting a ton of other things Could be a keystone Keystone don t have to be umbrellas The Florida Black bear protect it means you will be protecting snakes and birds and raccoons May or may not have a direct interaction or could just share the habitat Protection but lessening poHqun n Flagship Species charismatic organisms that attract attention to conservation cause Lot s of effort to protect the cute gorgeous ashy etc Hope that they might also function as umbreas or keystones EX orca panda o Biodiversity Indicators Ex EBA s endemic bird areas Birds diversity of birdsdiversity of other things Where birds are diverse is where efforts should be focused 0 Centers of Biodiversity Hotspots for where there are multiple species of diversity and multiple areas of biodiversity Could be with animals plants etc 0 Community and Ecosystem Approaches Representative sitesquot of as many types of ecological communities different environments as possible should be conserved Convention on biological diversity The Nature Conservancy Target 11 2020 protect areas of biodiversity and ecosystem services a Reach marine goal but not enough 0 Establishing Wildlife Areas Can one quickly be set up for wildlife protection Get as much and as quickly as possible Led by Costa Rica has 5 of the world s biodiversity 25 of the area is protected CO only have 312 major ecotypes have more than 10 of area protected Mainly alpine and subalpine 82 plant species with critical global ranks Federally endangered severe and Federally threatened terminology from the ESA ecological services act IUCN has global regulations of 61 high danger G2 lower CO has 22 61 species Based on scienti c and numerical data So which species are saved 0 The ones that humans are willing to save Why quantify the value of biodiversity Economic reasons are often behind environmental degradation 0 Need incentives for politics 0 Or what price is a seal 0 The landed valuequot of the hunt was estimated to be 12 million in 2011 according to federal of cials The average price per pelt was 52 Ecological Economics 0 The study of the interaction between economic and ecological systems 0 Goal sustainability Necessary for preservation of biodiversity 0 Much loss is due to economic pursuits Basic economic principle the voluntary transactionquot 0 It is not upon the benevolence of the butcher the baker or the brewer that we eat our daily bread but upon his own self interestquot Ada Smith 17231790 ful lling each others needs creates economics 0 The exception 0 Smith assumes that costs and bene ts are felt by the participants 0 EXTERNALITIES hidden costs or bene ts unexpected repercussions Ex bee keeper selling honey to a customer is the transaction The externality is that there are owers being pollenated because he is raising bees Positive or negative external portions of the cost will not be taken into account on a spreadsheet etc Have no bearing on the buyers or sellers 0 Market Failure 0 When a few bene t at a cost to the larger society 0 Net loss to all 0 Occurs when externalities are not taken into account 0 Ex conversion of land Cutting down trees for lumber Loss of topsoil dried up lost that ecosystem service Dust bowl no ability to plant or grow 0 Ex Hunting and shing in coral reefs Detrimental to the coral reef when sh are hunted No food for sh no sh for sherman 0 Ex Sea Otters Kelp forests disappeared when the otters were hunted Sea urchins and abalones ate all the kelp Kelp was necessary for biodiversity and wave buffering 0 Economics are very separated from real life the earth is an externality Doesn t impact the money making business aspect We need a conceptual model 0 Use values 0 Direct use Consumptive use Productive 0 Indirect use Nonconsumptive o Nonuse Value Use Values Direct use v Indirect use 0 Direct Use Value 0 Consumptive Use Goods consumed locally having a value something is getting used up animal eaten tree felled Highest in traditional societies Easy to quantify look at the value on the market What would you have to pay to buy whatever is being used EX Consumptive value of wild pig in Malaysia a 40 million per year to buy in replacement Traditionally sustainable Practices not always a concern Ancient culture has experience in use O n EX religious uses are usually not a conservation threat Controlled matter Productive Use Things are harvested locally but then sold in some national or international market Bene t to harvesters is the money earned not necessarily the item Ex weave a basket from natural grasses sold to the US Easier to quantify there is money already involved and quan ed Natural world is an important source of medicine could be both consumptive or productive Productive use CAN be destructive to the environment and not sustainable Ex rhino horn sold as an aphrodisiac in China cure cancer 0 Indirect Use Values 0 O 0 Least considered Value little effect on the using up of an organism Ecosystem services pollination etc Most important waste treatment and nutrient retention quantify this value Look at what it would cost to build a plant that would perform the same service as these organisms Expensive to replace Often not recoverable after degradation There is no way to replace the service Very dif cult to restore Ex ecotourism n In theory it is not using up stuff D But is it good or bad for the environment a Supports economy of many countries a Bene ts Awareness and inspiration effort build funds care economy is dependent on it reason to preserve can control impact increase value of local knowledge citizen science money can support research n Cost Harm environment in its natural setting pollution roads change in animal behavior aggressive behavior littering foliage damage feeding animals is dependency prey population may grow cascade effects interfere with research emphasis on the value of only certain areas carbon emissions of travel use of resources by tourists from wild use fencing to displace the local people change the way they live their daily lives a Create a fantasy land a Money brought in more than could be made with extractivedirect use 0 Option Value The prospect of future value Genetic component is especially important for disease resistance etc Biocontrol options organisms necessary in future to help control other organisms Bioremediation use to help solve problems ex clean up oil spills with bacteria Can t know needs of future for Medicines New foods Discount Rate 0 O O CO The rate at which a society discounts the future Lowers the value of items used in the future ls considering the future a luxury Ex value a forest for future potential making paper in a developing country they have to discount the tree because they need rewood and heat NOW Discount future references Investment analogy can t you invest when you are making minimum wage Plant trees for future or a crop that will yield THIS year 0 Existence Value 0 Nature has a right to exist how to quantify o How much are people willing to spend to protect it 0 CostBene t Analysis Ex Bacuit Bay Palawan Philippines Activities logging shing and tourism What are some of the management options Consider options in terms of predicted bene ts Balance sheets looking at doing some of the activities but not all etc LE st Costbene t analysis of three development Options in Bacuit Bay Palawan Phillipines Amount of revenue generated by Total Development option Tourism Fisheries Logging revenue Option 1 intensive logging until timber depletedb 6 9 110 25 Option 2 Logging banned protected area establishedf 25 17 0 42 Option 3 Sustainable loggingd 24 16 4 44 Source After tiodgson and Dixon l988 1 Revenues are in millions of dollars over a l eyear period E1In this option logging substantially decreases the revenues from tourism and fisheries Timber is completely deplete ed after 5 years fin this option tourism and fisheries are major sustainable industries no logging lln this option logging is allowed to proceed in an environmentally responsible manner A buffer of trees is main tained near wetlands and streams logging does not occur on steep slopes construction of logging roads is minimized and hunting is banned There is minimal impact on fisheries and tourism and the overall economic benefits are enhanced Realelife logging practices are rarely as benign as portrayed here ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Fourth Edition Table Ainll I53 210 Sinauer Associates inc Precautionary principle 0 Better to err on the side of doing no harm Perverse subsidies False appearance of pro t for many destructive activities 0 Subsidies by the gov tax money support 0 Without which would not be pro table 0 Ex dairy farms in Israel lots of water where there is usually non lots of gov money 0 The economic competitiveness of a country is not closely related to its environmental sustainability No signi cant relationship Economic sustainability index v Competitive index Indexes are models SO is the graph a model Based on raw data 0 0 Model way of creating simplicity equation How well does it explain the relationship 0 Mess is reality data points Main Ideas 0 A country can be sustainable without compromising its competitiveness Sometime the most sustainable option is the most pro table Every species can be given a monetary value but this isn t necessarily how conservation decisions are made Seals hunt for skins Canadian gov allows this to happen carcass thrown back into the water little ice left anyways Emotional Harvest is important to Canadian economics for pelts seal oil as a supplement meat 0 Are seals becoming endangered Seals and sealing 2014 say no 0 What are the facts How can that inform reasonable conservation efforts 0 How do we decide whether to conserve a species Limited funds and resources 0 Does it pay its DUE Harp seal 0 Distinctive 0 Utility dead v alive 0 Endangered Group research Small groups of 3 1 person read the economic asticle 1 person look into the peer reviewed literature of the scienti c information species 0 global state role in ecosystems 1 person researching political and social aspects Department of Fisheries and Oceans DFO is Canada39s Central Propaganda Arm in Promoting Sealing httpwwwharpseasorgpoiticsandpropagandaindexphp Most Canadians support with some groups against Canadians may accept a theoretical seal hunt in which seals do not suffer but they clearly do not accept killing seals in the way in which it is actually done Due to propaganda many Canadians believe old likes about sealing like facts about the hunt etc Blame seals for the disappearance of Cod not true Politicians against is quotI plan to go back next year and every year until this hunt ends to catalogue the wastefulness of this hunt I have an obligation to the majority of Canadians who oppose the hunt to be a witness to this waste of taxdollars and a vocal advocate for its swift conclusionquot with Bills to end the seal hunt has not yet passed Seal conservation society httpwwwpinnipedsorgseal informationspeciesinformationpagesthephocidsealsharpseal The primary aims of the Society remain to protect and conserve seals worldwide by 0 Monitoring and attempting to minimize threats to seal populations 0 Providing an information and advisory service on sealrelated issues 0 Maintaining close links with groups concerned with seal welfare conservation rescue rehabilitation and research 0 Communicating with governments in relation with seal protection and conservation issues 0 Encouraging developing educational material related to seals their nature and threats that they face 0 httpwwwpinnipedsorgaboutthesociety National Wildlife Federation targeting younger ages cuteness factor informed decisions Should they be saved quota A note about researching sources What are you looking for facts v opinion What is the source bias Where is the information from Who owns it What accountability is there Peer review reputation funding sources acknowledgement organizationsinstitutions of origin What happens if the facts are wrong What is the guarantee that the facts are right Seal Threats HunUng 0 Ice melt Seal Financials 0 Number allowed to hunt 23 of world harvest in Canada 0 Market value 5 mil to 120 mil complex discrepancies Scientists say 0 Estimates 14 mil pupsyear International Union to Conserve Nature lUCN international organization of scientist Scienti c evaluation of species Not perfect but process with best available science 0 Stable or growing population 0 Least concern Seal Cultural Issues 0 Native lnuits depend on seal hunting 10005 of years 0 Use value consumptive value maybe some productive Meat ExUncUon 10 new species of snails have been discovered in Malaysia have been found in the limestone quarries They are already in danger of extinction Extinct vs Globally extinct there are none anywhere Extant does exist somewhere in the world Extinct in the wild no natural occurrence only cultivated in conservancies or zoos parks etc Locally extinct or extirpated species that used to exist in a certain place but no longer exists in that native area Exist elsewhere Ecologically extinct no longer functioning in ecosystems as they did historically ex Siberian tigers only 400 left considered basically extinct On the trajectory Massive extinction 10010000 speciesyr LOST FOREVER entering the 6th period of massive extinction on the planet look at fossil records of marine organisms better preserved Permianmost dramatic took 50 million years to recover 50 of animal families were lost at this point In global history there have been 5 extinction episodes Most recent extinction episode Started 30000 years ago 7486 of megafauna disappeared Majority of extinctions have occurred in the last 150 years mainly animals Accelerated loss speed more documentation Mostly small animals surviving What does this mean What s different this time Why big animals Require more to survive Easier targets for humans 0 In past extinction was balanced by the evolution of more Extinctions in NA correspond to the arrival of humans hunted to extinction Species extinctions Occurring 100 to 100 x faster than without human in uence background extinction Half of species lost by 2100 o In USA 0 4500 threatened with extinction 0 gt200 species plants extinct o 119 plants in CO 0 Freshwater muscles even more endangered cray sh stone ies freshwater sh amphibians owering plants conifers ferns tiger beetle butter ies reptiles dragon ies mammals birds in peril l more secure Triage Label of immediacy What s the disaster 0 HUMANS 0 Single organisms causing it Another thing different this time we can do something about it What can we do Field of conservation biology identifying risk Which species are most vulnerable Limited geographic range only exist in certain places in the world Few populations number of individuals living in a certain placetime that are reproducing and causing gene ow few interbreeding groups Small population size not many individuals not much genetic vanabHRy Hunted or harvested by humans Endemism the extreme of limited geographic rangequot Live in 1 area naturally found in 1 place Neoendemics newly speciated Paleoendemics ancient species w few living relatives California has most endemic species why 0 Geographic boundaries are the primary cause of endemism Ocean Sierra Nevadas 0 Gene ow is limited allows different evolutionary trajectories Local adaptation Genetic drift Similar situation with Hawaii o In general islands have more endemism based on the size of island proximity to other land masses latitudemore species diversity on equator population density of island Lots of factors 0 More endemism higher percentages of threatened species correspond Endemic plants are more likely to be threated relative to other plant speCIes Other factors that increase extinction risk 0 Species that are not effective dispersers ex sh polluted area can t nd a new place to go 0 Species found in pristine environments ex coral reefs which are sensitive Species dependent on perfect environment 0 Species that form temporary individuals dependent on reproduction by a group nding each other at speci c times 0 Usual effect of density as population size increases birth rates go down death rates go up Intersection K carrying capacity birthdeath Bigger pop more competition disease predation o Alee effect Reproduction is not possible at small population size Won t reproduce without a certain number of members of the population present Disproportionally affected 0 Species without prior contact with people 0 Dodo bird used as a food source by ships bird had no experience with humans didn t understand couldn t y wouldn t walk away Overuse l extinction Species with threated or extinct relatives 0 Column monkeys large primates are in trouble so keep an eye on them How risk of extinction is measured and assessed Metrics used by conservation biologists At the international level World conservation union IUCN o 140 countries contribute data 0 10000 scientists o Decreasing order of imperilment Used in the Red List EX extinct EW extinct in wild CR critically endangered EN endangered VUvulnerable NT neat threatened LC least concern DD data de cient NE not evaluated 0 Species Evaluated n Adequate data 0 Category I Inadequate Data Not Evaluated Of 15 million species described 38046 were evaluated and 15503 were threatened Biggest group was plants Some species groups from the US ranked as critically imperiled imperiled or vulnerable Mammals birds Local Level Nature Serve network of Natural Heritage Programs Interested in the status of species in speci c region Supported by the Nature Conservancy Based on scienti c info Species occurrence records element occurrence records EORs 0 Where when how many 0 Species rankings difference Elements of conservation interest a Number of remaining populations individuals a Number of locations protected a Degree of threat a Innate vulnerability Assigned quotImperilment Ranksquot Gglobal nnationa ssubnannaD n 1 critically imperiled n 2 imperiled n 3 vulnerable n 4apparently secure a 5most secure abundant n GNS rankings will be different Federal level Endangered Species Act LE listed endangered LT listed threatened LELT different listings for speci c ranges of species PE proposed endangered PT proposed threatened Species Case Studies Silvery Minnow o 61 really bad globally 0 LE listed endangered Endemic only to Rio Grande Recovery plan implementation Penstemon harringtonii o Endemic to CO 0 Studied by D86 0 Provide into to the Colorado Natural Heritage Program 0 NatureServe rank 63 vulnerablerare Lynx Bobcat o Endemic to entire continent lots of populations 0 65 not threatened Grouse lesser prairie chicken 0 LT Listed threatened o Threatened by oil and gas can drill in the area still 0 Upset on both sides Gunnison Grouse o 61 NatureServe level due to endemic 0 Not yet federally listed currently being considered 0 Oil and gas competition The take home Humans are increasing extinction rates 0 Organizations such as CNHP and IUCN are documenting the degree of endangerment Have identi ed features to highlight extinction risk Endemic Species vary in number for each state They are native species that evolved in that location Endemism higher in plants than animals 0 CA blocked on both sides oceansSierra Nevadas physical barrier Islands have a high of endemic species A higher of endemic plant species are threatened relative to all plant species on these islands Understanding species dynamics on land islands Began with understanding species dynamics on islands 0 Not always LITERAL islands 0 Establishing a new population 0 Usually this will involve dispersal of a small group of individuals outside the normal geographic range 0 A few individuals from the old population move to a new area Form a new population if the area is suitable for survival and reproduction Dispersal events 0 Physiological potential Must be able to survive in the new location Law of tolerance no species will have populations outside the range of which their physiology allows them to survive o Ecological opportunity An open niche Competitive Exclusion no 2 species can occupy the same niche at the same time 0 Physical access Does the founding population have the ability to move into the new area McArthur and Wilson 1963 Observation 0 For a given area islands near New Guinea support more bird species than those further away 0 Why 0 The Island Biogeography Model 0 Species richness on islands can be modeled as a dynamic balance between immigration of new species to the island and extinction of species already on the island 0 The more species on an island The lower the rate of immigration The higher the rate of extinction Reaching a new geographic area 0 New species arrival rate declines because as the number of species on the island rises the chances that a new arrival will be of a different species than those already present on the island declines as the number of species increases Left line arrival of new species a Right line extinction rate a Extinction rates rise because with more species on the island there are more species to go extinct the resources are divided between more populations with fewer per population populations will thus be smaller some new arrivals will be disease organisms and predators that may annihilate the present populations 0 Observations 0 Small islands have fewer species 0 Far islands had fewer species 0 Can this be explained by a model that we should see on other islands LARGER islands are more easily reached NEARER islands are more easily reached Affects immigration and extinction rates Smaller islands higher extinction ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 59 Figure 79 Smaller islands lower immigration Where immigration and extinctions intersect equilibrium The number of species on the island will be a function of the number of new species arriving at the island per unit of time LEFT and the rate of extinction RIGHT Understanding the model Because different islands will have different rates of immigration and extinction And therefore different expected quot5 Both size and proximity affect 5 Island model Oceanic islands and quotland islandsquot ex National Parks grand canyon Zion etc Similar effect of species richness as a function of size of park as with islands park has become an island Small islands have greater extinction rates Islands far from species sources have lower immigration rates Rate of immigration of new species 0 Island is far from mainland Small fair island Island is near mainland Island is small Island is large Large near island aim uogaugxg Numbei of species gt 2010 Sinauer Associates Inc Habitat Degradation and Fragmentation Effect on species evolution by altering environment Creates islands Main problem in the declines of biodiversity is human activity Increase rates of extinction Density of humans Increasing human Population and consumption Agriculture Logging Fisheries Industry Urbanization and International trade and fossil road construction fuel use Loss of Die isiadatiorr of Lea of ecsystem services I 56 re 91 2010 Sinauer Associates Inc Ex Rocky Mountain Wildlife Park conservation of original species but affected by the nitrogen produced by cars etc Nitrogen affects speci c species more than other altering composition Habitat Impacts facing endangered species in the US by of US endangered species Agriculture 38 Commercial developments 35 Water projects 30 Outdoor recreation 27 Livestock grazing 22 Pollution 20 Infrastructure and roads 17 Disrupting re ecology 13 Logging 12 PPOFP P rPUNI Habitat destruction Habitat fragmentation and island biogeography model Habitat Degradation Climate change and species responses Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to the world s species followed by overexploitation Ex conversion of rainforest displaces previous species only one continuous species planted Land Conversion Habitat Fragmentation ls when continuous area is reduced in size and divided 0 Leading to land islands 0 Increased edge effect 0 Conditions more harsh 0 Conditions different from interior 0 More in uence from outside environment ex invasion Shrunken habitat for reindeer in Norway population size decreases creation of small islands Habitat Degradation Habitat Desertification overgrazing loose vegetation loose topsoil can t be productive soil blows away Create a desert 0 Conservation in the News Good news for sharks imports in shark n lowered in Asia due to changes in cultural desires Afghanistan second national park large protection for species job opportunities San Bernadino Flying Squirrels only endemic to one range now habitat destruction is leading them to be listed as an endangered species Robber Crab extinction due to tsunami large hunted Ex1 deserti cation Ex 2 Pollution Air pollution 0 Ozone production Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide with sunlight are converted to make smog and ozone ex car emissions 0 Acid rain Nitrogen and sulfur oxides make nitric and sulfuric acids practice of one country affected by another 0 Toxic metals Mining metals left in soil can move to atmosphere in practices no chemical reaction necessary 0 Pesticides biomagni cation 0 Recovery from DDT bald eagles and other raptors bene tted from prevention 0 Sentinel species indicator species for danger of DDT 0 Why are they affected by insecticide Top predators eat things that eat other things containing DDT concentration moves up the food chain this is an example of BIOMAGNIFICATION Water pollution ex eutrophication 0 Cultural eutrophication green water dead sh 0 Eutrophication can be natural or cultural Natural sediment build up in lake increase temp causes aglael blooms nitrogen from natural sources Cultural human activity causes sediment build up nitrogen build up from human byproducts nitrogen feeds algae Algae uses oxygen when dead fall to bottom eaten by bacteria release toxins No light penetration no plant life Ex 3 Climate Change greenhouse effect sunlight and heat in sunlight let out but not heat heat kept in by greenhouse gasses C02 and methane blanket Temperature increases regardless of why affect organisms Ex ice melting habitat destruction for polar bears and seals etc Phenology changes biological timing process affected by temperature light etc Pine beetles extended reproductive cycle due to heat plants blooming earlier Melting polar region increased sea level Evidence of global warming 0 Heat waves Drought Melting glaciers Rising sea levels 0 Spread of disease to higher elevations Shifts in species ranges moving up the mountain no where for current species to go dispersal problem where to go quotpopquot off mountain 0 Population declines penguin Earlier spring 0 Why might this be a problem Earlier start to tornado and storm weather Earlier warmth means earlier snow melt and perhaps a longer dry season Insuf cient cold days means more invasive and annoying species survive to breed and suck blood in the spring Life cycles migratory cycle shorter hibernations Plants owering 8 days earlier than the past 100 years with a 5 degree temperature increase Colorado case study pasque ower blooming a month earlier over the past 100 years statistically signi cant change able to create a model Didn t see earlier bloom time in every species not dependent on temp all year bloom plants that don t ower means there is a at line across time so no pattern Lab week 4 Colorado species for which there is no published data on response to climate change Using data from an online herbarium you will test the hypothesis that you species is responding to climate change possibility for publish What is to blame for climate change Corresponds to population growth Invention of fertilizer grow more food to support a larger population snze o HaberBosch process ability to create the nitrogen fertilizer necessary Ecological footprint measured in the amount of land affected 0 American v Other country o 122 v brazil 25 o lndia 11 vegetarianism Take home 0 Habitat fragmentation pollution and global climate change all have quanti able effects 0 Small population are especially at risk of extinction in part due to the loos of genetic variability We have a shared responsibility across the globe Diagramming Arguments AS a tool to strengthen critical thinking and writing 0 With gures and tests from Critical Thinking Web Basic argument 0 Any writing making a point holding a position 0 Life is short l we should seize every moment 0 Premise conclusion Arrow can be substituted with the word therefore or so because since for the reason after all in light of the fact 1 Identify statements can be proven true or untrue EX a conservation of biodiversity is important to citizens premisesupport B citizens will act on conservation issues premise C Citizens will write letters for our biodiversity campaign conclusion 0 Can critique the argument look at statements as true or untrue rst premise as TRUE 0 Conclusion indicator thus therefore consequently hence so it follows that etc 0 Can be omitted but only implied Copremises needs both premises to be true 0 Paris is in France France is in Europe Paris is in Europe 0 This example can t stand alone Some copremises can stand alone smoking is unhealthy1 since it can cause cancer 2 l smoking is bad Copremise indicators and yet but however moreover in addition nevertheless Multilayered argument Po can t come l broken scooter Dipsy can t come l pick up hat The rest weren t invited no teletubby will come to the party Critique he argument start with rst premise is that assumed as true could use a study rst to corroborate the rst premise critique arrow it is a logical ow Look at the next copremise or premise can it stand alone and does it ow to the next point Logical orjumping to conclusions What factors are not included Conservation in the news new study covering 17 EU countries says that far more honeybees are dying in the UK and other parts of northern Europe than in Mediterranean countries Much of the UK was above the acceptable percentage of bee mortality Last year the EU introduced a ban on four chemicals called neonicotinoids which are used in pesticides They are believed to be linked to the collapse of bee colonies across Europe Future livelihood of the bees could be positively affected by this change Shifts in reptile populations NM due to environmental changes Answering questions in science 0 Scienti c method 0 One of many approaches Assumes the hypothesis is fallible o Tests whether something is FALSE nullhypothesis pattern etc 0 Not proving true 0 Testing and analysis must be 0 Objective 0 Repeatable SBIIEEHTJIFlIG METH punpasa HESEAHEH FILIlII ilk gayup A r 39 1 1 L I 1 quotquot l l l l 71417 L L IA H LMLL u 4i L 7 PA hump FenWm I tnl Iii mum39s iI pnni tli39III lib nil Ii39ll g EQHELUETEM i W HE liquotirlquotl Steps for testing and analysis 1 Create a clear hypotheses 0 ex the taller your father is the taller you will be 0 The hypothesis is about a relationship between variables 0 Both variables are continuous numeric any value within a range 0 We are predicting a positive correlation Null hypotheses there is no relationship between father s height and your height What s actually tested HO owNo U39l Sin s height is the dependent variable Identify variables of interest Identify a population Sampling a population population in a statistical context means the group for which we want to make a general population referred to in the hypothesis 0 exquot species of plant community of ants type of rock 0 ex populations humans in Denver or Caucasians Sample the population EX collect poll on campus asking their height and dad s height 0 Problem inaccurate answers no genetic relationship WHO is sampled is there a representative sample affect of mother s genes people who are still growing not an accurate measure ie no measuring tape Disease nutrition 0 False assumptions 0 Nonrandom sample 0 How variable is measured Accuracy Limitations of proxies show size to calculate height 0 Sample size Test for a nonrandom relationship Why nonrandom You know your results mean something and aren t just by random chance Imagine randomly assigning father heightsquot Pvalue 0 Linear regression O A way to objectively test the probability that the distribution could be obtained by random chance p value If random there is no slope The test will yield a model of the best t line Ex son s height in the yaxis dependent xaxis is the independent variable or dad s height If it was a perfect prediction for son s height perfect correlation Ymxb Msope If it was random the data points would be all over the graph Line of best t would be a horizontal A reasonable data would be a cluster either positively or negatively correlated The more variability the large the sample will need to be to get an accurate trend Will need more data points to get a line of best t that is con dent and accurate Null hypotheses slope will be zero no correlation or the father height does no impact son height there is no relationship independent variable does not explain variability in dependent variable Pvalue probability that what you got is based on random chance cut off of probability 005 plt005 less than 5 probability that the results you observed could be attributed to random chance Probability that there is no relationship only effected by random chance Rquot2 calculation of the distance form the data points to the line of best t what is the deviation from the model how good is the model Ex r1 100 of variability of son s height is explained by father s height Small r small percentage of variability in son s height is explained by the father s height Correlation coef cient Only if it is statistically signi cant will you draw the regression line signi cant if plt005 likelihood of getting this by random chance is less than 5 6 reject or accept the null hypothesis reject the null if there is statistical signi cance less than p005 we do not PROVE the hypothesis This week s lab increase in temperature earlier spring earlier booms changing patterns are the species affected What cues species to bloom Still have late frosts that kill blooms and prevent reproduction vulnerability Disconnect with pollinators Has owering changed over time for a speci c species Hypothesis rise in temperature are causing earlier bloom times 0 Variables Independent temperature yaxis for us year dependent ower bloom timex axis 0 Negative slope blooming earlier lower on the axis because spring is coming sooner Identifying sources of variability how to understand owering time 0 We will be using the proxy of collection date 0 The variability that isn t explained by the independent variable is called the error unexplainable by model lots of error or slop What will be sources of error in this case 0 We have to use a proxy for owering date since no one is sitting on a mountain top observing these owers 0 Use herbarium sheets that show that a plant was owering at a speci c time not same conditions dependent on when it was observed not when it bloomed exactly only in the window of owering which is variable 0 Interactions with rainfall as a cue 0 Elevation 0 Temperature varies in different places If your sample is too small relative t the amount of noise or error then you may not be able to detect a relationship even if it exists 0 THIS IS CALLED TYPE II ERROR Fail to reject the null hypothesis when you actually should 0 There is a relationship between the variables but you didn39t have a big enough sample size to detect it Type I error reject the null but you should not have false relationship TEST PREP Lab 1 and 2 in class notes on Lab 4 Essay combines TF etc making connections between things DIAGRAMMS CAN YOU DIAGRAM AND CAN YOU CRITIQUE THEM Seal hunt be comfortable with the discussion and the information presented can you understand both sides of the debate Articles of island biogeography feel comfortable with all three articles BE VERY COMFORTABLE WITH THE ISLAND BIOGROGRAPHY MODEL AXIS ETC Invasive species and Policy the role of science and public opinion 05192014 Participation x 1 exam 1 x 2 exam 2 x 3 final x 4 Participation 2 x THattendance3 in class points Divide by total possible will be 100 at the end News Japan shipping whale meat from Iceland Saudi prince kills 2 of whole population of Bustards Effect of inbreeding on keystone predators wolf inbreeding depression cascades moose explode plants sufferljmesh new news with old topics 1 A model for understanding why legislation happens tamarisk case study 0 What do the following have in common 0 Cleveland LA small city in NY 0 Bald eagle whooping crane oysters amp crabs mosquitoes and deer amp elk o All had signi cant events that focused public support for major legislative action 0 Ex 1 Bald Eagle 0 DDTRachel Carson OOOOOOOOO OOOOOONOO 1782 100000 Competition with humans loss of habitat DDT and hunting gt417 1963 1967 declared endangered 1940 Bald Eagle act Biomagni cation with insecticides lowered shell density ESA DOT ban in 1972 US Endangered Species Act 1973 most important conservation legislation Nixon preserve the ecosystem upon which the species rely AND there is a program for the conservation of the species Candidates v threatened likely to become endangered v endangered likely to go extinct in all or part of range Requires that all us gov agencies to consult with FWS and NMFS to determine action Relation to endemism map CA and HWI are high 1995 reduced to threatened doing better delisted in 2007 Environmental Protection Pollution in the river river was burning Cuyahoga river OH 1969 Establish EPA and Earth Day 1970 Clean water act 1972 Can t see Hollywood sign in LA Smog Clean Air Act 1970 Hooker Chemical Niagara Falls NY radioactive waste buried love canal disaster citizens affected by toxic waste evacuation Protests 1978 l Superfund provide to clean up toxic waste 1980 o Mosquito Control Programs due to West Nile Scare 0 Healthy Forest Act 2003 forest Fires of 20022003 0 Why did these actions gain support Important people in and around gov could attend to a long list of problems who focus on particular ones They are tied to and issue particular issue or even that mobilizes public support Problem must be considered SERIOUS has to be addressed The role of Science 0 2 roles identify and diagnose the dilemmas they can observe monitor and evaluate outcomes of policy Key ingredients for action 0 Problem linked to issue considered serious by public 0 Scientists were warning us of problems had quotsomequot answers 0 Because of above there was the motivation and will of the public to implement solutions Case Study Tamarisk lnvasion does it t the three keys listed above Wildlife Habitat and recreation Wild re increase the Rio Grande in ABQ 42003 Edward Abby Monkey Wrench Gang environmental terrorism logging boobie trap area to prevent loggers Is it because of water use and drought Tamarisk exacerbating drought 0 Can it be solved 0 Chemical mechanical or biological control 0 Critical revegetation after removal o Is there a will to solve it 0 O O O O O 0 Is the problem too large to tackle Too much tamarisk covering the west Dr seuss Cat in the hat syndrome can t pick up the mess feeling in society role of science cat s machine with cleaning monitoring and revegetation Who is motivated Congress State Tribal and Federal policy makers Researchers and scientists Environmentalorganizations Gov agencies representing agriculture wildlife natural resources water and the environment Water districts Landowners Act signed by Bush 1992 carry out assessment and demonstration program for the tamarisk and Russian olive No money to help implement lt checks off all three Keys Public interest is starting to fall Summary Gaining political support to solve any problems requires 1 serious and linked to issue 2 technical answers form scientist 3 Motivation and political will Invasive species tipping point 0 US National Invasive Species Council 0 O O O 1992 Invasive species advisory board National invasive species management act Public issue Legislation and new GOV group Aquatic nuisance and control act Zebra muscles Created to reauthorize and amend the nonindigenous aquatic nuisance prevention and control act of 1990 1988 became a serious issue cost gt40 million euro over next 20 years money issue series of navigation rules implemented Spain example 0 Legislation at the regional level 0 US State and county level legislation 0 State agriculture departments deal with it 0 Ex weed lists 162 different weed species on the list there are gov responsibilities attached to it Tiered State appointed weed managers or county weed managers 0 Ex NY State parks Program for 30000 for control Mostly invasive insets that attack trees 0 Ex India s Himachael Pradesh s forest department launching massive efforts to kill lantana ower 0 Summary Public opinion matter a lot usually but not always Tamarisk probs are extensive but water made it an issue for public policy Zebra muscles drove the national level legislation Most legislation occurs on a regional scale Sustainable development Address the con ict balance human and nature needs Growth v development 0 Economic development 0 Increased efficiency 0 Increased organization 0 Doe not necessarily mean an increase in natural resource consumption direct use 0 Economic growth 0 Material increase in resource consumption Sustainable development 0 O O 0 Improving development while limiting growth Present and future needs for natural resources and employment considered no discounting Ex Implementing less destructive logging or shing Green in business development why Conscious of environment and practices that are good for environment are good for sustainable development term often misappropriated businesses may quotgreenwashquot their practices with token implementation or funding sustainable projects volunteering don t actually change business practices good PR ex NOT good development drilling in the ANWR Alaska national park mining in a forest keeping resources completely off limits no compromise How clean is quotgreen energyquot Ethanol fewer MPG from corn not a sustainable crop due to growing practices takes fossil fuel to grow corn practice is polluting erosion some calculations suggest that the production of biofuels requires more fossil fuel to make that it displaces exception use of waste ie cooking grease Conservation and Development Efforts must preserve biological diversity must address con ict between both real and perceived human needs luxuries people want Conservation requires multidisciplinary solutions that provide for both 0 Protection of biological diversity and economic welfare of humans Conservation biologists actively promote conservation at local and national levels So you own some valuable land now what Local Conservation at the Local Level 0 Best strategy designate intact biological communities as reserves 0 This can be done by a gov entity Ex national parksmonuments 0 Private nonpro t conservation organization to protect land 0 Land Trust Local more than 15 mil ha protected by about 1700 land trusts National TNC National Audoban society etc protecting 10 mil ha More common in EuropeUK n Largest has annual income of 45 mill PROBLEM I Mean revenue to a community may be lost I MAY be compensated for by the increased value of land adjacent to protected area cost of house near park I And cultural heritage is preserved indirect use a Fig 203 growth of non gov agents over the last decade many are land trusts o How make it work for land owners 0 O 0 Sell to developers v land trusts Convince land owner to give to trust Show visual of ways that land is managed and the outcome based on management styles styles of grazing 1 Conservation easements landowners are compensated to give up right to develop receive funds lower taxes or other bene ts Ex Michael Jackson received 70000 per year in tax breaks to not develop part of his ranch Mitigation o 2 Agreement of limited development conservation development compromise between landowner developer and conservation organization give up some not ideal only part is destroyed rest becomes easement bene ts to all 3 Conservation Leasing landowners actively manage land for biodiversity protection in exchange for tax deductions and payments help defray cost is related to conservation banking 4 Conservation Banking how conservation leasing can be nanced landowners actively manage land for biodiversity protection or protecting a species Landowner is paid by developer in compensation for the developer destroying habitat elsewhere mitigation 5 Payments for ecosystem services PES Related to conservation banking Landowner is paid for providing speci c conservation services land provides these services but you own wetland that is cleaning water Ecosystem services 6 Conservation concessions Conservation organizations outbid logging companies or other developersextractive industries for the right to usetheland Must be monitored closely to make sure agreements being carried out ie land owner won t lease to loggers make sure of that 0 Concept is quotno net lossquot of species or habitats However new population or habitat do not reduce the need to protect the original area populations 0 Same acreage but other issue dependence of adjacent areasusers ie breeding or migration issues of genetic diversity that take time to establish who is populating the new habitat Soil composition over time Things that can t be manufactured National level legislation 0 Control borders ports and commerce 0 With regard to endangered species overharvesting illegal trade 0 May be a part of an international agreement ie as a part of CITES cooperation over trade of species 0 Identify endangered species 0 Protect and manage land table 201 0 Highlights the different aspects of protecting areas in relationship to local people especially indigenous people who depended on land 0 Ex masaimara national park in Kenya Masai tribe homeland could have been booted out to preserve landnational tourism park Guides and people who bene t economically in that location are the masai integration of people Still suffered in modern area nomadic originally 0 Active management of species may be required Fig 207 Endangered species require active management and national policy as part of a recovery process Independent Falcon grey wolf need no management v dependent kingfisher only rows in captivity Ex whooping cranes have been requiring very intensive human action to maintain pop dressing up as mama crane pays DUE tall majestic can be 30 383 individuals in wild pop 500 in captivity only one of the populations is self sustaining 0 Establish NATIONAL PARK AND WILDERNESS lS MOST VALUBLEIMPORTANT THING Endangered species act cost very high can lead to quotshoot shovel and shut upquot Discover endangered species on property Don t tell extreme limitations 0 The esa works Cranes are slowly improving but some are still declining even though listed Eagles as success story Take home Sustainable development balancing human and biodiversity needs Can be achieved though many models National legislation is critical Many conservation success stories WHAT CAN CITIZENS DO Ocean friendly sea food see food watch Monterrey bay App sea food watch SO many things to dohow to prioritize Union of Concerned Scientists Founded in 1969 Redirection of scienti c research to pressing environmental concerns 0 Mission change humanities stewardship of earth Making decisions based on science large ecological footprint moral ongann Things not to worry about Cloth v Disposable Diapers 0 Paper v plastic bags Disposable cups v washing cups 0 Cotton v synthetic Newspaper v peanuts for packing General Guideline what does it weigh Heavy items have more impact than light ones Scrutinize those decisions more carefully THE priority actions for American Consumers UOCS Transportation Household operations EaUng Table 31 environmental impacts per household Transportation is the bad one for all areas of environmental degradation Consumer choices Transportation Minimize gas consumption 0 Learn how you commute Noncar options 0 Public transit walk bike carpool Where you choose to live based on workplay Choice of car Household operations 0 Consider microwaves and electric kettles use less energy 0 Change light bulbs Which fridge you buy Washerdryer 0 Focus on water HEATING more than overall water usage 0 TV size equates to energy 0 Increase wats per square inch for each type 0 Plasma most Maybe Energystar ratings on appliances 0 Use tree acreage 0 Change 5 lights 0 Have heating cooling services annual 0 Use thermostat 0 Seal home 0 Computer 0 Monitor is most 0 Laptops use less than desktop smaller screen 0 Use battery not constant plug in Food Food transportation 0 Most food we eat is not local Impacts primarily land use and water use pollution and additional transportation related effects 0 LLOWW down on eating Local Low on food chain Organic Watch what you eat from the water 0 Worry don t be a exitarian Wealth is correlated to more consumption 0 Wealth can be good for the environment Power a Buy better vehicles a More choices a Make a difference a Educann O O O 0 News The bad 0 Decision delayed on Gunnison grouse 0 Oil drilling now permitted in Yasnui National Park The good 0 Worlds largest marine part established in S Paci c 0 Like zone approach in Philippines Leopards recovering in the Caucuses 0 Motion sensor tripped cameras 0 New seal genus established 0 If go extinct Hawaiian and Mediterranean lost genus 14 new species of frogs discovered in India ONLY MEMORIZE NEWER IN THE NEWS From this lecture know Applications of previous concepts jargon How relevant to cons bio Dr Ruth Huffbauer 6th mass extinction coming Extinction debt 0 The future ecological cost of habitat destruction 0 Reduce numbers of species over time 0 Get to a long term equilibrium in future 0 The difference between species now to at line in future is the extinction debt 0 Time to this point is the relaxation timeneed and immediate change l Rare means there is still time o What to do 0 Reverse habitat loss and climate change 0 Control invaders Immigration o If immigration rates are high enough extinction can be avoided The rescue effect 0 Jim and Astrid Brown 1977 Metapopulation method 0 Patches that are occupied or unpopulated 0 Immigration between sections 0 High immigration rates population will persist Mechanisms underlying rescue Demographic mechanisms 0 Increases population size 0 Reduces stochasticity o Minimizes Alee effect 0 Genetic mechanisms 0 Reduces inbreeding 0 Increase variation to adapt Demographic rescue happens 0 Been shows with whitetail Ptarmigan 0 Large in ux of immigrants prevents oca extinction Genetic rescue happens Wolves in Scandinavia 0 Single immigrant male spike in growth immediate Immigration is not always good 0 Restoration literature 0 Using local seeds considered critical Maladapted genotypes perform poorly Outbreeding depression Loss of genetically distinct species 000 ldeal immigrant Local Adapted to environment Genetically diverse 0 Many immigrants Ex black footed ferrets Types of rescue 0 Demographic input of individuals 0 Genetic input of genes 0 Evolutionary no inputs evolution from standing genetic variation Demography and genetics covary More individuals harbor more genetic diversity 0 Model System Tribolim castaneum 0 Different wheatyeasts o 35 day generation time 0 adults lay eggs remove adults 35 days to develop sift ower and count adults 0 Model seasonally breeding species with discrete generations 0 Life cycle in lab Can measure nite rate of population growth R NtNt1 0 Overview of experiment Challenging environment 97 com our 3 standard medium Growth rate slightly small than 1 need rescue 2 founding sizes a What is important for rescue based on pop size 4 rescue treatments a demographic inputs O add beetles to pop to get a steady pop size 1 a genetic inputs 0 bring in the ones from a different background replace 11 no pop size change just add different genes small pop a Essentially equivalent effects in reducing the extinction rate could double and introduce both types of rescue Genetic changes the case of the Florida panther 0 Not always good 0 Want to maintain uniqueness Rescue with texas cougars They are now the same 0 Immigrant has a dominant allele 0 New genes take over quickly Conclusions 0 Genetic leads to faster adaptations than genetic demographic Larger population 0 Demographic rescue may be sufficient if there is concern about genetically distinct units 0 Small Pop 0 Need demographic and genetic Trade offs What is more important 0 Big 0 Reducing extinction risk 0 Preserving genetically distinct units 0 Small 0 Increasing growth rates 0 More predictability Invasive Species 04212014 Examples of ecosystems and ecotourism Costa Rica Philippines Coral reefs News New species discovered frogs Vietnam pink and yellow and sponges killer sponges on sea oor carnivores Butter y saves itself from extinction relocated CA adaption to climate change Invasive lion sh Caribbean upset ecosystem kill other sh Being hunter lion sh are learning to hide and avoid humans Invasion the incoming or spread of something harmful potentially devastating De ning terms Exotic not from that place Native from that place Endemic ONLY in that place Invasive quotincrease in abundance at the expensive of nativesquot v a g Phytoplankton Kokanee salmon x 1000 Bald eagles x 7 H Mysis per m2 Opossum shrimp Max s relicta W y 100 E i4 50 3 lt1 0 i 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 r Year Lake trout Fir51 MW I appearance 1n lake 2110 Slinauer esociateanc Figure 106 the Flathead lake and its tributaries the food web was disrupted by the introduction of the opossum shrimp Negatively affected Eat the plankton that the salon normally eat Increased competition for resources with natives Affected all the way up to the bear eagle Environmental Problems Decreased native diversity Decreased agricultural and rangeland yield Decreased recreational uses Decreased aesthetics Damaging processes re ood drought 0 Not due to competition this is an indirect change Direct change annoyance species ants decrease nest success 0040 0030 Bobwhite abundance declines by 75 0020 0010 Bobwhite abundance birds observer hour 0 4 8 12 16 20 Years after arrival of fire ants re 08 2010 Sinauer Associates Inc Gypsy moth o Presently in the east has potential to move over much of the US 0 Direct consumption of other species 0 Eat leaves of trees Quantify impacts 0 Economic loses 137 billion annually in US attributed to exotic invasives 40 billion for plants USDA RIO declaration TNC etc 0 top threat to global biodiversityquot 0 second only to habitat degradation How do they get here 0 Natural and unnatural European colonization mussels diseases the food they liked to grow etc rats weeds 0 Horticulture and agriculture good for horticulture is generally good for an invasive species 0 Accidental transport 0 Biological control introduction of another organisms to intentionally control the one causing trouble ex weevils that attack thistles including native thistles Invasives can be 0 Animals 0 Vertebrates o Insects o Mollusks Disease organisms o Bacteria o viruses 0 fungi o Protists Plants Ex Brown tree snakes eat birds decimated islands EX Cats hunters not in Australia Invasive Animals Humans move them around 0 Problems 0 Predation o Herbivory o Vectors for disease EX Argentine ants Very aggressive species towards other ants Displacing native ants harvester ants Household pests Movie argentine ants and re ants eat many of the same thing protection of food against other ants Plants protect their food from others based on differences of availability Survival in a ood susceptible environment introduction of the invasive species in boats Ex Zebra Muscles Quick reproduction Attach self to other things Beat out native muscles for space Ships release bacaced water in nonnative areas bring mussels to the great lakes Encourage to dump elsewhere or scrape off side of boat Based on movements of humans Route of introduction I Relative risk ll Very low Low l High l Highly variable l Not assessed Mussel sightings I Zebra l Quagga i Mussels trailered overland on boat hulls ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 5e iFiiiguire 1010 Part 2 2010 Simmer Associates lno Invasive diseases High densities new diseases Animal husbandry and agriculture high densities Civilization new diseases animals and people in close proximity share diseases when they move they bring these sicknesses with them Guns germs and steel Jared Diamond ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 56 Figure 1014 Habitat fragmentation and degradation high local densities Wild ducks and other waterfowl Human advance Agricultural advance into wildlife areas into Wildlife areasVJ Chickens Increased travel higher human densities in urban areas and villages Higher animal densities in modern agriculture Technology and industrial agriculture I 2010 Sinauer Maociates Inc Ex fungal diseases on plants trees wipe out the population Economic costs Grapes in Europe wiped out Walnut diseases Invasive Plants Spreading aggressively beyond native range Disrupting ecosystem processes EX Kudzu south quick growing vine Compiled from State Weed Listsquot make species into weeds 162 invasive species in the 8 RM states mainly exotic Many exoticinvasive plants asia Europe ornamental and became anissue Ex Purple loose stripe produces so rapidly nothing else can grow competition for space and nutrients Ex Cheatgrass winter annual ready for spring increases re frequency result of over grazing competes with natives hurts cattle nish life cycle early so it is a dry and brown fuel source when they die they produce pointy thorns that get stuck in cattle nostrils gums and cause infection Overgrazing on OUR part creates an ecosystem problem from Europe EX Leafy Spurge from Australia competition toxic sap hurts livestock painful for humans Ex Russian thistle road hazard tumbleweed huge sign of disturbed land rapid dispersal EX Sipan tropical forests covered in morning glory taking down the forests cascade effect for ecosystem What can be done 0 Clean boat policies 0 Economics 0 Investigate movement block pathways 0 Detection and early intervention 0 EX weed lists in CO A list eradicate as prevention C list get a local handle but can never fully eradicate Long term control programs expensive don t always work 1 Prevention 2 Detection and early intervention 3 Longterm management ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 5e Figure 1012 Spread increase and impacts Transit New infestation Source Set mternational policies Minimize Undertake Minimize that optimally balance highrisk preventative highrisk trade with pathways habitat management pathways and highrisk pathways and and species for systems risk species transfers species transfers transfers Detect identity and eradicate populations of higharisk species implement largeascale and long term control programs targeting individual highrisk species and systems at risk of invasion by these species Manage multiple invasive species to minimize overall impacts on ecosystem management goals I 2010 Sinauer nssociaies Inc National Invasive Species Council identify problems and address at a national level president Clinton advise by the Invasive Species Advisory Council scientists and industry workers EX Snake head sh native to Asia seen in 1977 in CA brought over to eat escaped cultivation pets too big and dump aquarium in 2004 it was found all the way in Maryland manage species Get angler help and pay them to hunt them use public dog eats Fins allow snakeheads to hop between water sources Some research on invasive species testing the assumptions Supposed characteristics of invasive plants O 0000 SPREADING BY VEGETATIVE AND SEXUAL MEANS MULTIPLE FORMS OF REPRODUCTION Highly dispersible seeds Competitive against natives Fast growing Large energy stores o Lacking herbivores lacking natural predators makes it extra vulnerable to being eaten in the long run 0 Disrupt ecosystems Part 1 What are traits of Invasives Giant reeds arundo donax Very tall expansive not sexually reproductive in invasive range reproduces through underground stems which breaks off and then grows into huge colonies Vegetative spread only not a trait 0 It is 0 Highly dispersible 0 Competitive 0 Fast growing 0 Energy reserves 0 Lacking herbivores Is it vulnerablepossibility of biocontrol Vulnerable to Herbivory Can be simulated herbivory o Decreased photosynthesis rate Analyze with the IRGA infrared gas analyzer test C02 Ones cut were not suffering increased photosynthetic rate for regrowth o Stunt growth above and below ground Relative growth rate height and stem density No signi cant difference of being hurt by being cut Cut roots also recovered 0 Change architecture 0 Vulnerable to herbivory NO Arundo has an overcompensation mechanism Part 2 How do invasive plants interact with native plants TRAITS of Tamarix o Spreads vegetatively and sexually 0 Highly dispersible o COMPETITIVE AGAINST NATIVES assumed 0 Fast growing 0 Large energy stores 0 Lacking herbivores o Disrupts ecosystem Tested whether invasives are always competitive against natives Used Cotton wood keystone for river area 0 Field Sites and Pot experiments 0 Cotton wood started with larger seedsseedlings and grew faster than the tamrix Had the capability to shade the neighbor who is shade intolerant Cotton wood was more competitive But how is the tamrix such a pest if it isn t a great competitor O O 0 Not competitive as a young organism Require disruption of the native community ie poor river eco Can t compete with natives so promote the natives Flooding disturbance The worst global weed water hyacinth mattlike plant bad for those who need sunlight below get caught in boats introduces as an ornamental weevil biological monitor Fits all of the traits on the list 00000 O ALWAYS bad for native ecosystem The Lake Naivasha project Does it always reduce biodiversity Floating macrophyte African lotus none left Used bird species richness in comparison to the size of the mat At low hyacinth mat sizes low bird diversity high bird diversity in the medium range low bird diversity in high mat count Birds that need open water are affected or need to be able to see in water mat will negatively impact these species There are also birds that require oating plants stand on plants eat sh and insects oating plants are habitats for insects place for their nests Invertebrate species found in the oating plants biocontrol weevil mollusk decapoda Are they always bad NO bad at high density but good when not acting in an invasive manner good for some bad for others good at medium density No universal pro le of invader species but there are common traits So called invasive species can have both positive and negative effects on an ecosystem Key is proper stewardship opportunity to invade based on human activityha rm Bad plant No only bad behavior under circumstances that often we could control In a nutshell Invasions of all types cause lost value Invaders have some similar pro les BUT There is much variability including degree of harm Altered ecosystems are more vulnerable From changing disturbance regimes By introducing alien species News New Stanford study regarding habitat pessimism of islands biogeography model use an agricultural model for more diversity conservation biology project that relates to agriculture New report from the royal society of New Zealand island problems with invasive species 12 billion dollars a year spent on invasive species possum predators for the bird populations 20 million for new project using new methods no pesticides less invasive methods to deal with these issues New Bat species 2 new species mitochondrial DNA sequencing from museum specimens along Ecuador panama etc Burmese pythons invasive in Florida released as pets pythons had GPS tracking some put in old habitats others in new habitats Traveled back to original habitat EU parliament vote new legislation for invasive species issues 17 billion euros on Japanese knotweed alone More money for invasive species management Essential concepts for small populations Minimal viable population MVP Minimal dynamic area MDA Minimum dynamic area Graphs v Models Graphs African elephants log scale v probability of extinction higher number is a bad thing over time lines represent different size reserves Smallest reserve at the top higher probability of extinction Considered the smallest are that has natural disturbances and still is self recolonizing from within the area can individuals recover 100 1 7 10 0t 1 001 0001 r 1000 IMVVJIIeM l Uf JUIULIUI 50 km 125 km2 391 250 km2 Sill km2 l i 125M kin2 F 2500 km2 L at 12 elephants per Till long NH SHED t i i it J J 0 leU 400 800 100i 600 Minimum Variable population 111 Figure 126 Cumulative proba bility of extinction log scale over time for elephant populations in differentesized protected areas With a density of i 2 elephants per 10 ka a 2500km2 protected area has an initial population N0 of 3000 elephants the probability of extinction in 100 years is close to Cl and in lUUD years it is just 04A population in a protected area of 250 km2 with an initial population of 300 elephants has a 20 probability of extinction in 1000 years After Armbruster and Lande l993 Extinction rates of birds graph population size pairs percent extinctions observed data points with a model line the greater the population size the lower the percentage of extinction Big horn sheep population size over time percent populations persisting v time in years bigger number is a good thing some populations going down over time based on the initial population size n minimum viable population size this is a model extreme time frame different population sizes but not a smooth line 100 40F Percent of populations persisting T 20 10 Figure 111 The relationship between initial pop ulation size N of bighorn sheep and the percent age of populations that persist over time Almost all populations with more than lOO sheep persist ed beyond 50 yearswhile populations with fewer than 50 individuals died out within 50 years Not included are small populations that were actively managed and augmented by the release of addi tional animals After Berger 1990 photograph by Mark Primacki N 2 16 30 N 15 or less 20 M N 2 101 or more N 2 51 100 30 40 5 Time years iii 1quot tum ti ftii Eda39 a l i Ll ELLlliCl IE l E r r 1 quotI if ml Lilli 39lUiJ P li39fiLHi llti fll JILL pairs What are the problems of small populations Low genetic diversity less ability to evolve Higher risk of extinction Alee affects Disease is more detrimental Birth is not equal to death decline in size Social structure falling apart getting food defense etc Counting individuals may be misleading why Individuals are not relevant to survival Effective population size Ne the size of the population estimated by the number of breeding individuals Affected by 0 Those not breeding o Unequal sex ratios how is population size affected by the ration of males to females in some models equal numbers is the most stable quotliij anew liii39i reu ee Equal numbefs nf males emf females Effective pebulellien effre ll J rs 391 lie I 3f liefeed females fl I I I 7 I I 5955 ilfl fifl Hflzfli 2013 fll ll Refit ef b feeding males females Figure 1 he The effeletiee pepelefien size We declines when the number ef Fi ialES and females in a breeding pepeletien ef 1 DH individuals is increasingly Lll iEEiLJalftl39E is llflfl when Sf males and SD females breed but enly when if males and Bill fen meles breed 0 Variation in productive output 0 Population uctuations and bottlenecks When a population is reduced in size and therefore genetic variability is lost or changed Special category founder effect why some populations of species end up so different than source population Different proportion of alleles in the founding population Loss of genetic variability and how it is measured 0 1 Percentage of genes in the population that are polymorphic have more than one allele ex different eye colors how many of the genes in the DNA have these different versions o 2 Frequency of heterozygosity 2n one copy from mom and one for dad are they homozygous or heterozygous Why is this important More evolutionary exibility increase diversity in heterozygotes ability to pick which is favored The relationship of pop Size and polymorphism polymorphic genes v population size increased population size means more polymorphism E 4i g Figure115 The level if genetic stari a abilityIsjlrirettl1t terrelatedwith popu e 39 T latien site in pepulatiens ef Heleter fer 53 if pus bidwfllii a New Zealand eenifereus a 5 s shrubThis pattern holds true fer the percentage of genes that are pelymer 3 EU m a M phi as well as for the mean number efalleles per gene and the level at m g M hetereaygesity Pepulatlen size varies between i t ml and l milllen HUG e s It Frem Billlingten 1991 a ls l l Li t 1 aquot 39l Le e l a l at 13 He Ll lr i tien Hi If Loss of Genetic Variability Genetic drift can cause random loss 0 Proportion of heterozygosity remaining after t generations Ht Hquott 0 So the percent initial heterozygosity would be 98 after 2 generations 99x99 o 97 after 3 generations 0 90 after 10 generations 99quot10 0 Based on Starts with observation or starts with logic Consequences of reduced genetic variability Inbreeding depression 0 All have same aws extenuated recessive deleterious allele exacerbate the issue because there is a higher likelihood of 2 copies of this problematic gene being Outbreeding depression 0 Breeding with individuals who don t have this gene hybridization Lose advantageous alleles too far out of own group 0 Loss of evolutionary possibility How do you get variability back 0 Immigration mutation Model of generation v percent of initial heterozygosity remaining 0 Based on immigration and mutation Mutation based on mutation rate the percent of initial heterozygosity remaining will be maintained or will drop STOCHASTICITY o What is with the wiggly lines 0 Random variability rock falls lightening strike 0 Can be environmental examples above or demographic how many kids an individual will have Population viability analysis a model for predicting the future based on the past that includes stochasticity and environmental parameters L E 39lli39l Percent nf initial lietiiernzygtgis ity TEE t ll Fermi It nt39 initial hlaterL IEjli gnsity remaining i quotl iii I quot I I Nu i i39ih iiquot til 17111 In igrani 2 i3 P 4 M gen If r ti on 1 Immilgr ti Ln EH I39WI Ell quot L11 if quot m a Hume 5f L I L I I 3E3 5H Ell Tl ECquotrquotli2fiquotllli 139l J Elli III Iiill 2U 1U Mum I inn rate El Mutation 39 quotl39 I j I Hill IM I E EU 39 V lijLllll IIIth39I U LLLl Ell 5i i I I I I I I I quot ll iJ Fill Ell I Elli Bene t from the PVA Barred Bandicoot One of the most endangered marsupials in Australia 0 In 1998 one wild population left with less than 200 individuals 0 Threatened by 0 Habitat loss 0 Invasive species catfox 0 Good omnivorous Short pregnancy prime candidate for breeding Example of Ex Situ conservation 0 Survival needs Requires long dense grass and low shrub cover Near water Forages at night Omnivorous lots of bugs 0 There used to be 11 species now 3 are extinct and 3 are threatened How to save them 0 Ex situ breeding programs with no threats then release to wild zoos are a major force for this program 0 In situ projected fenced population in 2 locations in their natural habitat o Augmentationintroduction wild releases have been made in 6locanns How do they decide how many to take out of wild to breed What s the survival rate How many to release USE PVA model PVA tool for predicting population growth over time Nt1 Nt S Nt B S o N number of individual o S probability of survival o 8 number of surviving offspring Example 5 051 baby so B1 n2 0 2 05 2 05 1 N2 2 started and ended with 2 can t expect to remain stable over time inde nitely Demographic stochasticity 0 Real populations have elements of chance Only a 5050 chance of survival Flip coin stopwatch on phone 100th of a second even v odd Scenario must be run multiple times to create probabilities of certain outcomes N B 21 1 1 O three generations wNi i I NU39IZ NNW 914M l NN More times you run the model the more con dent you can be about the model How many can you take out for the breeding program Sustainable rate to maintain genetic diversity Manipulate number to extend to 100 yrs Since we can do both in situ and ex situ we can in uence speci c numbers 0 Which elements can we affect change 0 Increase survival rate at what age do you introduce them Affects trial results probability of extinction 17 still not viable need a 5 change of extinction after 100 generations What happened to the bandicoot o NEAR THREATENED Reduced risks of extinction Still vulnerable to predators but have increased population size Tasmanian species is thriving Anette Reagen Denver Zoo Conservation Geographic Information systems GIS Satellite systems 0 Conservation organization Evolution of Zoos 0 19th Century Menagerie Living natural History cabinet 0 20th Century Zoological Park Living Museum Education program 0 21St Century Conservation Center Environmental resource center Help species in the wild Responsibilities Conservation 0 International 0 Local 0 Zerobased Research Educann Capacity Building Organization Research Associates Graduate Students International Staff Organizations Other Denver Zoo staff Highlights Projects both local and international Greater than 6000 projects in 62 countries on all 7 continents since 1996 15 million spent in the last year hundreds of scienti c papers and plans 3 departmental plans 0 focal areas Mongolia Rocky mountains great plains Botswana Meet criteria government status long term projects what are the species cost ef cient Ex Mongolia research camp store equipment establish with locals and universities n Ungulates carnivores hedgehogs small mammals raptors reptiles ibeX sheep vulture n Collars collect GPS data download signals from satellite or backpack for vulture 3 years a VHS VHF units manually get data a Sustainable Development EX Rocky MountainsGreat Plains n Prairie dogs keystone spread of nutrients engineers a Bisonkeystone n Pika n Wildlife crossing n Rio Mora NWR U City Park breeding bird monitoring a What is a healthy grassland area Botswana n Vulture focus a GPS tracking a Wild dogs a Lions n Elephants New Projects n Peru Zoo Based Projects a Global goods a Polar bears a Studbooks Global Reintroductive species 0 Re introduction 0 Black footed ferret 0 California condor 1 million 0 Expensive especially with larger animals Are there more costeffective ways to help Breeding compound on site Soft release Preserve habitat Government work Work with zoos in native country Association of Zoos and Aquariums AZA Programs in the zoos Volunteering Endangered Species Act 1973 CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna 1973 0 Ethics how can we take care of wild Smart way to manage these animals 0 Manage genetics SSP Species Survival Plan keeps population viable in zoos available for letting into Wild 0 Holistic program 0 Management plan 0 Educational plan 0 Research In situ conservation Husbandry manual 0 Starts with studbook history of reproduction genealogy for breeding recommendations 450 in NAm 30 international expand genetic diversity over 90 genetic viability Methods for Managing Captive Animals 0 Arti cial insemination In vitro fertilizationcute cat Cryopreservation Foster rearing deomestic cats raising foreign cats Frozen Zooquot Other research Vaccines Immobilization Nutrition Behavior Disease Issues 0 Are there diseases from captivity Is it vulnerable to wild diseases 0 Golden frogs panama o Fungus o How translate immunity CO 00000 Overview of ZeeAquarium Conservation efforts 0 2010 spent 110 million on conservation 0 2 of budget Assists USFWS 0 Seek advice on captive management Veterinary issues Population management Species assistance Ex beetle OOO Adaptive Management 0 How you would do conservation goals methods how you can change the situation to speci c needs Satellite resolution associate colors GIS Information has a geospatial Tag 0 Collect signals from satellite in space with respect to where you are on the face of the earth 0 Survey with reference to where you were in front of and then behind a point 0 Used to connect people who were hurt in Haiti 0 Role of GIS in in situ conservation 0 Zoos Mapping in conservation tracking migration congregation patterns Movement and information on individuals Track habitat use conservation needs Individuals ex lions leaving national parks means they would be more endangered relocating individuals Habitat mapping resource selection Change habitat modeling in context of climate change EX museum data for historical distributions Ex w satellite pictures that include temperature or habitats water ow lnsitu in natural habitat 0 GOOD 0 O Reintroductions Soft Release Tagging for data and tracking Working with communities Capacity building the people insitu can learn the different educationalscienti c techniques to manage herds and live sustainably with endangered species Making it possible for locals to manage populations Research in wild animals how to grab to collar Veterinary works Lab levels in vultures Exsitu at Zoo 0 O O Breeding programs Testing of insitu approaches and techniques Educationresearch Disease Behavior Nutrition Reproductive immobilization Lab lnsitu prairie dogs read plan have questions Vultures used BACKPACKS not collars ExSitu breeding program at zoo News 0 Barn owls o Ingenuity helps Paci c Salmon dumped nutrient in water stimulate phytoplankton illegal how much intervention is okay 0 New species of beaked whale new mammal big deal Overexploitation top concern The severity of the problem 0 Threatens 25 of vertebrates in US 0 75 in China 0 Direct Use huntedcollected o Fishing sheries 0 Market failure TABLE 101 lMaj39or Targeted Groups of the Worldwide Trade in Wildlife lNumber traded Group eaclh year Comments Primates 40000 Mostly used for biomedical research also for pets zoos circuses and private collections Birds 4 million Zoos and pets Mostly perching birds but also legal and illegal trade of about 80000 parrots Reptiles 640000 Zoos and pets Also 10 15 million raw skins Reptiles are used in some 50 million manu factured products mainly from the Wild but increasingly from farms Ornamental fish 350 million Most saltwater tropical fish come from the wild Reef corals Orchids Cacti 1000 2000 tons 9 110 million 7 8 million and may be caught by illegal methods that damage other wildlife and the surrounding coral reef Reefs are being destructively mined to provide aquarium decor and coral jewelry Approximately 10 of the international trade comes from the wild sometimes deliberately mislabeled to avoid regulation Approximately 15 of traded cacti come from the wild with smuggling a major problem Source Data from WRI 2005 and Karelsh 2005 With the exception of reef corals refers to number of individuals ES 5ENTMLS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 56 Table 101 Primates o 2010 Sinauer Associates Inc 0 Impact of medical research 0 Zoos 0 Pets Circus 0 Poor reproduction in zoos Birds 0 Illegal capture 0 Illegal trade Reptiles Collection for pets Zoos Products Orchids Collectors Wild collection Near extinction 10 from wild collection Ornamental Fish tropical 350 million tradedyr Seahorses CacU 15 are wild collected Uinta Basin hookless cactus Colorado hookless cactus Over collection and habitat loss oil and gas 2 0 Harvesting 39 intensity E 18 E H 000 5 7 o E 16 H 25 E H 5000 L4 H 75 m D E 12 E H 100 A m E 99 10 g g fun u Jig guy H O E g 06 a a 04 9 02 i i l 1 l 2 3 4 harvest Year 20105inauerAssociatesInc The more harvested the less proportion of original density and slower replenishment 1 constant Medicinal sales are plants above and animals 0 Bears tigers and others harvested for medicines 0 East Asia a major market but all developed countries 0 Frequently for aphrodisiacs or cancer treatments Fisheries impact 0 Evident in size and number of sh Relationship to poverty 0 The Bushmeat Crisis 0 Consumptive use 0 Food for family Hunters take advantage of logged areas national parks and new roads 0 Exacerbated by exports o Productive use Solutions to poverty element of this issue Teach farming methods Food aid methods Providing resources for other income Government incentives KIVA Heifer international microloans from abroad individual action Education for the locals about how to conserve Disincentives Ex poachers shoot on site International Aid Combat corruption in local governments The story of the whales have conservation efforts worked in the conservation of whales Save the whalesquot Emblem of conservation issues Paul Watson Sea Shepherd Conservation Society Captain EcoPirate Whaling Ships Orders to leave go back to Japan damage whaling boat Violent personviolent people ghting for whales dolphins Gov not doing job vigilantes in the absence of law Rambo of environmental center War to save the wales since 1974 Norway Siberia Antarctica Japan Spain In violation of Global Moratorium regulation Japan supposedly in name for science Kill and sell meat in country Whale sanctuary is a key area all travel through many are hunting there lconic species for Greenpeace st example of industrial over shing Vancouver rallies conservation movement origins Greenpeace Peace movement environmental movement ecological interconnections Study neurology of whale fast learner whale was experimenting on him as he would give the exact wrong answer Found out about slaughter in sea book by Farley Mowat convinced the people that the issue was important International whaling commission made up of 14 countries that were killing the whales 1946 Decided to use the Greenpeace save the whalesquot as the imagery to attract people go to ocean to the whaling eet Move in front of the whale so they couldn t shoot 0 Pilot the zodiac Paul Watson people showed up with the skills they needed professionals who wanted to make a change 0 First Greenpeace environmental action launched the environmental movement 0 Allison Watson Paul s wife Animal person Whale intelligence slaughtered 30000 20000 Seii ans on whaling are implemented 10000 39 l 1930 1980 Year Yaxis Catch Research Blitz Humpback and Right Policy any new legislation IUCN listings Japan was ordered by the UN to stop hunting whales off the Antarctica by the UN Canada is increasing protections for whales against whaling initially increased but then the population growth they are decreasing protection because they are no longer endangered o The International Court ofJustice has of cially ruled againstJapan in a case that could decide the fate of whales in the Southern Ocean and elsewhere in the Pacifc Ocean 0 The court found in its decision that 0 Taken as a Whole the Court considers that jARPA involves activities that can broady be characterized as scienti c research but that quotthe evidence does not establish that the programme s design and implementation are reasonable in relation to achieving its stated objectives The Court concludes that the special permits granted by japan for the killing taking and treating of Whales in connection With jARPA are not quotfor purposes of scienti c research pursuant to Article VIII paragraph 1 of the Convention 0 Japan has been ordered by the court to cease issuing 39special permits39 in de ance of the International Whaling Commission39s moratorium on commercial whaling 2008 Humpback IUCN least concern 0 Policy any new legislation IUCN listings Humpback Right 0 Humpback o IUCN gt Of least Concern 2008 Humpbacks have been protected from commercial whaling in the North Atlantic by the lWC since 1955 in the Southern Hemisphere since 1963 and in the North Paci c since 1966 o The last substantial catches occurred in 1968 Humpbacks have since recovered strongly to a world populations that is estimated over 60000 and is increasing 0 They also have additional protective measures such as sanctuaries in a number of countries 0 Right IUCN gt Endangered D 2012 o It has been endangered or vulnerable since 1986 o It has been protected from hunting by the lWC since 1935 and is also protected in Canada 0 Both US and Canada have recovery plans involving collaboration with various stakeholders 0 Regulations are in place in the US requiring modi cations to shing gear and restrictions on certain types of great in areas and times where Right Whales are common 0 A mandatory ship reporting scheme has been in place since 1999 in 2 areas 0 Shipping lanes have been moved for them NonPro t anyone championing whales Which ones Greenpeace and Sea Shepherd httpwwwinternationalwhaleprotectionorg 0 On December 2nd 1946 the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling was signed in the United States by representatives from many of the world39s whaling nations The mandate of the ICRW was through regulation to quotprovide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industryquot The Convention led to the creation of the International Whaling Commission which rst convened in 1949 However regulations established by the IWC have historically been regarded as optional by whaling nations and failed to protect whales from overexploitation In its early years lWC policies seemed to facilitate the worst business practices of the whaling industry leading some environmental organizations to refer to it as the quotInternational Whalers Clubquot As whale populations around the world were decimated many whale sheries predictably declined and collapsed as well Without any mechanism for enforcement of lWC regulations most large whale species were hunted to the brink of extinction However increased public awareness in environmental issues and activism during the 19705 and 805 helped to pressure governments to give up whaling in favor of whale conservation This quotSave the Whalesquot effort culminated in the 1986 global moratorium on commercial whaling which of cially set all commercial whaling quotas to zero Unfortunately Japan Iceland and Norway continue to violate the moratorium through of cial objection and regulatory loopholes For example Japan has heavily abused Article VIII of the ICRW which permits a nation to take any number of whales with a selfdetermined quota for scienti c research Japan has also used its economic in uence to bribe developing nations for prowhaling votes As a result the IWC remains divided between prowhaling and antiwhaling na ons httpwwwbluevoiceorg O BlueVoiceorg is an ocean conservation organization founded in 2000 by HardyJones and Ted Danson Its mission is to protect dolphins whales and other marine mammals and to raise popular awareness about the plight of the oceans BlueVoice has fought to end the slaughter of dolphins in Japan and to expose the harmful levels of toxins in the marine environment including mercury PCBs and persistent organic pollutants and their impact on both marine mammals and humans 0 Films to educate people on the reality of the situation emphasis on the intelligence of the animals httpwwwwhaleorg EUHiEinFlV wha lee and ur cean thrpug l research and eucatlun r CEAN AFLIENEE 0 Adopt a whale 0 The lnstituto de Conservacion de Ballenas ICE is an Argentine nonpro t organization dedicated to the conservation of whales and their environment through research and education It was founded in Buenos Aires in 1996 when it established an af liation with the Whale Conservation Institute WCI from Massachussetts to conduct the Right Whale Program in Argentina 0 Studying the Right Whale o Began in 1970 the Right Whale Program has become the longest continuous study of a large whale based on following the lives of known individuals Its main objective is to monitor the status of the right whale population at Peni nsula Vald s It has provided science based data to government authorities that allowed them to make sound conservation decisions to protect right whales and their habitat Protected by American Cetacean Society Save the Whales Wildlife Conservation Society NOT Audobon Society birds OOOOO Scienti c what does most recent research say about populations Humpback Whales 19911997 increase from 569 to 837 in the North Eastern Artic by capture recapture There is a current population of 1820 thousand Population increase Right Whales 350 right whales when recovery plan was adopted in 1991 o In 2005 it was found that there were only 300 0 Increase in 2011 with approximately 500 middle estimate by photographs 0 Endangered by IUCN 0 North right whale 0 Paci c right whale 0 Southern right whale least concern 0 High blubber content 0 Live close to shore Worldwide Populations of Whale Species Harvested by Humans Numbers prior Present Primary Species to whaling numbers diet items Status Baleen Whales Blue 200000 10 25000 Plankton Endangered Bowhead 56000 25500 Plankton Least concern Fin 475000 60000 Plankton fish Endangered Gray Pacific stock 23000 15 22000 Crustaceans Least concern Humpback 150000 60000 Plankton fish Least concern Minke 140000 1000000 Plankton fish Least concern Northern right Unknown 1300 Plankton Endangered Sei 250000 54000 Plankton fish Endangered Southern right 100000 3 4000 Plankton Least concern Toothed whales Beluga Unknown 200000 Fish crustaceans Near Squid threatened Narwhal Unknown 50000 Fish squid Near crustaceans threatened Sperm 1100000 360000 Fish squid Vulnerable Source American Cetacean Society wwwacsonlineorg llUCN Red List Preexploitation population numbers are highly speculative recent evidence suggests the populations might have been even greater Roman and Palurnhi 2003 Alter et all 2007 20108inauerAssociatesInc Blue whales not doing well Fin whales Be comfortable with news UN IS PRESSURING JAPAN CANADA EASING RESTRICTIONS Humpback in particular Roles of zoos and people in zoos v individuals who are professional conservation biologists in activism Bene ts and costs of both Personal life of Paul Watson 1975 started with no idea how to nd whalers or how to get to them Picture of Paul on the whale with a harpoon ag Whaling ships were huge metal boats with cannons on the front blood pouring out of pipes Shot harpoon nearly missed Zodiac Other whales fought off then disappeared Looked whale in the eye as it dies protected him Cemented for Paul that this was his mission Russia killing whale for the production of weapons that will kill many do everything to protect whales and not the people lnsane Shared footage crazy media Greenpeace media outlet Reward for coordinates of the Japanese eet Moved on to seals as well spray paint the live baby pups so their pelts were worthless This is one way to be a conservation biologist ls Paul Watson a biologist 0 He descried himself as a conservationist 0 Difference biologist one who studies life Watson is not studying Biologist who looked at orca neurology Greenpeace switched from nuclear stuff to whales because of this research 0 Scientists play large role in policy Formal advisory boards ISAC Nongov organizations UCS Individual letters testifying How good is the data Transfer of info from scientist policy makers Democracy depends on citizen input The power of the pen letters can be to Newspapers and other media outlets Government agencies Elected of cials 0 Each require speci c elements 0 But all must be brief Lab 0 Bring an actionable current event 0 Write a letter that could actually make a difference 0 Read guidelines for speci c types of letters in handout posted on BB CritiqueDiagram other people s letters Other ways individuals are getting messages out today 0 Blogs 0 Social Media 0 Online petitions Viral Videos Regardless of medium Compellingmake sense Argument diagramming as tool 0 Good use of evidence Logic and Critical Reasoning Diagramming Arguments Identify elements of argument so they can be critiqued Atomic argument 0 A single conclusion with a single set of premises supporting that conclusion Complex argument 0 Single main conclusion multiple sets of premises supporting sub conclusions that set a premise for the main conclusion Arguments have premises and a conclusion as well as the feature of being atomic or complex Atomic ex 1 all dogs are mammals 2 all mammals are animals 3 so dogs are animals 0 2 premises to a single conclusion 0 1 and 2 are premises copremises joint support Joint support need both elements together to get to the conclusion Cannot work independently AND l Therefore Disjointed support each premise can lead to the conclusion Don t need and Both can be connected to the conclusion with THEREFORE EX Complex argument 1 the chef stole the knife or the butler did 2 2 Because the chef was out of town he couldn t have stolen the knife 3 so the butler stole the knife Conclusion Butler stole knife Chef or butler stole it The chef could not have taken it sub The chef was out of town NEED the AND for it to make sense copremises joint support Step 1 identify elements of the argument harp seals are a top conservation priority See diagram in presentation on BB Extended arguments Argument within an argument subconclusions o 1Cimate change is real subconclusion o 2We have measurements of temp increasing and o 3 we have documented several biological phenomena linked to changing temperatures 0 4 Thus the us should implement policy to combat climate change main conclusion 2 3 disjointed 1 subconclusion 4 main conclusion 1 Overviewintro 2 IUCN Categories of PA 3 Prioritizing areas 3 Creating new PA 4 Managing PA Only 4 of the earths surface is strictly protected in scienti c reserves and national parks Yellowstone was the rst 0 Increase in protected areas since 1872 0 Less marine protection than terrestrial IUCN International Union of the Conservation of Nature Oldest and largest environmental organization 0 11000 scientists from 160 countries Compiles the quotredlistquot 0 Assess speciesnature status for protection 0 Of cial Observer for UN power for in uence IUCN PA Categories l Strict Nature Reserve Wilderness natural processes only some research and recreation no extraction II National Parks outstanding beauty recreation no extraction Glacier Bay AK HI National Monument natural feature Petroglyphs Devil s tower no human artistry unique national interest some extraction that doesn t affect landmark IV Managed Wildlife RefugesSanctuaries gt11K sites manipulate ecological processes requires human activity some extraction in context of management V Protected landscapes and seascapes harmonious interaction between human and environment human integration Vl Managedresource areas direct use with some regulationsresponsibilities Women wilderness Pretend park Men monument ResistRefuge Proposedprotected Marriagemanages l Wilderness Wilderness Act 1964 o 757 today 0 44 states and Puerto Rico 0 Area is about 5 0 Over half in AK Largest WrangellSaint Elias Wilderness Alaska about 9000000 acres AK no one wants to live there no con ict National Monuments Natural and cultural features of unique value because of inherent rarity aesthetic qualities or cultural signi cance E White Sands NM missile range as well IV Habitat or species Management areas EX NM Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuges Lots of Manipulation Promote biodiversity Migration stopping point for Crane V Protected Landscapes and Seascapes VI Human use is historical why has particular characteristics Cultural aesthetic ecological value Areas with high biodiversity attract humans to live there for thousands of years EX barrier reef allows shing regulates Continental shelf mostly unprotected some random protected areas Manage resource areas Sustainable use of ecosystem services Longterm use to meet community needs Prioritizing the Areas for Protection Not equally represented 0 Low Marine Grassland agriculture less ashy Lake Systems Human use Frozen Tundra low Human use Mountain systems beauty Subtropical and temperate rainforests and woodlands charismatic species ecotourism Island Systems Galapagos Creating New Protected Areas PA Prioritizing for Creation 1 Identifying highest priority species or communities 2 Determining which areas of the world that should be protected to protect those organisms 3 Linking new conservation areas to existing networks using tools such as gap analysis Ways of prioritizing Species Approach KOMODO Communityecosystem approach Fig 159 15 of major biomes Hotspot approach CA biodiversity Proxy to indicate biodiversity endemic bird areas Wilderness approach never spoiled CO Wilderness Colors designating land Only 3 of 12 major ecotypes in the S Rockies have more than 10 of their area protected About 60 of CO is owned by the public BLM Forest service National monument 69 of the Wilderness is above 10000 feet in altitude Gap Analysis prioritizing Conservation units measured for a region Goals identi ed Identify gaps in coverage Areas identi ed ll gaps Management plan developed and implemented Monitoring goals being met P P FWN GAP ANALYSYS FIGURE IN TEXT BOOK 1512 Highly endangered species levels of protection Lots of gaps represented by red dots where endangered species have no protection 794 animal and plants 595 sites across the world Designing PA s intended primarily for The three R s 0 Representation of conservation unit species ecosystem etc o Resiliency withstand natural changes security size 0 Redundancy reserve must protect enough examples of each conservation unit of interest to ensure ling term survival Important questions 0 Size O 0 Single large or several small SLOSS debate How many individuals of a species is needed in the reserve for redundancy What is the best shape Should reserves be close and connected to others or isolated Model to help answer questions island biogeography model Applies to land islands as well Y extinction rate x size of park Correlation line small parks have high extinctions Principles of Preserve Design 0 Based on island biogeography model 0 Better Ecosystem completely protected Larger Unfragmented More reserves Maintained corridors between Stepping stones facilitate movement Diverse habitats Rounder shape less edge Mix of large and small reserves is best large and small species less predators Managed regionally as a group same policies Human integration buffer zones Land Bridge example See slide Eco region plan example Worse Better C D E5 NTJALS 0F CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 5e F gun e 1611 Par 1 20103inauerhssoclatesiIlna Worse Better G Uniform Diverse habitats habitat egv mountains protected lakes forests 300 ha reserve 100 ha pm EC E core H Irregular Reserve shape shape closer to round 300 ha reserve I Only large reserves 1 individually Humans excluded K ESSENTIALS 0F CONSERVATION BIOLOGK 5e Figure 16 Part 2 effects Mix of large and small reserves Reserves managed regionally integration buffer zones I 2010 Sinauer Associates inc a Small herbivores a Large herbivores Large camivores Number of individuals in population H i I 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 million Park area ha ESSENTIALS OI39 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 5e Figui e 1612 2010 Sinauerhssuclatesi um Number of protected areas Terrestrial protected area i Marine preferred area Number of sites ZEDT UO39HITE III Harv ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 5e Figure 1511 aao1uanauemgaamauna Temperate grasslands savannas and shrnbtandls Mediterranean torests woodlands anal scrnb Tropical subtropical dry broadleaved forests Temperate broadleaved and mixed forests Tropical subtropical coniferous forests Tropical subtropical moist broadlleaved forests Tropical subtropical grasslands savannas and shiniblands Eloodedl grasslands and shrublands Deserts and xeric shrublands Montane grasslands and snrnblands Temperate conifer forests Boreal forests taiga Tundra ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGIC 5e Figure 1519 10 I Habitat converted I l Habitat protected 2t 30 40 Biome area 30 a 2010 Sinauer Assoclatesi quotno fAT kansas Va llle39yj Barrens d pBCIES Number of bird 3 01 giv Elma lands near New 13000quot i f Guinea 8111313011 mime bird Spades I ma 1ih JSE father away L Q 2600 26900 Area kmz 260000 Extinction rate Q 3 C3 N 0000 1 0 w H 139 w H H w H a I a O 100 1000 10000 100000 Small Large parks Park area kmz parks ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 5e Figure l 613 2010 Sinauerhsscclatesi Hm A WW B Before fragmentation After fragmentation Highway Effect zone x Overpass I Nature area i Compensation site iii Dispersal routes 5 3 o201oeinauemssociates Inc The health of the fritillary butter y depends on active management 0 Cutting down trees in the UK allows for the survival of the endangered insect 0 Created habitat mosaic More light 0 Managingmaintenance with a speci c species in mind Penguins jackass 0 Importance of signage Examples of mismanagement 0 Promoting game species to the extent that the ecosystem is out of balance 0 Killing mountain lions so there are more elk to hunt 0 Managing only for aesthetics Suppression of re 0 Identi ed as a bad things To protect people Makes forest ugly Necessary for the proper cycles of reecology Favors more devastating res Certain species adapted to re historic res Grasslands as well Kills tree seedlings maintaining grassland Puts nutrients in soil 000000 The Role of Monitoring 0 Keeping eye on results 0 Adaptive management 0 Learn from results of efforts 0 General idea Feedback system of info gathering within protected area Monitor and review Adapt management approaches quotimplement and act Monith andl on management plan review l ll Concerns based on biological legal issues Values exp ectations l Develop management plan Managers Open Informed d39ehate E 39 quot m i 39 Informant Sleienetists gathermg Y General public government officials a and others Biology of Social economic endangered species legal other and habitats considerations ESSENTIALS 0F CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 59 Figure 173 23105inauernssoeiatesInc EX Where management worked Dinosaur national monument Tamarix removal in phases Other invasive species took in the space Lots of weed seed in the soil Which had more habitat value Tamarix Reinvasion Adaptive management change priority let Tamarix grow Limited herbicide use Identifying and Managing Threats Intervention active management v leaveitalone Wilderness leave it alone Don t classify as wilderness if not reaching the three Rs want to be able to intervene Active prevent or make happen 0 Implement re 0 Prairie Dogs 0 Preventative Removing cattle to allow for revegetation Ex San Pedro river overgrazing susceptible to erosion remove grazers grow vegetation grazing is a disturbance that many are adapted to but only at a speci c leveltype Managed to simulate historic grazing Other aspects that may require management 0 Invasive species 0 Water Quality Abundance a Fish In Plants a Flood necessity a Lower ground water Behavior a How move through system a Ability to ood I Stay in same place every year a Movements of main channels trees have adapted to this but not good for human use 0 Keystone resources EX feeding wildlife EX creating nesting sites Historically unnecessary because there used to be other areas that could help with resilience now fragmented and can t do that 0 People managing con icting demandsneeds Human use v requirements for biodiversity Within a costal protected area people may be completely excluded from some area due to nesting birds either for a shot time or a long time Human presence is a negative impact Ex offroad vehicles Balancing uses in Saba Marine Park a Highly regulated a Big multiple use zone I Some areas speci c to certain activities Green vFlarida Diamond Elam F1olert0 U 77 7 at r Saba Island Saba Marine Park I Multipleuse zone fishing and diving H Allpurpose recreational zone Anchorages Recreational diving zone no fishing ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 5e Figure 17110 2010 Sinauar ssociates inc Regulating activities 0 Lots of things not permitted 0 EX Philippines Particular marine areas are either shing or non shing Became too over shed and economy dropped Needed sh immigrationreproduction A 50 x 20 1511 census area e I H I m I W H I g o I a I I B Unfished reserve I r1 essaymes or causenmmm 310mm 5e Figure 1312 Part 1 After monitoring Apo Island 0 Increase of larger sh important 25 L 0 Census inside reserve E 20 0 Census outside reserve El 51 quot e F1511 rap1d1y o a I 1 a 9 Id 1 302 15 mcreasmg 11151 e r 2 reserve 0 1 no I 0 Ta gt S E E 10 3939 g 3 F1sh slowly 111creas111g quotE outside reserve 0 E CL 9 I m L 2 r i a o u I 5 I T I 039 3 6 9 IIZ 15 7 18 21 Number of years of protection 5e IEmosmauer ssocialesInc RECONCILIATION o Winwin ecology Good for humans and organisms Michael Rosenzweig 2004 0 Human development and biodiversity can be reconciled Goal is winwin rather than compromise Not giving anything up 0 This is a management ideal not always possible 0 EX Israel Eilat Res sea star restaurant coral hospital High biodiversity id bene cial to the restaurant People want the view They have provided funds and management resources hospital OOOOO Take home Many levels of protection Different ways of prioritizing IBM can guide design Protecting areas is not enough must be managed Managing the human element is often most critical aim for winwin In the news China passed a new law outlawed the eating of endangered animals and harvesting for medicinal purposes Fish and wildlife services habitat restoration programs create 3973 new jobs 3277 million to local economy reconciliation restore areas make better for wildlife better for local economy too Restoration Ecology Ecological restoration the process of assisting the recovering of degraded damaged or destroyed ecosystems SER society for ecological restoration International Restoration ecology the scienti c study of restoration Compensatory mitigation when ecological restoration is used to create or rehabilitate a site to compensate for destruction through development elsewhere Many ecosystems have lost both structure and complexity Original high biodiversity and complexity high ecosystem function Degraded less ecosystem structure and function Want to move up the line to full ecosystem restoration which is rare more common partial restoration Another option rehabilitation 0 Not able to achieve same ecosystem structure 0 So different from native species 0 Could still improve ecosystem function with different ecosystem structure function new species Ex replacement with a few of the original species Ex use many species but not the same historic species Restoration examples Lakes Prairies Riparian Lakes Treating cultural eutrophication 0 Bottom upquot Sewage treatment Diverting polluted waterljless damage Stop at source 0 Top downquot Addressing food web problems Add predators to eat algae Eat invasive species 0 Lake Erie example 0 Waste treatment 0 Better but not complete restoration 0 75 billion since 1972 Prairies Issues 0 Soil chemistry 0 Species 0 Fire Tree presence Key component of restoration Issue with houses 0 Grazing Complete restoration very dif cult Popular for human use agriculture 0 Not charismatic Riparian Issues 0 Hydrology Remove levies Ground water 0 Invasive species Plants Rivers as dispersal vectors Easy spread Edge effect Rivers caused Increased edge effects maximizes negative aspects 0 Fire Ecosystem adapted to speci c intensityfrequency Invasive species causes increased intensityfrequencies 0 Human Con ict Manage use 0 Invasive species removal do we need to take them out Tamarisk Invasive species management 0 Mechanical Removes biomass Fire EX cutting down with chainsaw and then paint stump 0 Chemical Herbicides EX Painting stumps aerial application foliage backpack sprayer truck with tank local v miles of tamarisk Problems pesticides can poison soil seeps out to surrounding area transferred to all pars of plants creates dead zones around trees 0 Biological Implement predators Ex Beetle for Tamarisk from Asia goats Makes people nervous nontarget effects eat other things weevil to control thistle that is not threatening other plants ls biocontrol dangerous a What eats the control Birds a Only mild response by other invertebrates a May eat Frankinea some risk a Strongly selective to tamarisk Option 4 do nothing 0 May be some natural improvement Or will get worse What do successful restoration sites have in common 0 Passive Revegetation Harms and Hiebert o Tamarisk removed by different methods Dark not removed MIDDLE GRAPH NATIVE FOLIAR COVER Primary goal to stimulate native plantsanimals Where tamarisk left lower native cover than places where it was removed 0 Some cases just removing was enough other cases needed to plant in combination 0 Active revegetation 0 Better native foliar cover where after tamarisk were removed there was planting of native species 0 Represent different areas 0 Variability between areas where work best 0 Regression tree 0 Year since removal OOOO Higher mean cover of native species in sites that had time since tamarisk was removed and planting was done years since removal Time more important than method of removal etc All restoration takes time o Vegetative cover highest near water in nesandy soi Tree again Distance to water Soil texture Years since removal What are the priorities Native species v vegetative cover interpretation dependent on goals 0 Environmental varables that favor natives disfavor tamarisk Native Species n Soils Low salinity Low ph Texturesand a Water 0 Close to water 0 High precipitation Good drainage a Time Tamarisk n Soils High salinity High pH a Water 0 Far from water 0 Low precipitation Less drainage Why Competition and plant invasion n Invasives not always competitive as seedlings n Require empty niche n Importance of revegetation no empty niche for invasion u If it s not competitive then how was it so invasive WATER Light availability and ooding encourage cottonwood seedlings mature cottonwood die and get knocked over Flooding also encourages tamarisk allows for invasiveness especially with the traits that encourage growth re drought salinity Hydrology altered by damming river and creating levies Flooding doesn t take place tamarisk can take advantage of late season oods can survive without ood Simulate process by allowing light through weed control Manage hydrology to stimulate native species natural trajectory Summary 0 O 0 Good news tamarisk control measured do kill the plant with little reinfestation Bad news Simply removing the plant will no constitute habitat restoration Good news active revegetation and choosing sites that favor natives can achieve habitat restoration look at soil precipitation water etc Take home 0 0 Test review Zoo lecture understand as a case study of in situ and ex situ what roles does the zoo play role of GIS and GPS and examples Be able to give examples of topics Tamarisk questions Graphs and gures lsland biogeography graph reading Comfortable with whaling arguments Names Paul Watson his perspectivearguments Management is necessary in many areas due to human alterations No universally best management approach Ecological restoration involves reestablishing whole communities rehabilitation with replacement species Human involvement is a key component to the success of restoration and management
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