week 7 - 9 Oceanography
week 7 - 9 Oceanography GEOLGY 300
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by GreenOwl713 on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to GEOLGY 300 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Rex Hanger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Principles Oceanography in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
Heat vs temperature gt Heat energy produced by random vibration L 39 of atoms gt Temperature objects response to inputoutput of 39 heat Hieat Budgets gt Numerous inputs and outputs gt Resutgtgt long term mean Earth su rface te m pe ratu re 1 6 C X Caloriescm 2Imin 400 300 Caloriescm quot min 200 90 80 50 30 20 0 20 30 50 80 90 North South Latitude 400 300 200 50 80 90 South 9080 50 30 20 0 20 30 North Latitude Heat variation with Latitude gt Surplus in tropics gt Deficits in temperate and boreal gt Heat is transferred 0 Air 67 I 0 Water 33 Heat Capacity gt Land has LOW heat capacity 0 Gainsloses heat rapidly gt Water ocean has HIGH heat capacny o Absorbs large amounts of heat retains 03 0 Annual range at land surface temperature 39C N 0 Annual range of sea surface temperature 39C 8 Latitude Temperature Variations gt Land at mid latitudes with much higher annual range than oceans gt Greater range in N hemisphere oceans o More land in N hemisphere m 0 2 a m 40 s sos I Lalilude Annual range of sea su ace temperature 390 Annual range 01 land surface temperature 39C Water Density 3 gt pure water lOOOOOgcm3 gt Varies in oceans due to o Salinity S gkg directly proportional 0 Temperature T 0C inversely proportional 0 Le as S increases so does p BUT as T increases p will decrease 60 N 30 N 0 30 S 60 S Water De nsity p gt Lower density at surface especially tropicsgtgt rainrunoff m gt At 30 NS have gm lower T than game tropics but higher woo Sgtgt less rainrunoff View 6mm WM AMAst Y A 0 7 4 3 x 0 7 mwob OJCW we R333 alums 0 Clam mayquot Car 05 3x31 Wmmm CQWM hr baby Water Density p in polar Regions gt Tempe ratu re very low increasing density AND g gt Sea ice formation A 0 Sea ice freezes up 25 fresh water leaving 1 remaining water more saline Polar Water Sinks T and Depth gt T decreases with depth to thermocline gt Thermocline zone of rapid T decrease gt Below thermocline T relatively stable 34V Salinity 1039 C Temperature S and Depth gt S increases with depth to halocline gt Halocline zone of rapid S increase gt Below halocline S relatively stable X Dens y and Depth gt Oceans well mixed to i 00m gt Increasing p with depth to i 000m gt Relatively homogeneous below iOOOm gt Pycnocline zone of rapid p change with depth 3500 r a 32 3339 34 Salinity 0 C 5quot C 10 C Temperature 8 o 5 B 0 ggwo 3 1mm gum E g 2000 Icm Denshyg 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 E Depth mats E 06131 p moz wmwwq Ti depth amp Latitude gt Surface T varies greatly with latitude gt Below l 000m little variation globally gt Thermoclines only in temperate and tropical latitudes 043 all I n I I1quot l Tl rlermohalilne Circulation gt Surface movement due to heat budget differences o 2 Ocean Currents Healquot Cooling g 0 horizontal g 393 o15 2mday gt Movement at E Sunacenow depth due mostly l 1 to p differences s inkingspreading 0 vertical I o Ol 05mday Sinking E m a Heatin Cooling 5 2 395 E 93 E l l E g 8 397 Surface flow gt gt gt Sinking I l34 as LIMITS oxygen contEnt would be maintained Engines also made railroads possible which enabled landed sh to get to inland markets quickly British ports became railroad centers F u L 1 a a D a With few people noticing the next idea that would change North Atlantic shing forever was being contem plated by aisomewhat eccentric New Yorker passing the zwinter in Labrador 39Clarence Birdseye born in Brooklyn in 1886 had dropped but of Amherst sqcla39ss of 1910 be cause of a lack of money and impatient with lowpaying New York of ce jobs had moved to Labrador with his wife Eleanor and their infant39son to work as a n trapl per He found that if hefroze greens they would last through the winter without losing their avor He lled his baby s washbasin with salted Water put cabbage in it and exposed it to Labrador s arctic wind The Birdseyes quot were the rst pe0ple in Labrador to eat fresh vegetables all winter This was the beginning of years 39of home kitchen experiments Though the 39couple worked to gether their son recalled Eleanor s regular irritation at nding food experiments throughout thehouse He parb I ticularly remembered the ght over live pickerel in the bathtub 0 39 K 39 Birdseye gaveup trapping and moved to Washing thon DC where he worked for the US Fisheries Associ ation He was concerned about the practiceof icing sh In the 1820s it had been discovered that packing39 sh in quot ice prolonged freshness Ice Birdseye explained melts 39 and becomes water which encourages the growth of bac teria After several more years of q lling the household s 3 a The qf he Trip Cfoumler 5511111 Postcard 191039 schooner Peabody Essex Museum Salem Massachusetts sinks and tubs experiments Birdseye unveiled a new technology It required three pieces of equipment an electric fan a pile 39of ice and a bucket of brine Birdseye quotwas reproducing a Labrador winter i In 1925 he moved to Gloucester to work with sh and founded General Seafoods Company Starting with ground sh he 39also experimented with other seafood then went on to meat th39en fruits and vegetables It was a goose that39made his fortune The daughter of the founder of a food processing company the Postum I 3 e m w39aqmamwum lt7 136 LIMITS company was yachting Massachusetts and tied up 39in Gloucester She was served a goose which she found to be 39a marvelously delectable bird and after maldng in quiries discovered that it had been frozen by the local39 eccentric Clarence Birdseye She Emet Birdseye and learned more about the little company which herfather then bought paying Birdseye twenty two milliOn dollars Postum renamed his company General Foods a name derived from Birdseye s General Seafoods Birdseye be lieved his ideas would produce a corporate giant in the food industry comparable to General Motors or General Electric in their industries Birdseye improved his frozen food technology with his 1946 quick drying process and went on to many other elds He founded an electrical company and im1 proved the incandescent39lightbulb In Peru he developed I a process to convert the crushed remains of sugarcane mills into paper In his sixtynineyear lifetime he was awarded 250 patents 1 v r Birdseye s introduction of freezing came at a critical moment in the cod sheries Americans like the British were increasingly demanding fresh sh inStead of cured 39andithe market for salt cod in the39United States was steadily declining In 1910 cured cod represented only 1 39 percent of sh landings in New England But even with improved transportation it was dif cult to serve inland markets fresh sh and so the cod market was dwindling At the same time the capacity of shing eets was greatly increasing In 1928 the rst dieselpowered trawlers were proving even more ef cient than the steam powered ones 137 E The Last Two Ideas Because salt cod was still the major industry of quotGloucester the town was in an economic crisis In 1923 Mayor William MacInnis 39met with Secretary of Com merce Herbert Hoover to discuss declining markets and Hoover arranged New York conference to consider ways topromote salt cod consumption in the United States But with General Foods committed to the Birds eye freezing process salt cod was fast vanishing from Gloucester The same year as Hoover s New York confer encequot Gloucester s most established seafood company Gorton s had a crisis that led to the abandoning of the salt sh39 trade The Italian government had purchased more than one million dollars worth of salt cod from Gorton s Butwhile the order was crossing the Atlantic Benito Mussolini came to power When the Gorton s ship arrived its cargo was con scated and never paid for In 391921 lleting machinery was introduced to New England and nine years later 128 lleting plants oper quotated in the region selling off their waste to sh meal factories which were also proliferating ane freezing and lleting were put together sh llets became a leading product Scrod a small cod llet became increas ingly popular The word was used in the United States at least as early as 1849 though its origin seems to be a Dutch word schrdde meaning strip Once lleting be came industrialized scrod became 39a household word Q But scrod wasalso sometimes haddock The distinc tion between one ground sh and another was becoming less and less clear as sh was p0pularized in inland re gions Throughout the centuries whenever cod has been popularized away from its native waters there has been a L a cum w m Waa w Bagslmr rs tendency to call it simply shf Stock sh was originally quotsupposed to mean dried cod but over the centuries came to be any dried gadiform Cod and other salted gadiforms were all known inthe British West Indies as salt shiNow the same was happening with frozen sh Consumers whopredou ly had not been seafood eaterg sbm of them had never seen a saltwater species in its uncut nat ural state were buying sh llets or sticks The type or sh was seldom speci ed They were thought to be cod though increasingly they were made fromhaddock until that was39replaced by aqum in red sh Today sh sticks are usually Paci c pollock Fish it seems is whatever is left a quot quot Fish sticks became an enormous commercial success Fish llets were frozen into blocks which were then run I through a saw and sliced into slabs which 39were then cut r a intos39ticks A Gortbn s advertisement of the 19503 called sh sticks the latest greatest achievement of thequot seafood industry of today It went on 39to say Thanks to sh sticks the average Americanhomemalker no longer con siders quotserving sh a driidger39y Instead she regards itquotas a pleasure just as her family have come to Consider sh one of their favoritefQOds Easyth prepare thrifty to n a serve and delicious to eat sh sticks it can be truthfully said havegreatly increased the demand for sh while i revo1utionizingthe shing industry a Y Freezing also changed the relationship of seafood companies t9 shing ports Frozen sh could be bought anywhere wherever the sh Was39 cheapest and most plentifulWith expanding markets local eets could not r 139 as The Last Two Ideas keep up with the needs of the Companies Gorton s and others abandoned their own trawler eets and eventually ltheirown ports Between 1960 and 1970 the total US production of shesticks tripledwbut Gloucester pro duction only doubled While business was increasmg x Gloucester s market share was declining Z I The most important development was that during sWo39rld War II the three innovations highpowered ships dragging nets and freezing sh had come to 39 gether in the huge factory ship One of the original ap peals of quotthe steampowered otter trawl had been that without masts and rigging ample deck space had been cleared for sh processing Enginedriven ships could also have larger hulls with more storage space originally the net was dragged and landed from a swinging boom on the side a side trawler The stem trawler invented in the Paci c was more stable on rough seas and could haul bigger trawls It also provided a large open deck space on the stern where the sh Were landed During World War II this added space started to be39used for freezing sh By the 19505 a time now thought of as the golden age of longdistance net trawling cod catches were larger every year inthe North Sea off of Iceland Norway all of the banks in the Gulf of St Lawrence and along the New England coast Most of the world s commercial catches were increasing Were there any limits to how39 much could be caught wor was namre inexhaustible as had been believed in the nineteenth century Fishermen were beginning to worry In 1949 the International Commission for the North mmmwmu wmu WWW y j A 34 4 ET o 140 2 LIMITS west Atlantic Fisheries was fOrmed to look for ways of controlling excessive39pr39actices 7 But technology continued to focus on the goal of catching more sh Factory ships grew to 450 feet or larger with fi000ton Capacity or more powered by twin diesel39engines of more than 6000 horsepower pulling J trawls With openings large enough to swallow jumbo jets The trawler hauled its huge net every four hours twenty four hours a day Pair shing a technique often practiced by the Spanish39fleet out of Vigo suspended a huge trawl between two factory shipsuOne operated the trawl and the other processed the sh After the net was hauled up the vessels switched roles and continued so that the sh ing never stopped a The rollers along the bottom of the net were replacedquot by rockhoppers large disks that tend to hoP up when they hit a rock and make it possible to drag39close to a rough bottomw ithout damaging thenet In addition tickler chains stir up the bottom creating noise and dust Cod and other ground sh instinctively hide On the bottom when they sen se danger and the ticklersaCt like quot hunters beating bushes to drive birds out sending the frightened cod out of their protective crannies and up into the nets i a G The ocean oor left behind39 is a desert Any sh Swimming in the 39vast area of theSe netsis caught The only control is mesh size Fish that are39 smaller than the holes in the net can escape While mandating minimum mesh sizes has become a favorite tool of regulators sh ermen often point out that once39 the back wall of the cod A 42 l4 3 ThebLastmTwo Ideas end has a good39 crop of sh in it few sh 39of any size can escape regardless of how big the mesh Millions of I unwanted sh undesirable species sh that are under sized or Enter quota even sh with a low market price quotthat week are tossed overboard usually dead A For centuries shermen have had to study the lay of the ocean s oor and the skies Nova S39cotia shermen used to look for what they called cherry bottom a type of 39red gravel oor favored by cod They would drop a weighted line with a piece of tallow and bring it up to look at the color of gravel it had picked up Or shermen searched the horizon for a fastforming cloud of seabirds The air lled with furious screeches as the hungry preda tors dove fornthe sea s white churning surface to pluck 39bait sh w herring or ca39pelin from the chaos The sh ermen knew thatctheir quarry were there hungry open mouthed cod and other ground sh attacking from below forcing the desperate bait sh to ee their mid water home It is the food chain in all its violence show ing itself before the ultimate predator who then knows where to cast his lines or nets All of these techniques are vanishing Schools of sh are now located by sonar or by spotter aircraft equip ment developed during World War II to locate enemy submarines Once the sh are located the trawler can move in and clean out the area taking not only the target catch but everything else39in the area thequotbycatch As the 1950s Gorton s advertisement put it Thanks to these methods shing ismo longer the hitormiss proposition it was 50 years ago A an quotp mmm qM up nmmmwml Z 32 5231 is Wate r M ol ecu le gt Covalent bond gt universal solvent 0 easily breaks ionic bonqs Oxygen atom gt polarized elactronnngs molecule Covalent quot bonds Chemistry of Ocean Water gt 965 H20 gt 35 other dissolved substances gt 33 to 37 locally gt Salintyl gt Units are 000 so gt 35000 10102014 Salinity gt Relationship with latitude controls evaporation runoff precipitation gt eg lower salinity 400 50O NS clue to excess rains V Sa39lnl y 909 Salinity glkg 345 LOW 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Norm Latitude South Dissolved salts gt 6 ions make up 99 of all dissolved salts CI Nat SO42 E MgZ Ca2 K E Cl and Na 86 V V 0 1 2 3 4 5 BO39N 4039N ZO39N 039 everything else WMMMMM present only in trace amounts sources of ALL salts V V 10102014 10102014 2 3 Depth km 4 5 60 N 40 N 20 N 0 20 S 40 S 60 S 80 S a Salinity in Atlantic Ocean S Dissolved salts gt 6 ions make up 99 of all dissolved salts Cl Na SO42 Mgz Ca2 K everything else present only in trace amounts sources of ALL salts runoff from land result of chemical weathering V V V V Dissolved ions in Rivers gt 6 most abundant ions in rivers today gt HCO339 Ca2 SiOz 504239 Cl39 Na gt Cl and Na only 12 gt Why the I difference 10102014 Why the difference gt Easily removed ions sodium chlorine etc removed long ago weathering today removes the less soluble salts first oceans 40BY fresher than today until l SBY then constant S V V Salts added today gt Total ocean salt 5X1027g 35000 gt rivers each year add 000005000 gt for 3SBY gt Which means we should have much much saltier oceans gt Where does the salt go X Salt Removal gt Sea spray gt evaporation causmg precipitation gt skeleton building gt still not enough 10102014 Adsorption gt sticking of o molecules to a surface especially clays in muds some ions eg K stick more than others eg Na Then subduction zone removal of theseions V V Subduction Zone Oceanic Crust V Residence Times gt time a substance remains in a system gt conservative constituents long residence times 0 millions of years gt Nonconservative constituents short residence times 0 hundreds of years eg Aluminum 600yrs 0 strongly affected by biological processes or adsorption Residence Times 39 Goldberg 1965 Cf 79My Na 260My 504239 8My Mg 45 My Ca2 8My K l 1 My 10102014 Residence Time Goldberg 1965 i Bruiamd Cl39 79My lOOMy Na 260My LL 68My SO42 8My 8My Mgz 45My Ca2 8My K llMy Principle of Constant Proportions gt Oceans are SO thoroughly mixed gt Mixing Time l OOOyrs gt SO ratio of any 2 ions remains constant despite salinity changes Measuring Salinity HMS Challenger 1872 1876 proved PofCP remember Na and CL are 86 of all salts Na is always 180655 times more abundant than Cl measuring chlorine easier than sodium S V V V V Cases in Seawater in atmosphere in surface water in ocean total X N2 78 48 11 02 21 36 Saturation Value C02 003 15 83 gt 2 amount of gas that can be held in a solution without causing the solution to gainlose gas gt depends on o temperatureT o salinity S water pressure X Oxygen and carbon dioxide 02 mm 2 3 gt Oxygen high near surface low at depth gt carbon dioxide opposne gt Why 10102014 10102014 gt Plants use carbon dioxide produce oxygen photosynthesis gt need sunlight so more abundant in shallow water gt Decomposition of organic matter requires 02 and releases CO2 gt also increases with depth gt Notegtgt 02 minimum at 800m then increases due to sinking of O2 rich cold water W m 32 3339 34 Salinity o0 C 539C 10 CTen39peraturo V o 8 T and Depth g g 500 9 gt T decreases with 395 depth to thermocline A 1500 gt Thermocline g zone of rapid T gm decrease gt Below 2500 thermocline T relatively stable m0 3200 33 34000 Salinity 0 C 5quot C 10 C Temperature S and Depth gt S increases with depth to halocline gt Halocline zone of rapid S increase gt Below halocline S relatively stable 8 95191109002 Denslty gcm39 16023 1024 1025 1028 1021 1023 039quot 711133 quot Z gt Oceans well mixed to i 00m gt Increasing p with depth to i 000m gt Relatively homogeneous below iOOOm gt Pycnoclin 2 zone of rapid p change with depth Ti depth 8 Latitude gt Surface T varies 39T39 P39 quot I Temperate greatly wrth 39 latitude gt Below 1000m little variation globally gt Thermoclines only in temperate and tropical latitudes 10102014 10102014 y C 4 5 q I 1 Thermohaline SkaGe o lt439 f Adk Circulation gt Surface movement due to heat 9 budget differences Heaun Cooling fha iz39itirmms UH Hi o 39 aSu acefi gt VA A 39139quot39 39 gt Movement at s depth due mostly to p differences Sinking s inkingspreading 0 vertical 0 Oi 05mday amp in 8 m 395 Heatlng Cooling 5 2 Tm E 9 5 E S 8 539 Surface ow gt gt gt Sinking 10 Geology 3100 Fall 2014 gt Just look through Ch 8 atmospheric circulation gt No Need for detailed reading of Ch 8 gt Read Ch 9 X Heat Budget gt Recall gt Earth receives heat from solar energy gt Surplus in lower latitudes deficit in higher latitudes gt Energy transferred from surplus to deficit mo areas by gt Currents gt wind and 20 30 50 3090 9080 50 30 20 dw No I ocean m SM Lamudo Winds gt Convection cell model again gt Heat rises at region of 5amp9 greatest surplus equator gt Because of spinning Earth there are 3 convection I cellshemisphere 10262014 W is from saw 4W C Mny Her0015 M M comps Sovx Mom 6 a meow 306 M 315 9 Aost can Wt do aw 3 ch Mp 10262014 161 mag mam oz gram ptms Transfer of E to water gt Winds blowing over oceans transfer energy to water gt Very little l 3 gt Eg 60kmhr wind produces i 2kmhr ocean current X CQQ CU 345 N3 Wk 2 935 UM olom 95 lt9 ng Qa acg g dpu qOC c ruek awn 39 6W5 are Awa L3 DMXJ W Clb lt2 LIW A Clongw mwb Transfer of E to water gt Water density i 000x greater than atmospheric densny gt Once water in motion inertia tends to keep it in constant motion gt So ocean currents respond to long term atmospheric circulation NOT daily weather changes Ubl am oork cloo 0 bum Xngg l7OI 5w Qauz um um Qoeb Ll quot 1 Elkrnan Spiral gt Water surface feels winds gt Water flow is offset at 45 angle to the right gt Water below is offset etc etc gt By i OOmeters water moving opposite to surface but much slower gt Net Transport or averaged flow is at 9 0 angle to wind direction X Direcxlon ol rotation 9ivrvr oriis Coriolis Force Cm gt For Northen Hemisphere gt Any object travelling horizontally above Earth s surface for significant distance or time will veer toward right gt Left for southern I hemisphere Gyres gt Coriolis Effect plus interfering continents produce regular rightward deflections in N hemisphere amp 3 parts to Gyres 5 V 03 gt i Equatorial Currents o Produced by strong Trade Winds 0 Flow is westward gt 2 Western Boundary Currents o Deflected north by continent then eastward by Coriolis 0 Eg Gulf Stream amp 10262014 my Cxccovx CLoOLuvbe Mt mmm 5822 wood 3 mmgwkwmas 0 M loam Grow Mme WW xxxtor ro mmagmw J5rorwm begmkm l3 WMA show 10262014 3 t t G 9300 mtm Xxs oMt L ars YES p y 19 SAMwa gt 3 Eastern Boundary Currents 0 From Westerly Winds o Deflected southward by continents and Coriolis Ocean Currents A C a 39 go v 401 odJL5 C 65 vo kl e C d lapel 60W 5 Mad QA l e 0C nuns Coriolis Force and Gyres EDWAS a m 09 water gtConstant I rightward deflection in Northern hemisphere gt Would occur even without continental I addition 10262014 Gieostrophic Currents gt Coriolis Force builds small hill of water in gyre center 0 1 2 meters above mean sea level gt Water falls down due to gravity opposite to Coriolis X ma aeon W5 act kconcbZC Western Intengification gaye gt Gyre centers always offset to west u 6cmquot gt Trades strongest mg Europe wrnd system acting on ocean gt Western Boundary currents stronger 35 225 to wwcboof Pressure E Pycmcune gmdrem Earth rotates eastward Eastern Boundary S 39 currents X a WC 8 005 Equatorial Counter Current gt Water piles up on western sides of basins gt excess flows back gt Between equatorial I I I rrn nlr n39w an39w m39w zn39w 10262014 Ocean Currents 05 Mg w n Yamwale39 current Ccldaw aler cu39venl
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