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2315 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Communication as Symbolic Language The basics of where meaning sits Introductory Analogy The Sweater Analogy 9 You go shopping You try on a sweater You buy that same sweater You leave the store with your newly purchased sweater Someone asks you quotHave you worn the sweater yetquot You answer quotNo just bought itquot You are wrong You have worn the sweater already When you tried it on 9 How in a language there is a split between the technical definition and the way it is used in every day talk The motive of communicating is to fundamentally change the person you re communicating to NOT to express your feelings or share information What it Means to quotMeanquot quotYou can t put your hand in the same river twicequot 0 The river water is different because of the motion and current etc 0 You changed the water by interacting with it Symbolic Interaction o is the deliberate attempt to impose or establish meaning this definition will be on the test Language is a vocabulary of codes and the rules according to which those codes are applied The Nature of Symbols Signal Communication 0 Has a deliberate outcome 0 Signals messages that get sent where responses are made on the basis of the signals sent Natural and automatic In response to a stimulus All beings including human beings engage in signal behavior Example When your heart rate automatically goes up when you re scared animal reactions to fear etc natural and subconscious OOOO instincts Symbol Communication o Symbols I Arbitrary I Socially supplied I Context related words change depending on in what sense you re using it in I Fluid words never stay the same in meaning or pronunciation Subject 9 user speaker Referent 9 the thing you re talking subject Referent about anything a word can be attached to r Term 9 term being employed Subject 69 Referent Referent 69 Term Term 69 Subject Relat39on bet een term and referent TERM 39 W Is arbItrary there Is nothing In referent that demands that it be called the term it is being called Meaning as Value The River is meaningful because enough of its characteristics and conditions remain constant predictable and employable Value as Supply and Demand o Supply and Demand is NOT quotthe more there is the less it costs o IS quotthe amount compared to its available usesquot 2515 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications The quotMequot I Communicate to quotYouquot The Eight Person Dyad 0 Who we are 0 Who we each think we are I You are always different versions of yourself different variations I Actual perception of yourself is always fluxed every minute of the day depending on the context you re in 0 Who we each think the other is 0 Who we each think the other thinks we are Inventions of perception the active process of assessing information in your surroundings 3 stages of perception 0 Selection I What you your brain perceive before you perceive it consciously 0 Organization I Brain decided what kind of information that you re perceiving is and where it goes 0 Interpretation I Conclusion of what you ve perceived I THEN you decided what to do how to respond etc Text Concepts Related to Perception Definitions of following terms are in the reading Will upload term and definition document later today of the following plus key terms in chapters 1 amp 2 which should have been read by now Selective attention 0 Criteria for what s important and what39s not recordingrememberingpaying attention to what is important to you Cognitive representation 0 Outline structure stored of what we see Prototypes o Broad basic concept of a thing Interpersonal scripts o Properimproper ways to do things socially Categories and labels Framing 0 Set of perceptions for how something should take place Attributing TALK ABOUT THIS NEXT CLASS 9 Symbols do not contain content the suggest or evoke the content you produce 21 01 5 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Verbal and nonverbal communication how symbols carry information The interactive model of language a system of codes and grammars organized to combine symbols and communicate through verbal and nonverbal exchange Codes and Grammars Symbols are organized into complex structures a relationship between a symbol and a referent 0 Area code o Morse code The Basic quotSecret Code Straight letter for letter code Standard substitution code Each letter stands in for another letter until 26 relationships exist set of relationships like the bullet point one above If we know vocabulary we can interpret the meaning of the message o w defining a language code Some rules are unstated unstated rules Grammars become more complex when relationships become less arbitrary random More specific presumptive relationships are supplied ystems of presumptions that allow people to interpret the symbolic messages delivered in those contexts Presumptions often lead to incorrect interpretations OOOOO The Importance of Ethical Talk the nature of symbolic interaction depends on truthfulness Perceived message is rooted in perceived intent Clear perception is related to lack of stress Ethical communication is about content and process Ethical behavior is a habit Ethics relates to effective communication Ethics is a strategic consideration not just a moral one 21 21 5 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Ifyou have any questions about the notes feel free to e mail me at d515371npaceedu lntrapersonal Communication How one communicates with others is influenced by how one sees one39s self in relation to others Perception of Self Rooted in o Genetics predispositions toward certain patterns of response to stimuli actions and interpretations I Physical genetic advantages Good looking people Athletes Michael Phelps and his special tendons ability to breath more effectively Larry Bird and his wider peripheral vision I Mental genetic advantages Child prodigies 0 Behavior what we do 0 Reflection on Behavior what we think about what we do 0 self concept that is born out reasonably and logically with some sense of knowing what you re doing result of an internal technology I How worthy you think you are I Capability to set and achieve a goal I Can get things done for themselves and others I Perception of a person related to who s responsible for when they win and when they lose I Who gets the blame for how your life is I lnternal or external Internal quotI am responsible I take credit for what I get and take the blame for what I don tquot External quot Everything that goes wrong is somebody else39s faultquot I Impulse control People are quotquasirational 0 Thinking in rational patterns but not always with rational content Us believing that we are behaving logicallybut are we really Behavior is directed 0 We do things quoton purposequot Behavior is influential 0 Real behaviors lead to real outcomes 0 Behavior is analyzable o What has happened is relevant to what can happen Action Assembly Theory John Greene 1984 o how to do things how things work I An apple and an orange are in front of you and you know the difference 0 the consequences of employing knowledge in certain ways in certain situations I Eating the apple and orange you eat the apple differently from the orange 0 plans of action I Going to cut the apple and the orange how are you going to cut the apple how are you going to cut the orange sets of plans ritualized behaviors for categories of interactions Example driving a car You know how to drive a car steer use the breaks accelerator etc but if one of those functions brollte you wouldn t be able to fix it yourself unless you re a mechanic So you have procedural knowledge of your car but that39s it Your output representations would be maintaining your car changing the oil etc managing the car in order to NOT have to fix it 21715 COM 111 Introduction to Communications Social Comparison Theory Leon Festinger I A theory of Social Comparison Process Human Relations 1954 114 140 People have a strong drive to evaluate their opinions and behaviors If clear objective criteria exists we will apply them In the absence of clear criteria we seek subjective comparisons Steps in Social Comparison 0 O 0 Determine a persona a person you want to be seen as Using external models identify proper markers for communication that persona Employ those markers I Go out and observe the people you want to be like Analyze social response Evaluate choices Adapt Ex You want to be a classy guy start reading Esquire etc learn all the cocktails what to wear etc and become it The deliberate attempt to become somebody else 0 O 0 Bob desires to portray himself with a certain persona Bob actualizes the persona with specific communication behaviors Bob determines whether those behaviors successfully convey the persona If so Bob appropriates those behaviors If not he may try a different tactic The process goes on in a circular fashion as bob either embraces the persona embraces the persona with modifications or rejects it in favor ofa new persona Festinger s idea 9 you become the thing by pretending to be the thing Verbal Communication Human language has 2 integrated components 0 spoken o non spoken the basis of language in sound audio how meaning is embedded 0 Words mean because we agree that they do words signs and symbols and what words stand for Ex How do you promise someone something You say quotI promise o The literal and primary meaning of a word 0 Ex the word modern refers to quotrecent times even though is has many different connotations o Ideafeeling that a word invokes or suggests in addition to it s literal meaning 0 Ex applying definitions to things that aren t said not deliberately unintentionally 0 Ex Asks a room to close eyes and think about a bottle Asks certain people what bottle they imagined Bottles imagined vodka bottle alcohol wasn t said but implied Baby bottle babies weren t said but implied Water bottle again not said but implied Depending on the person denotation and connotation are specific Components of Language language used to stimulate a specific outcome in hope to create that outcome 0 Communication and exigency Responding to an urgency o Draws attention and needs to be dealt with Responding intentionally 21 91 5 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Verbal Communication Components of Language language used to DO 0 Speech acts doing things with words I Promising because you say quotI promisequot I Marriage because you say quotI doquot 0 Conversational rules I Clarity turn taking etc Turn taking back and forth in a conversations giving the other person 0 Contextual rules I Verbal conventions distance touching etc I The word has meaning between people involved Someone who always says quotI promisequot but they never follow through so you disregard their speech act as invalid because the never actually do keep the promise o Apology Many different socialcultural meanings Smoothing over differences rather than admitting guilt To say that they are sorry admitting guilt 0 To show that they didn t want to do whatever they did To explain why the offense happened 0 Not only saying sorry but explaining and justifying their behavior To make a repair for the offense and maintain a good relationship with the addressee o Saying sorry and explaining and justifying their behavior and then compensating for Interpersonal Status 0 Dynamics of Status 0 Zerosum I Winner wins by what loser loses Poker Winner has the exact amount of money lost by the losing players 0 Conferred 0 Dynamic I The status battle is always on going dominant and submissive is never fixed it s always changing I Status is given by others you can t demand status others give you the status 0 Currency of status I Deference Humble submission I Agenda setting Determining what the conversation is about and where the conversation goes I Immunity from rules Someone physically stronger 0 Big tough guy can do what he wants because he s a threat informal status 0 Imagine classic lltid bullying the little guy for his lunch money The Queen 0 You don t talk to her unless she talks to you formal status Nonverbal Communication Why How Has the Advantage Over What Things we already know 0 Words have several meanings I Denotation I Connotation Gestures illustrators etc I Slang Relaxation vocalization etc informal terminology and delivery 0 Messages are loaded with quotinstructionsquot 0 We start processing while the message is still going on 0 Messages are context based I Communication Grammars appropriateness rules that apply in a context More a functions of presentation than content quotWordsquot are not inappropriate quottypes of wordsquot are 0 Niggardly stingy has NO tie to the word you re thinking of but if used is the right place right time right context it will be inappropriate because of its phonics the way it sounds o Perception of words content NOT intent 3315 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Interpersonal Communication from Attraction to Dyad group of two how one communicates with others is influenced by how one sees one s self in relation to others Review 0 A word is meaningful if its characteristics and conditions remain constant that it can be predicted and employable 0 Concepts and symbols become valuable as they become able to help us define and achieve what is important to us 0 Meaning value 0 Meaning created between not within people Communication Dyad o Smallest unit of communication 0 Foundation of all more complex communication systems 0 The context NOT content of a relationship original motivation to generate interaction 0 You want to know what time it is you are attracted to a person with a watch or a phone you get what you need from the interaction Factors of Motivation 0 Need for affiliation I Teams you re on cubs you re in just to be with a group or belong to something 0 Need for intimacy o Loneliness 0 Social anxiety I Fear that something is wrong with you and that39s why you re alone What attracts you to another 0 Physical attractiveness 0 Common interests 0 Common goals I What s your major o Attractive traits I Sense of humor talents what the person could potentially do for you high position in your career that would make a good contact 0 Common immediate needs I Where did you get that drink How are you getting home 0 Proximity I Most influential factor in intrapersonal communication I When you were a toddler you played with your neighbors They were around so they became your friends Relationships Develop Through Attraction Attraction does not necessarily mean physical attractiveness extent to which the combination of factors presents one clear external image balance 0 Dominance submission assertivecompliant ratio of intensity the intensity of the quotcomponentquot must be relatively equal 0 quotComponentquot as in dominance affection etc A relationship all types romantic friendly etc stays together because they stay stable they develop and they fulfill individual personal needs that each person has 31 01 5 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications The Dyad What Attracts You to Another Person continuation Negotiation for value And then the exchange of value The constant negotiation of the balance of needs balance of the dominantsubmissive need how the two extremes coincide and work well together in a relationship opposites attract ratio of intensity how strongly someone feels about something where your needs match rough match doesn t have to be exacU 0 Level of affection hobbies etc when reflexivity or symmetry works Each component complements another sometimes the complement is a like component symmetry Other times components need to quotfitquot reflexivity When a component matches correctly it s in complement Uncertainty Reduction Early stages consist of o Concretizing each participant s own meanings and assumptions 0 Checking to see where similarities and differences exist 0 Finding sufficient common ground on which to continue interaction Interpersonal and Dyadic Communication Relationships are like a water molecule H20 0 They create a different functional phenomenon when formed 0 The don t just pair up 0 They share content 0 To separate them is to destroy their elements Relational dynamics include 0 Establishing reliable shared perspectives relating to content 0 Establishing reliable means of quotnegotiationquot relating to context I Negotiating discussion aimed at reaching an agreement 0 Establishing quotoriginalquot symbolic values shared by both but not original to either quotusquot stuff I A couples quotsongquot or place as a function of how it came to be I Not just couples all types of relationships like best friends teammates etc 0 Establishing balanced expressions of I Self disclosure Revealing yourself telling someone something about yourself making that person quotin the knowquot I Intimacy Personal safety emotional safety physical safety I Trust Relationships are quotPhenomenally Grammaredquot To generate a relationship is to form a distinct entity that will generate its own meanings and history 0 Stories told 0 Stories lived 0 Stories unexpressed 31 21 5 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Related Theories Exchange Theory Thibaut and Kelley 0 Basic costbenefit analysis I People seek relationships in which reward is high and cost is low I Pros and cons list to make decisions What school to go to breaking up a relationship etc o The comparison level of alternatives Social Penetration Theory Altman and Taylor 0 Relationships mature as the process of more and deeper levels of intimacy I Intimacy factor of security you feelshare in a relationship A relationship is like an onion having no real center and just a bunch of layers of intimacy o The quality of the relationship is relative to the quality of self disclosure 0 Phenomenally Grammared 0 Grammar set of rules that are socially applied I Ex Funerals Knowing how to act during a funeral what is and isn t appropriate 0 Phenomenon an occurrence 0 Ruled by the determined interaction of wanted outcome of an occurrence I Ex Student party in the Bianca room so that students can meet each other Room will be set up for the exact purpose of meeting people an atmosphere for mingling etc 0 Interpersonal Needs Theory William Shutz o FIRO Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation 0 Relationships develop around the urgency to tend to specific need I Affection the desire to express or receive love I Inclusion the desire to be in the company of others I Control the desire to influence the events and people around us Interpersonal Currencies Direct relational statements Positive verbal statements Self disclosure 0 Giving away private information etc that could cause you harm being openhonest with a person Listening Nonverbal expressiveness Touch Sexuality Aggression Gifts money food etc Service Time Access Relationship Lifestyle Relationship Growth Initiating Experimenting Intensifying Integrating Bonding Relationship Decay Circumscribing to pull something away to separate Stagnating to become inactive Avoiding Terminating 32415 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Dyads have 2 primary dynamics Dynamic One The Establishment of Common Ground Sharing symbols and operational vales Creating content and value specific to the dyad Ruptures in Perceived Common Ground Lead to Incompatible Goals Process of decisions and actions 0 Perceived incompatibility I Seeing a side of someone never seen before 0 Selections of approach 0 Management of cross purpose approaches Dynamic Two Status One member of the dyad can only gain status at the expense of the other The status motive underlies all other interactions 0 Interpersonal status I Dynamics of status Zero sum Conferred Dynamic I Currency of status Deference Agenda setting Immunity from rules Moderate power leads to controlling communication 0 Power Currencies I Resource currency Pressure over who controls the resources Wanting to borrow your parents car because you don t have your own I Expertise currency Arguing with someone who knows more about the issue than you do I Social network currency Set of personal skills small talk schmoozing etc how you work wellnot well with other people I Personal currency Overall capabilitiesstrengths you bring to a situation I Intimacy currency To what extent intimacy can be used as a weapon Potential Sources of Conflict Misunderstanding 0 Content 0 Process Misinterpretation 0 Meaning I Not understanding what a person is trying to say 0 Intentions I Not understanding what someone is trying to do what their intentions are towards you Self Centeredness Other Centeredness 0 Too doting Dishonesty 0 Not being honest vs being dishonest o Deliberate lying lying by omission etc Will upload chapter notes this weekend 32615 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications The Basic Perspectives on Small Group Communication 1 Perspective One A a collection of dyads NOT a collection of people Lowest number 3 highest number depends on group Every member of the group should be able to communicate directly with every other member of the group 0 Anything group number smaller than 3 is a dyad because 2 is not a group it s a pair it s a dyad 3 or more members in a group is a collection of dyads a group Experts suggest a 5 7 maximum number of people that a small group should have 2 Perspective Two SelfDirection 0 Groups are interactive I No need for controlled flow I No need for quotrulesquot No raising your hand when you need to talk or other formal social implements The conversations and encountering should flow relatively organically 3 Perspective Three Small Groups 0 Small groups have concrete goals they come together to solve a problem to achieve a certain goal Direct face to face Informal process Groups are I Temporary terminal Not permanent Exist until the exigency has passed I Exists to solve problems 4 Perspective Four AgendaSetting O a state of affairs that makes urgent demands a situation that demands a response Small groups are formed to respond to exigencies Not always urgent but solutionorientated Benefits from range of experience at the expense of concentrated attention 0 Temporary exist until the exigency has passed 5 Perspective Five Life Span Tuclltman s Stages of Group Development O I The group comes together and gets to initially know one other and form as a group 2 kinds of tension develop within this quotFormingquot process 0 I Process of getting acquainted I Tensions rising from disagreement I A chaotic vying for leadership and trialing of group processes I When eventual agreement is reached on how the group operates O I The group practices its craft and becomes effective in meeting its objectives I The process of quotunformingquot the group letting go of the group structure and moving on 6 Perspective Six Group Values 0 Functioning entities greater than the sum of their parts 0 The value of the whole is greater than the individual parts 0 Group members recognize themselves as members of a separate entity more so than members of a dyad o Involve being an effective group member 0 Good information and efficiency 331 1 5 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications The Basic Perspectives on Small Group Communication Reviewcontinuation Perspective Four AgendaSetting the solution with which we need to come up something that needs a certain immediate response 0 I someone hanging over a cliff the exigency IS NOT that he is hanging over a cliff but HOW to get him back up Perspective Six Group Values the positive association the group members have towards the group o Cohesiveness reaches a point where it begins to be counterproductive not productive to the group o Cohesiveness is good to a point visual aid below Effectiveness Cohesiveness reduces group to one general position about the issue everyone thinking the same way This is bad because you need multiple view points to come together to have a variety of positions and perspectives limited in the way to solve the problem 0 I group of friends deciding what they want to do on Friday night ideas that are being thrown out are quotmovies and a house party quotdinner and the bar quotclubbingquot One person of the group wants to go clubbing and shehe makes good points on why everyone should go clubbing so everyone conforms to that persons suggestions and says quotYa let s go clubbing whether or not they really wanted to go in the first place or still want to go I organizational the outcome of a larger number of people everybody in the organization has a certain biased toward the way they do what they do their usual ways of doing things traditions when everyone comes form the same sort of experience how to see the problem Also bad because there39s no room for innovative thought 0 a group of engineers get stuck on a problem they encounter while working on a project they can t find a better way to do what they re doing because they are all engineers they all think like engineers so they bring in a different kind of thinllter into the group like an artist or a surgeon etc to bring in a new way of thinking because they might suggest something the engineers would have never come up with on their own Managing NonConformity Processphases of dealing with someone deviant from the group the person in the group who won t conform etc o appeal to logic trying to reason with them get them to see things your way 0 guilt appeal subtly conforming them they re wrong so they feel guilty and conform to thinking your way etc threat appeal confronting them abandonment appeal ignoring the group member The Group Meeting Effective Response to Exigency Types of Discussion 0 Question of Fact what happened Question of Conjecture what will happen What could happen if we do this that etc Question of Value preference what should happen Question of Policy planned action what are we actually going to do Good Discussion Simple o Definitional consensus 0 Proper focus Objective 0 Wont bias the list of possible responses 0 Don39t let opinions bias the flow of information in order to listen to all different ideas Controversial o Containing quotdiscussablequot content 0 Controversial good sense on both opposing sides of the issue 0 The ProblemSolving Agenda step by step 0 Define the problem I What are we here to do The exigency What is the urgency that we need to respond to Establish the criteria 0 o Brainstorm options 0 Compare amp contrast 0 Decide 0 Report Definitions continued next class 4215 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications The ProblemSolving Agenda step by step I What are we here to do The exigency What is the urgency that we need to respond to I What do you need Every little thing you need I Ex Ad Club Spring Party 9 consider everything you need and how available it is to you physically financially etc So a venue food a date etc o I Mentioning ANYTHING that pops into their heads group members I Reason why you write every idea down no matter what because it enable everyone to be willing to give their ideas instead of someone sharing an idea and the group members saying no and then another person being hesitant to give their idea 0 quotEstablish the criteria step and quotBrainstorm options step can be switched based on preference of the group nature of the problem etc I Comprehensiver take every idea that you re considering and apply it directly to the criteria I Ex you have 3 criteria cost weather and theme the party has to be inside and the total cost spent must be under 5000 and there must be an original theme So you look at all the ideas you thought of in the brainstorming process and see which ones best fit all ofyour criteria I Make the decision arrive at solution group reaches consensus or a few members of the group are fine with the final solution but still think another idea would have been better I Organizingaccounting for the final solution what ended up happening how well it worked etc Leadership in Groups Good Content Good Process How things fit together how things organize around each other is AT LEAST as important as what they are the function in a small group that shouldn t have a formalofficial leader trying to enhancing the quality of discussion and efficiency of the overall process quotStrategic communication is purpose directedquot Text book p 286 o Exigency defines purpose I Eliminate problem Ex too many people are getting hit by cars lower the speed limit I Adapt to problem Ex an undergraduate major is unpopular you make the major more small agile and related to content of other parts modifying the major so it s relevant to what is needed now in the job world I Engage opportunity Traditional Leadership General Theories of Leadership 0 Extraversion I Confident willingness to talk to people engage with them 0 Agreeableness I Not a tyrant Find ways to get everyone to agree 0 Conscientiousness I Good motives Emotional stability Openness to experience I Learn from experience 0 Leadership is distributed 0 Styles appropriate to the problemsituation 0 Group inputs 3 types of things that can be said in a group discussion I Task Anything said about what you re trying to do the task 0 Ex planning a Christmas party Everything said about the Christmas party is task I Social General talking about things that are not the task 0 Ex the social lubrication of the task Small talk side conversation etc anything said to enhance the groupness I Maintenance distributed leadership content Anything said that keeps the group on agenda 0 Ex when in the brainstorming session of the agenda and people start evaluating someone will say something to stop everyone from evaluating the idea by saying something like quotthat may be true but right now we re going through ideas so forget about the criteria for now and lets keep up the idea flow 4915 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Functional Theories of Organization When number of people in group becomes too large for the type of face to face interaction that defines small groups structure needs to be appHed one of First steps in imposing structure is Division of Labor specializes the task compartmentalizes it divides the worklabor into sections or categories 0 Restaurant kitchens get the job done by having certain people do certain things So in a kitchen at a restaurant there will be a few people assigned to the different jobs that need to be done in order to make a day full of meals for customers For example 15 people in a kitchen staff 1 head chef 1 sous chef 3 vegetablefruit washers and choppers 2 sauce makers 2 saladappetizer platter organizers 4 dish washing people etc Everyone has a specific job making the whole process more efficient and effective the addition of a vertical layer to the organization in response to horizontal pressure 0 management adding a manager appointing a head chef in a restaurant kitchen to add more channels of communication on the horizontal level Set of dynamics either determine or influence the deliberate structure of large populations of people that are purposefully defined Functional theories of Organization are based on productivity maximization of the capacity of the population to perform its function Productivity is related to taskorientated motivation o What motivates you to work I Material reward Money I Satisfaction nternal personal fulfillment maybe if you work for a causecharity you believe in I Social pressure You have a family and are pressured to provide for them I Loyahy Working for someone you know friend or family or a company you lovebelieve in etc Scientific Management 0 Carrot and sticlt o Deferred gratification 0 Military style topdown communication flow I Instruction I Accountability Primary theorists I FW Taylor Scientific Management efficiency movement I Henri Fayol general theory of management Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating Controlling O 41415 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Human Relations Theory Motivations to work include o Remuneration 0 Social grounding Mary Parker Follett 0 Relations are reciprocal I Any individual who has an affect on another individual is also affected by that individual I Managers are inevitably influenced by their subordinates Relation between managers and managee That influence has to be accounted for I Social scientists began to study the social climate of the workplace 0 Managing people requires managing their social perceptions Mayo and Roethlisberger o Cliques are informal networks that across formal boundaries Rumor mills rumors and gossip in a community Chester Barnard o Zones of indifference I Unpredictability of human behavior 0 Acceptance Theory I Difference between leadership and management I The capacity to lead related to willingness to follow You can only be a good manager if they accept you as a manager they as in the people you re supposed to be managing Human Relations to Human Resources Likert s Leadership Styles 0 Exploitive authoritative I Dictator like shut up and do what you re told o Benevolent authoritative I Do what you re told because there is good reason to do so 0 Consultative I I m going to tell you what to do and explain why its good 0 Participant I Democratic leadership being one of the guys people at the lower levels have data that higher levels need in order to make the institution work more correctlyefficiently 41615 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications dissatisfaction I Conscious perception or too much attention to problems with your working conditions I Satisfaction is not relevant to Herzberg Satisfaction to Herzberg is when you don t notice anything wrong you don t think about being satisfied in most cases not recognizing that you re dissatisfied therefore it s irrelevant to his Hygiene and Motivation theoryidea o intrinsic rewards I Anything to do with your capacity to do your work noisy coworkers mean boss etc I What you dohow you spend your time 0 People are not machines but in every opportunity where they are allowed to behave like machines they will so behave 0 Everything that appears to be organized can be broken down and organized into pieces and explained as a whole by the individual explanations of each piece machine logic 0 Using machine logic to describe systems of people I Elements share nutrients in balance Trees and people each one provides what the other one needs Trees inhale what people exhale and people inhale what trees exhale carbon dioxide and oxygen I Balance doesn t exist like this in the General System Theory Set of individual organism that in combination create a cycle of sustainability o Ponds I Don39t get filtered out because they re not connected to any other body of water I But insects that live around the pond eat the scum and algae that is dirtying up the pond I Then a frog comes to the pond because frogs eat insects I Then snalltes come to the pond because snalltes eat frogs etc etc I Each organism feeds off of one another food chain A system can be an size and of any complexity as long as it has the capacity to contain itself by the recycling of the necessary quotnutrientsquotneeds Complex system made up of sub systems smaller systems within one big system Using closed systems to be able to discuss something as a finite reality a definite existence The system view is concentration on how the parts fit together to function as a whole 0 Work that systems put out has to be compensated for in order for the cycle to continue each one being dependent on another o In constant motion achieve balance regularly but never reaches simultaneous balance Systems that interact with other systems needed external systems 0 Ex a factory it s customers it s suppliers the financial market and the community it physically exists in 0 Anything that comes into the system I Ex bread factory 9 the ingredients electricity water to wash dishes attitudes of workers when entering work 0 Anything that comes in as input and is subject to these 3 things It can be used as a functioning part of something You can changealtar it for the better of the system It can be evaluated reflected on 0 Everything that comes out of the institution I Ex workers going home pollution the products made 0 Output leaves in either 2 forms Enhancement of why system exists Ex the bread made Detriment to why the system exists Ex gas fumes and smoke 0 Some of the outputs product or waste return back to the system I Ex workers returning to work the next today r 0 Division of labor 0 Management o Sustainingmaintaining the system 0 All parts have to have some meaningful and productive relationship to all of the other parts 0 Several ways to get to the same endoutcome many ways to do the same thing no one distinct way to do something correctly Organization as context 0 Contexts are sets of presumptions that guide symbolic interaction 0 Considering the context improves interaction 0 A person who recognizes the dynamics of the context has a tactical advantage over one who doesn t 0 Parallel agendas o Align your expectations for a context with the expectations of the people who put you in that context and the people who inhabit it 0 Be as much who they expect you to be to get what you want 0 Format experience 0 Context presumptions include quotformatsquot 0 Learn the formats embedded in the SOP standard operating procedure 0 Learn how to adapt your skills to the SOP 0 Adopt and adapt to new skills as demanded by the SOP Seduce the Gatekeeper o The key to success at your horizontal level is to tap into the flow of vertical communication through your level 0 Good relationships with gatellteepers secretaries custodians security guards etc can be better than good relationships with management position people people quothigher upquot etc Establish quotCliquequot Networks o Insulate yourself into interdepartmental social groups 0 Once established generate our own strategic cliques Use group agenda thinking in your personal work Define and account for the problem Establish criteria for solutions Brainstorm Apply criteria Dedde Enact OOOOOO Adapting is not selling out to the beast man 42115 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications What we ve discussed 0 The world live in o The world you and live in o The world our group lives in o The world we work in NOT just the words we know the whole list of all things we use while talking grammars social rules etc The world quotWEquot live in 0 Communities publics amp societies o Verbalizing subconscious perceptions o Thematizing I Broad general themes all the things that fall into a category I something you can hold in your head 0 Concretizing I Establishing finding out facts and support for reality of that broad general theme I to make the theme something social something real 0 Globalizing I A concrete themeideal spread to MANY people I Ex a religious text Bible Christians Kuran Muslims Tora Jews etc wordsIessonsmorals in the book are made real by being in the book and being believed by a large community Brought together by shared conditional goals as opposed to task orientated goals Division of labor Recruitment Alliance Goal stability Communal Structures Communities evolve through 3 stages 0 Patterns 9 habits 9 customs I Customs are handed down and need to be valued so children will want to learn them I Special role must be defined for the keepers of that knowledge I That create status differencesproblems I Customs become the community lnconveniences Stability gives rise toleads to sehc interest 0 Individual interests clash 0 Individual interests clash with social stability 0 ratio between your rights and your responsibilities the ratio between your rights as a member of the community and your responsibilities to sustain the viability of that community people have rights in community only if community is stable 42315 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Patterns 9 Habits 9 Customs 0 Patterns become habits I Doing things in a certain way because that39s how it s always been done for you I Ex Family lifestyle You raising your children in a similar way that you were raised 0 Habits become customs I Cultural customs People surround themselves with similar people and those people become a community of similar habits and as that gets larger it becomes a custom I Customs become the community I Ex Most people in the US eat dinner between 5 7 pm whereas in France most people eat dinner around 7 10 pm Of course people deviate from the mass are different from the majority but most people you come across I Ex New Yorkers crossing streets whenever they want not paying attention to signs etc o The ratio of your rights as a member of a community and your responsibilities within that community Clashes of personal interests within a community 0 Someone s personal actions affection someone else s personal beliefs o I Neighbor in apartment building that plays a loud instrument while you re trying to sleep Instrument player has the right to practice and you have the right to sleep in your home Both sides can be argued fairly These types of conflicts require mediation to make a fair decision to solve the problem of conflicted interests Patterns of mediation result in set of rules 0 Making up a set of concrete rules to deal with all of the similar problems that people keep having I I Apartment building owner makes a set of living rules mentioning hours when it is okay to play loud instruments Institutions arise to enforce the rules 0 To help better enforce the rules an institution is made I I a committee of people living in the apartment building that ensuredeal with the rules being followed etc Institutions arise to manage the rules and regulate the enforcers o Institutionalizing these committees etc through the government I I the NYPD as a whole and then each of its smaller unit headquarters for each section of Manhattan Members of communities must interact with other members who represent the institutions All communities that exist for any length morph intocreate publics the pubic the guarantee OT existence The patterns of Community and Public become reified in histories and social mores o I Follore of the community The caveman story from class Generations passing down the story of how the caveman found the cave then the woman then the security guard etc and made the community 0 take care of us physically mentally etc o imports value to us Assumptions of propriety underlay regulations Political necessities become embodied in different social groups classes sub cultures etc Political units publics take on aesthetic values Communities accumulate artifacts Communities set aside functions for people who create artifacts that house the social aesthetics o combination of cultures and publics Classes arise whose work it is to judge the relative value of artifacts o something that trulyrealistically represents something specific based on reality Looking at an object and finding out about the politics society etc of a society I I Pots utensils etc of old civilizations found show us exactly how those people lived Or moviesmusic from different time periods show us the values culture etc of people of that time period Classes arise whose work is to press upon the members of the community the importance of recognizing appreciating and extolling the virtues of those artifacts 42815 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications 39e way people generally talllt not societies but cultures and sub cultures the common way people talk the common tone Developed informally The attributes that makes us political the awareness of and capacity to reflect on our surrounding We attach symbolic and emotional value to places the capacity to deliberately mallte patterns of our behaviors and to modify those patterns based on consideration of the past behaviors of ourselves and others the ability to represent reality with a structure of relatively arbitrary abstractions The ability to learn through metaphor Original interests createinfluence the creations of offspring interests The acts of engaging in and sustaining patterns of cooperation create their own interests The social organizations that we quotjoinquot become interests in themselves that influence our agendas with regard to other interests The institutional structure of that collectivity The forces that shape and regulate the interests of individuals within the collectivity The mechanisms through which conflicts of interest are ameliorated we all find a level that we can disagree not a level that we agree on actions of society strong hand of publics the police department judges etc collective of need money solving problems by movingspending money the kinds of story we tell how to solve a problem collectivity of authority 43015 COM 1 1 1 Introduction to Communications Constitution as narrative o The Constitution is made up of instituted themes contexts for testing human action I Representative government Amateur congress members Voting rights I Freedom of expression I Freedom from intrusion 0 American Authority Rests in the Narrative o Built to Manage the Inherent Weaknesses of Democracy I Does not provide well for the liberty and safety of the minority I Rarely exhibits the painstaking collection of evidence and thoughtful consideration Instead it s too often biased by emotion I Have trouble focusing on the long term at the expense of the immediate I Democratic bodies tend to the extremes of flexibility Revisiting decision either too often or not enough Power Defined by HP Huntington o is the ability of one person or group to change the behavior of another person or groupquot 0 quotThe power of a state or group is hence therefore normally estimated by measuring the resources it has at its disposal against those of the other states or groups it is trying to influencequot Categories of Political Power 0 I The capacity to force others to behave as you wish or be visited by extremely negative outcomes 0 I The capacity to provide for others a compelling argument that voluntary capitulation to your wishes benefits them 0 I The capacity to influence others perceptions of their interests to the degree that they do what you want without even having to be asked 5515 COM 1 11 Introduction to Communications What constitute fine art as opposed to popular art 0 Art and Culture 0 O Cultures develop spiritual and philosophical priories means of establishing quality the study of the mind and emotions in relation to the sense of beauty Cannon Beauty in eye of beholder Many standards of beauty exist but the primary ideal of aesthetics is flawlessness Beauty perfection perfection the absence of flaws Flawlessness O Sculpture has been seen as removing the unnecessary bits of marble Dance is efficient motion Music is the creation of complex harmonic structures with NO wasted notes composition of music writing it Art is about beautiful things but the true beauty of art is in the perfection of the form 0 Art vs Craft 0 O the practice of fundamentals fundamental skills skills that anyone can learn to their most effective and efficient ends the extension of fundamental steps into something new and irreproducible I Art is accidental in the sense that the artist does not plane exactly what their outcome is Their final piece is something different than the artist s intention 0 Art Appreciation O informed analysis and criticism 0 Fine Art vs Popular Art 0 expresses the fundamentals of a form employs the fundamentals to create a consumer product quotsender outquot original idea came from the artist heterogeneous authoritarian quotreceiver inquot original idea comes from the marketplace what the consumers want homogenous anti authoritarian Fine Art and Popular art one is not better than the other they39re just different
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