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Entire Semester detailed lecture notes Rel-A210
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Reading notes 11315Week 1 o The Old Testament is an anthology a collection of writings produced and assembled in stages of over more than 1000 years 0 Not written in chronological order though For example creating stories rst but they did not necessarily take place in this order 0 Different religious communities differ in the arrangement of the bible o The technical term for the official list of books comprising the Bible by a religious community is a Canon comes from greek Kanon meaning rodyardstickused for measuring Jewish Canon TaNaKh Torah o Neviium Prophets o Ketuvium Writing The Tanakh is simply the bible also called the Hebrew Bible 1 The Torah is the rst 5 books of the bible Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers amp Deuteronomy These books are indeed chronological beginning with creation in genesis to the death of Moses in Deuteronomy Torah means quotteachingquot or quotlawquot so these books were the teaching of Moses and Moses was believed to be their author 0 2 The prophets is the second part of the canon in jewish tradition It is dividied into two parts 0 Former prophets which conists of the books ofJoshua judges Samuel and kings which continue the narrative chronology of the torah o Latter Prophets are the books named after individual prophets sometimes divided into Major Prophets Isaiah jeremiah and Ezeikel And Minor Prophets the twelve shorter books from Hosea through Malachai 3 The writings the third part of the canon contains a variety of books in different genres Canonization Process o The Torah had special authority because of their association with Moses Canonized as early as the 5th century BCE The order of books doesn t vary because its in chronological order 0 The Prophets was canonized in the 2nCI century BCE The traditional order is Isaish jeremiah Ezeikel but this varies The Writings were the last part of the Jewish Canon to be collected and designated as authoritative wasn t complete until the 2ncl century CE The order of this is very uid depending on many criteria gt If a book was included it must have been written before the 4th century BCE gt Language had to be in Hebrew gt Extent of use was a major criteria Although many different forms of scriptural books were in circulation eventually this textual diversity was stabilized eventually leading to be called Masorectic text 0 The Christian Canons There are several books in the Christian canon that weren t in the jewish canon Some refer to these books as quotdeuteronicanonicalquot that is belonging to a second canon Or Apocrypha which means hidden books 0 Another category ofjewish writings is pseudopiagrapha because most of them are attributed to biblical characters 0 ORDER The order of the Christian canon is different from the Jewish canon gt First part Torah and the Major Prophets gt Second partpoetical and wisdom books gt Third part latter prophets of the jewish canon Protestants consider only the books of the jewish canon to be canonical whereas Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians also consider the apocrypha to be canonical no important notes just summarizes what the book will be talking about 1 God said quotlet there be lightquot and there was light and the sky w the sun for day and moon for night He also created the water the seas and dryland w animals and creatures to occupy these places He brought forth vegetation 2 On the seventh day God nished The Lord placed the man in the garden of Eden and commanded quotof every tree of the garden you are free to eat but as for the tree of knowledge of good and bad you must not eat or you shall diequot God created Eve so Adam wouldn t be alone 3 Eve took a FRUIT note it doesn t specify which fruit and gave it to adam and they both ate it God forbid them to do that so now they are both cursed Most scholars use a combination of methods as each reveals different aspects of the text whether historical cultural sociological literary or theological And when scholars of different backgrounds faiths and cultures weigh in they bring their own unique experiences and questions to the text The fullest understanding of the biblical text is gained by trying to see the text from as many perspectives as possible 0 Intro to Old Testament Hebrew Bible 0 History 0 Laws Prophets Wisdom Songspoemshymns Why would someone read bible advice on life information about customsbeliefs form of worship research on history was this written by one person All from the same time pedod just for the stories deveop divine relationship w God or religious obligation What have people called the bible 0 Old Testament this is presupposing that there is also a new testament Christians rst part of bible new testament is about jesus 0 Tanakh this is the bible for jews acronym for the divisions of the bible 1 T Torah rst 5 books of the bible means quotlawquot or instruction 2 N nevi im prophets 3 K Kevunim writings 0 Hebrew Bible If you compare Old Testament and Tanakh you can see that the arrangement of the books are different in the Tanakh the prophets are in the middle and in the Old testament prophets are at the end paving its way forjesus in the New Testament Old testament ends with Malachi saying quotI will send you Elijah to you before the coming of the awesome fearful day of the Lordquot New testament begins with John the Baptist is the man to whom the scriptures refer when they say quotlook I am sending my messanger ahead of you and he will prepare your way before youquot Elijah is John the Baptist whom Malachi was referring to sending Writingswords is always ambiguous open for interpretation It can change Depending on whom you tell it to and how many times you tell it Texts go around with an interpretive blanket on For example what did adam and eve eat in the garden of eden We think an apple but in fact the text only says fruit Which is why writing is so ambiguous the bible allows us to all interpret it differently Also people learn the bible through art and pictures You cant just paint a fruit you have to pick a speci c one But why an Apple The people in paintings look European where apples ourishgrow Also because of Hercules and Trojan war so it has some greek in uence Another reason is due to language latin Malumapple mal means bad or evil so it s a pun in the garden of eden Sometimes it s a pomegranate depending on where you live geographyweather 0 There s no such thing as quotThe Biblequot modem or ancient The bible is different to different types of people for example Jews and Christians 0 Old testament amp new testament together make up the bible Christians forJews its different 0 Tanakh Jewish term for Old testament Tanakh is an acronym for the 3 parts Torah which are the rst 5 books means lawteaching Nevi um prophets and ketuvim writings Hebrew Bible neutral word that doesn t presuppose anyone s religion How is the old testament and tanakh different The order is different In Old testament prophets is last because they are pointing the way to the new testament IN the Tanakh prophets are in the middle 0 Why do catholics and orthodox have more books than jews Canon is an of cial list of books accepted as scripture by a particular religious community 0 Development over time In the ancient world there were no books only scrolls dead Sea scrolls Found in Qurran in 1947 In 100 BCE Jews settled there BCE Before common era CEcommon era beginning w the year 1 o No one noticedcared that there were varieties The dead sea scrolls also helped us learn that the bible wasn t the only book people were reading There are other prayers and texts that are religiously signi cant to people of that time Now we have codex pages between two covers BCE Creation Noah ood occur These are myths not necessarily history because we cant actually pinpoint these events when they occurred before writing there was stone with inscriptions stele 0 1250 Exodus from Egypt MAY have taken place 0 1000 Monarchy more building projects which leaves physical remains Saul David Solomandivides kingdom in half Israel and Judah 0 922 evidence of the rst Hebrew writing 0 722 Assyrian wipes out northern kingdom Israel 10 tribes 2 tribes in Judah 0 586 Babylonion Empire have replaces assyrians and conquerJudah Jerusalem biggest turning point collection of sacred literature comes after this 0 539 Persian Empire takes over king lets the people in Exile to go home and rebuild their empire texts start to reach the form they are in now 323 Alexander The great empire conquers Persian empire 63 Romans CE 70 1 God said quotlet there be lightquot and there was light and the sky w the sun for day and moon for night He also created the water the seas and dryland w animals and creatures to occupy these places He brought forth vegetation 2 On the seventh day God nished The Lord placed the man in the garden of Eden and commanded quotof every tree of the garden you are free to eat but as for the tree of knowledge of good and bad you must not eat or you shall diequot God created Eve so Adam wouldn t be alone There is a constant debate between the Modern Scholars and Ancient Interpreters Ancient Believe the rst 5 books of the bible TorahPentateuch were revealed to one man Moses 0 Modern Scholars believe they are actually a creation of 45 authors from different time periods in Israel s history nterspersed in the Torah is many great laws in which the Ten Commandments are most famous They saw in this a great divine guidebook its laws constituting God s detailed set of do s and don ts for ever human life The Torah ended with the death of Moses 1 The two main genres types of writings that can be found in the bible according to Kugel are historical narrative and laws believes prophets is hardly one of sort along with sages wisdom writings and prayers and songs 2 Midrash searching the text carefully for hidden implications 3 Differences between ancient traditional approaches to reading the bible and the approaches of modern scholarship 4 The quotfour assumptionsquot are 0 they assumed the bible was a fundamentally cryptic text that is when it said A often it might really mean B interpreters also assumed that the bible was a book of lessons directed to readers in their own day Interpreters also assumed that the bible contained no contradictions or mistakes the Bibleperfect w no mistakes 0 Lastly they believed that the entire Bible is essentially a divinely given text a book in which God speaks directly or through His prophets Ancient interpreters all had these assumptions 5 Typology is a way of reading The Old testament since it sees the people and events of the Old Testament as foreshadowings or types of people or events in the New Testament quothorizontalquot moving from earlier things to later ones example Abraham sacri cing the ram instead of his son because it was caught in a thorny thicket by its horns whereas jesus had been mocked with a crown of throns before he died 6 Allegory is a story poem or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning one might describe allegorizing as vertical moving up from the concrete to abstract or from the physical to the spiritual example Abraham could represent a human soul or he could represent a virtue 7 Fourfold reading of the scripture each thing could literally mean 4 different things 8 Did Moses write the Torah Reasons why he didn t 0 Gen 126 quotAt the time the canaanites were in the landquot By saying at the time the text implies that it is written and the Canaanites are no longer there Deut 11 begins by saying quoton the far side ofJordanquot that expression implies the person writing it was on the near side And Moses was never on the near side lbn Ezra believes most of the Pentateuch was written by moses but he felt a few verses were added in later by other writers 0 Another example why people don t think Moses wrote the bible is Num 123 quotnow the man moses was very humble more so than anyone else on the face of the earthquot Surely a very humble man would NOT have wrote this about himself 0 Wellhausen put forth the fourfold Documentary Hypothesis to explain the authorship of the Pentateuch According to this scheme the Pentateuch had been composed in a sequence 10 Julius Wellhausen put forth the fourfold Documentary Hypothesis which explains that the bible was written in a sequence this led people to believe the bible was written by a number of people not just one person in one time pedod O Texts have 0 History written amp collected over 1005 of years o Context in network of other writings amp neighboring cultures that were older and more powerful 0 Readers Who gave them different meaning overs time amp depending on own context There s no such thing as the Bible There are many variations depending on the person Catholics vs Jews WHY ARE THERE DIFFERENT TERMS WHAT DO THEY MEAN test question 10th BCE Alphabet in Hebrew Language First writing was invented in Sumer in 3000 BCE Egyptians are beginning to carve into the pyramids No writings in Israel yet The Bible merges as a network Ancient Israel Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt No speci c dates because there are no facts just myths Creation amp Flood IsraelHebrews Abraham goes to Canaan then Egypt Jacob Israel then go to Egypt also 0 O O O O CO 1250 Exodus from Egypt MAY have taken place Egypt was called the quotBread Basketquot Settlement of the land 1000 Monarchy more building projects which leaves physical remains and archeological evidence Saul David Solomandivides kingdom in half Israel and Judah 922 evidence of the rst Hebrew writing 722 Assyrian wipes out northern kingdom Israel 10 tribes 2 tnbesinJudah 586 Babylonion Empire have replaces assyrians and conquer Judah Jerusalem biggest turning point collection of sacred literature comes after this 539 Persian Empire takes over king lets the people in Exile to go home and rebuild their empire texts start to reach the form they are in now 323 Alexander The great empire conquers Persian empire 164Book of Daniel 63 Romans There is a period of hundreds of years when these texts are being written down Culture language and powerful in uences played a major role affecting the Bible and how it was writtenread EXODUS 3467 and Psalm 103810 very similar to eachother same words same description of God The Lord is compassionate and gracious slow to anger abounding in steadfast love 4 Assumptions of Ancient Interpreters o 1 The bible is Cryptic surface meaning is not always the most obvious meaning 2 The bible ls perfect w no mistakes 3 The Bible is divine amp comes from God 4 It is relevant 1 God said quotlet there be lightquot and there was light and the sky w the sun for day and moon for night He also created the water the seas and dryland w animals and creatures to occupy these places He brought forth vegetation 2 On the seventh day God nished The Lord placed the man in the garden of Eden and commanded quotof every tree of the garden you are free to eat but as for the tree of knowledge of good and bad you must not eat or you shall diequot God created Eve so Adam wouldn t be alone 3 Eve took a FRUIT note it doesn t specify which fruit and gave it to adam and they both ate it God forbid them to do that so now they are both cursed The man named his wife Eve because she was the mother of all the living And the Lord made garments of skins for Adam and his wife and clothed them The Lord banished Adam from the garden of Eden God forbid Adam to eat the fruit off the tree and yet he did it anyway He speci ed that if he did he would die that DAY But we know Adam lived to be 930 years old To God a day means more like a 1000 years 0 The unit of time called a day is determind by the movement of the sun through the sky But the sun wasn t created until the fourth day So how could the rst 3 days be considered days They were God s unit of day which meant a thousandyear unit of time The world was thus created over a period of 6 thousand years 0 The disobedience of Adam and Eve thus came to be thought of as the quotOriginal Sinquot Before the disobedience of Adam and Eve human beings had the potential of living forever in sinless existence 0 Modern Scholars believe Genesis Chapters 1 and 2 were written by different authors Heavenly man amp Earthly man The Earthly man would not have became a man if it weren t for God breathing into his face the breath of life The Pentateuch Also known as the Torah are the rst ve books of the Bible 0 In premodern Jewish and Christian tradition Moses is thought to be the author of the Pentateuch quotthe teaching or law of Mosesquot 0 In the Middle ages scholars began to realize that Moses couldn t have been the author because the last verses were talking about his death Wellhausen articulated the Documentary Hypothesis the Pentateuch comprises 4 distinct and intact sources or documents labeled J E D and P This provides the best explanation for similarities and repetitions J continual usage of Yahweh Jahweh in German hence J took place in Judah Promised land boundaries Euphrates river to the river of Egypt This was ruled by Kind David and Soloman in the 10 century BCE Mountain moses receives law is called Mount Sinai E gets its name for the continual usage of the term elohim divine God in Genesis Mountain Moses receives law is called Horeb Geographical setting is in Israel 0 D or Deuteronmic is found almost entirely in Deuteronomy Like E it probably originated in the northern kingdom of Israel 0 P or Priestly is named for its emphasis on matters of religious observance and ritual In P similar to E the deity is often called Elohim Jan 26 2015 Eve conceived Cain with the help of the Lord and then conceived Abel Abel became a keeper of sheep and Cain became a tiller of the soil Cain brought an offering to the Lord from the fruit of the soil in which the Lord DID NOT pay heed Abel brought the choicest of the rstlings of his ock and the Lord paid him heed Cain then killed his brother Abel God found out and punished him Cain left the presence of the Lord and settled in the land of Nod east of Eden Cain s wife had a child Enoch He then founded a city and named it after him After a long chain of offspring Adam s wife had a son named seth meaning God has quotprovided me with another offspring in place of Abelquot Expelled from the Garden of Eden Adam and Eve had their rst children Cain and Abel Cain became a farmer and Abel became a shepherd When one day they decided to offer sacri ce to God Cain from his crops and Abel from his herds God showed a preference towards Abel Cain then killed Abel The whole story between Cain and Abel was good and evil Cain born of the devil was wicked from the start His punishment was altogether justi ed and the story as a whole was intended to serve as a warning to later generations anyone who allies himself with the devil will be condemned as Cain was branded as an outcast from the civilized world Modern Scholars have said that Cain was an ancestor of the Kenites but this cant be true because the bible says there was a great ood after the time of Cain that wiped out every human being except Noah and his immediate family The typological Cain foreshadowing events in the new testament Since Abe was a shepherd who was murdered this immediately suggested that he might be foreshadowing ofJesus who is called quotthe good shepherdquot who was murdered as well and sacri ced by the romans This article shows the parallels between ancient biblical texts and modern interpretations When Cain and Abel made their sacri ces God took greater pleasure in this latter sacri ce being honored by things that grow automatically and in accordance with nature116 but not by those things that grow by the force of grasping man with craftiness O Chronological timeline No exact dates Creationljl Flood Noah Israelites Abraham father of Isaac who is the father ofJacob Jacob becomes father of 12 sons Joseph is one Joesph ends up in Egypt 0 1250 BCE Exodus of Egypt 1000 BCE beginning of the monarchy administration amp bureaucracy palace Sau David Soloman oldest hebrew writing inscriptions Kingdom is split between north israel and south Judah 722 BCE northern kingdom is destroyed by Asyria 586 BCE southern kingdom amp temple is destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar 586 Babylonion Empire have replaces assyrians and conquerJudah Jerusalem biggest turning point collection of sacred literature comes after this 539 Persian Empire takes over king lets the people in Exile to go home and rebuild their empire practice your religion govern yourselves texts start to reach the form they are in now scripture takes on more importance 323 Alexander The great empire conquers Persian empire 164Book of Daniel Dead Sea scrollsoldest copies of Hebrew texts 63 Romans Ancient Interpreters why interpretation There s always room for ambiguity instructions for IKEA furniture does not have everything written down you have to ll in the gaps Ancient Hebrew manuscripts do not have punctuation no vowels Aramaic language was spoken similar to Hebrew How did they read the bible 4 assumptions 0 1 Cryptic obvious literal surface meaning isn t what it actually means theres something symbolicbelow the surface Allegory symbolic Abraham is called out and told to travel this long road to the Promised Land Philo of Alexandria Jewish philosopher reads this as an allegory Abrahams journey is actually a journey of the human soul on its path to God Typology Christian way of reading Hebrew scriptures Events in Old testaments foreshadow peopleevents in New Testament Example Abraham sacri ce his son Isaac is Foreshadowing Jesus who is the innocent son who is sacri ced 0 2 Applicable relevant guidance on how to live lifetimeless truths o 3 It is PERFECT no mistakes 0 4 DIVINE someone else may have written it down but it is all from God himself Modern Scholars approaches read texts from historical point of view without lens on source criticism pay attention to what s going on in the text itself Can we actually feed evidence that these texts were not written by a single author Starting seeing evidence that this was written by different people and different times different styles some sound like fairytales other sounds like lists different fonts different point of view o Wellhausen documentary hypothesis 4 different bookssources written at different times with different points of view but then compiled and put together to make the Torah Tetragrammation This is four Hebrew letters of the writters Jahwist J is prounounced like a Y Ja for God Elohist Elohim for God Deuteronimist and Priestly uses God for God a Evidence of this is portrayed in the texts for example there are several uses of different names for God YHWH jews would say Heshem or Adonai Lord God form criticism archeology amp study of other ANE cultures Ugarit is where stories of creation were found 0 Divine council We do not have God creating life out of nothing But rather there are already waters wind God organizing and separates the undifferentiatedchaotic stuff water from earth sun and moon birds and sea creatures 12815 God creates a man out of dust Adam Adam is related to the word Adamah which means earth Chapter 5 God created Adam in his own image and likeness 0 0000000 0 0 Adam begot a son named Seth in his own image and likeness Adam died at age of 930 Seth had a son named Enosh Seth died at age of 912 Enosh had a son named Kenan Enosh died at age of 905 Kenan had a son named Mahalalel Kenan died at age of 910 Mahalalel had a son named Jared Then he died at 895 years Jared had a son named Enoch then died at 962 years Enoch had a son named Methuselah lived 365 years Methuselah had a son named Lamech and Methuselah lived 969 years Lamech had a son named Noah and died after 777 years Noah begot Shem Ham and Japheth and had lived 500 years Chapter 6 God realized how corrupt the earth was and how it was lled with lawfulness God said to Noah quotl have decided to put an end to all esh for the earth is lled with lawfulness because of them I am about to destroy them with the earth Make yourself an arkquot and so Noah did so Chapter 7 God said to take two of every animal and put them on the ark Also bring your wife your sons and their wives He is going to make it rain for 40 days and 40 nights Noah was 600 years old when the ood came All existence on earth was blotted out man cattle creeping things birds of the sky Only Noah was left and those with him in the ark Chapter 8 After 40 days Noah opened a window in the ark and sent out a raven Then sent a dove but the dove could not nd a resting place for its foot and returned to the ark He waited another 7 days and sent the dove out again HE returned with a leaf in his beak Noah waited another 7 days an sent the dove out again but he did not return Noah and his wife and sons exited the arc and Noah built an altar and offered burnt offerings Chapter 9 Noah and God made a covenant Noah lived 350 years after the ood then died at the age of 950 Ancient Interpreters often wonder why God wanted to destroy mankind What could they have possibly done that was so bad Evidence only shows that Cain killed his brother Why punish everyone because of one rotten egg Startling discovery Epic of Gilgamesh had nonetheless striking resemblances to the biblical story 0 In both texts we the divine warning and commandment to build a ship the further commandment to ll the ship with animals as well as the heros family the account of a great storm and then its abatement the ships landing atop a mountain trial release of birds to determine if the waters had receded the offering of a sacri ce and libation on the mountain 0 Some modern scholars believe that the bible was taken from the Epic of Gilgamesh not the other way around 0 Noah had to take 7 pairs of clean animals because the Lord knew he was going to sacri ce them And you can only sacri ce clean animals Biblical and Mesopotamian ood stories compared 0 Quiz wed Feb 11 TanakhOTHebrew Bible 0 Key Dates BCECE 4 assumptions of ancienttraditional interpreters Why is interpretation necessaryimportant 0 Documentary hypothesis Wellhausen theory that 4 different sourcesJEDP were compiledweaved together to form the Torah scholars noticed God was called by different names there two versions of the same events different writing styles story telling vs lists J source P Source Two creation accounts 124 24224 Etiology Epic of Gilgamesh Dead sea scrolls are the rst texts we have of Hebrew writing 1947 Scrolls are kept in a climate control lab to preserve them lots of bits and pieces like confetti 124 7 days earth plants animas humans MF same time then on the 7th day God rests Sabbath refer to God as 39God HebrewElohim which means God cosmic creates the earth by speaking repetitive pattern P priestly technical interested in lists and categories exact dates for everything 500 BCE 24224 no 7 day scheme earth adam comes from adamah which means earth so technically this isn t a man its just an earthling plants animas woman Note different interpretative possibilities for thinking abut gender refer to God as 39Lord Hebrew sacred word is not allowed to be said out loud because it is so sacred Anthropomorphic creates by quotformingquot man out of clay and breathes life into him similar to pottery making Descriptive story telling J Jahwist YHWH QOOBCE much older than P source Form criticism Gunkel some texts were lists some were historical chronicles some were songs poems Some texts were for entertainment others were to inspire What kind of text is this What was is used for o Etiologies story that s told to explain how things came to be the way they are Story of origins How did rainbows come to be Gods sign after ood That it will never happen again Mortalitysubject to death isn t heredity but subject to sin is Ancient interpreters read in an allegorical way Cain amp Abel God prefers Abel sacri ce Cain is jealous and kills Abel How would a modern scholar approach this story Cain came from the word Qayin which reminds Kugel of an enemy tribe Kenites Qenites Every killer of cain a vegenance should be taken 7fold Cain becomes a representative of an entire tribe kenites 2415 source criticism is different names for God 0 Form criticism Gunkel some texts were lists some were historical chronicles some were songs poems Some texts were for entertainment others were to inspire What kind of text is this What was is used for o Etiological narrative story that s told to explain how things came to be the way they are Story of origins How did rainbows come to be Gods sign after ood That it will never happen again 0 Adam and Eve explains the origins of human civilization Expulsion from garden as huntergatherers settled life agriculture Adam began to know which means sex Eve bore Cain amp Abel Cain became a farmer and Abel became a shepherd When one day they decided to offer sacri ce to God Cain from his crops and Abel from his herds God showed a preference towards Abel Cain then killed Abel o Cain came from the word Qayin which reminds Kugel of an enemy tribe Kenites Qenites Every killer of cain a vegenance should be taken 7fold Cain becomes a representative of an entire tribe kenites o Problemsquestions we wonder Its only Adam and Eve who have two sons How does humanity continue wout women Why did God reject Cain and pick Abel josephus retes the story of Cain and Abel lling in gaps look handouU Cain namegathering Abelmeans nothing 0 He includes that daughters were born too Presents us moral characterizations of the brothers Abel was righteous and Cain was wicked o The bible only told us their occupations Cain offered fruits Abel offered his herds God took honor in Abel s sacri ce because he prefers things that grow naturally animals not what us as humans grow and nurture plantsagriculture God is aware of the deed Cain killing Abel and came down to talk to Cain So why did God ask quotwhere s your brotherquot God wanted to see if Cain would admit to it Aramaic Translation of scriptures into Aramaic is called Targum They are not just translating it word for word but rather lling in gaps and adding in interpretations Cain is not Adams son but rather Eve and the serpent So Cain is only half human hence why he is rejected by God 0 What kind of conversation would Cain and Abel have with each other right before the murder This is missing Tragum states that Abel says everything is fair I am treated bettermore successful because I m better Cain is angered by this Flood Story 2 different ood stories were put together and intertwined Ancient Mesopotamia means between rivers Tigeris and Euphrates 1870 looking at parallels in other literature in ANE Ancient Near East cuneiform series of wedges of baked clay tablets that can survive re The oldest tablet found is from ZSOOBCE The Eridu then 1600 BCE Atrahsis then nally the Epic of Gilgamesh There are Mesopotamian stories of the ood that were written way before the Bible There are many parallels in the stories and bible Gods destroy earth one person is picked to build an ark and bring animals to populate the world Mesopotamia means quotbetween two riversquot So it ooded quite often scholars say it makes perfect sense that ood stories emerged Israel is hilly and has never ooded George Smith taught himself how to read cuneiform ANE Flood stories Oldest ood story 2500BCE Sumerian Ziusudra ood hero similar to Noah Akkadian AtraHasis 1600 BCE people are wiped out from a ood Hasis builds a boat ood lass for 7 days he comes out then when its over and offers sacri ces o The Epic of Gilgamesh 12OOBCE comes together from various sources over a long time similar to the Bible Gilgamesh legendary king he asked the ood hero Utnapishtm to tell his story Similarities between Gilgamesh and Bible Birds Uptnapishtm and noah both sent birds to see if the world was done ooding Intention to destroy all of humanity Flood heros Uptnapishtm and noah get really speci c on how to build an ark They are both told to take animals onto the boat and after the ood they both sacri ce animals At the end gods also say this will never happen again Differences Reason for ood Bible Humans aren t behaving properly esh has become corrupted the only solution is that everything needs to be wiped out Gilgemsh there is no reason given Behavior or the gods Gilgamesh divine conspiracy Enlil Bible God makes the decision alone Behavior of ood hero Gilgamesh Utnapishtm ls instructed to build an ark the God said speci cally to leave belongings abandon possesions save only his life yet he does the opposite he makes the ark BUT also brings All his gold and belongings Bible When God tells noah to make an ark quotNoah did so just as God commanded himquot Description of ood Gilgamesh Flood is crazy the Gods are terri edknocked against the wall Bible God is calm but everything is going according to plan there is no chaos Aftermath of ood Gilgamesh smells the pleasing odor Bible God can smell the pleasing odor when Noah sacri ces the animals Promise in Bible that there is a promise that a ood will never happen again rainbowsign ln Gilgamesh God gives a necklace Documentary hypothesis is compiled of 4 different sources J Jahwist YhWh EElohistElohim D Deutoronimst P priestly Flood Stories in Genesis J and P source First chapter is credited to p source because it is structured creates categories The second story is credited to j because it is much like a story 21115 writing assignmentdue March 2 Look word doc for details ood story 0 how many of each animal did Noah take on the ark 7 pairs of clean animals and birds amp 1 pair of every other animal then other texts say two of everything that lives 1 pair 0 How many days did the ood cover earth 150 days other texts say 40 days and 40 nights 0 What kind of bird did noah send out Raven and a dove 1000 Source south Jerusalem 722 E SourceNorth Israel 586 D Source 539 P Source 6th century BCE 323 Redacter put the sources together into one document BCE CE J source P SOURCE YHWH the Lord Eohim God story teller ists precision in datesinstructions anthropomorphic creates by speaking 0 Documentary hypothesis amp its limitations 0 J source uses YHWH P source uses GodElohim There are many differences between these two versions not only the names for God but also how many days the ood lasted how many animals were brought onto the ark Writers put the bible together like a braid so you can see the differences added both versions of the ood story rather than picking one and smoothing out the differences 0 No manuscript evidence Dead Sea scrolls 1947 ZOOBCE 70CE the edited text where both sources are already combined there is no evidence of the separate stories When does the bible stop intertwining the sources Moses and the burning bush God says quotyou are to call me YHWH from now onquot 0 Why a ood Ancient interpreters wrestle with the ood story 0 What did people do that was so bad that all of humanity had to be wiped out quotthe sons of God saw that they were fair and they took wives for themselves of that they chosequot Also a story of divine beings amp human women and their offspring This is what makes the world evil Genesis 9God promises a ood will never happen again God gives Noah and his sons the birds animals and sh as food BUT they cant eat an animal with its lifeblood still in it Noahide laws 0 Prohibition of idolatry murder theft sexual immortality blasphemy eating esh taken from animal while its still alive and establishment of courts of laws Acts of the Apostles 15 New Testament abstain from food polluted by idols sexual immortality and from the meat of strangled animals and from blood very similar to the Noahide laws 0 Sons of Noah Shem Ham and Japheth and the origins of the world s peoples Ham the father of Canaan saw the nakedness of his father When Noah awoke from his wine he said quot cursed be Canaan lowest of slaves shall he be to his brothersquot 0 This is a justi cation of that reality Israelites have conquered the land and Canaanites are their slaves etiology probem it wasn t Canaan who saw Noah but rather Ham saw him 0 What does it mean when someone sees someone s nakedness Euphemism of having sex with them Some say he castrated cut off his balls him or did he have sex with him Ham is the ancestor of the Africans Ham sounds like the Hebrew word for brown this blackness begins to be understood of the curse that he is put under Blackness is associated with slavery 22515 Recap of yesterday Evil came into the world through Adam and Eve or so we thought it was more of the divine being that came down and had sex then the animals started having sex and this is where original sin came about Enoch had a son Methuselah all the days of Enoch came to 365 years think of the days of the year365 Enoch became associated with the calendar people were obsessed with time you need to make a sacri ce at the speci c time so the heavens and earth lined up Enoch is taken up to God without his death being described The same thing happened to Elijah in a ery chariot Ham Shem Japeth represent all of humanity Noahs sons Hamegypt Africa Japethpeople of the north greeks Shem near east people Noahide Lawslaws that apply to everyone Abraham marry within your clan so Abraham goes back to his homeland of Mesopotamia to nd a wife for his son Philolived in Alexandria Egypt around Jesus time reading inheried stories through Allegory Garden of Eden trees represent virtuesetc He Read Abraham and interpreted his map of his journey as a journey of his soul 0 Abraham and Sarah say their brosis Sarah is taken to the Pharaoh as a prostitute then Abraham got rich 0 Dead Sea Scrollsoldest copies of biblical text in Hebrew genesis Apocryphon story of the patriarchs written in Aramaic Abraham is telling the story of when the went to Egypt quotI dreamt a dreamquot message is if Abraham is in trouble Sarah s words will save him 0 Abraham amp his sacri ce of Isaac texts doesn t tell us everything we need to know there are gaps we need to ll in there is no reaction after God informs Abraham of the command we have no idea how old lsaac is if he knows if Abraham is scared Cities of the plain Sodom amp Gomorrah God is not pleased what is going on in these cities he decided they need to be destroyed sends angels down rst to check things out rst God informs Abraham what he plans on doing Abraham says suppose there are 50 righteous people you are going to kill the 50 righteous people who are in it Abraham calls God out now unlike just letting it happen like he did with the sacri ce o Euthyphro What comes rst Divine command or moral standard Is something moral because God says you should do it or does God say you should do it because its moral What do most people say the sin of Sodom is Anal sex and homosexual sex sex between men But if you read the texts the city is actually destroyed because Lot offers his two virgins daughters instead of the men raping the males This story is also in the Book ofjudges 19 0 Who is Sodomite Violent mob beats down someones door two guests angels of God are demanded to be thrown out so the mob can rape them quotBring them out to us that we may be intimate with themquot Sodom amp Book ofjudges 19 have similar stories there are parallels in which they offer their virgin daughters instead of the male guests be raped According to josephus a sodomite is someone who is not welcoming to strangers o jewish text this is mine this is yours someone who is unwilling to be generous Christian text not welcoming to jesus followers Lot and his daughters are the only ones left the rest of society was destroyed Lot gets drunk and his daughters rape their dad and they become pregnant Their offspring were named Ammon and Moab This is an etiological legend Ammonites and Moabites were two tribes at war and enemies with Israel 0 Jacob is lsaacs son Jacob has 12 sons and they represent the 12 tribes of Israel Jacob and Esau are twin brothers First born son gets all sorts of privileges younger sons have to fend for themselves But in the bible its reversed Jacob tricks Esau out of getting his privileges On their fathers death bed Jacob tricks Esau and the dad into giving Jacob his inheritance Jacobsmooth skin Esauhairy Jacob s mother tells him to dress like Esau and put goat fur on him and he disguises at Esau and tricks his father Another etiological legendJacoblsrael and EsauEdom near Mt Seir which means hairy they didn t get along even in the womb Edomites were there rst just like Esau but they new comer lsrael takes overjust how Jacob did Characters are given moral characteristics even like in the story of Cain and Abel Jacob was studious and virtuous Esau becomes the symbol of anger and violence and evil he s not characterized in the bible as evil only in the interpretation When dad is on death bed he asked who he is touching and Jacob responds with quotI am Esau your rst bornquot Bible doesn t have correct punctuating so interpreters read it as quotI am Esau is your rst bornquot So technically Jacob didn t lie Amalek descendants of Esau They do not follow the rules of war Amalek cut of your tail which means he cut off the people at the back of the army who couldn t keep up elders injured children God instructs Saul to kill all the animals of the Amalekites But he doesn t do so God regrets making Saul king of Israel Thread of evil and good that runs through the bible from Jacob and Esau quotthe voice is the voice ofJacob but the hands are the hands of Esauquot Israel associated is the voice learning speaking Israel s enemies hands on violence brute physical violence Jacob gets blessing but needs to run away because Esau will be pissed Jacobs mother arranges for his escape to his uncles he meets his two wives Rachel amp her maid Gad and Leahamp her slavemaid Bilhah there He works for his Uncle Laben for 14 years so he takes his wives concubines and animals Place by a river called Peniel this is where Jacob came face to face with God and survived 0 Sons ofJacob have a territory but Levi is a priestly tribe and doesn t get a territory they live off money that everyone else gives him not farming and animals like the other tribes Rueben is Jacobs oldest son but he loses his privileges and rst son inheritance because of bad behavior he slept with one of his fathers concubines Brothers band together and sell their youngest brotherJoseph into slavery Rape of Dinah genesis 34 legend suggests Dinah was raped by Shechem he then says he loves her and wants to marry her Schechem makes a deal with Jacob he says rst you have to become part of our clan you need to become circumcised along with your whole town So he agrees On day 3 after surgery everyone is lying around in pain Two brothers come in and massacre the whole town 0 Circumcision ofJacobs son makes them special and distinct 3415 RECAP of yesterday 0 Jacobs name is changed to Israel Jacob is a liar an trickster as a child and tries to convince lsaac his father that he is Esau and he deserves the endowment quotth voice is the voice ofJacob but the hands are the hands of Esauquot o this rival is an allegory for Israel and and all the rivals they have ever had Israel is associated with speaking the other tribes are associated with violence and physical ghting EsauEdomites one descendant of them is Amalek Amalek kill the children elders and sick people at the end of the tribe 0 Book of ester story of queen esther of Persia Haman is to destroy and slay all jews women children in one day Jacobs name is changed to Israel when he is crossing the river he becomes a representative of all of Israel He has a ght with another being divine beingangel he changes Jacobs name 0 12 tribes each son ofJacob God is the landlord Levi does not have a territory priestly tribe they don t farmanimals they make sacri ces and prayers and they other tribes pay for that The rape of Dinah Dinah leaves to go out and visit the daughters of the land Schechm rapes Dinah then decides he wants to marry her Dinah has no say her brothers agree to this but they require that Schechm and his whole town have to get circumcised a sign that they belong to them now This is a trick 3 days later all the men are weak from the surgery and the brothers come in and attackmassacre the city Is what schechm did wrong No not neccesaarily according to Deuteronomy 222829 when a man rapes a women he must pay her father and shall be her wife then Because he has violated her he can never have the right to divorce her then And that is what Schecm did But how do we evaluate when the brothers did to the city Jacob is pissed amp believes this was a bad idea because Jacob and his family are located in a place where their neighboring tribes are not a fan of them no one takes revenge of the family ofJacob and Dinah is never mentioned again Genesis 49 blessings ofJacob Jacob is on his death bed he is gathering all his sons around him and blesses them Not all of these last words are blessings some are negative Simeon and levi are a pair and Jacob says I am separating myself from these men they are violent and will be separated referring to their tribes Levi doesn t eve get a territory he is called out for a priestly service Reuben you are my rstborn son but doesn t get everythinginheritancepreeminence He tells Rueben he will no longer excel and be the best Judah is blessed quotyour father s sons shall bow low to youquot Genesis 38 Judah has 3 sons Er married to Tumar Onan and Shelah Lord is upset with Er and kills him Judah then requires Onan to marry Tumar This is levirate marriage the dead husbands brother must marry his wife and have a son with her The rst son that she bears shall be accounted to the dead brother the son will continue the dead brothers name and inheritance when you die you are remembered through your legacy and your descendants So it is important that one of his brothers has a son with Tumar So Er can live on Onan knew if he was to marry Tumar and have a son his son would not be considered his seed So Onan would quotpulloutquot so he wouldn t get Tamar pregnant This was displeasing to the Lord so he killed Onan So the next son in line is Shelah Judah doesn t want to give his last son to Tamar so Tamar dresses up as a prostitute disguises herself Judah saw her and was like quotHere let me sleep with youquot Judah has no idea this is his daughter in law And she gets pregnant When Judah hears that Tamar has been sleeping around and is pregnant he thinks she should be put to death He gures out it was his daughter in law based on the stuff he gave her as repayment for sleeping with her Judah admits she is right and he is wrong He is ashamed that he didn t give his last son to her in order that their line may continue he failed his patriarch duty But if it wasn t for Tamars action Judah s line would have ended Moral ambiguity Goat 0 Jacob tricks his father by putting goat skin on him to look like Esau 0 Jacobs son coverJacobs coat in blood acting like Jacob was killed by animals Joseph explains how the Israelites end up in Egypt This is a transitional narrative Joseph is Jacobs favorite son because he is married to his favorite wife Rachel Joseph acts like a dick he struts around in the coat that his father gave him 0 Themes 0 Clothing changes in clothes represents changes in status Joseph is thrown in jail and gets out he gets a change of clothes Joseph is sold to slavery coat is covered in blood to cover this up and act like he was killed by animals 0 Dreams joseph tells his bros about his dream quotI dreamed that l was a sheave of wheat and there were 11 others bowing down to me or when 11 stars were bowing down to him 0 Bondageslavery Josephs bros sell him as a slave Joseph becomes a slave to someone in Egypt Podipar gets thrown in jail for something Pharaoh has madeJoseph high in his court he interprets Pharaoh s dreams dream represented famine Joseph tricks everyone into selling their animals and livestock and no choice but to sell their land so they have to sell themselves into slavery in turn for food 0 Selling Joseph Joseph is the favorite son ofJacob and he gets a favorite coat this marks his status as the fav son Joseph isn t supposed to be the favorite and get the preeminence because he is not the rst born son Joseph s brothers are jealous and sell him into slavery They sell him to Mennonites but another source says he was sold to lshmaelite s These sources stand together and are woven together His brothers Sold him into slavery and bought shoes with the money Targum Aramaic they sold Joseph to Arabs for twenty pieces of silver and they bought shoes with them 4 assumptions for ancient interpreters you can use one part of scripture to translate another part of scripture o For example when reading the story ofJoseph they look at the book of Amos quotfor they sell a righteous man for silver and a needy one for a pair of sandalsquot He is preaching that they think silver and materialistic things are more valuable than a person 0 Amos was making a statement about injustice but people apply this to the story ofJoseph and that s how the shoes came about Joseph goes to Egypt He becomes the manager in the house of a man named Potiphar who he called a Saris or courtier in the text Saris is a unick man whose testicles have been removed Uniqs job was considered less of a threat to the King because he would just serve the King he couldn t have kids Joseph is thrown in jail but let out because he has a special thing he can explain dreams He becomes a pharaoh Becomes a famine sell their food and crops then sell their land then they all sell themselves into slavery of Egypt Famine is everywhere in Israel too so the brothers come to Egypt to get food too and then they nally recognize Joseph There is a scene of reconciliation and Joseph forgives his brothers and takes care of them 12 sons ofJacob represent the 12 tribes of Israel Ruebensleeps with dads concubine rst born Levi religious tribe with no territory Where is the territory ofJacob He does not have any but his two sons Ephraim and Manasseh have territory instead Jacob adopts Joseph s sons Joseph marries outside the clan to an Egyptian which breaks up the family So Jacob adopts them and makes them sons of Rachel so they are back in the family Book Of Exodus Joseph died and all his brothers and all that generation But the Israelites were fertile and multiplied and the land was lled with them A new king arose over Egypt who did not know Joseph Historicity of Israelites in Egypt There is memory of Egypt right in the names themselves MosesMoseh quotis bornquot Ramses quotRa is bornquot Thutmose quotToth ls bornquot What other evidence do we have a Hebrew nation in Egypt Beni Hassan Mural from Egyptian tomb complex This panel shows a group of nomadstravelers coming from Canaan to Egypt Egyptians are painted very red and wearing white Foreigners coming in are more of a yelloworange wearing a striped out t Distribute grain to the Habiru kind of sounds like Hebrew people who carry stones to the great monument of Ramses papyrus from Egypt lpuwer Papyrus 13 cent BCE describes a scene of Egypt in chaos quotThe river is blood yet men drink of itquot Exodus of Egypt NO ARCHEALOGICAL EVIDENCE of people escaping from Egypt and wandering in the dessert for an entire generation Retelling of the story identity to talk about what kind of God s they worship ethical instruction quotyou were slaves don t oppress othersquot Historicity Mosesmosehquotis bornquot RamsesquotRa is bornquot ThutmosequotToth is bornquot 0 Distribute grain to the habiru Kind of sounds like Hebrew and they thought they were working as slaves Archeologists have not found any evidence of the 40 days in the desert 0 Photograph vs portrait photograph really depicts her The portrait expresses something else another truth The Bible is like this portrait there s another truth as to why they were written down and told for thousands of years This also carries an ethical message retell and remember the story The call of moses is when he rst hears his name amp is called upon by God Moses mom sends him down the river and is picked up by the Pharaoh s daughter 0 Two Theophanies when God manifests himself to human beingsE and P o E sourceExodus 3 Burning Bush quotehyehasher ehyehquot quot I am who I amquot Moses asked the burning bush who am I supposed to say told me this The tetragrammaton YHWH quotThe Lord The God of your fathers the God of Abraham The God of Isaac and the God ofJacob has sent me to youquot When Moses is chosen he is very confused 39Why me quotmy tongue is heavyquotMoses this means he has a speech impediment P source Exodus 623 I am YHWH The Lord I appeared to Abraham Isaac and Jacob as El Shaddai but I did not make myself known to them by my name YHWH 10th Plague slaughter of all the rst bornschid sacri ce The most famous was when Abraham was commanded to sacri ce Isaac at they very last minute Isaac is replaced with a ram Exodus 222829 You shall give me the rst born among your sons You shall do the same with your cattle and your ocks Exodus 34 1920 Every rst issue of the womb is mine from all your livestock that birth a male as rstling whether cattle or sheep you must redeem every rst born among your sons Which means you exchange your animals for your rst born The nation of Israel as a whole is known as God s rst born Christians read the bible in a typology way They believe stories of the Old testament foreshadow things that will happen later Israelites escape and go to the Red Sea where Moses parts the red sea and the Israelites cross over Yam suf Sea of Reeds quotsea od Reedsquot translated into Red Sea around 3rd century BCE in the SeptuagintGreek translation of the Hebrew scripture Exodus 15 The song of the Sea this is older than the story of the Red Sea God s majesty and power over nature Tablets foundmuch like hebrew Bible 0 The Battle of Baal God of weather and the Sea 0 After they cross the Sea they have a total of 40 years of wandering in the wilderness This becomes a place of ExileSufferingPunishment But its also a place for RepentancePurification The wilderness is a place where the community is formed and divine protection and theophany daytime God is a pillar of Cloud and pillar of re at night relevation of the law ten commandments These commandments are speaking directly to each individual You 0 Moses the Prophet The only person who actually talks to God God gives Moses the commandments and he stays on Mt Sinai for 40 days and 40 nights then comes back down to the people and he is changed His face was shining so bright the Israelites couldn t even look at him Moses is depicted with horns in several drawingspaintings Some people have interpreted this as being associated with the devil But in actuality VulgateJerome translates it back to Latin and sees if he can gure out why he has horns quothis skin of his face was shiningquot Latin quothis face was hornedquot n Qaranradiated n Qerenhorn Desert near Qumranhome of the Dead Sea Scrolls community 0 First laws revealed are ten commandments o l the Lord am tour God you shall have no other gods besides me No other Gods require this sole worship This commandment does not re ect monotheism there is only one God other ones are not real But rather monolatry You are only supposed to worship one God the other ones are still real Recap of last class TheoGod Phaniesappear God burning bush chooses Moses to lead the slaves Why is moses not the most obvious choice to be leader 0 He wasn t raised Egyptian he was raised Pharaohstranger 0 Moses says quotI m not a good speakerquot Speech impediment 0 He doesn t know what he would tell everyone quotOh a burning bush told mequot God reveals his personal name saying quotI am who I amquot YHWH 10 plagues to free the people 0 10th plagueslaughter of the rstborn son Sea of Reeds Greek translator translated it into the Red Sea Like the fruit story with Adam and Eve it never says apple but its translated into that so people can relate better Dessert and wilderness is a place of emptiness but also an intimate place God is concretely there manifesting himself in many ways like revelation of the law 0 l the Lord am tour God you shall have no other gods besides me No other Gods require this sole worship This commandment does not re ect monotheism BELIEF that there is only one God other ones are not real But rather monolatry You are only supposed to WORSHIP one God the other ones are still real 0 Psalm 82 God of Israel YHWH calls out the other Gods and says why are you showing favoritism to the wicked God is declaring his victory over these other Gods He is taking a preeminent place rising to prominence o No other God requires exclusive allegiance We can compare this to treaties Hittite Empire Vassal treaties you cant turn your back on someone youove Conventional form selfidenti cation of the conquering ruler Account of past history with the conquered people Conditions for the relationship including complete allegiance to the ruler to the exclusion of other powers Provisions for the display of the text witnesses and blessings and curses Ten commandments and Laws of Hammurabi are revealed at Mt Sinai If a debt is outstanding against a man and he sells or gives into debt service his wife his son or his daughter they shall perform service in the house of their buyer for three years their release shall be secured in the fourth year If you re in debt even after you have sold all of your possesions you have to sell yourself into slavery Similar to what happened to the Egyptians 0 Two classes of slaves debt slaves who serves 3 years and then is let go amp Chattel slaves which are considered property slaves Slave laws in the Bible Exodus 21 If you buy a Hebrew slave six years he shall serve seventh he shall go free If you are single you leave single married you leave married if your master gives you a wife you have a choice to make And many moreetc Leviticus and Numbers Levitcus Major Priestly work Sacri ce atonement making up for wrongs exact instructions 0 Presence of God quotKavodquot heaviness glory Tabernaclewhere presence of God dwells mobile sanctuaryportable tent carried in the wilderness Holiness separation distinctiveness wholeness integrity 0 Holy time Yom Kippur Sabbath festivals other days holy space Tabernacle Temple Jerusalem Israel rest of world holy people God high priest Priests community of all Israelites other nations Numbers 15 3236 community comes together as a whole and get rid of the disruption man and stone him to death 0 Things that make you impure sex menstruation etc when you do this stuff you are placed in a different category for a couple of days and do some things and then you are placed in the pure group again 0 Dietary laws 0 Kosher appropriate animals with divided hooves that chew the cud ruminants like cows sh with ns and scales 0 Not Kosher not appropriate other animals sea creatures without sh and scales insects Why are some animals good to eat and some bad Scienti c reasonings the impure animals are actually impure they carry diseases this isn t true of course no evidence to support People like to divide up the world and bring order to chaos 0 Recap of last class 0 I the Lord am your God You shall have no other gods besides me o This is not monotheism But rather monaltryl other gods exist but you should only worship one God Psalm 82 God of Israel positions him self as the head God and challenges the other gods Vassal Treaties Hittite Empire 20001ZOOBCE Leviticus major Priestly work P Theology quotYou shall by holy for I YHWH am your Godquot Holiness separation distinctiveness wholeness integrity 0 Holy time Yom Kippur Sabbath festivals other days holy space Tabernacle Temple Jerusalem Israel rest of world 0 holy people God high priest Priests community of all Israelites other nations Exodus 15 3236 man is gathering sticks on Sabbath this is supposed to be a holy day of rest different from the other days people gather as a whole and stone the man to death What makes you impure Touching a dead body 0 Giving birth 0 Having sexmenstruating Deuteronomy Deuteros Nomos Second law Frames itself by a series of speeches by Moses Begins of 40 years of wandering in the desert then the people are about to cross into the land but before they leave Moses gives a series of speeches Moses is not allowed to cross into the promise land 0 Centralization of worship Deuteronomy says you can only worship in one place Jerusalem In every major place of Israel there were shrines and temples of worship Megiddo Armageddon battle between good and evil Deuteronomy claims that there is only one legitimate place of worship This only bene ts the King ofJerusalem because the priests will all be under supervision of the palace Priests are the descendants of Levi they have no territory They have a lot of power because they pray and make sacri ces for other tribes King Josiah Hikiah the high priest found a scroll quotGo and inquire of the Lordquot 2 Kings 22 this means go speak to a prophet Josiah imposes a bunch of reforms and destroys all the other shrines and temples one of which being Jerusalem is the only place of worship It is believed that the book of Deuteronomy was written during the time to legitimize the reforms Most scholars believe the Torah including Deuteronomy was written well after Moses time 0 Some say this is Forgery Moses didn t write this but rather someone else wrote it pretending to be Moses 0 No sense of individual intellectual property 0 Moses as a founding gure of tradition 0 Moses as a representative gurehead or brand o Texts written in the name of and legacy of Mosesquotwhat would Moses say if he were herequot 0 Writing in the name of a great gure as a way of humbling onese o think of Coco Channel she is dead but her clothes and brand is still made and carried on 0 Laws revealed Again 0 two sets of tablets in Exodus Deuteronomy Prophets Preclassical prophets Joshua Judges Samuel Kings Classical or writing prophets have books attributed to them Major lsaiah jeremiah and Ezekial and Minor prophets 12 Only difference between major and minor prophets is that Minor prophets are short they were copied on a single scroll together People were concerned that texts that short would get lost so that s why they are put together Moses the Prophet unique prophet God speaks to him face to face Ancient near eastern practices to communicate with another world poitica and directed to the king Received by people working at temples and get into a trance dancing and singing And through divination trained to read signs in nature Extispicyreading messaging from the gods in the inners of animals Deuteronomy is promoting that you can only worship in one place In order to promote this Moses de les the other shrines and makes them impure 0 People try to read the will of the divine through a trancepossession like state or through divination trained to read signs in nature Extispicy reading messages from the gods from the organs of animals colors shapes designs Balaamforeign curser hired by Moabite king Balaam and his donkey are riding through a small alley and then God sends an angel and donkey cant get through he moves over and squeezes balaams foot against the wall Balaam is pissed cause he is confused and cant see the angel He starts beating his donkey Deir Alla descrption Balaam is called a divine seeer can see things from the divine that others cant Israel is given a prophet to relay messages Samuel Mother Hannah is the second wife She cant conceive she begins to pray in the temple that God sends her a child She prays fervently that the priest thinks she is drunk Finally she bears a son named Samuel She dedicates him to the temple SamuelNazaarite has to live a life of service with certain rules not allowed to cut hair Grows up in the temple of Shiloh this is before Josiah centralization of all temples Bands of Prophets King Saul sends messengers to nd David cause he wants to kill him They meet prophets speaking in ecstasy on the way Then the messengers began speaking in ecstasy Saul sends more messengers who begin speaking in ecstasy also then he sends more and the same happens Then he goes himself and he himself began talking in ecstasy and strip naked Elijah and the Prophets of Baal Enoch amp Elijah are the only two in the Bible who don t die before being taken up to heaven Elijah is a critic of the King his presence makes people uncomfortable he calls people out He is close to the king but he is very marginal and lives life on the edge of society Elijah sets up a show down and between Elijah and the prophets of Baal god of weather They can t worship the God of Israel and Baal you have to pick one Elijah Drenches all the animals then calls on the God of Israel and he sends down re despite of all the water 0 ElijahEliyahu quotMy God is YHWHquot Preclassical prophets Samuel 0 1 Politically important anointed the rst king 0 2 The way he was calledgiven his task like how Moses with the burning bush Samuel was given to the temple As a small boy he heard a voice and he thought it was a priest but it was God 0 3 Samuel is at the head of a big group of people playing instruments saying things they cannot controltrancelike intoxication state This is how Ancient interpreters interpreted on how the divine communicated with the prophets Elijah and the prophets of Baal Elijah asks the prophets to bring Baal in weatherlike so they can communicate with him But he never comes This is how monotheism arises ElijahEliyahu quotMy God is YHWHquot o Elijah then slaughters all the people on Mt Carmel Psalm 29 God is described as his voice is thunder You can see other cultures are intertwined with Israel because this is describing Baal too Naboth s vineyard Eljiah and King Ahab are enemies Elijah is a marginal gure who lives on the edge runs around naked is hairy wears furskin sometimes King Ahab wants to take land away from Naboth Naboth does not want to give it away Theory about the land was that it always goes back to its original owners kind of like a lease If someone comes in from Egypt starts a business amp prospers they will never fully belong because eventually they will have to give the land back Naboth doesn t want to give up the land that God gave him jezebel King Ahab s wife takes action she forges Naboth s name abuses legal system and Naboth is found guilty God speaks through Elijah quotmurder for possession lwill bring disaster upon you and the dogs shall devourjezebel in the eld of jezreelquot This is bad because she did not get a proper burial You were supposed to be placed in a room until you decompose and then your bones are placed in an area with all of your ancestors bones jezebel doesn t get this only her head hands and feet are left 0 Elijah has an apprentice Elisha he is teaching him all he needs to know Elijah is then taken up on a ery chariot up to heaven without dying He could come back whenever Elisha becomes the next intermediator between God and the people Elisha went up to Bethel and little boys started making fun of him because he was bald Elisha then cursed the kids and two bears attacked the kids Classicalwriting prophets These prophets are not so connected with tranceintoxication Prophets are warning of impeding doom invasiondefeat Isaiah Amos and Hosea They preach that Israel will be invaded by Assyria if you don t change your ways In 722 Assyria conquers the northern kingdom of Israel judah is not conquered Amos God doesn t want your praise and songs what he wants is for you to do righteousness and justice 0 There was a massive earthquake in 76OBCE Amos started cursing Israel s enemies and then started cursing Israel itself Israel should not expect speci c protection 0 Gave speeches to give messages Hosea The Lord tod Hosea to marry a prostitute whoredom this represents the people as a whole 0 Harlotsut What happens to the prostitute Hosea marries He says She is not my wife and I am not her husband After I ve shamed her striped her naked and left her I will take her back 0 This is not about women it s a metaphor to the people of Israel 0 Sexual humiliationjusti ed amp necessary 0 Book of Isaiah 0 First Isaiah Isaiah ofjerusalem Second Isaiahexilic period 0 Third Isaiah after the exile 41515 Elijah massacres a bunch of people King Ahab wants to defraud a man out of his land so his wife has Naboth accused Elijah comes out and says you cant do that Elijah curses out the king and his wife for accusing this man Amoseconomicjustice 0 God doesn t want you to sing praises but instead et justice ro amp righteousness Nobody can escape God s punishment he will nd you srae does not have special protection Amos was preaching that you will not get special divine protection if you continue to defraud the poor Don t make the rich richer Hoseasymbolic prophecy husbandwife o Expresses his things through symbols Hosea is told to marry a prostitute have kids then leave them and shame his wife does this by using hurtful words such as harlot which is the same as calling a girl a slut now a days 0 Isaiahvision in temple quotmake sure they don t listenquot 0 Bookquot of Isaiah First Isaiah Isaiah ofjerusalem 8th century prophet gets his call in the temple ofjerusalem he sees God on a throne Similar to what happened to Moses Isaiah thinks he is not worthy to speak the words of God Seraphim takes a coal and puts it on Isaiah this burns away the impurity and Isaiah becomes worthy to be prophet Holy holy holy is the Lord of Host hostarmies God of Israel is the God of war 0 What does God say to Isaiah God deliberately wants the people to not listen to his message God wants him to say quotstop its ears seal its eyesquot a tenth part yet remains in it it shall repent Second Isaiahexilic period Third Isaiah after the exile 0 quotwhat would Isaiah say if he was speaking to us nowquot 0 Jeremiah is just a little boy but he is chosen by God to preach God s words quotI m just a little boy why did you pick mequot God touched his lips and put his words in his mouth 0 Preexilic Bulla press an image of their name on the letter so you know it was not tampered with with the inscription quotBaruch ben Neriah the scribequot jeremiah s name seal is found in the Bible But it was forged Jeremiah was preaching a message of surrender Babylon is coming don t ght King ofjudah had a scroll read to him byjeremiah just like josiah had a scroll read to him 0 King burned the scroll so jeremiah got another scroll and wrote more Babylonians come young men and babies were dropping dead All those promises that made Israel different were all gone Covenant between Israel and God subjects promise they will be loyal and God promises protection then But God loses his promise and lets the temple and the people to be destroyed Broken marriage Husband has put out a wrath on his wife Accuses her of cheating she makes a fake penis and has sex with it only dildo in the bible so he must punish her 0 Ezekiel 16 she must strip naked be put on display and then he sends a group of guys to rape her then pelt you with stones and pierce you with their swords 0 There is a metaphor to this rape story suffering isn t always deserved sometimes you just need to accept what happens 0 Another story in Lamentations a woman is a widow The language in sexually suggestive of sexual abuse The has been violated and abused and left on the side of the road She did not deserve this Jeremiah s scribe is writing down everything he is saying 0 King destroyed scroll but texts can be rewritten Prophetic theodicyreasoning as to why something bad happens to you 0 Ezekial 1 Vision God follows people into exile 42215 DavidGolden Age memories 0 Ezekiel rewrites the story of Exodus as a punishment quotGod took the people out of the land because they were worshipping false gods and I wanted to punish them where no one else would seequot 0 Some people did return from the Babylonian Exile King Cyrus of Persia 0 Isaiah writes in Isaiah 45 that Cyrus is the anointed one Ezra is a new Moses gure he is supposed to lead the people back amp reestablish themselves Takes out a scroll of the Torah and begin to read to everyone 0 The return and the reestablishment was never considered the full restoration promised by the prophets Books of chronicles after the exile 0 Tel Dan inscription 850 rst historical mention of David s name quothouse of Davidquot his royal family and dynasty commemorates victory of king Hazael or Aram over the kings of quothouse of Davidquot Earliest texts about David books of Samuel in the Bible 0 David was a warlord brought people together for larger unity a deeply awed man 0 Remarkable characterization of David Deceptive manipulator cant control his own family son rapes his half sister son organizes a coup against him 0 David and Bathsheba David sees this lady bathing and he wants her He sends his men to get her he has sex with her and she gets pregnant she is already married David sends Aryah her husband home so they could have sex and cover up the pregnancy but Aryah doesn t go home Instead David has aryah killed so he can have Bathsheba to himself 0 Book of chronicles 0 King s job was to go to war amp build temples David did not build a temple God says his son Solomon will do it instead 0 Book of chronicles made it seem like David got a revelation the blueprint of what the temple was supposed to be and Solomon just carried it out 0 King Saul was suffering from an evil spirit he was possessed David would play his lyre then relief would come to Saul he would feel better and the evil spirit would leave him Scholars think psalms originated as prayers Psalm 29 similar to baal weather God Psalm 22 My God my God why have you forsaken me This is also said byJesus on the cross as he is dying Dead Sea Psalms scroll david was wise and luminous like the light of the sun and a scribe and discerning and perfect in all his paths before God and men 0 0 David historical quotfactquotmeaning for communities 0 Think of picasso s gf picture vs painting 0 Exodus commemorate thousands of years later Even though no historical evidence has ever been found 0 We used to be slaves we cant oppress others We have one thing that mentions David s name Tel Dan inscription quothe is luminous like the light of the sunquot Moses is also this kind of gure David s son Soloman Paragon of Wisdom He is known for making lsrael rich and expanding its borders but he also messed everything up politically Soloman splits his Kingdom north amp South Also known for knowing everything knowledge about the natural world and the way it was set up wisdom literature 0 linked with soloman proverbs Qohelet Ecclesiastes Song of Songs 0 Not linked with soloman book ofJob How was wisdom different from other things we have looked at Why do bad things still happen Epistemology How can we know what we know nd things out o Tradition o Experienceobservation What is wisdom o The Instruction of Amenemope sounds a lot like proverbs People are told to not move the markers on the borders of the eld Proverbs do not remove the ancient landmark Do not befriend the hothead proverbs make no friends with those given to anger o Kugel quotorthodox wisdomquot represented in proverbs its wisdom that has been passed down in generations It runs on a two path structure path of righteousness and wisdom or the path of wickedness Choose path of wisdom rewards live a long good life O Choose path of wickedness die early and poor children will leave you This is represented in proverbs quotThe house of the wicked will be destroyed righteous will ourishquot Why do bad things happen to good people Why do the righteous suffer O O 00 42915 Book ofJob Job is a righteous man he was wealthy had 7000 sheep 7 sons and 3 daughters his name will live on Satan Satanadversary contender Hasatan the adversary All ofJob s children die house falls servants dead animals dead and you have no money The last thing taken is his bodily integrity Suffering is a punishment for sin So Job must have done something to deserve this punishment Job will not shutup about how unfair this is quotshow me what I have done to deserve thisquot he challenges God to come out and tell him what he did wrong Psalm 8 is a celebration of life At the end ofJob he gets everything back but doubled This is the idea of orthodox wisdom in the end righteousness does get rewarded Exam REVIEW FRIDAY 930 FINE ARTS BUILDING Solomon s Wisdom o The Instruction of Amenemope Egyptian text 12001100 BCE before proverbs 3 chapters of proverbs depends on this text This is an international system where many people could communicate This was a way of discovering truths about the world that are not just speci c to one culture quotorthodox wisdomquot if you re righteous good things will happen to you if your not amp you re wicked bad things will happen to you and you will be punished O 0 Book ofJob At the end ofJob he gets everything back but doubled This is the idea of orthodox wisdom in the end righteousness does get rewarded Qohelet quotThe arguerquot Launches a strong challenge against orthodox wisdom everything just happens over and over again in a cycle Every other storytext there is a developing progression in a story Song of Songs God and lsrael husband and wife analogy man Is jealous of woman s promiscuity shamed and gang raped by all her former lovers ln song of songs we have two lovers male amp female who are seeking each other out they praise each other for their beauty and they talk about their physical desire 0 Song of songs 5 starts to be read as an allegory between God and Israel not sexual desires between man and woman According to ancient interpreters biblical texts are cryptic surface meaning isn t always most obvious meaning 586BCE Babylonian exile Cyrus Cylinder 539BCE rebuilt temple not as good as before this is not the ideal restoration Apocalyptic tradition what happens at the end of the world Book of Daniel is the perfect example the author of Daniel is writing about the Babylonian exile While he was speaking in prayer an angel shows up to tell him what the 70 years forJerusalem means 70 weeks of years 70 x 7 490 years decreed for your people and your holy city Assyria lion Babylonbear Persiaeopard wwings amp many heads Hellenistic empire of alexander the great Reptilian animal whorns
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