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Study Guides/Book Notes - MGT 315

by: Danielle Lynch

Study Guides/Book Notes - MGT 315 MGT 315

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Business, management > MGT 315 > Study Guides Book Notes MGT 315
Danielle Lynch
GPA 3.8
Managing Human Resources

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Book notes (including all important terms, definitions and important concepts) and filled in study guides for the exams. I 4 pointed the class.
Managing Human Resources
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This 75 page Bundle was uploaded by Danielle Lynch on Monday August 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to MGT 315 at Michigan State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Managing Human Resources in Business, management at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 08/17/15
Managing Human Resources 82715 845 PM Human Resources Management the policies practices and systems that influence employee s behavior attitudes and performance Human capital the organization s employees described in terms of their training experience judgment intelligence relationships and insight the employee characteristics that can add economic value to the organization 0 Valuable 0 Rare 0 Cannot be imitated o No good substitutes Highperformance work system An organization in which technology organizational structure people and processes work together seamlessly to gibe an organization an advantage in the competitive market Responsibilities of Human Resource Departments 0 Administrative services and transactions 0 Business partner services 0 Strategic partner 2 Areas of responsibility that support those practices 0 Establishing and administering personnel policies 0 Ensuring compliance with labor laws Analyzing and Designing Jobs 0 Job analysis The process of getting detailed information about jobs 0 Job design The process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that given job requires Recruiting and Hiring Employees 0 Recruitment The process through which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment 0 Selection The process by which the organization attempts to identify applicants with the necessary knowledge skills abilities and other characteristics that will help the organization achieve it s goals Training and Developing Employees 0 Training A planned effort to enable employees to learn jobrelated knowledge skills and behavior 0 Development Acquiring knowledge skills and behaviors that improve employee s ability to meet the challenges of a variety of new or existing jobs including the client and customer demands of those jobs Managing Performance 0 Performance management The process of ensuring that employees activities and outputs match the organization s goals Planning and Administering Pay and Benefits Maintaining Positive Employee Relations 0 Maintains communication for union representatives Establishing and Administering Personnel Policies 0 Fair decision making workplace safety and customer service Managing and Using Human Resource Data 0 Workforce analytics Use the quantitative tools and scientific methods to analyze data from human resource databases and other sources to make evidencebased decisions that support business goals Ensuring Compliance with Labor Laws Supporting the Organization s Strategy 0 Human Resource Planning Identifying the numbers and types of employees the organization will require to meet its objectives 0 Talent management A systematic planned effort to attract retain develop and motivate highly skilled employees and managers 0 Evidencebased HR Collecting and using data to show that human resource practices have a positive influence on the company s bottom line or key stakeholders 0 Sustainability An organization s ability to profit without depleting its resources including employees natural resources and the support of the surrounding community 0 Stakeholders Parties who have an interest in the organization s success Skills of HRM Professionals 0 Credible activists So well respected in the organization that they can influence the positions taken by managers 0000 0 Cultural and change steward Talent managerorganizational designer Strategic architect Business allies Operational executors Ethics Fundamental principles of right and wrong including HRM decisions Employee Rights 0 O O O 0 Free consent Privacy Freedom of conscience Freedom of speech Due Process Standards for Ethical Behavior 0 In relationships with customers vendors and clients ethical and successful companies emphasize mutual benefits Employees assume responsibility for the actions of the company Such companies have a sense of purpose or vision that employees value and use in their daytoday lives Emphasize fairness that is another person s interests count as much as their own Ethical Alternative 0 O 0 Greatest good for greatest number Respect for basic human rights Fair and equitable What is Organizational Behavior 82715 845 PM Organizational Behavior Defined 0 Organizational behavior A field of study devoted to understanding explaining and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations 0 Human resources management Takes the theories and principles studied in OB and explores the nutsandboltsquot applications of those principles in organization 0 Strategic Management The product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization s profitability 0 An Integrative Model of OB 0 Individual Outcomes Job performance organizational commitment 0 Individual Mechanisms Job satisfaction stress motivation trust justice amp ethics learning and decision making 0 Individual Characteristics Ability personality amp cultural values 0 Group mechanisms Leadership styles amp behaviors leadership power and negotiation teams processes and communication teams characteristics amp diversity 0 Organizational mechanisms Structure culture 0 Building a Conceptual Argument 0 Resourcebased view Rare Inimitatable History numerous small decisions socially complex resources 0 Research Evidence 0 Rule of OneEighth At best 12 of organizations will actually do what is required to build profits by putting people first How Do we know what we know about organizational behavior a Method of Experience a Method of Intuition a Method of Authority a Method of Science 0 The Scientific Method Theory Hypothesis Data Verification Correlation r is a statistical relationship between 2 variables 5 strong 3 moderate 1 weak Causal Inferences The 2 variables are correlated the presumed cause precedes the presumed effect in time no alternative explanation exists for the correlation Metaanalysis Takes all of the correlations found in studies of a particular relationship and calculates a weighted average Evidencebased management Argues that scientific findings should form the foundation for management education much as they do for medical education Motivation Motivation 82715 845 PM 0 Motivation A set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee initiates workrelated effort and determines its direction intensity and persistence 0 Engagement A contemporary synonym more or less for high levels of intensity and persistence in work effort Why are some employees more motivated than others 0 Expectancy theory describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses 0 Expectancy A high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task Self efficacy The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success Past accomplishments The degree to which they have succeeded or failed in similar sorts of tasks in the past Vicarious experiences Observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks Verbal persuasion Employees persuaded by people Emotional cues feelings of fear or anxiety can create doubts about task accomplishment whereas pride and enthusiasm can bolster confidence levels 0 Instrumentality The belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes o Valence Anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance Positively valenced if outcomes help satisfy needs Needs cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences Extrinsic motivation Motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance Intrinsic motivation Motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward Meaning of money The degree to which they view money as having symbolic not just economic value 0 Goal Setting Theory 0 Goal setting theory Goals are viewed as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort Specific and difficult goals Higher levels of performance Selfset goals The internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress Task strategies Learning plans and problemsolving approaches used to achieve successful performance Moderators Feedback Updates on employee progress toward goal attainment Task complexity How complicated the information and actions involved in a task are as well as how much the task changes Goal commitment The degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it SMART goals Identify 57 smart goals for each employee and link rewards directly to goal achievement a Specific Measurable Achievable ResultsBased and TimeSensitive 0 Equity Theory 0 0 Equity theory Acknowledges that motivation doesn t just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people Comparison other Some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity Equity distress An internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios Cognitive distortion Restoring mental balance without altering behavior InternalExternal comparisons Psychological Empowerment O Psychological empowerment Energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose Meaningfulness Value of a work goal or purpose relative to a person s own ideals and passions Selfdetermination Reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks Competence Captures a person s belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully Impact The sense that person s actions make a differencequot that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose Teams Characteristics and Diversity 82715 845 PM Team Characteristics and Diversity Team Consists of two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some taskoriented purpose Teams have a deeper dependence and task purpose 0 Team Types Work Teams Produce goods or provide services long life span high involvement sales team Management Teams integrate activities of subunits across business functions long life span moderate involvement top management team Parallel Teams Composed of members from various jobs who provide recommendations to managers about important issues that run parallel to the organizations production process variable life span low member involvement quality circle committee Project Teams Formed to take on onetime tasks that are generally complex and require a lot of input from members with different types of training and experience variable life span variable member involvement research group Action Team Perform complex tasks that vary in duration and take place in highly visible or challenging circumstances musical group sports team 0 Variations Within Team Types Autonomy and self management How members communicate a Virtual teams Teams in which the members are geographically dispersed and interdependent activity occurs through electronic communications primarily email instant messaging and web conferencing n Follow the sun Handing off work electronically for different time zones Experience a Forming Members orient themselves by trying to understand their boundaries in the team what s Team Interdependence expected what behaviors are out of bounds and who s in charge Storming Members remain committed to ideas they bring with them to the team Norming Members realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals and begin to cooperate Performing Members are comfortable working within their roles and the team makes progress towards goals Adjourning Members experience anxiety and other emotions as they disengage and ultimately separate from the team 0 Less applicable when 0 There are clear expectations 0 Punctual equilibrium Pattern where members change their behavior 12 way through the project to complete it on time 0 Task interdependence The degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information materials and resources needed to accomplish work for the team 0 Pooled interdependence Complete work independently and then pile up the work 0 Sequential interdependence Different tasks are done in a prescribed order and the group is structured such that the members specialize in these tasks 0 Reciprocal interdependence Members interact with a subset of other members 0 Comprehensive interdependence Highest level of interaction and coordination among members as they try to accomplish work 0 Goal interdependence Team members have a shared vision of the team s goal and align their individual goals with that vision as a result 0 Outcome interdependence Team members share in the rewards that the team earns 0 Team Composition The mix of people who make up a team 0 Member Roles Role A pattern of behavior that a person is expected to display in a given context 0 Leaderstaff teams The leader makes decisions for the team and provides direction and control over members who perform assigned tasks 0 Team task roles Behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks Orienter Direction Devil s Advocate Constructive challenges to the team s status quo Energizer Motivates team members to work harder toward team goals 0 Team building roles Behaviors that influence the quality of the team s social climate Harmonizer Steps in to resolve differences among teammates Encourager Praises the work of teammates Compromiser Helps the team see alternative solutions that teammates can accept o Individualistic Roles Reflect behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense of the team Aggressor Puts downquot teammates Recognition seeker Takes credit for team successes Dominator Manipulates teammates to acquire control and power 0 Member Ability o Disjunctive tasks The member who possesses the highest level of ability relevant to the task will have the most influence on the effectiveness of the team 0 Conjunctive tasks Tasks for which the team s performance depends on the abilities of the weakest linkquot o Additive tasks Contributions resulting from the abilities of every member add upquot to determine team performance 0 Member Personality o Agreeable people tend to cooperate and be trusting 0 One member who is low on conscientiousness may have a strong negative effect on the team 0 Extroverts excel in a team setting 0 Diversity 0 Team Diversity Degree to which members are different from one another in terms of any attribute that might be used by someone as a basis of categorizing people 0 Value in diversity problemsolving approach Diverse teams provide a wider pool of knowledge and perspectives from which a team can draw 0 Similarityattraction approach People tend to be more attracted to others who are perceived as more similar 0 Surfacelevel diversity Diversity regarding observable attributes such as race ethnicity sex and age Fault lines Occur in diverse groups whereby informal subgroups develop based on similarity in surface level attributes o Deeplevel diversity Attributes inferred after more direct experience time increases negative 0 Team Size 0 Project teams better small 0 45 0 Pizza rule 0 How Importation Are Team Characteristics 0 Team performance 0 Team viability The likelihood that the team can work together effectively into the future 0 Task interdependence has a moderate positive effect on team performance 0 Task interdependence has a weak relationship with team commitment Team Compensation 0 Outcome interdependence has connections to compensation and high outcome interdependence promotes higher levels of cooperation because members understand that they share the same fate 0 Hybrid outcome interdependence Member receive rewards that are dependent on both their team s performance and how they perform as individuals Teams Processes and Communication 82715 845 PM Team Processes and Communication 0 Team process Different types of communication activities and interactions that occur within teams that contribute to their ultimate end goals Why are some teams more than the sum of their parts 0 Process gain Getting more from the team than you would expect according to the capabilities of its individual members 0 Process loss Getting less from the team than you would expect based on the capabilities of its individual members 0 Coordination loss Extra effort focused on integrating work 0 Production Blocking Members have to wait on one another before they can do their part of the team task Motivational loss The loss in team productivity that occurs when team members don t work as hard as they could 0 Social loafing Reduced accountability in teams causing members to exert less effort 0 Taskwork Processes Taskwork processes Activities of team members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks 0 Creative Behavior Brainstorming Facetoface meeting of team members in which each offers as many ideas as possible about some focal problem or issue a Express all ideas a Quantity not quality a Don t criticize n Build on ideas Nominal Group Technique Bringing the team together outline purpose brainstorm and write individual ideas discuss and build rank ideas 0 Decision Making Strongest predictor of the final verdict is the distribution of the positions the individual members have in mind going into deliberations Factors for Effective Decisions El Decision Informity Reflects whether members possess adequate information about their own task responsibilities Staff validity The degree to which members make good recommendations to the leader Hierarchical sensitivity Reflects the degree to which the leader effectively weighs the recommendations of the members 0 Boundary Spanning Boundary spanning Involved three types of activities with individuals and groups other than those who are considered part of the team Teamwork Processes El El Ambassador activities Communications that are intended to protect the team persuade others to support the team or obtain important resources for the team Task coordinator activities Communications that are intended to coordinate taskrelated issue with people or groups in other functional areas Scout Activities Things team members do to obtain information about technology competitors or the broader marketplace Teamwork process The interpersonal activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the team s work but do not directly involve task accomplishment itself 0 Moderate positive effect on team performance strong positive effect on team commitment 0 Transition Processes Teamwork activities that focus on preparation for future work before and between periods of taskwork Mission analysis Analysis of team s task challenges resources available Strategy formulation Goal specification 0 Action Processes Important as taskwork is being completed Monitoring progress toward goals Systems monitoring keeps track of things that the team needs to accomplish its work Helping behavior Members going out of their way to help or back up other team members Coordination Synchronizing team member s activities in a way that makes them mesh effectively and seamlessly o Interpersonal processes Important before during or between periods of taskwork and each relates to the manner in which team members manage their relationships Motivating and confidence building Affect management Sense of emotional balance Conflict management a Relationship conflict The disagreements among team members in terms of interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities with respect to personal values or preferences a Task conflict Disagreements among members about the team s task a Effective conflict management Stay focused on team s mission keep relationship conflict low and selfinterest out discuss positions openly and exchange information in a way that fosters collaborative problem solving 0 Communication The process by which information and meaning gets transferred from a sender to a receiver Communication competence Skills involved in encoding transmitting and receiving messages Emotions and emotional intelligence Noise Information Richness Amount and depth of information that gets transmitted in a message most in facetoface Network Structure Pattern of communication that occurs regularly among each member of the team 0 Lower centralization better for complex tasks 0 High centralization lower effectiveness for complex tasks 0 Higher member satisfaction with decentralization Team States The specific types of feelings and thoughts that are in the minds of team members from working together Cohesion Members developing emotional attachment to members Groupthink Drive toward conformity at the expense of other team priorities which is associated with overconfidence about the team s capabilities Potency Degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situations and tasks Mental models The level of common understanding among members with regard to important aspects of the team and its task Transactive memory Refers to how specialized knowledge is distributed among members in a manner that results in an effective system of memory to the team Transportable Teamwork Competencies Knowledge skills and abilities Crosstraining Team members can develop shared mental models of what s involved in each of the roles in the team and how the roles fit together to form a system 0 Personal clarification Information regarding the roles of the other team members 0 Positional modeling Team members observing how other members perform their roles o Positional rotation Members actually experience carrying out the responsibilities of their teammates Team Process Training Occurs in the context of a team experience that facilitates the team being able to function and perform more effectively as an intact unit Action learning Team given real problem analyze develop an action plan and carry it out Training which involves experience in a team context when there are task demands that highlight the importance of effective teamwork processes Team Building Facilitate team processes related to goal setting interpersonal relations problem solving and role clarification Managing Performance 164201 82715 845 PM Performance management The process through which managers ensure that employees activities and outputs contribute to the organization s goals Purposes 0 Strategic Effective performance helps achieve business objectives 0 Administrative Ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for daytoday decisions 0 Developmental Developing knowledge and skills 0 Criteria for Effective Performance Management 0 Fit with strategy Validity Actually measures what it is intended to measure 0 Contamination All the information in a performance appraisal o Deficiency All relevant measures ofjob performance 0 Reliability The consistency of results that the performance will deHver o Interrater reliability Consistency of results when more than one person measures performance 0 Testretest reliability Consistency of results over time o Acceptability Whether or not a measure is valid and reliable it must meet the practical standard of being acceptable to the people who use it Must be timely and fair 0 Specific feedback Methods for Measuring Performance 0 Comparisons 0 Simple ranking Best and worst valid Fair 0 Forceddistribution method Assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories 0 Pairedcomparison method Compares each employee with each other employee to establish rankings 0 Rating individuals 0 Lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait subjective o Mixedstandard scale Several statements describing each trait to produce a final score for that trait o Define which behaviors are associated with success on the job and rate an employee based on these Critical incident method Based on managers records of specific examples of employee acting in ways are either effective or ineffective BARS Intended to define performance dimensions specifically using statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance BOS Uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a task also includes frequency Organizational Behavior Modification OBM Managing the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement Measuring Results 0 Management by objectives MBO People at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom so employees at all levels are contributing to the organization s overall goals 0 Total Quality Management Assesses both individual performance and the system within which the individual works 0 Subjective 0 Objective Sources of Performance Information 0 360degree performance appraisal Information from managers peers self and customers Errors in Performance Management 0 Training 0 Calibration meeting where managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating the influence of rating errors Giving Performance Feedback 0 Schedule regular feedback 0 Conducting the Feedback Session Problem solving approach letting managers and employees work together with open dialogue 0 Should emphasize behavior not personalities 0 End with goal setting and when to follow up Finding Solutions to Performance Problems 0 Lack of ability May need training 0 Lack of motivation Positive feedback 0 Lack of both Performance may improve if the manager directs the employee by withholding rewards or providing specific feedback 0 Legal and Ethical Issues in Performance Management Behaviors rather than traits Use multiple raters Train raters Provide a review of all performance ratings by upperlevel managers and set up a system for appeal Feedback and training for improvement Selecting Employees and Placing Them in Jobs Pg 202 82715 845 PM Selection Process 0 Personnel selection Organizations make decisions about who will or will not be allowed to join the organization 0 Reliability The extent to which a measurement is free from random error Validity The extent to which performance on a measure such as a test score is related to what the measure is designed to assess such as job performance 0 CriterionRelated Validity A measure of validity based on showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job performance scores Research that uses the test scores of all applicants and looks for a relationship between the scores and future performance of the applicants who were hired more time consuming and difficult but best measure of validity Research that consists of administering a test to people who currently hold a job then comparing their scores to existing measures ofjob performance 0 Content and Construct Validity Consistency between test items or problems and the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job Consistency between a high score on a test and high level of a construct such as intelligence or leadership ability 0 Ability to Generalize Valid in other contexts beyond the context in which the selection method was developed 0 Tests for cognitive ability are most valid for complex jobs 0 Practical Value 0 Utility Provide economic value greater than the cost of using them 0 Legal Standards for Selection 0 Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Must show test is valid for predicting performance of a certain job regardless of minorities 0 Civil Rights Act of 1991 Prohibits preferential treatment in favor of minority groups may not adjust minority scores upward 0 Equal Employment Opportunity Affect the kinds of information an organization may gather on application forms and in interviews 0 The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1991 Requires employers to make reasonable accommodationquot to disabled individuals and restricts many kinds of questions during the selection process 0 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 Employers must verify and maintain records on the legal rights of applicants to work in the United States Job Applications and Resumes 0 Application Forms 0 Contact info work experience educational background applicant s signature Resumes o Biased in favor of the applicant 0 References 0 Biased HR should be careful and listen to tone of voice from former employer 0 Background Checks 0 1 in 100 US adults is imprisoned and 92 million people in the US have a criminal record 0 60 of employers report that they conduct credit checks 0 Employment Tests and Work Samples 0 Assess how well a person can learn or acquire skills and abilities GATB Measure a person s existing knowledge and skills 0 Physical Ability Tests Measure muscular tension muscular power muscular endurance cardiovascular endurance flexibility balance and coordination Cognitive Ability Tests Intelligence tests designed to measure such mental abilities such as verbal skills quantitative skills and reasoning ability 0 Job Performance Tests and Work Samples 0 A wide variety of specific selection programs that use multiple selection methods to rate applicants ofjob incumbents on their management potential Inbasket tests tests of more general abilities personality tests 0 Personality Inventories Extroversion adjustment agreeableness conscientiousness inquisitiveness o Agreeable and extroverted associated with success in people based jobs 0 Consciousness excel at work 0 Honesty and Drug Tests 0 Administer tests systematically to all applicants for the same job 0 Use drug testing for jobs that involve safety hazards 0 Have a report of the results sent to the applicant along with information about appeal and retest if appropriate 0 Respect privacy 0 Medical Examinations 0 Medical exams must be related to job requirements and may not be given until the candidate has received a job offer 0 Interviews Interviewing Techniques 0 Great discretion in choosing questions not reliable or sometimes even legal 0 Establishes a set of questions for the interviewer to ask more reliable and valid 0 Structured interview in which the inter viewer describes a situation likely to arise on the job and asks what he or she would do high validity in job performance o Situational interview in which the interviewer asks the candidate to describe how he or she handled a type of situation in the past highest validity o Several members of the organization meet to interview each candidate Advantages Communication and interpersonal skills are key elaboration possible on skills Disadvantages Unreliable low in validity biased against a number of different groups costly subjective o Avoidance Narrow structure accomplish few goals so they have measures on observable goals Preparing to Interview 0 Quiet comfortable standardized o What to expect afterwards Selection Decisions Multiple hurdle model Process of arriving at a selection decision by eliminating some candidates at each stage of the selection process Compensatory model Process of arriving at a selection decision in which a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another Ch 10 Ability 82715 845 PM 0 Ability Refers to the relatively stable capabilities people have to perform a particular range of different but related activities 0 What does it mean for an employee to be able What people can doquot In contrast to What people are like or what people will likely doquot Cognitive Ability 0 Cognitive ability Capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving 0 SAT example 0 Verbal Ability Various capabilities associated with understanding and expressing oral and written communication 0 Oral comprehension written comprehension oral communication written expression Verbal abilities most important in jobs in which effectiveness depends on understanding and communicating ideas and information to others 0 Quantitative Ability Two types of mathematical capabilities 0 Number facility Do simple math operations 0 Mathematical reasoning Ability to choose and apply formulas to solve problems that involve numbers 0 Statistics accounting engineering jobs lower level jobs 0 Reasoning ability A diverse set of abilities associated with sensing and solving problems using insight rules and logic 0 Problem Sensitivity The ability to sense that there s a problem right now or likely to be one in the near future Anesthesiologist o Deductive reasoning The use of general rules to solve problems important in any job in which people are presented with a set of facts that need to be applied to make effective decisions 0 Inductive reasoning The ability to consider several specific pieces of information and then reach a more general conclusion regarding how those pieces are related Crime scene investigator o Originality The ability to develop clever and novel ways to solve problems Advertising 0 Spatial Ability Capabilities associated with visual and mental representation and manipulation of objects in space 0 Spatial orientation Good understanding of where one is relative to other things in the environment Sightseeing and finding way back to hotel 0 Perceptual Ability Being able to perceive understand and recall patterns of information 0 Speed and flexibility of closure Being able to pick out a pattern of information quickly in the presence of distracting information even without all the information present CIA breaking secret codes 0 Perceptual speed Examine and compare numbers letters and objects quickly Tomato comparing at store 0 General cognitive ability Gfactor Causes all of the more specific cognitive abilities we ve discussed so far 0 Similar to IQ 0 Higher IQ healthier and economically better off Emotional Ability Emotional intelligence Set of distinct but related abilities that enable people to be effective in a wide variety of social contexts Selfawareness The appraisal and recognition of emotions in oneseW o Other Awareness The appraisal and recognition of emotion in others Emotion Regulation Being able to quickly recover from emotional expe ences 0 Use of emotions Use of emotions The degree to which people can harness emotions and employ them to improve their chances of being successful in whatever they re seeking to do 0 Applying Emotional Intelligence 0 Recruiters for US Air Force more effective because they projected positive emotions and could quickly sense and appropriately respond to recruits concerns which made it easier turnover decreased 0 Can be used as manipulation gossiping and theft 0 Assessing Emotional Intelligence EQi 0 Physical Abilities 0 Strength Degree to which the body is capable of exerting force 0 Static strength Lift push pull heavy objects using the hands arms legs shoulders or back 0 Explosive strength Run jump throw things 0 Dynamic strength Exert force for a prolonged period of time without becoming overly fatigued and giving out 0 Stamina The ability of a person s lungs and circulatory system to work efficiently while he or she is engaging in prolonged physical activity 0 Running swimming climbing Flexibility and coordination o Flexibility bend stretch twist Extent flexibility cramped compartment or awkward position Dynamic flexibility Quick bends stretches twists or reaches 0 Coordination The quality of physical movement Gross body coordination Synchronize the movement of the body arms and legs to do something while the whole body is in motion Gross body equilibrium Maintain the balance of the body in unstable texts or when the person has to change directions Psychomotor Abilities Capacity to manipulate and control objects 0 Fine manipulative abilities Keep the arms and hands steady while using the hands to do precise work generally on delicate objects 0 Control movement abilities People have to make different precise adjustments using machinery to complete the work effectively anyone who drills things 0 Response orientation Ability to choose the right action quickly in response to several different signals pilot 0 Response time How quickly an individual responds to signaling information after it occurs 0 Sensory abilities Vision and hearing capabilities 0 Vision Near and far vision Night vision Visual color discrimination Depth perception 0 Hearing Sensitivity Discriminate varying sounds Auditory attention Focus on a single sound in the presence of many others Speech recognition Ability to identify and understand the speech of another person Summary 0 General cognitive ability strong positive effect to job performance specifically task performance 0 Better at learning and decision making 0 General cognitive ability has no effect on organizational commitment Application Selecting High Cognitive Ability Employees Wonderlic Personnel Test12 minute test of general cognitive ability that consists of 50 questions Stress 82715 845 PM 0 Stress is a psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes for the person and that tax or exceed the person s capacity or resources 0 The demands that cause people to experience stress are called stressors o Hindrance Challenge Work Nonwork The negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed a person s capacity are called strains 0 Why are some employees for stressed than others Transactional theory of stress 0 Primary appraisal Occurs as people evaluate the significance and the meaning of the stressor they re confronting o Benign job demands Job demands that tend not to be appraised as stressful 0 Types of stressors o Hindrance stressors Stressful demands that people tend to perceive as hindering toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment 0 Challenge stressors Stressful demands that people tend to perceive as opportunities for learning growth and achievement 0 Work Hindrance Stressors Role conflict Conflicting expectations that other people may have of us Role ambiguity Lack of information about what needs to be done in a role as well as unpredictability regarding the consequences of performance Role overload The number of demanding roles a person holds is so high that the person simply cannot perform some or all of the roles effectively Daily Hassles Relatively minor daytoday demands that get in the way of accomplishing the things that we really want to accomplish 0 Work Challenge Stressors Time pressure A strong sense that the amount of time you have to do a task is just not quite enough a Positive Work Complexity The degree to which the requirements of the work in terms of knowledge sills and abilities tax or exceed the capabilities of the person who is responsible Work responsibility Refers to the nature of the obligations that a person has toward others a Higher when the number scope and importance of the obligations are higher a Stressful and potentially positive 0 NonWork Hindrance Stressors Workfamily conflict Demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands of a family role or viceversa Negative life events Hinder the ability to achieve life goals and are associated with negative emotions death divorce marital separation jail Financial uncertainty Uncertainties with regard to the loss of livelihood savings or the ability to pay expenses 0 NonWork Challenge Stressors Family time demands The time that a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and responsibilities Personal development Formal education music lessons sports hobbies volunteering Positive life events Marriage new family member graduating school 0 How do people cope with stressors 0 Secondary appraisal How can I cope The behaviors and thoughts that people use to manage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated with those demands 0 Behavioral coping The set of physical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situation 0 Cognitive coping Refers to the thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with a stressful situation 0 Problem focused coping Behaviors and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation itself 0 Emotionfocused coping The various ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands Set of beliefs that people have about how well different coping strategies can address different demands Degree to which people believe that a particular strategy gives them some degree of control over the stressor The Experience of Strain 0 Physiological Strains high blood pressure illness headaches back pain 0 Psychological Strains Depression anxiety irritability forgetfulness reduced confidence burnout emotions mental and physical exhaustion o Behavioral Strains Alcohol and drug use teeth grinding compulsive behaviors overeating Accounting for Individuals in the stress process 0 Type A Behavior Pattern Impatient harddriving competitive controlling aggressive and even hostile Direct influence on the level of stressors that a person confronts Influences the stress process itself Directly linked to coronary heart disease 0 Social support The help that people receive when they re confronted with stressful demands Instrumental support Help people receive that can be used to address stressful demand directly Emotional support 0 How Important is Stress Hindrance Stressors weak negative Job Performance Hindrance Stressors strong negative Organizational Commitment 0 Challenge Stressors weak positive Job Performance 0 Challenge Stressors moderate positive Organizational Commitment 0 Application Stress Management 0 Assessment 0 Stress Audit Ask themselves questions about the nature of the jobs in their organization 0 Reducing Stressors 0 Eliminate or significantly reduce stressful demands Job sharing Sabbatical Gives employees the opportunity to take time off from work to engage in an alternative activity 0 Providing Resources 0 Beneficial for hindrance stressors rather than challenge stressors Training interventions aimed at increasing jobrelated competencies and skills a Demand are more controllable Supportive practices that help employees manage and balance the demands that exist in the different roles they have n Flextime compressed workweek Reducing Strains o Relaxing technique Progressive muscle relaxation meditation calming activities Slow the heart rate breathing rate and blood pressure 0 Cognitivebehavioral technique Help people appraise and cope with stressors in a more rational manner Self talk prioritize demands manage time communicate needs seek support 0 Health and wellness programs Employee assistance programs help people with alcoholism and other addictions Exam Review 1 1 Define the 5 parts of Job Characteristics Theory and the Three Psychological States Give the graphic which shows the relation between the two What are the variables that define Motivation 0 Five core job characteristics 0 Variety Use of multiple skills for different tasks daily 0 Identity Able to see the project all the way through to the end 0 Significance Have Impact on others 0 Autonomy Freedom to make decisions 0 Feedback Knowledge of Results Psychological States 0 Meaningfulness of work influenced by variety identity and significance which makes work more fulfilling 0 Responsibility of Work influenced by autonomy where you have more accountability for your work 0 Knowledge of Results influenced by feedback where you have performance assessment 0 Motivation is the combined effects on behavior of three choices 0 Direction the choice to expend effort Ex do I study for this class or do I do something else 0 Intensity the choice of the level of effort to expend Ex if I do study l ll study very hard high level 0 Persistence the choice to persist at that level Ex for how long in a given time will you study 30 minutes then go out or study for hours Variety Meaningfulness of work Intrinsic Enjoyment of Job Signi noe Responsibility Autonomy for work Feedback Kquot W39ed9e of Results 2 What is the overarching theme of Expectancy Theory Explain its various parts and include a graphic What part of this theory would be affected the most if you received a reward you didn t actually like What part of this theory would be most affected given inadequate information and job training with an expectation to perform M Expectancy Theory Exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task 0 Expectancy Effort will result in performance 0 Instrumentality Performance will result in outcomes 0 Valence Outcomes will be valuable Instru mentality Expectancy Valence Effects of nonvaluable award 0 Valence You would find the outcome to be valuable Change valence by adding reward systems 0 Effects of Inadequate Training 0 Expectancy Lack of training creates low confidence or selfefficacy Higher self efficacy a higher expectancy a higher effort 3 What are the major differences between Functional and Divisional group structures Which of these groups would be best for increasing individual skills variety and task identity What are the major differences between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous teams in relation to performance early on and over time What characteristics would make a team more cohesive values size makeup etc Divisional vs Functional o Divisional strategy Each student is responsible for ALL SEGMENTS for 1 part 0 Functional Each student is responsible for 1 segment for ALL PARTS Divisional would be the better of these two groups for individual skills variety and task identity because people have variety in their tasks broad minded and get a better overall picture of what that job looks like Homogenous vs Heterogeneous o Homogeneity Good for speed and efficiency on tasks 0 Heterogeneity Good for creativity and quality on tasks usually outperform homogenous teams Surface level Creates issues for teams early on but disappears over time Deep level Attributes hard to observe initially but can be inferred after more experience and increases over time Positive influences on group cohesion Attraction to team and motivation 0 Group homogeneity 0 Group tenure 0 Small group size 0 Frequency of interaction 4 What is the overarching theme of Reinforcement Theory Explain the 4 types of reinforcement as well as the difference between punishment positive and negative reinforcement Which of the 4 types is most susceptible to extinction Theme of Reinforcement Theory 0 Behavior is a function of its consequences 0 To increase frequency of behavior Positive reinforcement Give Good O Negative Reinforcement Take bad To decrease frequency of behavior Punishment May shape behavior but create unwanted side effects Give bad Take Good Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcement occurs every time the desired behavior is performed Salesman gets a bonus for every sale made 4 Types of Reinforcement O 0 Variable Interval Reinforcement Reward is given in an unpredicted amount of time Worker Gets a bonus after 5 months then another after 3 months Fixed Interval Reinforcement Reward is given in a fixed amount of time Worker gets a bonus every 5 months Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Reward is given after a certain number of responses Salesman gets a bonus after every 3 sales Variable Ratio Reinforcement Response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of responses Salesman gets a bonus after 3 sales and then after 5 sales the next time Most Susceptible to Extinction 0 Continuous Reinforcement amp Fixed Interval 5 What is the overarching theme of Equity Theory Explain its various parts and include a graphic How might social loafing tie into this theory How can you reduce the occurrence of social loafing Equitv Theorv Motivation Slides 2832 Loafinq Groups and Teams Slide 31 0 Theme of Equity Theory 0 Equity Theory acknowledges that motivation doesn t just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people You compare your ratio of outcomes and inputs to the ratio of some comparison other which seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference forjudging equity Pads 0 Inputs performance effort education etc 0 Outcomes pay promotion etc You Comparison other Outcomes Outcomes As an employee you want higher input to be rewarded with a better outcome 0 Example You would not want to see someone slacking off and receiving the same outcome payraisepromotion as you Equity Theory says that two employees with equal inputs will have equal outcomes You Comparison other a Underreward condition 39 7 Outcomes b Equity condition g outcomes J 39 Outcomes I 1 VOutcomes I Social Loafing Employees expend less effort when working in a team than when working alone 0 Reduce by 6 Motivation Measuring performance 0 Loafing would likely cause an imbalance in Equity theory Define Performance Management what a simple ranking scale a graphic ranking scale BARS and BOS likewise identify which type of performance measurement they are Which of these ranking systems may be tied to legal issue Are any of these ranking systems may be deficient or lack specificity Define Strategic Congruence Deficiency and Contamination in relation to the Dimensions of Performance Performance management The process by which managers ensure that employees activities are congruent with organizational goals It has two primary components defining performance and measuring performance Simple ranking scale The method of performance measurement that requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest performer to the poorest performer Graphic rating scale A method of performance measurement that lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait The employer uses the scale to indicate the extent to which an employee displaces each trait BARS A method of performance measurement that rates behavior in terms of a scale showing specific statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance BOS A variation of BARS which uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a task Legal issue Simple ranking DeficientILack Specificity Simple ranking Graphic rating scale behaviors needed to compensate for poor KSAO s are unclear Strategic congruence Having the measure reinforce the kinds of behaviors that support company goals Deficiency Information that is not gathered but is relevant o The more dimensions of performance considered in the evaluation the less deficiency the measure has Contamination Information that is gathered but irrelevant o The less noise contained within the measure the less contamination the measure has 7 What is Management by Objectives and how does responsibility flow What are process gains and what attributes are tied to this term Results Approach Each level of company sets difficult goals for the level below with participation of employees These goals become the standard for evaluating each employee s performance Attributes and Process Gains 0 Productivity quality efficiency customer service ratings 0 Less subjective acceptable to people easy to link to goals 8 What are the 3 forms ofjob redesign Are any of these tied to parts of the job characteristics theory ie Autonomy If so what attributes of Job Characteristics theory would job redesign affect Job Rotation Providing employees with different tasks orjobs 0 Variety Providing ample different tasks with increase job variety Job Enlargement Increasing number of tasks 0 Identity Employee will see more of the big picture Job Enrichment Empowering employees to make decisions 0 Autonomy More trust It may be better to enrich position than get a new person Giving employees the power to make decisions increases their independence 9 What 2 things must a goal be to be effective give a graphic Likewise how can employees help with goal setting from lecture Goal needs to be specific and challenging Employees need to be determined and persistent performing at the highest level and showing commitment to the goal 10 What is the difference between a disjunctive and conjunctive task What are some pros and cons of each task What are the 4 stages of group development explain what happens in each Pg 109 Disjunctive tasks The member who possesses the highest level of ability relevant to the task will have the most influence on the effectiveness of the team 0 Pros The member who possesses the highest level of ability relevant to the task will have the most influence on the effectiveness of the team 0 Cons Everyone s abilities need to be the same so more training may be needed Conjunctive tasks Tasks for which the team s performance depends on the abilities of the weakest link 0 Pros The weakest link is supported by their team to improve 0 Cons Tasks for which the team s performance depends on the abilities of the weakest link Forming Members orient themselves by trying to understand their boundaries in the team what s expected what behaviors are out of bounds and who s in charge Storming Members remain committed to ideas they bring with them to the team Norming Members realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals and begin to cooperate Performing Members are comfortable working within their roles and the team makes progress towards goals 11 What is the difference between task and relationship conflict Define Punctuated Equilibrium and how it may be good or bad for a team What would you give to an employee so as to empower them think about the job characteristics theory This is not an extrinsic thing but intrinsic Pg 138 Task Conflict disagreements among members about the team s task Relationship Conflict disagreements among team members in terms of interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities with respect to personal values or preferences Can destroy a team Punctuated Equilibrium page 100 groups use diverse behaviors to accomplish their work Teams transition around the same time 0 At the midway point of a project members realize that they have to change their task paradigm fundamentally to complete it on time How to empower an employee intrinsically 0 Give autonomy 12 What is the IPO model What are the inputs for this model What are the implications of team size Groups and Teams Slide 6 Inputs Process Outcomes A popular model to explain how groups achieve outcomes Inputs for this model are organizational influences on teams such as o Reward systems 0 Communication structure 0 Organizational support 0 Organizational leadership 0 Task Decomposition M Implications of team size Having a greater number of members is beneficial for management and project teams but not for teams engaged in production tasks 0 45 may be best 13 What is Organizational Citizenship Behavior Managing Performance slide 6 amp 7 OCB Discretionary extra mile behaviors that fall outside of an employee s job description and that in the aggregate promote the effective functioning of the organization 0 Examples Altruism Civic Virtue Sportsmanship and Courtesy 14 How do you reduce groupthink in groups Devils advocate Evaluate comments Heterogeneous teams Brainstorming EXAM QUESTIONS 1 Rewarding individuals with something they don t value is likely to harm what component of expectancy theory Valence 2 Which of the following describes a task in which performance depends on the team member with the weakest ability Conjunctive 3 According to the textbook this approach to performance management uses a system whereby people at each level of the organization set specific challenging goals in a process that flows from top to bottom Management by objectives Tests Which Test is a Projective measure of personality 0 Rorschach Inkblot Test Analyzing inkblots and based on what each person describes it explains their personality characteristics and functions o Thematic Appreciation Test Proponents of this technique assert that person s responses reveal underlying motives concerns and the way they see the social world through ambiguous pictures of people quot39 art s2m a 39 L4 v g 3 O H v 4 5 I d 39Jwvc 39 quot 39 l 39 u 3 J 1quot 37 quot39I r 1 1 Which Test would be used to determine discrimination for someone who has received the highest score on a selection test but not the job 0 McDonnell Douglas Test A legal test based off a case in the Civil Rights Movement that determines whether the employment method is motivated based on discriminatory actions I Person belongs to a protected group I Person applied for and was quali ed for the job I Person was rejected despite quali cations I Employer either kept seeking or hired someone with similar quali cations What does the Wonderlic Personal Test Examine O Other Wonderlic Test 50 question test that examines I Verbal Ability I Quantitative Ability I Reasoning Ability I Spatial Ability What are some questions an interviewer cannot ask during an interview 0 00000 What s your maiden name Ages of your children Nationality lineage or national origin What s your marital status Have you ever been arrested Which religious holidays will you need off If someone lacks motivation because they don t think they can accomplish a task what aspect of selfevaluation should you look to improve 0 Selfef cacy The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success What is SelfFul lling Prophecy O A prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true by the very terms of the prophecy itself due to positive feedback between belief and behavior What is Self Awareness and how does this relate to perceiving emotions O O SelfAwareness The appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself The ability of an individual to understand the types of emotions he or she is experiencing the willingness to acknowledge them and the capability to express them naturally Correlations In Testing Correlations a correlation Coefficient r of 050 explains what percent of variance in data What about when r10 o R2 r2 0505025 o 25 of the variance of one variable is explained by the other variable For example the correlation between intelligence and performance is about 50 so R2 25 50 x 50 and thus 25 of the variance in performance is explained by intelligence 0 When rl it is a perfect positive relationship All of the variance of one variable is explained by the other variable What defines a strong Correlation Numerically 0 From 1 to around 07 or 06 and around 06 or 07 to l is a strong correlation 10 and l0 perfect correlation How high is the correlation between Cognitive Ability and Job Performance 0 The correlation between Cognitive Ability and Job Performance is 5 How does Standard Error affect hiring decisions Use an example with test scores and standard error 0 The lower the standard error the higher the reliability 0 We want hiring decisions to be based off the high reliability of the tests If the test has a high standard error the evaluation of the applicants quali cations will be less reliable therefore hiring decisions will be less reliable Bill scored a 40 on the test George scored a 30 and Larry scored a 48 The standard error of the test is 052 Who should you hire Is there a way to tell 0 George s range is 3 052 352 and 3 052 248 o Bill s range is 4 052 452 and 4 052 348 o Larry s range is 48 052 532 and 48 052 428 0 Larry and Bill s two scores overlap and due to the standard error cause us to still consider Larry and Bill We would need another test between those two in order to see who is actually the better candidate Validation What is the difference between the 3 major reliability testing dimensions 0 m I Give applicant a survey that asks the same kinds of items multiple times I Correlate the answers to the items 0 M I Give a test to an applicant multiple times I Correlate the results 0 Raters I Interview applicants with multiple interviewers I Correlate their scores If a measure is valid is it always reliable 0 Yes a measure must be reliable to be valid I Reliability is the degree to which the measure is free from random error I Validity will then be free from contamination Good selection measures must be Reliable Valid Generalizable Useful Legal 0000 Explain specifically how Generaliazability is a major consideration when using the same measure for different employersindustries 0 Jobs 0 Organization 0 Kinds of People 0 Time Periods For Utility what is the relationship between raising the Cutoff Standards and hiring accuracy 0 Raising the Cutoff Standards will increase the hiring accuracy Look at content and construct validity which is judgment based results based Explain what this means for each 0 Content Validation I Judgment Based Consistency between test items or problems and the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job I Not statistically derived relies on expert judgment Asks Does the content of the measure SEEM to relate to the job 0 Construct Validation I Result Based Consistency between a high score on a test and high level of a construct such as intelligence or leadership ability Look at Predicative and Concurrent Validation which is administered to applicants to determine validity o Predictive Validation Give measure to job applicants but does not use it to hire Suggests hiring at random or using something else that is unrelated to measure Then correlate it with performance or some other criterion several months later Likewise what is the major weakness on concurrent validation 0 Problem with concurrent validation is that it gives the measure to people already on the job and correlate it with the performance at that time However most of them already have high levels of whatever it is the employer measures or they would not have gotten the job in the first place There is a restriction in range Traits What are the Big 5 traits Give 2 traits for each and explain briefly what this trait is Big Five Traits Two Traits Brief Explanation Conscientiousness Dependable The tendency to show self Organized discipline aim for achievement and prefer planned rather than spontaneous Extraversion Sociable The tendency to seek stimulation Assertive in the company of others Agreeableness Courteous A tendency to be compassionate Trusting and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others Openness to Curious Re ects the degree of intellectual Experience Imaginative curiosity creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a person has Emotional Stability Stable Non Refers to a person39s ability to Depressed remain calm or even keel when faced with pressure or stress What measurement is most reliable in relation to measuring the Big 5 Personalities o The NEO 5factor inventory I 60 questionnaire that measures the Big 5 Which Big 5 trait has the Highest CriterionRelated Validity r o Conscientiousness I R 22 highest among Big 5 traits I There is a large correlation between job performance and high scores of conscientiousness What types of performance are Cognitive Ability and Conscientiousness related to 0 Cognitive Ability maximum performance correlation with I Job performance I Training performance 0 Conscientiousness typical performance How is Faking it During selection tests and Self Awareness related 0 If an applicant is taking a prescreening test and has somewhat high Self Awareness they can put together what type of person the company is looking for For example the desired position might call for the person to be very driven and taskoriented An applicant who has high selfawareness can just pick answers that re ect being driven and task oriented but really does have those qualities Of the Below 4 which two are most related to Faking it And high on job performance 0 Agreeableness 0 Cognitive Ability o Extraversion o Conscientiousness HR What is the difference between Desperate Treatment and Desperate Impact Which is more focused on consequences on intent 0 Desperate TreatmentIntended to treat people differently based on group membership I Intent 0 Desperate Impact Facially neutral employment practice adversely affects different groups hiring rate for a protected group is less than 4 5 5 80 of the hiring rate for the majority group I Consequences What are Quid Pro Quo Hostile Working Environment and Prima Facie Put these in relation to sexual harassment if possible 0 Quid Pro Quo A bene t or punishment is contingent upon employee submitting to sexual advancements o Hostile working environment Behavior make it dif cult for someone of a particular sex to work 0 Prima Facia At First Glance I Ex She wore that to work therefore she s asking for harassment What Act was published to aid in Worker Safety 0 Occupational Safety and Health Act OSHA What are the major perception Biases Explain them Likewise this one is the result of years of evolution and learning that results in discriminatory practices 0 PrimacyRecency Pay more attention to the rst and last things 0 HaloHorns If someone is goodbad at one thing they must be goodbad at other things as well 0 Attribution Bias Tendency to overestimate the role of the person and underestimate the role of the situation Example baseball failblame situation successtake credits 0 Stereotyping Assigning characteristics of a group to every individual in that group can be inaccurate Why for stereotyping 0 Cognitive resource capacity Social identity theory Explain a few major pros and cons of the structured vs nondirective interview structure 0 Structured Pros I Tend to be more valid and effective because the questions relate to more relevant knowledge and job skills I All candidates answer same questions I Remove biases an interviewer might have on a question I Easier to chose candidates if they answer the same questions 0 Structured Cons I Not as free owing or common I Doesn t allow candidates to bring out as much information about them in comparison to unstructured interview Which interview structure gives the most power to the interviewer when it comes to which questions to ask 0 Unstructured Interview Cases Schmidt and Zimmerman explain this relationship between unstructured and structured interviews What is the difference between the two interviews 0 Their study shows that they took 3 unstructured interviews to equal the validity of l structured interview I A structured interview is a set of questions that have been previously established The questions focus on relevant knowledge skills experiences and requirements of the job The interviewer is meant to only ask these questions and stay away from asking other questions that aren t as applicable These interviews include asking situational questions It restricts the interviewer but the results will be more valid and reliable I An unstructured interview includes openended and opinionated questions These can include questions about strengths weaknesses career goals and other work experiences These are not speci cally related to the actual job and therefore have more noise than structured interviews This type of interview will lead to lower validity and lower reliability compared to a structured interview The Equal Pay Act allows men and women to be paid differently on what grounds 0 Seniority o Merit 0 Quality 0 Quantity Highlight the Major Cases below 0 A Sutton V United Airlines I Determination of disability should be made with reference to ability to use corrective measures to x disability I Girls with vision impairment led under ADA discrimination because of their poor vision but was not seriously impairing from major life activities because it is correctable o Bragdon V Abbot I Reproduction does qualify as a major life activity under the ADA I STD forced reproduction inability and harm thus rendering her with a disability so refusal of service by her dentist on STD grounds is discrimination I Doesn t provide blanket protection for all persons with STDs O 0 Toyota V Williams I Determined that disability to perform manual job functions but not essential personal life manual functions doesn t count as severe impairment of major life activities I Relying solely on inability to perform work functions is insufficient in proving presence of disability Griggs V Duke Power I Considered first case of it s kind on employment discrimination I Blacks only allowed to work in labor department I Ruled employment tests were not pertainable to performance or ability to do job so was discriminating blacks under education and IQ requirements What are EEO Laws Explain which of the following is related and which is in contrast to these laws and why 0 0 Protect employees from discrimination in the workforce Ensure EEO for individuals regardless of their membership in certain protected classes Some EEO Laws are broad and some are narrow EEO is created using constitutional amendments congressional legislation executive orders and state legislation Civil Rights Act of 1991 O O Allows for compensatory damages and punitive damages These punitive damages may only be collected when discrimination was intentional This act contrasts with the EEO Laws because it is not specifically prohibiting discrimination It is allowing for people that were discriminating against to receive some sort of compensation or allow them to dole out a punishment However this act is also related the EEO Laws because it was added to Title VII American Disabilities Act 0 The American Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against employees with disabilities subject to exceptions A disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities This Act is related to the EEO Laws because it prevents discrimination in the workplace which is what the EEO Laws stand for 0 However this also contrasts with the EEO Laws because if the disability affects job performance or a job requirement then employers can discriminate based upon a specific disability The Age Discrimination in Employment Act ADEA prohibits what 0 The Age Discrimination in Employment Act ADEA prohibits discrimination against employees over the age of 40 0 Firms cannot hire only younger workers unless it is a business necessity without other valid alternatives 0 Firms cannot coerce employees into taking early retirement If employees accept early retirement they an agreement waiving their right to sue under the ADEA What are the basic recent court developments regarding sexual Harassment o Harassment can be contrapower or coming from subordinates rather than from higherups o Harassment can also occur between members of the same sex Harassment can occur in the absence of a sexual desire on the part of the harasser Whether acts are voluntary on the part of the victim is irrelevant the correct question is whether the acts were unwelcome Theory Attribution Theory 0 The process by which people explain the causes of behavior and events Attribution Bias 0 The tendency to blame the actions of others on their characteristics rather than the situation I Example When a driver cuts us off we are more likely to blame the driver what a jerk rather than the situational circumstance maybe he she was in a hurry and didn t notice me I Fundamental attribution error when it comes to us we take credit for the success but blame our failures on the situation Social Identity Theory 0 We tend to associate with in groups groups we want to be a part of and disassociate with out groups groups we do not want to be a part of I Example When the Spartans advance in NCAA tournament we might say We advanced to the Elite 8 If we were to get knocked out of it we might say They lost in the Sweet 16 1 Training Ch 10 pg 306341 De nition Of Training A planned effort to help employees acquire job related knowledge skills and behaviors with the goal of applying these on the job Training is used for various reasons Provide new hires with job speci c KSO s respond to changes employee expectations for development Needs Assessment 0 Organization Analysis Do we have resources to train people Does the organization have the resources budget time and expertise for training Does the training program t with the organization s strategy Is their managerial and peer support for training 0 Person Analysis Who needs the training Who needs training the most Everyone or just some critical group Why is there a performance de ciency Lack of KSO s Insuf cient resources Poor leadership 0 Task Analysis What are we training people on What tasks and KSO s need to be the focus of the training program Involves job analysis Rate tasks according to importance frequency and dif culty Identify KSOs needed for each task Focus training on important frequent and at least moderately dif cult tasks 0 0NET An online resource for task analysis that employers could use 0 Asking current employees what they think is most frequent and important and the level of dif culty is an accurate way of evaluating tasks Frequency Importance Dif culty Training should focus on important frequent and LEAST moderately dif cult tasks Employee Readiness for Training o SelfEf cacy Person39s belief that he or she can successfully complete a task quotCandoquot The higher con dence in employees control within the training process leads to higher performance 0 Personality Variables Conscientiousness Openness to Experience 0 Learning Orientation Mastery Orientation Perfectly ne having setbacks take that as learning experience and move forward want to learn Performance Orientation Feel their skills won t improve during training all they care about is looking good or not looking bad if they get a poor score they get very discouraged Create the Learning Environment 0 Training Objectives State speci c outcomes ensure that they are measurable 0 Content Delivery Similarity to Task Setting How similar is it to the task setting Pacing How much control do trainees have over the pacing of the instruction Cost How expensive is it Ensure Transfer of Training 0 Maintenance Manager should check whether employees are doing what they are trained to do 0 Generalization Has to work for all kinds of people 0 Practice Let people to actually do what they are trained to do on their job 0 Feedback Feedback should be provided at the end I Cycles of practice and feedback are key Training Evaluation 0 Most common method I Trainee reactions Ask your employees if they think the training helped them 0 Measures of training success O I Knowledgebased outcomes 0 Measured using posttraining tests paper amp pencil exercises etc I Skillbased outcomes 0 Measured us1ng tra1ner peer or superv1sor observatlon work sample tests or computerbased exerc1ses I Affective Outcomes 0 Measured us1ng surveys and 1nterv1ews Most rigorous method I Pretest post test with a comparison group I This allows you to determine whether or not it was the training itself that caused the increase or if it was something else all together Pretestposttest 2 Emotions Ch 11 pg 342375 Stress Ch 12 pg 376409 De nitions Justice Emotion Discrete shorter and more intense than moods Workplace events can cause reactions that can go on to in uence work attitudes and behaviors trigger emotions Emotions are clearly directed at someone or some circumstance Positive emotions can trigger spontaneous good behavior whereas negative emotions can trigger spontaneous counterproductive behavior MOOd A state of feeling that is mild in intensity It lasts for an extended period of time It is NOT explicitly cause by anything There are various amounts of different moods that can be experienced during the workday Moods are categorized in two ways pleasantness and activation Some moods are neither good nor bad The most intense positive mood is characterized by feeling enthusiastic excited and elated The most intense negative mood is feeling hostile nervous and annoyed Distributive Justice The perceived fairness of how rewards and costs are shared by or distributed amongst group members For example when workers of the same job are paid different salaries group members may feel that distributive justice has not occurred Equity Members outcomes should be based on their inputs Therefore an individual that invests more in inputs should receive more from the group than someone who contributed very little Preferred method among larger groups Equality Members outcomes should be based on their inputs Therefore an individual that invests more in inputs should receive more from the group than someone who contributed very little Preferred method among larger groups Need Those with the higher needs should be provided with resources in order to satisfy those needs These individuals should be given more than those who already possess them regardless of effort Resources are allocated based on need alone Procedural Justice Were you given a say in what happens in the org high if you do Voice Instrumental or expressive C orrectability Allows a way for the target to appeal or correct a bad decision Consistency Consistent application of the procedure by the agent Bias Suppression Requires that the decision maker must prevent selfinterest or preconceptions from in uencing the decision Representativeness Requires that the basic concerns values and outlook of important subgroups are considered in the decision process Accuracy Requires the decision to be based on accurate information Interpersonal Justice Degree to which your boss treats you with dignity and respect Respect Rule Pertains to whether authorities treat employees in a digni ed and sincere manner Propriety Rule Re ects whether authorities refrain from making improper or offensive remarks Informational Justice Degree to which your boss provides you with truthful info for key decisions Justi cation Rule Mandates that authorities explain decision making procedures and outcomes in a comprehensive and reasonable manner Truthfulness Rule Requires that those communications be honest and candid In uence of Status On Negative Emotional Displays People confer greater status toward people who express anger compared to sadness and guilt On Positive Emotional Displays High power allows for individuals to hold others accountable for unfavorable outcomes and themselves accountable for favorable outcomes leading to More anger and contempt vs sadness More pride vs gratitude R016 0f Gender Evaluators conferred lower status on angry female professionals than angry male professionals R016 0f NOVBIty People that are new generally have lower status than people who have been around longer Emotional contagion Occurs when people catch the emotions of others Occurs via facial feedback tone of voice subconscious mimicry Negativity Bias Tendency for people to recall pay more attention to and be more affected by negative informationevents than positive informationevents Negative emotion more likely to spill across the workfamily boundary Emotions as Communication Device Anger Intense emotional response basic boundaries are violated Gratitude You want the person to do the behavior again Embarrassment Can actually build relationships even though it shows otherwise Pain Elicit sympathy GUilt To make amends for wrong doing Shame Shows regret without the need for punishment won t do it again contempt Signif1es a persons lower status Emotional In uence on Attitude J01 Satisfaction Emotion Shapes an individual s belief about the value of a job and stable job satisfaction judgment even under major situational change Organizational citizenship behaviors Organizational Commitment Believe in what their organization stands for Are proud of their organization stands for Feel highly loyalty toward their organization Helps insure the job security Life Satisfaction Spillover where job experiences spill over into nonworking life Segmentation where job and life experiences are separated and have little to do with one another Compensation where an individual seeks to compensate for a dissatisfying job by seeking fulfillment and happiness in his or her nonworking life Emotions and Risk Taking Positive Emotions Goal achievement Receiving recognition and praise Support Capitalization Positive emotions are enhanced when positive emotions or events are shared with other people friends family etc Negative Emotions Calculate that there is nothing to lose impulsive Associated with greater Withdrawal counterproductive behavior turnover intentions and greater likelihood of rejecting negotiation offers that are superior to alternatives With this think about how angry people are Willing to take more risks to feel better Acts of coworkers customers and especially managers Interpersonal con icts Violations of trust Inequitable treatment These types of con icts are very commonly recalled from memory at later times for reference BROAD Effects of Personality Continued Example Neuroticism Differential Exposure Differential Differential Reactivity Choice in C n Negative Emotion Business Role for Positive and Negative Emotion Question Of BBHBfit For whom does the emotion bene t harm Question Of Conditions Under what conditions is bene t harm more likely Outcomes of Emotions Status High status less constrained express anger confront source Low status more constrained withdrawal Reactions Capitalization Give emotional boost and share with others Stress and Strain Differential Exposure Being exposed to a stressful activity Differential Reactivity Reacting in negative way to stressful activity Differential Coping Negative emotion causes strain with coping from emotion Role of Personality Neuroticism People with neuroticism interpret stressful situations more They tend to be more negative unstable reactive and negative EmOtional RUICS Organizations increasingly have implicit or even explicit display rules Integrative Displays Positive emotion Ex Waitress Jennifer Aniston clip with boss and Flair cashier customer service representative Differentiating Displays Negative emotion Ex bill collector bouncer Masking Suppressing Emotional display Ex judge lawyer surgeon cop Emotional Labor The need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully Surface vs Deep Acting Surface acting modifying emotional displays without attempting to alter underlying feelings Faking Suppressing Deep acting modifying actual emotions to match desired displays Deploying attention elsewhere Reappraising the situation Frame it differently Make a downward comparison Consequences for Organization Surface Acting Ineffective emotional displays toward customers Customer dissatisfaction or no effect Deep Acting Effective emotional displays toward customers Proactive customer help Service performance selfrated Consequences for Employee Surface Acting Change in felt emotion for the worse Higher likelihood of work withdrawal Emotional exhaustion Psychosomatic complaints Job dissatisfaction Deep Acting Change in felt emotion for the better Lower likelihood of work withdrawal Job satisfaction Emotional exhaustion Psychosomatic complaints Leading and Emotion Positive vs Negative Emotions Positive emotion Happygolucky People experiencing positive affect perceive a higher probability of success But they view potential losses as especially bad Net result more willing to gamble and take risks once you re happy you want to maintain it so you are more risk averse This means that you take fewer risks than those experiencing negative moods Negative emotion Calculate that there is nothing to lose Act more impulsively fail to selfregulate Net result You would take more risks because of impulsive behavior R016 0f Gender Men bene t more from expressing anger stereotypical behavior and if women express any emotions other than being positivehappy they are considered to be overly emotional and sensitive 3 Negotiation Ch 13 pg 410441 Characteristics of a Negotiation Negotiation is a discussion between two or more parties with the apparent aim of resolving divergent interests Characteristics 1 There are two or more parties 2 There is a con ict of interest 3 Parties negotiate because they can get a better deal than by taking what the other side will give them 4 Parties prefer to search for agreement instead of a Fighting openly b Breaking off contact c Capitulation giving in d Taking dispute to a 3rd party Maj or Sins LoseLose Negotiation Leaving money on the table gt there could ve been something that would have better bene ted both parties and you didn39t do it Situation in which both players end up worse off Winner s Curse Settling for too little quot gt when your offer is accepted immediately indicating you could ve walked away with more Walking Away from the Table When you leave the negotiation with no agreement a result of continued uncooperation and hostile talks Agreement Bias Settling gt when you settle on terms worse than your preferred alternative BATNA ie settling for the sake of avoiding arguing People have a natural tendency to say yes so they don t have to feel uncomfortable Bargaining Zone Model Employer s aspiration range ettlement Range Your aspiration ranger H M 1 39 30000 40000 45000 50000 target reservation reservation target point point point point Target Point Ideal negotiation amount Reservation Point Point of indifference indifferent about accepting or walking away Aspiration Range Range between target point and reservation point Settlement Range Overlap between aspirations opportunity for negotiation exists Best Alternative To Negotiated Agreement Should equal your reservation point Generally you should not accept anything lower than your BATNA Fixed Pie Perception Consequences Leads to information availability errors Leads to suboptimal agreements Winlose situation Fixed pie perceptions made worse under high time pressure This strategy does not work well Information Processing Distort or ignore information about other s preferences even when it is available Information Search Fail to ask for information about other s preferences because they assume they are in opposition Factors That Make It More Likely More prevalent in individualistic cultures like the US due to focus on self interests vs others interest Made worse on under high time pressure Distributive Bargaining Definition Goals of one party are in fundamental direct con ict to another party Resources are xed and limited xed pie Goal maximizing share of resources Also known as sumzero or winlose Strategies Discovering opponent s resistance point Push for settlement near opponent s Get opponent to reduce resistance point If no settlement range Get opponent to reduce resistance point Modify your resistance point Know your BATNA and try to know your opponent s Set high aspirations Make the rst offer offer that isn t absurdly out of realm of reality Counteroffer immediately Avoid stating ranges Give deadline Use objectiveappearing rational to support offers Appeal to norms of fairness Don t fall for even split ploy Don t reveal reservation point Consider how putting a time pressure on the other side can have a negative effect on them and a positive result for you Framing and Risk Framing Risk How the negotiation is described in terms of gains vs losses Negotiators who understand framing may understand how to have more control over the negotiation process Frames of both parties likely to be different Risk to the relationship between parties and the negotiator s reputation Opponent may believe they are being deceived by you Role of Concessions Essential to negotiation Usually involved in distributive negotiations Parties feel better about outcome with them May communicate weakness Don t overdo concessions Must be reciprocated Pattern of reciprocation is important Tapering concession indicates you are getting closer to walking away from the negotiation Integrative Bargaining Definition Aimed at accomplishing a winwin scenario Uses problem solving and mutual respect to achieve an outcome satisfying for both parties Contains more than one issue in negotiation The potential for Logrolling or trading off of issues is common Faulty Perceptions Compromise Often leaves money on the table Even Split How does one know if the pie is big enough Building a Relationship concern for other party can block the attainment of integrative agreements ParetoOptimal Solutions Integrative agreements that are both impossible to improve on for both parties this lies along the paretooptimal frontier of agreement Resistance to Yielding Effect of Integrative Approach on Joint Outcomes Review of 28 Negotiation Studies 58 I High resistance I Low resistance I No distinction 999990 IOUUIGJNI lll P o Resistance to Yielding Source De Dreu Weingart 8 Kwon 2000 4 Leadership Ch 14 pg 442479 Definition Of Leadership An interpersonal in uence process that attempts to motivate others to achieve goals that represent values of the leader and or others vision Trait Approach Basic Assumption Leaders possess stable characteristics that differentiate them from nonleaders The Great Man approach to leadership Early efforts at identifying universal traits failed Correlations for Big 5 Personality Traits Extraversion strongest correlate r 31 more strongly related to leader emergence than leader effectiveness Conscientiousness also important r 28 particularly for leader emergence In business settings openness to experience was second strongest predictor Behavioral Approach 0 Consideration Re ects the extent to which leaders create job relationships characterized by mutual trust respect for employee ideas and consideration of employee feelings Leaders who are high on consideration create a climate of good rapport and strong twoway communication and exhibit a deep concern for the welfare of employees More strongly related to follower satisfaction with job and leader than follower motivation and leader effectiveness Initiating Structure Re ects the extent to which the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment r 29initiating structure more strongly related to follower motivation and leader effectiveness than follower satisfaction Situational Approach Substitutes for Leadership Theory Situational variables can substitute for neutralize or enhance the effects of a leader s behavior Routines are established the entire group is cohesive with the leader ie the leader treats followers the same LeaderMember Exchange LMX Theory Leaders develop special relationships with a small group of followers creating ingroups and outgroups Ingroup members are more satis ed perform better and have less turnover than out groups Differentiation is damaging for employee well being Level of agreement between supervisor and subordinate is more important than the quality of the relationship itself TransformationalLeadership The study by Barling showed that Transformational leadership stayed with employees 5 months after training and continued to get better as time went on Definition Transformational leadership motivates followers to strive toward higher goals or vision that transcend their immediate selfinterests Idealized In uence Serving as charismatic role model to followers Inspirational Motivation Articulation of inspiring vision to followers Intellectual Stimulation Stimulating creativity by questioning and challenging Individualized Consideration Attending to individual needs of followers Support Across Jobs and Nationalities Culturally nurturing nations are more likely to support Transformational Leaders because they take personal interest in the well being of their employees Impact of Big 5 Personality Traits Transformational Big Five Trait Leadership Neuroticism 21 Extraversion 25 Openness to experience 30 Agreeableness 27 Conscientiousness 19 Transactional Leadership When a leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the adequacy of the follower s performance Contingent Reward Exchanging resources for follower support Management by Exception Active Monitoring performancetaking corrective action Management by Exception Passive Intervening only when problem becomes serious Laissez Faire Leadership Avoiding leadership responsibilities Impact of Leadership Type on Outcomes The transformational leaders offer opportunities set inspirational and individualized visions and goals thus transform selfinterests into collective good to push employees Therefore employees tend to achieve higher levels of performance rather than simply accomplishing tasks In case of this employees are more motivated to perform beyond expectation The transactional leaders give rewards to employees exactly based on their performances Since they strictly stick on discipline this kind of leadership ensures the company operating smoothly However they do not help employees to pursue higher performance also company to look ahead for strategically development Charismatic Leadership De nition Special quality of leadership that captures the popular imagination and inspires unswerving allegiance and devotion A person who has some divinely inspired gift grace or talent Magnetic charm or appeal Correlation with Outcomes Higher charisma better presidents performed Correlates highly with leadership satisfaction and effectiveness r90 82 QUIZ Os 1 The process by which individuals catch the emotions of others during interpersonal interactions is Emotional contagion 2 Which of the following is a work challenge stressor Time pressure 3 Which of the following emotions deals with facing an uncertain or vague threat Anxiety 4 The secondary appraisal refers to what stage in the stressstrain process Coping LO0K OVER DIAGRAM 5 Instrumental support and emotional support are both types of Social support 6 YOUR BOSS HAS THE ABILITY TO GIVE OUT BONUSES TO EMPLOYEES SO YOU ARE WILLING TO DO WHAT HE SAYS Reward A person is able to compensate another financially or otherwise for complying with his her demands A parent has reward power over his children Legitimate A person has been given formal authority to make demands of and expert obedience from others The CEO of your company for example has legitimate power Referent A person is strongly liked and admired by others and often exerts a charming influence A celebrity has referent power Expert A person has the knowledge and skills to outperform others her good judgment is respected and relied upon A specialist physician has expert power Coercive A person achieves compliance from others through the threat of punishment A military dictator has coercive power 7 What is the worst offer that you would be willing to accept in a negotiated agreement called BATNA 8 When you make decisions you always allow members of your team to participate in the decision This is an example of what influence tactic Consultation 9 Which of the following does not characterize distributive bargaining Potential for a winwin situation exists 10 The single most important state of the negotiating process is Preparation SAMPLE Qs 11 The needs assessment forms the foundation for many other steps in the training process which is not a component of the needs assessment Trainer analysis 12 Which of the following emotions signals to others a feeling of regret without the need for formal punishment Shame you are sorry of the crime 13 According to the bargaining zone model of negotiation what should your BATNA equal Your reservation point the point you are now willing to walk away negotiation no benefit 14 Which theory of leadership proposes that leaders develop special relationships with a small group of followers LeaderMemberExchange Theory 1 Which theory of leadership proposes that leaders develop special relationships with a small group of followers A Substitutes for Leadership Theory B LeaderMemberExchange Theory C Transformational Leadership Theory D Trait Theory of Leadership 2 A situation where a strong group routine reduces the effects of a leader s behaviors on that group would best be explained by what theory of leadership A Transformational leadership Theory B Behavioral Theory of Leadership C Charismatic Leadership Theory D Substitutes for Leadership Theory 3 In the video on negotiation from The Office which of the following tactics did Michael use during his salary negotiation with his boss A Making the first offer C Logrolling D None of the above 4 Which of the following is TRUE about the leader behaviors consideration and initiating structure A Neither consideration nor initiating structure are related to leadership B Considerations is more strongly related to follower motivation than initiating structure C Initiating structure is more strongly related to follower satisfaction than consideration D Initiating structure is more strongly related to leader effectiveness than consideration 5 What is the quotwinner s curse in negotiation A Occurs when an individual negotiates so well that no one wants to negotiate with that individual in the future B Occurs when an individual becomes overconfident from negotiating resulting in suboptimal outcomes in future negotiations Occurs when an initial offer is quickly accepted resulting in feelings of unease D None of the above P 6 In negotiation individuals sometimes settle for terms worse than their reservation point simply because they don t want the negotiation to come to an impasse What is this called A Agreement bias B Reservation point bias C Setting bias D Walking from the table bias 7 All of the following increase the likelihood of fixed pie perceptions EXCEPT A Negotiating in an individualist culture B Negotiating under time pressure C Focusing solely on one s own outcomes 8 Which of the following statements false about distributive bargaining strategies A Wait a while before making a counteroffer it makes the other party think that you might walk away from the negotiation Make the first offer it anchors the negotiation Avoid stating ranges the other party will know your limits D Reveal a deadline it puts pressure on the other party to make concessions 09 9 As discussed in class which of the following styles of leadership is most likely to emerge and be effective in times of crisis A Laissez faire leadership B Contingent reward leadership D Charismatic Leadership 10 The bargaining zone model of negotiations states that A B C D The physical space around the negotiations affects the negotiation outcome The negotiation process moves each party along a continuum with an area of potential ove ap The best negotiations occur in a neutral territory Negotiators must try to move the other party from a win lose orientation toward a win win orientation 11 Distributive bargaining is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A B C D Maximizing one s share of resources is the goal Potential for winwin situation exists Resources are fixed and limited Goals of one party are in direct conflict to another party 12 According to the bargaining zone model of negotiation what should your BATNA equal A B C D The other party s reservation point The other party s target point Your reservation point Your target point 13 Which of the following is TRUE about the study by Barling et al 1996 on whether leaders can be trained to be more transformational A 0 Leaders who received transformational leadership training had higher levels of transformational leader behaviors 5 months after the training Subordinates followers of leaders who received transformational leadership training had lower levels of performance 5 months after the training Transformational leadership training had no effect on leader s behaviors None of the above is true 14 Which of the following types of leadership has been shown to be effective in different cultures and occupations A Laissez faire leadership B C D Contingent reward leadership Consideration leadership Transformational leadership 15 Which of the following Big Five traits is most strongly correlated with overall leadership A B C D Agreeableness Extraversion Conscientiousness Emotional stability 16 Which of the following approaches to leadership implies that training would have no effect on an individual s effectiveness as a leader 17 18 19 20 A B C D Trait approach Behavioral approach Contingency approach Transformationalcharismatic approach Which of the following statement is true about the study on negotiation conducted by Naquin 2003 A B c D Making the first offer results in more favorable outcomes Negotiating over fever issues led to better outcomes The number of issues involved in a negotiation was negatively related to negotiator satisfaction None of the above is true Which of the following statements is true about the study on gender differences in negotiation conducted by S and Walter 1999 A B C D There were no gender differences in negotiator outcomes Men negotiated better outcomes than women Women negotiated better outcomes than men The research was based on a single study which calls the results into question In integrative bargaining the point as which it to impossible for both parties to improve their outcomes is referred to as A B C D Pa retooptimal Mutually integrative BATNA Distributively satisfying Which of the following Transformational Leadership Dimensions is characterized by articulating an inspiring vision to followers A ndentured influence 21 22 23 24 25 B Inspirational motivation C Intellectual stimulation D Individualized consideration Which of the following types of leadership is most stroneg and positively related to the job satisfaction of followers A Transformational leadership B Laissez faire leadership C Contingent reward leadership D Management by Exception Active Leadership Which of the following Transactional Leadership Dimensions is characterized by monitoring followers performance and taking corrective action when necessary A Management by exceptionactive B Management by exception passive C Contingent reward D Laissez faire Integrative bargaining is characterized by all the following EXCEPT There is potential for mutual gains B Negotiators may have different preferences across issues C Increased number of issues results to higher negotiator satisfaction D There is the potential for quotlogrollingquot when trade offs are made on side deals gt Which of the following statements is true about integrative bargaining strategies A Split the difference whenever possible it leads to optimal outcomes B Don t share any information it gives the other party an advantage C Package different issues together it simplifies the negotiation D Resist yielding it forces parties to problemsolve Someone you rejected for a job has sued your company arguing that the personality test you used has disparate impact against women You checked you hiring records and found that you hire 20 out of 30 men using the personality test and 5 out 10 females Is there disparate impact A Yes because the hiring rate for females is less than 45 the firing rate for men B Yes because the 10 female applicants is less than 12 of the 30 male applicants C No because females are not a protected group D No because the number of rejected females is not less than 12 the number of rejected males 26 What theory explains the large fan base of winning sports teams by proposing that we like to associate ourselves with positive things and disassociate ourselves with negative things in order to maintain selfesteem A Job characteristics theory B Social identity theory C Cognitive resource capacity theory D Selfesteem theory 27 Which of the following statement is true about transformational leadership A It is a theory that has only been supported in western cultures B Personality traits have no impact on whether not one is a transformational leader C Transformational leadership is something that cannot be taught D None of the above 28 Which of the following types of leadership is most strongly and positively related to ratings of the leaders effectiveness A Transformational leadership B Laissez faire Leadership C Contingent Reward Leadership D Management by Exception Active Leadership


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