Cognitive Psych: notes & study guides
Cognitive Psych: notes & study guides 317
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Cognitive Psychology Introduction 01212015 4 exams exam 4 is cumulative if you do well on the rst 3 do you need to take the 4th 1 article review see syllabus for instructions Extra credit SONA hour 1 What is Cog Psych o Cognition what the mind does memory perception attention 0 Studying cognition nding the mechanisms for how the mind achieves goals Early years Franciscus Donders 0 Interested in how much time it takes to make a decision reaction time experiments mental responses for behaviors Herman Ebbinghaus 0 Interested in how quickly people forget information memorized nonsense syllables like 39dax and 39qeh Wilhelm Wundt o Structuralism experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensations First laboratory of scienti c psychology at the university of Lipzig Germany Analytic introspection describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli William James 0 Principles of Psychology 1890 Studied his own interpretations didn t do empirical work 0 Still referenced today Rise of behaviorism o Shift away from studying the mind 0 John Watson criticized structuralism and found behaviorism o What is the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavior Little Albert Classical conditioning Stimulus reminder l response routine l reward Anger preacher comes to Mason reminder l angry crowd forms around preacher routine l crowd gets free harassment reward You work out reminder l you take shower routine l you feel clean reward Operant conditioning o BF Skinner introduced operant conditioning Reinforces and punishment affects behaviors ie frequency 0 Problem signi cant other is getting annoying 0 Positive reward saying nice things 0 Negative reinforcement start changing your behavior putting seat down 0 Positive punishment start new behavior as punishment 0 Negative punishment stop saying nice things Post behaviorism critiques of behaviorism led to modern psychology 0 Tolman 1938 o What happens when rats are placed in a different arm of the maze o The rats navigated to the speci c arm where previously found food Supported Tolman s interpretation Did not support behaviorism interpretation 0 Noam Chromsky ridiculed Skinner s explanation for language 0 Children make up sentences 0 Children use incorrect grammar that have never been reinforced Information processing approach a way to study the mind created from insights associated with digital computer Broadbent 1958 0 Flow diagram representing what happens as a person directs attention to one stimulus o Unattended information does not pass through the lter Researching the mind 0 Behavior approach measures relationship between stimuli and behavior 0 Gais et al 2007 the effect of sleep on memory consolidation in terms of performance 0 Physiological approach measures relationship between physiology and behavior 0 Gais et al 2007 the effect of sleep on memory consolidation in terms of Brain activity at encoding and retrieval Measured using brain imaging fMRI Modern cognitive psychology 0 Two primary branches 0 BasicApplied research applied cognitive psychology 0 Basic research 0 Looks at learning perception and sensation outside of applied tasks 0 Looking at pure mechanisms for behavior 0 Like the exercise we just did 0 Applied cognitive engineeringpsychology 0 Solving problems that have humans involved Making an iPhone more usable designing a website Cognitive science 0 Interdisciplinary study of the mind 0 Psychology 0 Computer science 0 Cognitive anthropology Linguistics neuroscience PhHosophy Building blocks of the nervous system Neurons cells specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system 0 Each neuron has a cell body axon and dendrites o Neural circuits groups of neurons 0 Cell body contains mechanisms to keep cell alive 0 Axon tube lled with uid that transmits electrical signal to other neurons 0 Dendrites multiple branches reaching from the cell body which receives information from other neurons 0 Sensory receptors specialized to respond to information received from the senses How neurons communicate Action potential Neuron receives signal from environment Information travels down the axon of that neuron to the dendrites of another neuron Measuring action potentials microelectrodes pick up electrical signal Placed near axon Active for 1 second Synapse space between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another When the action potential reaches the end of the axon synaptic vesicles open and release chemical neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters cross the synapse and bind with the receiving dendr es Neurons are not physically connected Neurotransmitters chemicals that affect the electrical signal of the receiving neuron Excitatory increases change neuron will re Inhibitory decreases chance neuron will re Cognition depends on smooth operating of neurotransmitters Dopamine schizophrenia Parkinson s What does this all mean How does this all relate to cognition Amplitude intensity of stimuli l ring rate of neuron l experience Type of stimuli l localization of function Other localized areas Fusiform face area FFA recognizes faces if damaged you wont know who is who Parahippocampal place area PPA memory encoding and retrieval Extrastriate body area EBA recognizes parts of the human body but not inanimate objects Broca s area Wernicke s area if damaged they cannot understand or talk Brain 0 Hindbrain automatic functions 0 Midbrain relay center for transferring everything from sensory systems Forebrain higher thought Occipital lobe if damaged you can go blind but have perfectly good eyes Parietal lobe perceive touch pain taste pressure spatial and mathematical reasoning Temporal lobe language hearing long term memory 0 Frontal lobes higher thought attention Limbic system 0 Thalamus touching hearing vision Amygdala fear response Hippocampus spatial navigation episodic memories Broca s aphasia The apple was eaten by the girl 0 The boy was pushed by the girl Brain plasticity Plasticity the brain s ability to change and compensate for damage Occipital lobe blindness example Divided brain Hemisphere each half of the brain 0 Corpus callosum connects the two halves of the brain 0 Split brain The nature of perception Do we perceive the environment exactly as it is o Sensation the imprint of the environment on our nervous system stimulation of sensory receptors eyes ears skin caused by the environment Perception our conscious experience of stimuli the process of interpreting and understanding sensory information Perception can 0 Change based on added information o lnvolve a process resembles reasoning o Occurs in conjunction with Action shifting attention Perception is the gateway to all other cognitions Describing the perceptual system 0 What in uences perception 0 Environment knowledge Bottomup processing physiological Perception of light on the trees triggers a series of events 0 Electrical signals are transmitted from receptors towards the brain Bottomup processing behavioral Recognitionbycomponents theory we perceive objects by perceiving elementary feature Geons perceptual building blocks that can be combined to create objects Bottomup processing physical What percent of the time did participants recognize this object as an airplane 96 Top down processing versus bottom up processing 0 Our knowledge about the world in uences what we see Using top down processing Helmholtz s theory of unconsciousness inference 1860 Topdown theory 0 Some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment 0 Likelihood principle we perceive the world in the way that is quotmost likelyquot based on our past experiences Gestalt theory the gestalt theories of perception Developed in the early 19005 and became popular as a part of the movement of Atomism Atomism was the principle that whole objects were greater than the sum of their parts 0 Gestalt theorists applied this principle to perception they observed that our perceptions are greater tan the sum of a scene s parts 0 1 Good continuation Simplicity good gure Similarity Familiarity Proximity 0 6 Common fate Good continuation o U39IlgtUU Objects overlapped by other objects are perceived as continuing behind the overlapping object Simplicity Every stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as possible Similarity Similar things appear to be grouped together Grouping 0 Things are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful Proximity 0 Things near each other appear grouped together Common fate Things that move together get grouped together Gestalt theory 0 Problem gestalt theorists made excellent observations about people s perceptions but did not specify how the mind perceives Not satisfying to us cognitive psychologists we want to know how the mind works Gestalt as heuristics Heuristic as rule of thumb 0 Provides bestguess solution to a problem fast often correct 0 Algorithm procedure guaranteed to solve a problem 0 Slow de nitel result A little more processing 0 Perceiving size o Takes distance into account 0 Perceived size is a function of both bottom up and top down processing 0 Bottom up 0 Size of image on retina Top down processing 0 The perceived distance of the object o The size of the object relative to other objects in the environment Mullerlyer illusion Misapplication of size constancy scaling people see con icting cues about the length of the line Neurons and the environment 0 Some neurons respond best to things that occur regularly in the environment Neurons become tuned to respond best to what we commonly expenence o Horizontals and verticals o Experiencedependent plasticity Oblique effect Physical regularities Gestalt law of continuation we assume the object continues beyond sight 0 People in developed environments see lots of horizontal and vertical lines and are therefore better at perceiving those orientations Perceptions and actions 0 What stream identifying an object 0 Where stream identifying an object s location o If you are trying to understand a complex system you can logically deduce conclusions from malfunctions o Damage to different areas of the brain cause very different de c s 0 We can conclude that a speci c area is necessary for a speci c function 0 Single dissociation o 1 Use of an animal 0 2 Ex You destroy a part of monkey A s temporal lobe She can no longer identify objects what but can still identify locations where o 3 Conclusion the functions what and where rely on different mechanisms but we don t know how independent they are The two behaviors have different mechanisms and operate independen y Mirror neurons Neurons that respond when you either do or watch a behavior 0 Located in the premotor cortex 0 One function of the mirror neurons might be to help understand another person s actions and react appropriately to them Apparent motion 0 When two objects ash quickly in succession it looks like there is motion between the two 0 lnterstimulus interval lSl the time between the start of the rst ash and the start of the second ash 0 Korte s law the lSl varies with the spatial separation of the stimuli o Stimuli that are further apart need a longer lSl Visual masking Mask and target presented rapidly one after the other Stimulus onset asynchrony the timing between the onset of the target and the onset of the mask McGurk effect 0 Presentation of the sound b and the visual presentation of someone silently saying g sound Resulting perception is d Auditory and visual systems interfering Synesthesia Experiences in which input from one sensory modality also produces experiences in another sensory modality Females outnumber males 6 to 1 Run in families Mostly unidirectional Consistent Ex Seeing sound tasting color hearing colors Types of attention Attention the ability to focus on speci c stimuli or locations Includes excluding other features of the environment Three types 0 Selected divided sustained Selective nature of attention Focusing of attention on one speci c object location or message Dichotic listening one message presented to the left eat and other to the right ear Shadowing repeat one message to ensure listening to that message Early attention selection models Cherry s shadowing experiment 0 Ss had to shadow a conversation they heard in one ear while ignoring the one in the other ear 0 55 had an incentive to pay attention Selective attention Broadbent 0 Early selection model 0 Attention acts like a lter to screen out unwanted information o This ltering occurs early in the perceptual stage before meaning is extracted 0 Autobiographical memory Recollected events that belong to a person s past 0 Use quotmental time travelquot 0 Unlike episodic memory AM also has semantic components 0 How long ago the event occurred determines the proportions of episodic versus semantic components 0 More recent events have a larger proportion of episodic component More distant memory mostly semantic More recent memory mostly episodic Autobiographical Memory AM 0 Furthermore AM is episodic memory for events in our lives and personal semantic memories of facts about our lives The multidimensional nature of AM o More complex than the memory usually measured in a laboratory Consist of spatial emotional and sensory components Greenberg amp Rubin 2003 0 Brain damage to visual cortex resulted in loss of AM Cabeza et al 2004 0 Brain scanning study to illustrate difference between AM and laboratory memory Brain activation of different photographs n Pictures they took AM u Pics they didn t take lab AM photos activated areas of the brain associated with processing of the shelf and recollection Memory over the life span 0 Better memory for milestones emotional events and major life transitions recent events events in adolescence and early adu hood Reminiscence bump Explaining the reminiscence bump Self image hypothesis 0 Rathbone et al 2008 Better memory for events that occur as a person s self image or identity is being developed Asked participants to create quotI amquot statements Average age was 25 0 Cognitive hypothesis 0 Periods of rapid change followed by stability causes stronger encoding o Shrauf and Rubin 2008 Tested people who had rapid changes later in life Immigrants to US 0 Cultural life script hypothesis 0 Culturally expected events occur at a particular time in life span 0 Events in life are easier to recall when they t cultural life script Memory for exceptional events 0 Better memory for memoriesevents associated with strong emotions Lebar amp Phelps 1998 0 Better recall for arousing words versus neutral words Memory and emotion 0 Higher amygdala activity for emotional words 0 BP Damage to amygdala Didn t experience increased memory for emotional pictures Flashbulb memories 0 Memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person hears about an event 0 Brown and Kulik 1977 o quotfor an instant the entire nation and perhaps much of the world stopped still to have its picture takenquot 0 Vivid detailed remembered for long periods of time Repeated recall 0 Technique of comparing later memories to memories collected immediately after event Neisser amp Harsch 1992 o Flashbulb memories are inaccurate and not detailed 0 Found discrepancies in answering questionnaires for the Challenger explosion o Talarico amp Rubin 2003 0 Similar decrease in details for ashbulb memory and everyday event 0 Davidson et al 2006 o More congruence for ashbulb memory a year later than for everyday event 0 Perhaps there is more rehearsal for ashbulb memories The constructive nature of memory 0 Mind constructs memory based on many different sources of information 0 There is the memory for the event but also 0 Prior knowledge 0 Personal experiences 0 Expectations Bartlett s war of the ghosts experiment 0 Frederick bartlett 1932 o Read story from Canadian Indian folklore Repeated reproduction Participants came back at different intervals and were asked to recall the story 0 Time increased l details decrease Add in own culture Source monitoring 0 Process of determining the origins of our memories knowledge or beliefs Misidentity source monitoring errors or misattributions Very common Remembering who said what Marsh et al 2006 Performance on source monitoring task is in uenced by gender stereotypes Memory was better when the statement matched the stereotype How real world knowledge affects memory Making inferences Pragmatic inference when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that isn t explicitly stated Based on knowledge Schema person s knowledge about some aspect of the environment Script conception of the sequence of actions that usually occur during a particular experience False memory recall things we assume go together Pros helps ll in blanks saves time can lead to increased activity Cons can lead to errors Advertisements PoHUcalads Misinformation effect person s memory for an event is modified by things that happen after the event has occurred Misinformation effect Loftus 1978 Misleading postevent information MPI Slides of car stopping at stop sign Postquestionnaire had questions like quotdid the car stop at a yield signquot MPI group more likely to say yes 0 MPI replaces original memory 0 Memory trace replacement hypothesis MPI causes interference and source monitoring errors Creating false memories 0 Its possible to create false memories for early life events Eyewitness testimony One of the most convincing types of evidence to a jury But can be prone to many errors 0 Difficulty in perceiving faces 0 Inaccurate memory Errors associated with attention 0 High emotions affect where we pay attention 0 Weapons focus Stanny and Johnson 2000 0 Participants more likely to accurately recall details when a gun wasn t red even if present 0 Unusual objects attract attention 0 Pickle 2009 0 Presence of weapon was more distracting if perpetrator was female Errors due to familiarity Bystanders mistakenly identi ed as perpetrator because of familiarity from some other context 0 Ross et al 1994 o More likely to pick someone that had seen before as robber Errors due to suggestion o Lineup quotwhich of these men did itquot 0 Wells amp Brad eld 1998 o Showed participants lineup that didn t contain the actual perpetrator o All participants identi ed someone from the list 0 Gave feedback 0 People who receive positive feedback were more con dent in their choice Postidenti cation feedback effect Effect of postevent questioning Reverse testing effect taking a recall test right after seeing the program increased participant s sensitivity to the misinformation Perhaps because of consolidation Reactivation can make a memory more susceptible to change Ways to improve 0 With lineups inform the witness that the perpetrator may not be in this lineup at all 0 When constructing a lineup use people who are similar to the suspect Use sequential rather than simultaneous presentation 0 Have blind administrator Improve interviewing technique Concept mental representation that is used for a variety of cognitive functions Categorization how the mind stores concepts in groups called 39categories How do humans categorize Episodic knowledge represents out memory of experiences and speci c events reconstruct events Semantic knowledge record of facts meanings concepts and knowledge about the external world Semantic knowledge FILL IN SEMANTICEPISODIC 0 Everything we know can be loosely categorized into two types of knowledge Declarative knowledge knowledge about facts and events in the world Procedural knowledge our knowledge about how to do things De nitional approach 0 Descriptive approach Does the member of the category meet the de nition of that category 0 Family resemblance Prototype approach 0 Abstract idea of a category in your mind then typical or average member of the category Birds Items are commonly experienced Should have an idea of what a bird looks like in your mind 0 Rosch 1975 ratings of high prototypicality vs low 0 Prototypical objects are named rst Orange vs pomegranate Exemplar approach 0 Concept is represented by multiple examples 0 Examples are actual category members that a person has encountered in the past 0 Hierarchal organization 0 To fully understand how people categorize objects one must consider Properties of objects Learning and experience perceivers For most adults over the age over the age of 40 the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for Adolescence and early adulthood Which of the following is not a stage is Broadbent s early selection model 0 A sensory memory B lter C attenuator D detector The phenomenon where people are able to hear their own name in a crowded and noisy environment is known as 0 Cocktail party effect ln Treisman s attentuation theory some words are detected and others aren t because 0 Words that are uncommon have a high threshold 0 Words that are common have a low threshold 0 Words that reach a threshold become conscious Which of the following is not true of divided attention Practice enables people to do two things at once that were at rst dif cult Some tasks will never become automatic Automatic tasks are hard to break into individual steps Both tasks must be low in automaticity or we cannot divide our attention What is a ashbulb memory It is a memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate Which theory to explain the reminiscence bump that claims that there is better memory for events that occur as a person s identity is being developed Self identity hypothesis When my roommate mistakenly told me a story that I told him a week ago what kind of cognitive error did he make Source monitoring error In cognitive psychology when I refer to script what am I talking about Sequence of events When bystanders are mistakenly identi ed as a perpetrator because they are known form some other context this is known as Familiarity Wells and Brad eld found that when participants received positive feedback they were more about their choice Con dent In terms of signal detection theory what would be the primary goal of a hunter s safety course Increase d prime increase someone s skill level or ability to tell when it s safe to shoot or not safe to shoot What are two types of sensory memory Echoic and iconic What are the two main mechanisms for the loss of information Decay and interference After moving to a new house in a new city your zip code changes from 44506 to 43337 The rst time you write down your new address you write 43507 This is an example of Proactive interference stuff you learn earlier affects the learning of new things According to the Modal model of memory shortterm memory holds information for how long 1530 seconds What is the main criticism of the modal model of memory It doesn t account for the fact that memory can be manipulated In Wickens et al 1976 slides 8690 on fth slide study the increase in recall when the fourth category was changed from professions to fruits demonstrates that Coding occurs semantically memory is sensitive to meaning Interference with auditory coding happen more often when Letters sound alike Whatwhich are the predominant coding types for long term memory Semantic Because he had his hippocampus removed HM could nolonger Form new long term memories When people are more likely to rate a political as being true simply because they have already seen or heard the statement before is known as Propaganda effect Memory for knowing how to ride a bike is an example of Procedural memory This type of memory is most malleable or most easily changed Episodic This type of rehearsal is more effective at remembering information for longer periods of time Elaborative What part of the brain is responsible for remembering emotional words Amygdala Godden and Baddeley showed that when people studied words underwater and were tested underwater they had better recall than when they studied underwater and were tested on land Example demonstrating the bene ts of Encoding speci city Better retrieval results when a person s mood is the same when encoding occurred is known as State dependent learning Memory for the fact that the declaration of Independence was signed in 1776 Semantic What type of memory happened on your last birthday Episodic Mental imagery the ability to recreate the sensory world in the absence of physical stimuli Occurs in many senses not just vision Ex singing a song in your head Imagery the early days Do you have imageless thoughts 0 Galton 1883 said yes You can think without visualizations Supported even today Richardson 1994 0 Watson 1928 I unproven and mythological Behaviorism killed imagery research until the 19505 0 The Cognitive Revolution Imagery Paivio 1963 0 Understanding imagery differences between people 0 Pairedassociate learning Beerroad Teslatruth o What can easily be imagined vs not Conceptual peg hypothesis a Better memory for things that can be visualized n Concrete vs abstract n Ex tree ve justice beer vs truth 0 Metzler 1971 0 Mental chronometry amount of time needed to carry out various cognitive tasks Indicate whether the two objects are the same Aka mental rotation 0 Suggested imagery perception shared the same mechanisms Imagery and perception Did they share the same mechanism 0 Kosslyn 1973 Mental scanning a Memoriza an image create a mental representation l focus on one part of the image a Prompted to look for another part of the boat I indicate its presence or lack thereof Spatial nature of imagery like perception Critics 0 quotthey got distractedquot o Pylyshyn 1973 just because we experience imagery as spatial that doenst mean that they underlying representation is spatial 0 Led to quotimagery debatequot Spatial mechanisms visual or propositional mechanisms language Imagery Do the results offer support for 0 Spatial representation Different parts are described in relation to others 0 Epiphenomenon Something that accompanies the real mechanism but not a part of it Underlying representation doesn t have to spatial Ex Justice 0 Propositional representation language symbolic Abstract symbols communicate meaning Languagebased o Depictive representation visual Realistic pictures that resemble an object Part of the representation corresponds to parts of an object Propositional representation explanation Tacit knowledge explanation 0 Participants unconsciously use knowledge about the world in making their judgments 0 They used several mechanisms when visualizing Then Kosslyn was wrong 0 No but the critics challenged supported of mental imagery to gather more empirical evidence Imagery vs perception 0 Size 0 Kosslyn 1978 Size in the visual eld a Imagine animals side by side l animal a What happened The animal they imagined larger in their mind they could answer more correctly and more when the animal was Imagery and the brain 0 More recent work 0 In the year 2000 electrodes were implanted in people s brains to monitor seizures 0 And in the medical temporal lobe neurons proved they were selective 0 Some responded to particular objects and not others 0 Why Imagery neurons 0 Fired at imaginative and actual state of object Imagining and perceiving cues activation 0 But this wasn t the rst exploration of brain and visual imagery Most work began in 1990 s Use PET or FMRI to assess neural activation LeBihan et al 1993 n Perception and imagery activates the visual cortex Ganis et al 2004 o Overlap in regions for perception and visuals fMlR activation for perception vs imagery What did they nd Frontal lobe activated for both imagery and perception To back of the brain the part of the visual cortex that responds to visual stimuli activated stronger for perception Activation does not equal causation Activation doesn t necessarily cause imagery its associated 0 Spatial experience is an epiphenomenon Kosslyn et al explored this 0 Used transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS TMS to visual areas of the brain during perceptionimagery task Measured reaction time to judgments 0 Found people slower to respond when stimulated Injury and imagery Patient MGS 0 Supported kosslyn s ndings 0 Removing part of visual cortex decreased image size Estimate changed from 15ft l 35ft after removal Perceptual problems and imagery linked o Inability to see color inability to visualize color 0 Parietal lobe damage can cause Unilateral neglect OOOO n Ignoring one side of the visual eld Perception and imagery aren t BFFs Dissociations o Guariglia Patient with brain damage affected mental images but not perception more examples in slides What does this mean 0 Mechanisms of visualization and perception overlap PARTIALLY o What is language a system of communication using sounds of symbols that enables us to express our feelings thoughts ideas and experiences 0 Properties of language Description 0 Subtle and nuanced 0 Complex 0 Constructive Properties 0 Hierarchal o Rulegoverned 0 Why do we chat We have an innate need to talk 0 Deaf children develop sign language on their own if not taught The development of language is universal 0 Children of all languages begin babbling around 7 months have a few words my rst birthday few multiword utterances by 2 History of studying language 0 18005 0 Broca 1861 and Wernick o Frontal amp temporal lobes involved in comprehension and production 0 19505 0 Picks up again 0 Behaviorism got in the way 0 Cognitive revolution 0 Skinner 1957 o Behaviorist Language learned through reinforcement Chromsky 1957 Cognitive researcher Language coded in the genes Underlying basis of all language is similar Children create sentences that have never been reinforced quotI hate mommyquot Psycholinguistics psychological study of language Grew from the debate 0 4 main concerns 0 Comprehension OOOOO Speech production Representation Acquisition Perceiving language The rst step of comprehension is perception What are the building blocks of language 0 Components of words Phonemes shortest sequence of speech that if changed changes the meaning of a word the sound of a letter or components of syllables Morphemes smallest unites of language with a de nable meaning or grammatical function articles quot5 for pluralizing monosyllabic words 0 Perceiving the language Context matters Words often have more than one meaning 0 Context can clear this up Swinney 1979 o Lexical priming helps clarify meaning 0 Following word with anchor term faster processing 0 But and ant vs bug and spy Context matters so much that it can override what we hear Phonemic restoration effect lling in missing parts of words that we hear Empirical example of phonemic restoration effect 0 Warren 1970 O O O O o Replaced phonemes with a cough and asked where the cough occurred 0 The state governors met with their respective legcough latures convening in the capital city Why our minds are remarkable for adapting to words First issue no one produces them in the same way 0 First issue no one produces them in the same way Waldrop 50 different ways to pronounce the Picket 1964 participants listened to their own conversations and couldn t identify half the time without context but were ne during regular conversations o Perceiving language Speech segmentation process of perceiving individual words in the continuous ow of the speech signal 0 Has aid from many factors rulegovernance 0 Thing about if you learn another language what is the greatest difficulty Knowledge of meaning of the words Context of the words in the sentence Likelihood of sound patterns Phoneme perception still plays a role in reading Word superiority effect letters are easier to recognize when they are contained l a word than when they appear alone or are contained in a nonword Perception is highly in uenced by topdown processing and so is understanding Word frequency effect we respond more rapidly to highfrequency words than lowfrequency Demonstrated by lexical decision task 0 Rayner 2003 o Eyetracking study amp xations 0 Eyes linger 0 low frequency words 40 ms longer 0 Progression of language meaning Word Senences Contexts 0 Properties sentences Semantics refers to the meanings of words Syntax the speci c rules for combining words into sentences 0 Meaning of sentences Meaning of words Grouping of words Parsing grouping of words into phrases o Parsing garden path sentences Ashley believed the nice guy at the bar 0 Parsing mechanisms Syntax rst approach 0 Parsing determined by grammatical structure 0 Phrases grouped by principles 0 Principle of late closure new words are grouped into current phrase as long as possible 0 Syntax rst approach evidence Cast iron Cast iron sinks Cast iron sinks quickly Cast iron sinks quickly rust cast iron sinks QUickly rust The shopper felt the fur coat was overpriced 0 Did the shopper literally feel the fur coat Or does feelings refer to expectations about the price 0 Summary Parsing determined by grammatical structure Principle of late closure new words are grouped into current phrase as long as possible So people correct themselves after an error 0 lnteractionist approach Information semantic and syntantic is simultaneously processed and corrections occur in real time So the key difference between these approaches is not if but WHEN semantics come into play Examples of how meaning needs to be processed with syntax 0 She stalked the boy with facebook ambiguous Did she stalk the boy who had a facebook account or did she use facebook to stalk the boy Syntax rst vs interactionist While there is still debate evidence favors interactionist approaches Both in uence how we process language and are necessary to determine meaning 0 Next level context Contextualizing allows for the next level of language processing stories and text 0 Contextualizing Key component inference 0 Determining meaning using knowledge that allows people to go beyond the text 0 Topdown process 0 Inferences How do we make stories from pictures and text Coherence representation of text in a person s mind that links all pieces of the narrative together Anaphoric inference inferences that connect an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence Instrument inference inferences about our tools or methods Causal inference inferences that the events described in one clause or sentence were caused by events that occurred in a previous sentence 0 Problem obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious 0 Well de ned problems have a correct answer procedure leads to a solution Ex Math problems 0 III de ned problems don t have one correct answer path to solution is often unclear o Gestalt approach How people represent a problem in their mind How solving a problem involves reorganization or restructuring o Representing a problem in the mind Kohler s circle problem 0 Restructuring and insight Insight the sudden realization of a problem s solution Based mostly on anecdotal reports Metcalft amp wiebe 1987 0 Difference between insight and noninsight problems 0 When solving an insight problem you should not know when you are near the solution Asked to make warmth judgments every 15 seconds 17 scale Noninsight problems algebra problems 0 Obstacles to problem solving Hxann Peoples tendency to focus on speci c characteristics of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution FuncUonal xedness o Restricting an object to its familiar functions 0 Dunckers candle problem Design xation robust effect across novices and experts 0 People cannot design new innovative work because they xate on preexisting creations o Candle problem You are in a room with a corkboard on the wall You are given the materials in candles matches in a matchbos some tacks Your task is to mount a candle on the corkboard so it will burn without dripping wax on the oor Presented with small cardboard boxes 0 Some had a matchbox some had an empty box People were faster with empty box 0 Two string problem Task tie two strings together that are hanging from ceiling Also given chair and pliers Needed to use pliers as a pendulum o Obstacles to problem solving Mental set 0 Preconceptions about the use of objects Situationally produced mental set Situationally produced mental set situation in uences approach to problem 0 Waterjug problem Luchins 1942 0 Had some people start with 1 and work down mental set group 0 Had others only do 7 and 8 no mental set group 0 All of the participants in no mental set group used shorter solution 0 Only 23 in mental set group used shorter solution 0 Obstacles to problem solving Design xation Robust effect across novices and experts People cannot design new innovative work because they xate on preexisting designs Psi Chi Posters Smith Youmans Bellow amp Peterson 2012 0 Information processing approach Meansend analysis 0 Reduce the difference between the initial and goal states 0 Create subgoals 0 Intermediate states that move closer to the goal Operators actions that take the problem from one step to the next Problem Space All possible states that could occur when solving a problem 0 Importance of how a problem is started Affects difficulty In uences the following steps and strategies Acrobat problem versus reverse acrobat problem 0 The acrobat problem 1 Only one acrobat may jump at a time 2 whenever two acrobats are on the same agpole one must be standing on the shoulders of another 3 An acrobat may not jump when someone is standing 0 his or her shoulders 4 A bigger acrobat may not stand on the shoulders of a smaller one o The reverse acrobat problem Same rules but a smaller one cannot jump on a larger one 0 Importance of how a problem is started Acrobat problem 563 minutes Reverse 951 minutes Its hard to picture a big one on a smaller acrobat Inconsistent with real world knowledge Further because its unlikely its taxing on our memory to visualize the task 0 Mutilatedcheckerboard problem Conditions differed in how much information provided about the squares Easier to solve when information is provided that points toward the correct representation of the problem A checkerboard consists of 64 squares These 64 squares can be completely covered by placing 32 dominos on the board so that each domino covers two squares If we eliminate two corners of the checkerboard can we now cover the remaining squares with 31 dominos 0 Importance of how a problem is stated Thinkaloud protocol Say aloud what one is thinking Shift in how one perceives elements of a problem Used in the experiment above to understand how participant s think 0 Using analogies to solve a problem In a small village there were 32 bachelors and 32 unmarried women Through tireless efforts the village matchmaker succeeded in arranging 32 highly satisfactory marriages The village was proud and happy Then one drunken night two bachelors in a test of strength stuffed themselves with krispy kreme doughnuts and died Can the matchmaker through some quick arrangements come up with 31 heterosexual marriages among the 62 survivors Using a solution to a similar problem guides solution to new problem Russian marriage problem source problem gt mutilated checkerboard problem target problem The transfer from one problem to another is known as analogical transfer Surface features speci c details of a problem ex acrobats doughnuts Structural features underlying principles that govern a solution Analogical encoding comparing two cases that illustrate a principle Goal focus on structural features rather than surface features Analogical paradox While participants in experiments focus on surface features people in the real world use structural features Duncker s Radiation Problem 0 Analogies aid problemsolving o Often hints must be given to notice connection 0 Surface features get in the way 0 Structural features must be used Suppose you are a doctor faced With a patient who has a malignant tumor in his stomach It is impossible to operate on the patient but unless the tumor is destroyed the patient will die There is a kind of ray that can be used to destroy the tumor If the ray reaches the tumor at a suf ciently high intensity the tumor Will be destroyed Unfortunately at this intensity the healthy tissue that the ray passes through on the way to the tumor will also be destroyed At lower intensities the ray is harmless to healthy tissue but it Will not affect the tumor either What type of procedure might be used to destroy the tumor and at the same time avoid destroying the healthy tissue 10 A small country was ruled from a strong fortress by a dictator The fortress was situated in the middle of the country surrounded by farms and villages Many roads led to the fortress through the countryside A rebel general vowed to capture the fortress The general knew that an attack by his entire army would capture the fortress He gathered his army at the head of one of the roads ready to launch a fullscale direct attack However the general then learned that the dictator had planted mines on each of the roads The mines were set so that small bodies of men could pass over them safey since the dictator needed to move his troops and workers to and from the fortress However any large force would detonate the mines Not only would this blow up the road but it would also destroy many neighboring villages It therefore seemed impossible to capture the fortress 0 However the general devised a simple plan He divided his army into small groups and dispatched each group to the head of a different road When all was ready he gave the signal and each group marched down a different road Each group continued down its road to the fortress so that the entire army arrived together at the fortress at the same time In this way the general captured the fortress and overthrew the dictator o 30 0 Radiation problem solution Solution Bombard tumor with a number of lowintensity rays from different directions Restructure problem by dividing large rays to smaller rays Notice the analogous relationship between source story and target problem Map correspondence between source story and target problem Apply mapping to generate a solution 0 The more similarities the better the analogical transfer 0 Lightbulb problem In a physics lab a very expensive lightbulb that emits controlled quantities of light no longer worked The lament inside had broken into two parts The bulb was completely sealed but a brief high intensity laser beam could fuse the two parts However a high intensity beam would break the glass At lower intensities it wouldn t fuse the laments 80 0 Using analogies to solve a problem Lightbulb problem 0 High surface similarities aid the analogical problem 0 Making structural features more obvious aids analogical problemsolving In vivo problemsolving research 0 People are observed to determine how they solve problems in the real world Advantage naturalistic setting Disadvantages timeconsuming cannot isolate and control variables 0 Analogy quotLanding the rocket on a barge is like driving towards a brick wall at 120 mph and then 6 seconds away from hitting it you slam on the breaks and decelerate and come to a stop just touching the wall and no morequot 0 Expertise and problem solving Experts process more knowledge about their elds Experts knowledge is organized differently from novices Experts spend more time analyzing problems Expertise is domain speci c So how do you become an expert o Ericsson and Charness 1994 Not play Not paid work Not watching the skill being performed Requires attention and effort from the learner Often involves activities selected by coach or teacher to facilitate learning Bottom line 10 years or 10000 hours of practice 0 Inductive Reasoning Generalize from premises based on observations Conclusions are suggested Do not consider validity but how strong the argument is When we make predictions about what will happen based on what has happened in the past Factors that contribute to the strength of an argument 0 Representativeness of observations OOOOO 0 Number of observations 0 Quality of evidence 0 Which are more prevalent in the English language words that begin with the letter R or words in which R is the third letter 0 Availability Heuristic Events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probabilistic We are guided by what we remember from the past Ex lts easier to think of words that begin with the letter R Illusory correlations correlation appears to exist but in reality there is no correlation o Stretching and injury prevention 0 May lead to stereotypes may seem like stereotypes are more prevalent ex The ery Latina woman 0 Representativeness heuristic Make judgments based on how much one event resembles another event 0 Base rate example A panel of psychologists have interviewed and administered personality tests to 30 engineers and 70 lawyers all successful in their respective elds For the following description please indicate your probability that the person described is an engineer on a scale from 0 to 100 Example jack is a 45yearold man He is married and has four children He is generally conservative careful and ambitious He shows no interest in political and social issues and spends most of his free time on his many hobbies which include home carpentry sailing and mathematical puzzles The probability that jack is one of the 30 engineers in the sample of 100 is 0 Base rate neglect Ignore the relative proportion of different classes in the population Tversky amp Kahneman 1974 In the absence of speci c info people are more likely to predict base rates With descriptions people ignore the base rate and match stereotypes o The linda problem Linda is thirtyone years old single outspoken and very bright She majored in philosophy As a student she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations 0 Which statement is more probable Linda is a bank teller Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement Less is more B is more probably Conjunction fallacy 0 Mistake that PAPB is more probable than PA alone 0 Really should be PAxPB Making judgments by representativeness o Representativeness heuristic Assume small sample sizes are representative Tversky amp Kahneman 1974 0 Found 56 picked about the same based on the overall rate in the country 0 Really the smaller hospital would Law of large numbers 0 As the number of observations increases the sample more resembles the population 0 Con rmation bias Selectively look for information that conforms to our hypothesis ignore information that goes against our hypothesis Act like a pair of blinders Presidential debates Choosing between alternatives Expected utility theory 0 O O O Assumes all people are rational If given all relevant information people will choose the alternative that results in the most utility Utility outcomes that achieve the desired goal Expected Utility Theory ETU Gives procedures to decision making But people don t always follow optimal strategy 0 Casinos and gambling Denes Raj amp Epstein 1974 O O O O 0 Task Draw red jelly bean from bowl of red and white jelly beans Earn 1 for every red Can earn up to 7 Can choose to draw from a small bowl of 1 red and 9 white or large bowl with 7 red and 93 white Most people choose the larger bowl because they thought odds were better with a larger numer People often choose strategies that don t give the highest expected utility car vs plane gameshows O O 0 How Emotions Affect our Decisions Richard warren had participants listen to a sentence where someone had to coughed during a word but participants could still correctly identify that word Phonemic restoration effect 0 People will identify or respond to more common words more quickly Word frequency effect 0 When given an ambiguous word with many meanings participants Assess many meanings very quickly at rst 0 Rules for combining words into sentences is known as Syntax 0 Which approach to language claims that parsing is determined by the grammatical structure of the sentence Syntax rst 0 Letters are easier to recognize when they are contained in a word than when they appear alone Word superiority effect 0 Meaning associated with words and sentences Semantics 0 Problems that involve the sudden realization of a problem aha moment are known as lnsight problems 0 An important part of the information processing approach to problem solving involves creating intermediate states that are closer to the goal or subgoals Meansend analysis 0 In the candle problem many people cant see a box full of matches as being used in a different way This obstacle to problem solving is known as FuncUonal xedness 0 Using the solution from the Russian marriage problem to solve the mutilated checkerboard problem because they are similar is known as Analogical transfer 0 Problems that do not have one clear path and may have more than one correct answer are known as Illde ned problems 0 Which of the following does not affect how people solve problems 0 A persons lexicon o lnvivo research with problem solving has taught us which of the following o In experiments people focus on surface features but in the real world people use structural features 0 In the waterjug problem people used a more complicated method than they had used before rather than an easier method because 0 Of their previous mental set 0 In the example with the PSI CHI poster in class the fact that when told to draw a completely new design participants still included features like the rainbow text and the gear head icon from the rst poster demonstrates Design xation o This type of reasoning involves syllogisms that come to a logically certain conclusion Deductive reasoning If we ting there are more words beginning with r than third letter r because its easier to think of examples we are falling for the 0 Availability heuristic o If you are given the option to ip a coin and you win 100 for heads lost 100 for tails most people wont ip because 0 People tend to be risk aversive 0 Which of the following is true about how decisions are framed When mentioned in terms of gains people use risk aversion strategy 0 This approach to categorization proposes that objects are categorized based on the average of other members of the category 0 Prototype o In semantics networks when activity spreads to other nodes in the network and activates additional concepts related to the rst node this is known as Spreading activation 0 Main criticism of the Collins and Quillian semantic network model was o It couldn t explain typicality effects 0
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