Test 1 Review
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Kyla Brinkley on Thursday August 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 1103 at University of Georgia taught by Barstow in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/20/15
Kyla Brinkley Biology 1103 Test 1 Review Lecture 1 1 2 P 8 9 Science is a body of knowledge about the natural world and a collection of unified insights about nature the evidence for which is an array of facts the scientific method is a process of observing the natural world and testing hypotheses a observation b question c hypothesis d experiment e conclusion the starting state for scientific inquiry is always observation difference a hypothesis the tentative testable explanation for an observed phenomenon if them b theory a general set of principles supported by evidence that explains some aspect of nature a controlled experiment is an experiment with set variables A control condition is an experimental condition that exists prior to the introduction of any variables teted All conditions are held constant over several trials except for a single variable We learn something only by comparing effets to results observed when variables are introduced This creates more accurate results Characteristics of living things Can take in and use energy from food Can respond to their environment Can maintain relatively constant internal environment homeostasis Have inherited information base encoded in DNA that allows them to func on Can reproduce through use of info encoded in DNA Are composed of one or more cells Evolved from other living things h Are highly organized compared to inantimate objects Living things obtain chemical energy from taking in foods and other nutrients 6 elements found in all living things Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorous 90693 sorhsb 9095 f Sulfur 10 Major macromolecules found in all living things a Carbohydrates b Lipids c Protein d Nucleic acid 11Evolution is the chief unfying principle in biology because every living thing has been shaped by it no exceptions Also helps to explain diversity 12 Hierarchy of structural levels Atom Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Population Community Ecosystem l Biosphere Kareem 9969 13 Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus 14 Eukaryotic cells have chromosomes in nucleus Lecture 2 1 050quot39gtC33 N Abiogenesis life from nonlife Aristotle Biogenesis life from life Redi Aristotle living things result of passive matter and active form Paracelsus formula for creation of human beings incantations to buried bottle Van helmont how to produce mice by fermentation Physician alchemist Redi disproved spontaneous generation meat noticed maggots appeared only after flies we4re present not from meat itself Leeuenhoek early microscopesdiscovered bacteria Spontaneous generation Schwann flaw tried to prove biogenesis but the heat he used destroyed the soul Pasteurs experiment was conducted by first observing that a sterile flask of meat broth eventually grows living material To test whether or not the material came from outside the flask or from nonliving material a trap was used to trap dust that would have fallen into the flask No growth was observed However when the trap was removed or when the flask was tipped to mix the dust growth occurred 10Atomic number elements are defined by protons in their nuclei Smallest number of protons to largest 11Mass number atomic mass mass of protons neutrons electrons mostly protons and neutrons 12Covalent bond is when an atom shares a pair of electrons Atoms donate electrons to share creating a bond 13Valence a Hydrogen 1 b Oxygen 2 c Nitrogen 3 d Carbon 4 14 Structural formulas display bonds more clearly than molecular formulas 15 Reactants are combined to yield a product 16An ion is a charged atom or an atom whose number of electrons differs from its number of protons 17 Ionic bonding is chemical bonding where 2 or more ions are linked by their opposite charge 18 Ionic attractions is when 2 atoms of opposite charges are too close together and are attracted to each other Lecture 3 1 When atoms share electrons it is called a covalent bond 2 A molecule is the result of 2 or more atoms combining an entity consisting of a defined number of atoms covalently bonded together 3 A double bond is a chemical bond in which 2 pairs of electrons are shared between 2 atoms 4 An ionic bond is a chemical bond where two or more ions are linked by virtue of their opposite charge An ion is a charged atom whose number of electrons differ from its number of protons Gained or lost electrons resulting in a negative or positive charge 5 As a solvent water is able to have many molecules especially ions dissolve into it anything that has a charge like ions like NaCl will dissolve in water When NaCl dissolves in water bonds are broken because of water s slight charge 6 An isotope has the same atomic number but a different atomic mass diff nmber of neutrons than the original element 7 A radioactive isotope is any of several species of the same chemical element with different masses whose nuclei are unstable and dissipate excess energy by spontaneously emitting radiation a Carbon14 eventually becomes nitrogen b A halflife is the time taken for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to fall to half of its original value c The halflife of c14 is 5730 years d The iceman Oetzi is 51115381 years old 8 A polar covalent bond is when electrons in an atom are shared unequally one end has a slightly negative charge while the other has a slightly positive charge 9 A nonpolar covalent bond is when electrons are shared equally 10 Hydrogen bond links an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom Attraction of hydrogen atoms with a partial positive chage and atoms like oxygen with a partially negative charge a can also bond to other hydrogen atoms a in water b ice is less dense than water because the bonds move less and are more solidified so it is more stable In ice they can be more spread apart To turn liquid water into as chemical bonds must be broken which is difficult 11substances are watersoluble because they become attracted to the oppositely charged atoms This separates molecules Also hydrogen bonds help too 12The solute dissolves in the solvent forming a solution 13 Hydrophilic is water lovinginteracts with water 14 Hydrophobic is water fearing doesn t interact with water a Water s bonds cause it to form circles around hydrophobic molecules 15Specific heat the amount of energy it takes to raise the temp of a substance by 1 degree C 16 Cohesion the tendency of water molecules to stay together stick together 17Surface tension is the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid reducing surface area a ex water molecules are equally attracted to each other in all directions but not to the air pushed down and to the sides 18A hydrogen ion is a proton a Hydroxide ions are negatively chargd b In pure water they are perfectly balanced making water neutral on the pH scale 19Acid below 7 20 Basic above 7 21 Neutral 7 22 pH is a measure of hydrogen ion H concentration 23the pH scale measures the relative acidity of substances 0 is the most acidic and 14 is the most basic 24 pH a water 7 neutral b blood almost 8 slightly basic c gastric juice 2 acidic d baking soda 9 basic 25to make water more basic add HCI adds H ions 26to make water more acidic add NaOH adds OH ions Lecture 4 1 39gt carbon ls central to life because it has 4 outershell electrons instead of 8 which makes it more stable for bonding which helps it form large complex mlcls Organisms are 18 carbon is considered carbon cycle amp photosynthesis a plants and other photosynthesizers take in carbon from the atmosphere in form of carbon dioxide Then plants and the organisms that eat them ue the carbon to make up their tissues and to power their activities When all of them die carbon is released into the atmosphere when the remains are broken down Then the cycle repeats Monomer a small mlcl that can be combined with other similar or identical molecules to make a polymer Polymer large mlcl made of many similar or identical subunits Polymermonomer a Carbs simple sugarsmonosaccharides b Lipids fatty acidsglycerol c Protein amino acids d Nucleic acids nucleotides e THESE ARE ALL MONOSACCHARIDES Carbohydrates are organic molecules that always contain carbon oxygen and hydrogen and often contain only these elements Monosaccharides the monomers of carbs a Glucose monomer Sugar b Fructose monomer Fruit sugar c Galactose monomer Dehydration synthesis water is removed dehydration between 2 monomers and new bond is formed synthesis Disaccharide when 2 molecules bond glucose sugar ex a Sucrose table sugar b Maltose malt sugar c Lactose milk sugar d THESE ARE ALL DISACCHARIDES 10 Polysaccharide many sugars Polymer of carbs a Starch stores carbsplants b Glycogen stores carbsstarch in liver of animals c Cellulose cell wallsplants d Chitin exoskeletons of animals 11Calorie amount of energy heat it takes to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree C a 1g carb 4 calories b 1g fat 9 calories c 1g proteins 4 calories d 1lb body fat 3500 calories 12 My daily calorie requirements female 1418 years active 2400 calories 13 Highfructose corn syrup a simple sugar derived from corn that was processed into corn starch which was broken down to yield mixture of the 2 simple sugars Fructose and glucose Fructose is used a lot in regular soft drinks because it is cheap and sweet 14Wholewheat bread underwent relatively little processing wheat grains retained bran outer coat and wheat germ embryonic tissue White bread loses both a Spike of glucose in the bloodstream causes a spike of insulin released from the pancreas 15Glycemic load a measure of how blood glucose levels are affected by defined portions of given carbs a Fiber is important in the diet cause they aren t digested and bind in the digestive tract with cholesterol lowering it also increase bulk of stool by absorbing water softening it good 16 Elements of a healthy diet fuits veggies grains plant oils nuts eggs poultry shdaky a not good red meat butter white bread potatoes soda sweets LOOK AT QUESTIONS AT END OF CHAPTERS Lecture 5 1 fats glycerol 3 fatty acids triglyceride fat a head has glycerol and tail has 3 fatty acids b storage 2 phospholipids glycerol head with 2 fatty acid tails a also have phosphate group phosphorous with 4 oxygen atoms b create partitions ex cell membranes 3 steroids like lipids but have 4 carbon rings a natural steroids in body important activate DNA b side chains make them unique triglyceride fat Most important dietary form of lipid Storage Hydrophobic waterfearing doesn t interact with water Hydrophilic water loving interacts with water Saturated fatty acid no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acid one or more double bonds a Monounsaturated one double bond between carbons b Polyunsaturated 2 or more double bonds between carbons 9 Trans fats fatty acids formed by hydrogenation takes away double bonds to form a semisolid bad raises LDL 100mega3 fatty acid helpful raise HDL levels Found in fishfish oils 90gt 1 1 Solid fats saturated 12 Liquid fats oils unsaturated 13 Partially hydrogenated oils had hydrogen added to break double bonds and make more solid and forms transfatty acids bad a Crisco is hydrogenated oil b So is margarine 14 Dietary fats most to least healthy a Polyunsaturated fats with omega3 fatty acids b Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats without omega3 c Saturated fats d Trans fats 15Steroids have 4 carbon rings with side chains 16Wax a lipid with a single fatty acid linked to a longchain alcohol a Steroids and wax are classified with lipids because they are insoluble in water 17Anabolism the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler molecules together with the storage of energy constructive metabolism 18Catabolism the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones together with the release of energy destructive metabolism a Anabolic steroids build up synthetic form of testosterone used to help build muscle i Dangerous cause side effects 1 Cancer 2 High blood pressure 3 Jaundice 4 Increase LDL decrease HDL 5 Acne 6 Headache 7 Beards in women 8 Breasts in men 9 Stunt growth for adolescents 19Amino acid monomer of protein a Amino group b Carboxyl group c Central carbon d Side chain R group e 20 diff amino acids found in protein 20 Polypeptide series of amino acids linked in a linear fashion Stringed together by removing water OH and H dehydration synthesis 21 Shape is critical to the functioning of all proteins because they have to be able to specifically bind to perform their various roles 224 levels of protein structure a Amino acid sequence primary b Alpha helix secondary c Folded polypeptide chain tertiary d 2 or more polypeptide chains quaternary 23 Proteins a Enzymes quicken chemical reactions b Hormones chemical messengers c Transport move other molecules d Contractile movement e Protective healingdefense against invader f Structural mechanical support g Storage stores nutrients h Toxins defense predation i Communication cell signaling 24Whole wheat has not been stripped of nutrients Soft drinks are empty calories because the calories come from sugar which has no nutrients a Glycemic load a measure of hw blood glucose levels are affected by defined portions of given carbs Glucose increases insulin increases 25Whole grain carbs like cellulose that cant be digested by humans bind with cholesterol in the digestive tract lowering it fiber Healthy stool 26 Best lipid choices in diet unsaturated Omega3 and oils like olive oil Lecture 6 1 2 anton van leeuwenhoek simple microscope Revealed EXISTENCE of microorganisms animalcules Bacteriaprotists Robert hooke coined term cell Revealed structure of familiar small objects like the flea Prokaryotic cells a DNA spread thru cell b Small in size c Always single celled d One type of organelle Eukaryotic cells a DNA in membranebound nucleus b Bigger in size c Often multicellular d Many organelle types Smallest to largest Atom Lipid Protein Large virus Small bacteria Mitochondria nweoce 03 g Most bacteria h Cell nucleus i Plant and animal cells Frog egg k Chicken egg Human m Blue whale As surface area increases volume increases even more Eukaryotic cell components Nucleus Other organelles Cytosol Cytoskeleton Plasma membrane 9095
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