Test 2 Review
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Date Created: 08/20/15
Kyla Brinkley BIOL 1103 Fall 2014 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 7Cells ANIMAL CELL o Nucleus DNA RNA proteins surrounded by nuclear envelope Nucleolus ribosome Endoplasmic reticulum 0 Rough has ribosomes 0 Smooth no ribosomes 0 Can form vesicles that go to the golgi complex which sends vesicles out of the cell Mitochondria energy transformation Have their own circular DNA Ribosomes are also located in the cytoplasm Cytoplasm region inside the cell 0 Cytoskeleton network of protein filament in cell PLANT CELL 0 Cell wall 0 Central vacuole 0 Chloroplasts green photosynthesis Lecture 8 0 cell plasma membrane made of phospholipids phospholipid bilayertails face each other fatty acids phosphate head has charge so it is hydrophilic has mlcls of cholesterol hydrophobic molecules can pass thru easily but hydrophilic molecules can t plasma membrane can have proteins depending on the type of cell func ons communication serve as external receptors for signaling molecules transport moving things into and out of the cell structural support recognition 0 diffusion gradients amp osmosis o diffusion the movement of molecules or ions like water from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration spreading out 0 Through diffusions compounds naturally move from higher to lower concentrations meaning they move DOWN their concentration gradients 0 Solutions 00000 00 Hypertonic more solute Water goes out cell shrinks Hypotonic less solute Water moves in cell expands 0 molecules move from hypertonic to hypotonic solution through selectively permeable membrane to reach equilibrium 0 when plant cells expand they cant really expand because of the cell wall so they become turgid or more stiff aquaporins selectively conduct water molecules in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes 0 aka water channels integral membrane pore proteins ATP is energy push to get things through the proteins in the membrane 0 Used in active transport to move molecules against concentration gradient Endocytosis o Pinocytosis receptors capture molecules put in membrane bring in o Phagocytosis larger thing put in membrane brought in Lecture 9lntro to Enerdv Energy the capacity to do work or the capacity to bring about movement against an opposing force 0 Potential energy stored energy 0 Kinetic energy energy in motion Entrophy a measure of disorder or randomness o Photosynthesis increases entrophy 0 Burning decreases entrophy 0 Higher entrophy means higher disorder Most energy not available for work is lost as heat Endergonic reactions require energy products contain more energy than reactants Exergonic reactions release energy products release less energy than reactants all enzymes are proteins 0 every reaction has a specific enzyme boiling things denatures proteins aka enzymes allosteric regulation molecule bonds with enzyme at site other than active site 0 enzyme transforms substrate to product Lecture 10Enerdv from Food mitochondria evolved from freeliving prokaryotes o circular DNA of their own 0 prokaryotic type ribosomes o prokaryotic size oxidation loss of electrons reduction gain of elections o NAD is oxidized NADH is reduced Cellular respiration stages 0 Glycolysis gains 2 ATP 0 Krebs cycle aka citric acid cycle gains 2 ATP 0 Electron transport chemiosmosis gains 32 ATP 2 sources of ATP formation 0 Substrate level phosphorylation o Chemiosmosis oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm Starts with glucose and ends with 2 molecules of pyruvic acid Gain of 2 ATP and 2NADH Energy always runs downhill from more concentrated to less Studv Questions Lecture 8 1 P Anton Van Leeuwenhoek simple microscope Revealed existence of microorganisms animalcules bacteriaprotists Robert Hooke coined term cell Revealed structure of familiar small objects like the flea Prokaryotic DNA spread thru cell tiny single celled one type of molecule Eukaryotic DNA in nucleus big multicellular many organelles Smallest to largest atom lipid protein large virus bacteria small mitochondria most bacteria cell nucleus plantanimal cells frog egg chicken egg human whale As surface area increases volume increases even more Eukaryotic cell a Nucleus b Plasma membrane c Cytosolcytoplasm d Other organelles e Cytoskeleton Nucleus contains DNA Nucleolus synthesis of ribosomal DNA mRNA messenger RNA Transports DNA from nucleus to cytoplasm ribosomes sites of protein synthesis rough ER protein processing transport vesicles transport of proteins and other cellular materials Production of a protein a Instructions from DNA are copied onto mRNA b mRNA moves to ribosomes c ribosome moves to endoplasmic reticulum and reads mRNA instructions d amino acid chain growing from ribosome is dropped inside ER membrane Chain folds into protein e protein moves to golgi complex for more processing and for sorting f protein moves to plasma membrane for export 8 Golgi complex a network of membranes that processes and distributes proteins that come to it from the rough ER 9 Smooth ER a network of membranes that is the site of the synthesis of various lipids and a site which potentially harmful substances are detoxified within the cell 10 Lysosomes organelles found in animal cells that digest worn out cellular materials and foreign mate4rials that enter the cell 11Mitochondria organelles that are the primary sites for energy conversion in eukaryotic cells Generate heat and process food Structure a continuous outer membrane enclosing an inner membrane that has a series of folds in it this gives it a larger internal surface area 12 Plant cell a Cell wall b Chloroplasts c Central vacuole 13Animal cell a Lysosomes 14 mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendants of bacteria that invaded our ancestors cells Mitochondria are descendants of bacteria so are chloroplasts endosymbiotic theory they have characteristics of free standing cells own ribosomes and own DNA and reproduce through division like bacteria 15chloroplasts organelles that are the sites of photosynthesis in algae and plant cells Structure similar to the bacteria they are descended from 16 Principal membrane protein roles a Structural support when attached to parts of cytoskeleton b Recognition identify cell as normal or infected to immune system cells c Communication receptor proteins contact for signals from traveling cells like hormones d Transport channels through which materials can pass in and out of cell 17 Diffusion the movement of mlcls or ions from areas of high concentration to low concentration Concentration gradient the difference between the highest and lowest concentration of a solute within a given medium 180smosis the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower concentration of solute to higher concentration a Basically water can fit through the membrane while the solute molecules cant and it spreads to the other solute molecules 19 Hypertonic solution a fluid that has a higher concentration of solutes than another water flows out of the cell 20 Hypotonic solution a fluid that has a lower concentration of solutes than another water flows into cell 21 lsotonic solution two solutions that have equal concentrations of solutes Lecture 9 91614 1 Aquaporins integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins MIP that form pores in the membrane of biological cells 2 Small molecules move intoout of cells by simple diffusion Passive transport any movement of molecules or ions across a cell membrane that doesn t use energy Active transport any movement of molecules or ions across a cell membrane that uses energy 3 Large substances move in and out of the cell by using vesicles exocytosis the movement of materials out of the cell through a fusion of a transport vesicle with the plasma membrane endocytosis the movement of materials into the cell by an infolding of the plasma membrane 4 The sun is the ultimate source of energy Energy the capacity to bring about movement against an opposing force 5 The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is never created or destroyed but is only transformed The second law of thermodynamics energy transfer always results in a greater amount of disorder in the universe Entrophy a measure of the amount of disorder in a system The greater the entrophy the greater the disorder 6 Calorie amount of energy heat it takes to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree C there are 686000 calories in 1 mol of glucose 7 Exergonic reaction reaction where the starting set of molecules reactants has more energy than the final set of molecules products Endergonic reaction reaction where the products contain more energy than the reactants 8 ATP adenosine triphosphate 3 phosphate groups and adenineribose adenosine ADP is adenosine diphosphate same but has 2 phosphate groups Energy is required to hold the 3 phosphate groups together because they repel each other so the molecule is unstable By giving up the 3 molecule ATP provides energy and becomes ADP and the cycle continues The conversion of ATP to ADP P is an exergonic reaction 9 Enzymes proteins that accelerate a chemical reaction Some split molecules some combine molecules and some rearrange them They bind to substrates to make them more vulnerable to chemical alteration They are catalysts The activation barrier is the amount of energy needed to start a reaction activation energy 10Active site the portion of an enzyme that binds with a substrate helps 11 transform it ATP the most important energy transfer molecule in living things Allosteric regulation the regulation of an enzymes activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site Catalyst substances that retain their original chemical composition while bringing about a change in a substrate Ehymotrypsin enzyme Delivered from human pancreas to small intestine where it works with water to break down proteins we have ingested Snips protein chains between their building block amino acids Breaks single bond between amino acids then binds to part of a protein chain and interacts with it to create a transitionstate molecule Distorts the shape of the protein to make it vulnerable to bonding with ionized water molecules Coenzyme molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them Ex vitamins Competitive inhibitiona reduction in the activity of an enzyme by means of a compound other than the enzymes usual substrate binding with it in its active state Coupled reaction a chemical reaction in which an exergonic reaction powers an endergonic reaction Kinetic energy energy in motion Potential energy stored energy Metabolic pathway a set of enzymatically controlled steps that results in the completion of a product or process in an organism Substrate the substance that is worked on by an enzyme Product what an enzyme turns out No substrate to work on no product Enzymes are regulated by other reactions Allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzymes activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site Competitive inhibition a reduction in the activity of an enzyme by means of a compound other than the enzyme s usual substrate binding with it in its active site Lecture 10 1 Oxidation when a substance loses one or more electrons to another Reduction when a substance gains electrons NAD is reduced to NAO by accepting an electron from a hydrogen atom It also picks up another hydrogen atom to become NADH NADH is oxidized to its original form by carrying the electrons to a later stage or respiration then dropping them off NAD does its job by transferring energy by picking up energetic electrons from food and transferring them to later stages of respiration The 3 stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis the krebs cycle and the electron transport chain a Glycolysis 2 ATP b Krebs cycle 2 ATP c Electron transport 32 ATP Glycolysis the 1St stage of energy harvesting sugar splitting a molecule of glucose is prepared for energy release ATP used to change glucose to a less sable sugar When this molecule is split they have 3 carbons glucose had 6 Then the process happens again 3 products of glycolysis 2 ATP molecules 2 molecules NADH 2 molecules pyruvic acid Anaerobic respiration energy conversion without oxygen Alcoholic fermentation process by which yeasts produce alcohol as a by product of glycolysis anaerobically fungiplants Lactic acid formation also product of glycolysis But pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH so it becomes lactic acid During quick burst of energy oxygen cant be delivered fast enough so when muscles capacity of aerobic energy transfer has reached limit uses glycolysis and lactate fermentation to supply more ATP animals 9095 Mitochondria hae folded membranes and an inner and outer membrane Krebs cycle takes place to the interior of the inner membrane inner compartment reations of electron transport chain ETC take place within the inner membrane itself the movement of electrons through the ETC power ATP formation by releasing enough energy to power the pumping of H ions across the membrane into the outer compartment of the mitochondrion The fall of H ions back to the inner compartment drives the synthesis of ATP molecules by the enzyme ATP synthase 3 products of krebs cycle 6 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP Electron transport chain ETC 3rCI stage of aerobic energy harvesting a in mitochondrial inner membrane b electron carriers donate electronsH ions to ETC c N ADH is now at a higher energy level because donations traveled down energy hill So NADH is oxidized when it runes into the right enzyme in the ETC When its ozidized it donates its e and a proton to ETC Process repeated Movement of e thru the ETC releases enough energy to power the movement of H ions through complex from inner compartment to sesame outer compartment againsftheir concentrationelectrical gradients ions H being pumped up energy hill with energy supplied by downhill fall of elections thru ETC h The H ions flow thru enzyme ATP synthase and cause it to spin adding extra phosphate group P to ADP making ATP i This makes 32 ATP 36 net ATP for all aerobic respiration 8 Role of oxygen in cellular respiration oxygen is final acceptor of the e that move through the ETC joins with 2 e and 2H to make by product water Assembly line yields product ATP but also materials used for making it de energied e if these e weren t taken away by oxygen they would stay in the ETC in the last enzyme complex keeping it from accepting E from the previous complex up the chain until the whole system would be baked up all the way to glycolysis which provides 2 ATP enough for only small organisms Animals need 02 because the energy assembly line will only keep moving if the e that are part of it are removed by 02 9 Catabolism breakdown of fats carbs amp protein relates to cellular respirtaiton because it is similar However glycerol doesn t get converted to glucose first it gets changed to pyruvic acid and goes through krebs cycle and ETC making ATP Fatty acids are converted to actyl CoA the substrate that enters the krebs cycle yielding energy by becoming oxidized there Lecture 1 1 1 P Anabolic resoiration going thru glycolysis without oxygen a in yeast fermentation products of ethyl alcohol and CO2 b in animalssome bacteria fermentation product of lactic acid mitochondria have folded membranes outer and inner CO2 is released between glyolysis and the krebs cycle out of the cell Co2 also released after krebs cycle krebs cycle and electron transport chain take place within the mitochondrion The movement of electrons through the ETC power the process by releasing enough energy to power the pumping of H ions across the membrane into the inner compartment of the mitochondrion Products of krebs cycle 6NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP The Q provides most of the ATP in cellular respiration The electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 are released into the ETC and transported along its chain of mlcls The movement of electrons along the chain release enough energy to power the pumping of H ions across the membrane into the outer compartment of the mitochondrion The fall of the H ions back into the inner compartment drives the synthesis of ATP molecules by enzyme ATP synthase an enzyme that functions in cellular respiration by bringing together ADP and inorganic phosphate mlcls to make ATP ETC makes 32 ATP 6 7 090 Calvin cycle C3 cycle Set of steps in photosynthesis in which energetic electrons are brought together with C02 and sugar to make an energetic carbohydrate Carbon cycle the cycle of carbon use through all living thingsthe environment CO2 accumulation contributes to global warming esp in the form of fossil fuel burning and deforestation Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast organelles in plants Leaves are flat to absorb more sunlight The epidermis is the top protective layer and is often covered with waxmesoohvll cells are underneath the epidermis and they are where more photosynthesis happens Also the epidermis has lots of microscopic openings called stomata that let CO2 pass in and let water vapor pass out Epidermis lies below the mesophyll cells as well and that is where the stomata are The stroma is the liquid material inside chloroplasts and a network of membranes called the thylakoids are inside A section of thylakoids make up the granum electrons used in photosynthesis will come from water contained in the thylakoid compartment and all the steps of photosynthesis take place either within the thylakoid membrane or in the stroma that surrounds the thylakoids 10 Light in the red and blue range drive photosynthesis mostly Shorter wavelength 11 more energy Long wavelength low energy Absorption Spectrum is the light that is taken in by leaves Leaves capture only a portion of the light that falls on them Action soectrum the rate of photosynthesis measured by 02 released Transmission of lidht light that passes through Absorption of lidhtlight that is absorbed or retained Reflection of lidht light that is reflected or bounces off 12 Lidhtdependent reactions occur within the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplasts The products of these reactions are NADPH and oxygen atoms which become 02 mlcl and is what we breathe another product is electrons 13 Lidhtindependent reactions calvin cycle aka CO2 fixation occur in the stroma Lecture 12 1 2 3 The oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from the splitting of water ATP formation by chemiosmosis in the chloroplast is a light reaction solar energy causes electrons to become boosted up and then move down two energy hills They move to primary electron acceptors and then down ETC until taken up by NADP to form NADPH which transfer the electrons to the calvin cycle where they are used to make sugars O2 is a byproduct ln mitochondria ATP is formed by the flow of H ions through ATP synthase enzyme and NADH is turned to NAD after giving e to power the ATP synthase H2O is a byproduct Calvin cycle C3 Cycle Set of steps in photosynthesis in which energetic electrons are brought together with C02 and a sugar to produce an energetic carbohydrate CO2 fixation is the gas being incorporated into an organic molecule An enzyme called rubisco brings together 3 mlcls of CO2 with 3 mlcls of the sugar RuBP In this reaction one carbon from each CO2 mlcl is added to the 5carbon RuBP and this is done 3 times The 3 resulting 6carbon mlcls called 3PGA 3phosphoglyceric acid 3GP is the product of the calvin cycle Product of photosynthesis used for energy or transformed into materials that make up the plant Photoresoiration a glitch in the process of photosynthesis Mechanism that evolved in one group of plants Takes place within calvin cycle Rubisco sometimes binds to oxygen instead of carbon undercutting plants growth Photorespiration is a process in which the enzyme rubisco reduces carbon fixation in photosynthesis by binding with oxygen instead of CO2 Q photosynthesis used by most plants Efficient use of ATP problem photorespiration used by com sugarcane warm environments less photorespiration Uses more ATP though CAM cactus pineapple orchid dry environments Less water loss Uses more ATP hard to bank enough CO2 Done at night
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