Exam 3 review
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Date Created: 08/20/15
Kyla Brinkley BIOL 1103 Study Guide for Test 3 October 2014 Lecture 14 DNA 0 DNA Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine AT CG are complementary 0 DNA is a code for making protein 0 DNA gt RNA gt protein 0 mRNA codons and their amino acid sequences 0 ACC Thr O CCG Pro 0 AAA Lys 0 GGG Gly O CGC Arg 0 CCC Pro 0 DNA codes for the primary structure of proteins 0 During replication DNA condenses into chromatin then chromosomes 0 Sister chromatids make up duplicated chromosomes connected at the centromere 0 Mitosis when a cell diVides it must make a complete copy of the genetic information in its nucleus and then as it diVides give one complete set to each daughter cell 0 Mitosis produces new nuclei with EXACTLY THE SAME chromosomal endowment as the parent cell 0 Females XX chromosomes 0 Males XY chromosomes 0 Diploid 2 sets of chromosomes 1 from each parent 0 Humans have 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes 0 Mitosis 0 Interphase 0 Prophase O Metaphase 0 Anaphase O Telophase 0 Cytokinesis is separate It is the actual physical diVision of the cell cytoplasm 0 All cancers represent a failure of cells to limit their multiplication of the cell cycle 0 Meiosis preparing for sexual reproduction O Reduces the number of chromosomes by half in the formation of haploid gametes animals or spores plants 0 Always has 4 products 0 Ovaries females egg 0 Testes males sperm Each chromosome made of 2 chromatids Homologous pair of chromosomes that are alike 0 Diploid species have matching pairs of homologous chromosomes Meiosis I separates the homologous pairs Meiosis II separates the chromatids At metaphase I of meiosis there are 2 equally probably arrangements of chromosomes Study questions lecture 14 1 2 10 DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell DNA structure double helix 2 outside handrails made of sugar and phosphate 4 chemical bases adenine thymine guanine cytosine A T C G A particular sequence of the bases has info that can be acted on like a code for protein structure The different sequences of A T C G is specifically production of certain proteins and the separate sequences of bases are separate genes Protein synthesis a The info contained in a length of DNA is transcribed onto a length of messenger RNA mRNA b The mRNA then exits the cells nucleus and goes to a structure in the cells cytoplasm called a ribosome c Here the mRNA sequence is read and a string of amino acids is put together in the order specified by the sequence The result is a protein because the amino acid chain folds up to create a protein Mitosis the apportioning of DNA into 2 identical quantities Cytokinesis the splitting of the cellular material DNA replication 1 Original DNA molecule unwinds 2 Each of the single strands of the original molecule serves as a template or pattern for the creation of a second DNA strand How is DNA packaged in the cell The DNA strands wrap around proteins to make chromatin The chromatin folds up to make chromosomes a when DNA replicates the result is 2 copies of the original DNA molecule At the chromosomal level the result is a single chromosome in duplicated state The chromosome is composed of 2 sister chromatidsthe 2 copies of the original DNA molecule Karyotype a pictoral arrangement of a complex set of human chromosomes Homologous pair any 2 chromosomes that have paternal and maternal copies that are the same in function a Autosomes nonsex chromosomes b human females have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes because of matching XX sex chromosomes and males have 22 because they have mismatched XY sex chromosomes cell cycle the repeating pattern of growth genetic duplication and diVision seen in most cells a All of these are part of interphase b G1 gap one Normal cell operations and cell growth c S synthesis phase Synthesis of DNA resulting in the duplication of the chromosomes d G2 gap 2 More cytoplasmic growth and a preparation for cell division 1 1 Mitosis a Interphase DNA has already duplicated in S phase Centrosome has doubled b Prophase chromosomes take shape the 2 centrosomes begin to move toward the cellular poles sprouting microtubules as they go c Metaphase attachment and alignment microtubules attach to sister chromatids and align them at the metaphase plate d Anaphase separation Sister chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell each chromatid now becoming a full edged chromosome e Telophase and cytokinesis exit from mitosis Chromosomes decondense nuclear envelopes form around the 2 separate complements of chromosomes Cleavage furrow begins to form i Chromatid synthesis occurs during S phase in interphase ii There are 2 chromatid chromosomes during prophase and metaphase iii The centromeres of sister chromatids are grabbed by spindle fibers during anaphase to become chromosomes 12 Cell division a Animal cells cleavage furrow Splits apart b Plant cells golgi complex releases vesicles with cell wall material and the vesicles fuse together to form a cell plate that grows toward the parent cell wall Newly formed plasma membrane and cell wall fuse with the old to make 2 new cells c Bacterial cells daughter chromosomes attach to different sites on the plasma membrane The cell membrane and wall grow an extension between the attachment points of the 2 chromosomes The cell wall and membrane join in the middle to form 2 new cells 13 Cancer is a failure of the cell cycle failure of cells to limit their multiplication in the cell cycle 14 the drug Gleevec blocks chronic myeloid leukemia by blocking a molecular signaling pathway It binds to a site on a protein preventing ATP from binding with it so it doesn t have energy to keep cell moving through cell division Lecture 15 1 3 traits of cancer cells a Failure of cell cycle can t limit multiplication b Destroy working tissues c Caused by mutant genes d 2 things required for cancer i Control mechanisms that induce cell division must become hyperactive Oncogenesaccelerate the cell cycle ii 2 mechanisms that suppress cell division must fail Tumor suppressor genes fail e In chronic myeloid leukemia Gleevec blocks cancer by using a drug that blocks ATP s binding site so the mutant gene has no source of energy and can no longer fuel rapid cell divison Meiosis is confined to sexual reproduction because meiosis is defined as a process in which a single diploid cell divides to produce four haploid reproductive cells and eggs and sperm come from diploid cells Half of each pair of homologous chromosomes come from the father and half from the mother and the product is four haploids the 2 pairs of chromosomes that make up males and females a diploid species have matching pairs of homologous chromosomes meiosis I a prophase I homologous chromosomes link as they condense forming tetrads crossing over in prophase I 2 homologous chromosomes join forming a tetrad after which nonsister chromatids from each chromosome exchange reciprocal portions of themselves In this way genetic material from maternal and paternal sources is shuf ed during the formation of gametes b Metaphase I microtubules move homologous chromosomes to metaphase plate Independent assortment Homologous chromosomes can line up differently random event c Anaphase I microtubules separate homologous chromosomes sister chromatids remain together d Telophase 1 two haploid daughter cells result from cytokinesis Meiosis II a Prophase II brief b Metaphase II sister chromatids line up at new metaphase plate c Anaphase II sister chromatids separate d Telophase II 4 haploid cells result During meiosis homologous chromosomes synapse in prophase I a tetrad is 2 homologous chromosomes that have paired up See crossing over which occurs during prophase I independent assortment occurs during metaphase I the homologous chromosomes line up randomly producing genetic diversity Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II They are pulled apart by the centrosomes to create four haploid cells in telophae II Crossing over shuf es genetic material from maternal and paternal sources during the formation of gametes a Independent assortment a random event involving the alignment of homologous chromosomes These processes both contribute to genetic diversity by ensuring that genetic material is shuf ed and appears in cells randomly Usually when they line up at metaphase I in humans there are 46 or 223 possible maternal and paternal combinations due to independent assortment 8 gamete formation starting female cells are oogonia and starting male cells are spermatogonia These are diploid cells that create 2 other sets of diploid cells the primary oocytes and primary spermatocytes These are the cells that undergo meiosis yielding haploid egg and sperm cells 9 Spermatogenesis a The diploid spermatogonium cell produces a primary spermatocyte b The primary spermatocyte goes through meiosis I yielding 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes c The secondary spermatocytes go through meiosis II yielding 4 haploid spermatids which will develop into mature sperm cells 10 Oogenesis a Before the birth of a female an oogonium cell develops into a primary oocyte this cell enters meiosis I but remains there until it matures in the female ovary beginning at puberty b On average one primary oocyte per month will complete meiosis I in this process an unequal meiotic division of cellular material leads to the production of one polar body and one secondary oocyte which enters into meiosis II c Only secondary oocytes that are fertilized by sperm will complete meiosis II and develop into an egg The 3 polar bodies that are produced by meiosis I and II will be degraded 11 Sex determination in humans a Early in meiosis I the mothers 2 X chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate XX Meanwhile in the fathers meiosis his X and Y chromosomes line up XY b The XX and XY pairs hen separate into different cells c The chromatids that made up the duplicated chromosomes separate yielding individual eggs and sperm d Should an Xbearing sperm from the male fertilize the egg the child will be a girl Should a Ybearing sperm from the male fertilize the egg the child will be a boy Lecture 16 1 Seven peaplant characteristics studied by mendel a Seed shape smooth vs wrinkled Seed color yellow vs green Pod shape in ated vs wrinkled Pod color green vs yellow Flower color purple vs white Flower position on stem vs at tip g Stern length tall vs dwarf 2 The dominant to recessive traits were on average at a ratio of 31 3 Phenotype a physiological feature bodily characteristic or behavior of an organism a Genotype genetic makeup b Allele an alternative form of a gene c Homozygous an organism that has 2 identical alleles of a gene for a given character W999 10 11 d Heterozygous an organism that has differing alleles for a character An F1 cross represents the offspring of the parent generation or the first filial generation being fertilized with another ariety a F2 generation growth from seeds of F1 an allowed to self pollinate cross plant with itself F2 cross After analyzing the data from his 7 F1 crosses Mendel learned that inheritance for he peas wasn t a matter of blending characteristicsphenotypes But they could retain the potential for recessive phenotypes Discovered pairs of genes matched alternative forms alleles a Mendel s rst law law of segregation differing characteristics in organisms result from 2 genetic elements alleles that separate in gamete formation such that each gamete gets only one of the 2 alleles Punnet squares provide intuitive visual sense of why certain traits occur a Testcross if dominant phenotype unknown genotype PP or Pp An allele is an alternative form of a gene Humans are likely to have no more than 2 alleles for a given gene The rule of multiplication states that the probability of any 2 events happening is the product of their respective probabilities The rule of addition is when an outcome can occur in 2 or more different ways The probability of this happening is the sum of the respective probabilities In a dihybrid cross the phenotype ratios are 933 1 Mendel s second law law of independent assortment states that during gamete formation gene pairs assort independently of one another In meiosis pairs of homologous chromosomes assort independently from one another at the metaphase plate In dihybrid crosses characters are transmitted independently of one another Lecture 15 Mendel and the pea plants genetics Hereditary factors occur in pairs One factor may mask or prevent expression of the other dominant A pair of factors is segregated during the formation of gametes and randomly recombined during fertilization Reception of mendel s ideas significance of his published work was not recognized until after his death barr body inactivated X chromosome Females have one barr body in nucleus Males don t have them Turner syndrome 15000 female births One X no Y 45 chromosomes Barr body negative Klinefelter syndrome 12000 male births XXY or XXXY 4748 chromosomes Barr body positive 0 XXY male 1 1000 general male pop 150 insitutionalized males Male calico cats are xxy Lecture 17 l incomplete dominance a genetic condition in which the heterozygote phenotype is intermediate between either of the homozygous phenotypes a Codominance a condition in which 2 alleles of a given gene have different phenotypic effects with both effects manifesting in organisms that are heterozygous for the gene the offspring of 2 roan cattle parents could have 1 brown 2 roan and one white Incomplete dominance Polygenic inheritance the inheritance of a genetic character that is determined by the interaction of multiple genes with each gene having a small additive effect on the character a Bell curve distribution of values that is symmetrical around the average Humans have a range of phenotypes because polygenic inheritance creates diversity However most biological traits tend to cluster around the average or the middle of a range of values rather than at the extreme ends This is why a bell curve is used Examples are height in humans and beak depth in birds the antigens found in human blood types are glycolipid molecules that extend from the surface of red blood cells AA AO BB B0 AB 00 type 0 is the universal donor Type AB is the universal receiver The environment can affect the expression of genes by producing factors that lead to the expression of different traits For example smoking contributing to lung cancer and more acidic soil producing blue rather than pink hydrangeas Chap 12 chromosomes and inheritance l 2 Sex linkage deals with a gene being located on a sex chromosome a Xlinked genetic conditions stem from dysfunctional alleles located on the X chromosome Men are more likely to suffer from these conditions because men have only one X chromosome A woman with a dysfunctional allele on one of her X chromosomes will usually be protected by a second functional allele on her other X chromosome b Recessive genetic conditions are those that will not exist in the presence of a single functional allele Persons who do not suffer from recessive genetic conditions may still possess an allele for them which they can pass on to their offspring Such carriers are heterozygous for the condition the alleles they have for the trait differ one being functional the other being dysfunctional Morgan s whiteeyed F2s were all male because the F2 females that inherited one white eyed X chromosome also inherited a second red eyed X allele making them red eyed The males had no second x chromosome and the Y chromosome had no genes for eye color so they had white eyes a A cross between a carrier female and a white eyed male would create 50 white eyed females and 50 white eyed males b A cross between a carrier female and a red eyed male would yield 100 female red and 50 male white 10 11 12 Sexlinked traits in humans are traits that are found on sex chromosomes The effects of xlinked recessive disorders a Hemophilia faulty blood clotting b Duchenne muscular dystrophy wasting of muscles c Redgreen color blindness inability to distinguish between red amp green Because Queen Victoria was a hemophilia carrier the Russian czar s son eventually had it and his mother turned to a monk and anger with the monk among the Russian people may have played a role in the Russian revolution of 1917 Prince William and harry were not born with hemophilia because kind Edward VII didn t inherit the hemophilia allele from queen Victoria his mother Recessive disorder genetic disorder that will not exist in title presence of a functional allele So you only need one good allele to avoid it Autosomal recessive disorders a recessive dysfunction related to an autosome a chromosome other than X and Y a Sicklecell anemia is a recessive disorder where the protein hemoglobin S replaces the protein hemoglobin A and causes red blood cells to take on a sickled shape that clogs arteries decreasing oxygen ow It is an advantage to be heterozygous for hemoglobin S in malaria country because it makes red blood cells resistant to invasion by the most severe form of malaria that destroys red blood cells Autosomal dominant disorder a dominant genetic disorder caused by a faulty allele that lies on an autosomal chromosome a Huntington disease results in mental impairment and uncontrollable spastic movements called chorea brain tissue degeneration b Polydactylism is extra fingers or does Color blindness is sex linked Dwarfism is dominant autosomal allele Aneuploidy a condition where an organism has either more or fewer chromosomes than normally exist in its species full set a Nondisjunction a failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during cell division Meiosis Trisomy 21 is down syndrome having an extra 3rd copy of chromosome 21 Chances of giving birth to a child with down syndrome increase with mother s age at conception Xinactivation a barr body is an inactivated X chromosome Females have one barr body in their nucleus Male nuclei do not have barr bodies sex chromatin Aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes a Turner syndrome produces people who are phenotypically female but have only one X chromosome Ovaries don t develop sterile Short Brown spots called nevi on body b Klinefelter syndrome XXY men Feminine features some breast development more feminine figure no facial hair tall dysfunctional testicles Male calico cats are rare because they are XXY Basically klinefelter syndrome Because genetic determination of some coat colors in cats is linked to the X chromosome calicoes are nearly always female Chapter 13 1 Genes are made of DNA and they bring about the production of proteins 2 DNA is composed of a Phosphate groups b Deoxyribose sugar c Bases adenine thymine cytosine guanine A T C G d These 3 molecules link to form the nucleotide basic building block of DNA Each one has one of each component above Across the strands of the helix pairs are AT and GC always e The sugars and phosphates link to make the ladder rails and the bases link to form the stairsteps 3 The WatsonCrick DNA model showed the double helix atom by atom bond by bond Showed sugarphosphate base A T C G nucleotide a Hydrogen bonds between AT and CG These always form together 4 The WatsonCrick double helix model provides an obvious mechanism for copying because the AT CG pairing rule meant that each single strand of DNA could serve as a template for the synthesis of a new single strand ex each A on the old means a T on the new All that needs to happen is the separation of the 2 old strands splitting stairs right down middle and for new strands to be put together that were complementary to the old 5 DNA replicates by this splitting and each side is a template for the synthesis of a new DNA molecule as free nucleotides base pair with their complementary nucleotides on the DNA This makes 2 identical strands 6 Mutations are caused because the cells various DNA error correcting mechanisms don t always correct all mistakes A mutation is a permanent alteration of a DNA base sequence a Germline cell mutations are heritable comes from cells that become eggs or sperm b Somatic cell mutations are nonheritable come from cells that don t become eggs or sperm c Point mutation a mutation of a single base pair in the genome 7 Melanoma is caused by somatic cell mutations and is nonheritable Lecture notes from 102114 0 The sequence of bases in DNA specify the sequence of amino acids in a protein DNAgtRNAgtprotein DNA operates through RNA 0 mRNA messenger RNA 0 tRNA transfer RNA 0 rRNA ribosomal RNA RNA Ribo Nucleic Acid Differences between RNA and DNA 0 Sugar is ribose rather than deoxyribose O Uracil U replaces Thymine T 0 RNA is usually single stranded While DNA has double helix 0 Protein is polymer of amino acids 0 There are 20 unique amino acids 0 MAKING PROTEIN 0 Transcription making RNA 0 Translation making protein Occurs at ribosomes needs mRNA ribosomes tRNA 0 Transcription O Forming 3 kinds of RNA from DNA 0 Sequence of codons 0 Intron any nucleotide sequence Within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing 0 RNA processing remove introns and splice exons together 0 Translation 0 Initiation start codon attracts anticodon 0 Elongation adding amino acids 0 Termination stop codon 0 Alternative RNA splicing can produce different proteins from the same primary transcript 0 Polysomes more than one ribosome translating a single mRNA Or RNA transcript 0 Mutations O Heritable germ cell mutations germ cells become sex cells 0 Nonheritable somatic cell mutation 0 caused by chemicals mutagens like cigarette smoke UV light overexposure Xrays free radicals 0 insertion deletion 0 frame shift 0 nonsense premature stop codon due to a point or frame shift mutation Lecture 102314 0 restriction enzymes amp DNA ligase are used to make recombinant DNA 0 types of RNA 0 mRNA messenger RNA 0 tRNA transfer RNA 0 rRNA ribosomal RNA 0 reproductive cloning O the production of mammals through cloning 0 clone to make an exact genetic copy of something 0 identical twins are clones Lecture 19 Studv Questions 1 proteins are made up of amino acids which form a polypeptide chain when strung together a Polypeptide chains function as proteins only when folder into their proper 3D shape b Protein structure i Amino acid ii Polypeptide chain iii Protein c Amino acid is the monomer of protein They are the building blocks or biological molecules There are 20 different amino acids that can make up a polypeptide Transcription the process by which the genetic information encoded in DNA is copied onto messenger RNA Takes place in the nucleus of a cell Its products are mRNA chains A mRNA transcript primary transcript is an RNA chain that must undergo some modification or editing before it qualifies as messenger RNA Transcription a DNA 3 TACGGTACCATTGCGCAA 5 b RNA 5 AUGCCAUGGUAACGCGUU 3 3 ways that RNA differs from DNA a Sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose b Base uracil instead of base thymine c Usually single stranded instead of double helix Translation the process by which information encoded in mRNA is used to assemble a protein at a ribosome Occurs at ribosome Codon coding triplets of mRNA bases a Start codon AUG b there are 3 stop codons UAG UAA UGA alternative splicing a process in which a single primary transcript can be edited in different ways to yield multiple messenger RNAs a RNA processing removes introns and splices exons together b An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing Making a protein a RNA is first transcribed from DNA during transcription base pairs are used to copy the code from DNA to mRNA in the nucleus and then the mRNA leaves the nucleus for a ribosome in the cytoplasm b During translation amino acids join the mRNA chain at the ribosome brought by tRNA The mRNA is read by the ribosome and a chain of amino acids is linked together in the order specified by the mRNA sequence i Translation 1 A messenger RNA transcript binds to the ribosome as the first tRNA is arriving and the mRNA codon AUG is the start sequence for most polypeptide chains The tRNA with an amino acid attached then binds the AUG codon c The large ribosomal subunit joins the ribosome as a second tRNA arrives bearing a leucine amino acid The second tRNA binds to the mRNA chain within the ribosome s A site d A bond is formed between the newly arrived leu amino acid and the met amino acid forming a polypeptide chain The ribosome now effectively shifts one codon to the right relocating the original P site tRNA to the E site and moving a new mRNA codon into the A site e The E site tRNA leaves the ribosome even as a new tRNA binds with the A site mRNA codon and the process of elongation continues 3 codons do not code for any amino acid so they are stop signals for polypeptide synthesis When the chain gets here it is released to fold up and be processed as a protein and the process is complete 9 Polysome more than one ribosome translating a single RNA creates many copies of same protein 10 Point mutation change in one of the DNA nucleotides Xray UV radiation chemicals 11 etc a Frame shift mutation shift in reading due to insertion or deletion b Nonsense mutation premature stop codon due to a point or frame shift mutation Malignant melanoma the worst kind of skin cancer Caused by UV overexposure Deadliest Caused by mutations cause of UV light Humans have 2000025000 genes Genome human is 32 billion base pairs long All these bases have to be copied twice because we have 2 copies of each chromosome This complexity is necessary because it enables life Lecture 102314 Amplifying DNA in virto The Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Stem cells original cells that give rise to all other cells in body embryonic cells 0 can come from anything 0 cells from the blastocyst O ESC s stand in constrast to adult stem cells Lecture 20 Transgenic Biotechnology 1 Transgenic biotechnology the splicing of DNA from one species to another a b Restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are used to make recombinant DNA Scientists can cut enzymes at particular places with the discovery of restriction enzymes enzymes occurring naturally in bacteria that are used in biotechnology to cut DNA into desired fragments Restriction enzymes cut at certain points in the repeating sequence so that either end is cut and a fragment from the middle is left Plasmids are extrachromosomal rings of bacterial DNA that are very short If the same restriction enzyme is now used on the DNA of isolated plasmids the result is complementary sticky ends of plasmid and human DNA so they fit together like puzzle p1eces 5 6 f When DNA fragments are mixed with the cut plasmids the human and plasmid DNA form base pairs and the human DNA is incorporated into the plasmid circle This is recombinant DNA because the human genome has now been recombined with a different stretch of DNA the plasmid sequence to make 2 or more segments of DNA that have been combined by humans into a sequence that does not exist in nature recombinant DNA g Cell transformation a cells incorporation of genetic material from outside its boundary h cDNA is complementary DNA It is DNA synthesized form a messenger RNA mRNA template in a reaction Used to clone eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes i Introns any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing while the final mature RNA product of a gene is being generated i We need cDNA from eukaryotic genes because eukaryotic genes contain introns noncoding sequences that code for mRNA ii Prokaryotic genes have no introns so their RNA is not subject to cuttingsplicing Reproductive cloning a to clone to make an exact genetic copy of A clone is an exact genetic copy of an organism DOLLY THE SHEEP CLONE a a cell wa taken from the udder of a 6 year old white sheep and then allowed to divide many times in the lab and an egg was taken from a black faced sheep b One of the resulting udder cells was selected to be the donor cell for the cloning The DNA was sucked out of the black face sheep egg with a micropipette small tube c The donor cell and egg were put next to each other and an electric current was applied to the egg cell 1 This caused the 2 cells to fuse and prompted an activation that reprogrammed the donor cell DNA This caused the fused cell to start developing as an embryo e After some incubation the embryo was implanted in a 3rd sheep which was the surrogate mom f The mother gave birth to dolly the sheep clone who grew into an adult Stem cell any cell that can give rise to more cells of its kind aolong with at least one variety of specialized cell Embryonic stem cells cells from the blastocyst stage of a human embryo that are capable of giving rise to all the types of cells in the adult body ESC Induced pluripotent stem cells iPS cells cells that have been induced into a state of pluripotency through the introduction of genes from outside their genome adult stem cells Virus particles making iPS cells 1 Reprogramming genes are spliced into virus 2 Virus particles are added to a culture of human skin cells 3 Viral infection of skin cells causes the insertion of reprogramming genes into skin cell DNA 4 Added genes reprogram cells turning them into iPS cells 5 Factors added to iPS cells allow them to produce cells of desired type Forenic Biotechnology 1 Polymerase chain reaction PCR a technique for quickly producing many copies of a specific segment of DNA 2 Electrophoresis in forensic DNA typing works through comparisons of short tandem repeat STR patterns that are found in all human genomes 3 The STR pattern in a suspect s DNA is compared from the pattern extracted from a crime scene STR patterns differ from one person to another and are represented by peaks in a figure The samples are compared to determine Whether they have peaks in the same places
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