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Lecture Notes

by: Nicole Notetaker

Lecture Notes Biol

Nicole Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Introductory Zoology
Dr. Gaffin

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Lecture Notes from every day of class.
Introductory Zoology
Dr. Gaffin
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This 40 page Bundle was uploaded by Nicole Notetaker on Thursday August 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Biol at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Gaffin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views.


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Date Created: 08/20/15
Biol 1114 Lecture 2 August 21 2013 Characterizing Life 0 What is zoology 0 Science dealing with or relating to the study of living animals 0 What is life 0 General condition distinguishing dead and alive organisms Some characterizations of life 0 Organization Hierarchy of organization Atoms Complex Molecules Subcellular Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Population 0 Ecosystem Emergent Property A quality that appears as biological complexity increases 0 Ex Puzzle pieces t together OOOOOOOO Biol 1114 Lecture 3 August 22 2013 Action Center Next Monday 68 Room 135 Reading Chp 1 Section 11 amp 12 Characterizing Life Organization 0 Emergent Property Ex Handle amp Hammer Stick come together 0 Phospholipid Head Loves water Hydrophilic Tail Hates water Hydrophobic Energy Use 0 Figure 14 Sunlight 0 Producer Extract energy and nutrients from the non living environment Photosynthesis 0 Consumer Obtain energy and nutrients by eating other organisms o Decomposers Consumers that obtain nutrients from dead organisms and organic matter 0 Does life break 2nCI Law of Thermodynamics o Entropy Disorder 0 2nol Law Increasing disorder 0 Organisms are Open Systems H20 C02 Heat etc 0 NO Life brings forth entropy Maintenance of Internal Constancy Homeostasis Negative Feedback Systems Promote Homeostasis 6 in packet 1 Comfortable room temperature 2 Room too warmtoo cold 3 Strip bends opens switchstrip straightens 4 Heater turns offheater turns on 5 Room coolsroom is warm Reproduction life comes only from life Growth amp Development 0 Genetic info comes from only one parent offspring identical 0 Genetic material from two parents unites to form offspring lots of variety Evolution 0 quotAn inherited trait that enables an organism to successfully reproduce in a given environmentquot Book Figure 16 o quotEnhanced reproductive success of certain individuals from a population based on inherited characteristicsquot 7 in packet 0 Variation in heritable traits o Placed in certain setting 0 Selection pressures 0 Differential reproduction Diversity of Life 0 All life on Earth is made of 1 cells 0 All cells Have similar chemical makeup and processes Have DNA that uses the same genetic code Have ribosomes protein factories Have a plasma cell membrane Acquire nutrients and expel wastes 0 Three domains based on genetic rRNA analysis Fig 18 Two domains Archaea amp Bacteria contain only prokaryotes Prokaryotes lack nuclei One domain Eukarya contains everything else Eukaryotes have nuclei Biol 1114 Lecture 4 August 27 2013 Reading 13 A D 21 Diversity of Life 0 There is Unity in Diversity 0 Taxonomy 0 Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus 0 Species o Taxonomy humans 0 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Anamalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo species apiens 000000 0000000 The Nature of Science 0 Science comes from the Latin verb meaning quot to know 0 The Scienti c Method see gure 19 0 Make observations 0 Ask a question Consult prior knowledge 0 Formulate a hypothesis 0 Design experiment 0 Collect amp interpret data Consult prior knowledge 0 Draw conclusions Peer review Publish o What is a good Hypothesis o It is a possible explanation for observation o It is testable o It is thej in quotifquot quotandquot then 0 Example 0 An Observation I often nd white spots on my cars roof 0 Hypothesis I pigeons tend to release their feces while ying above cars 0 Experiment cars are arranged randomly beneath ying pigeons to creats equal areas of cars and asphalt 0 Predicted Results there will be more bird droppings found on top of the cars than on the ground 0 Null hyopothesis Opposite of real hypothesis 0 Experimental Design 0 The power of numbers in general the larger the sample size the better but there are tradeoffs temperature time etc Anything held constant variable in which are looking for an affect Number of droppings YAxis Variables that causes the effect on the dependent variable lnert substance used as an experimental control 0 Well supported scienti c explanation Broader in scope than a hypothesis and re ects general agreement Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry De nitions on number 15 in packet o A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical reactions 0 25 essential to life 0 Figure 22 Periodic Table 0 TL81 Elements Essential to Life 0 Bulk Elements 0 O Oxygen 65 o C Carbon 185 o H Hydrogen 95 o N Nitrogen 35 0 Bulk Elements minerasquot 0 Ca calcium 0 P phosphorus 0 K potassium o S sulfur 0 Na sodium 0 CI chloride 0 Mg magnesium 0 Trace Elements 0 Fe Cu I Mn Zn 0 Two or more elements combined in a xed ratio 0 Two or more substances in no xed ratio 0 Subatomic Particles o Neutron no charge 0 Proton positive 0 Electron negative o In a neutral atom electrons protons 0 Relative Size 0 Cherry to earth is atom to cherry o Nucleus y in stadium Biol 1114 Lecture 5 August 28 2013 Reading Chp 2 Section 22AD Know 167811121516171920 Composition of Matter continued 0 Relative Electronegativity o The higher the number the more needy it is of electrons o N amp O are highly eectronegative Chemical Bonds 0 A chemical bond between ions of opposite charge 15 o ExNaC Na 11 1 valence electron CI 17 7 valence electrons o An atom that has gained or lost electrons Column 1amp2 bond with 6amp7 Na 9 CI 30 Cation Anion o Sharing of electrons between 2 or more atoms 0 Ex Water Organics Compounds 0 Ex Carbon 20 in packet o Nonpolar Covalent Bond Not going towards the poles Methan CH4 0 The attraction of the hydrogen atom of one molecule for a strongly electronegative atom N O in an adjacent molecule or within the same molecule 25 0 Ex Water 0 Fight between poles Biol 1114 Lecture 6 August 28 2013 Chemistry of Water Organic Compounds Section 23AD 24A 25AB 0 Water amp Life 0 Water is both cohesive and adhesive Bending water Comb is negatively charged and the positive side is attracted to comb 0 Water is a good solvent 213 Can dissolve ionic compounds 0 Salt 0 pH ogH 216 1 very acid 14 very basic 7 neutral Blood 735745 Ex pH og10 7M pH 7 0000001 0 Ex pH og102M pH 2 01 0 High heat capacity speci c heat 1cag C 0 High heat of vaporization o Expands when it freezes Know how these relate to hydrogen bonds and the electronegativity of oxygen Organic Compounds 0 Chemical Reactions 217 0 Types of reactions 0 O O O Synthesis 0 AB gt AB 0 water molecule is lost as bond is formed Decomposition 0 AB gt AB o bond is broken through the addition of water 0 small single unit molecules 0 linked monomers carbs nucleic acid protein 0 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides 28 0 Simple sugars 37 carbons straight chain or ring Eg glucose ribose fructose o Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides joined via dehydration synthesis Eg sucrose maltose lactose o Polysaccharides Long chains of monosaccharides Important in storage Eg starch plants glycogen o Lipids o Triglycerides and fatty acids 30 Filled with hydrogen single bond butter Double bonds less hydrogen kinky o Phospholipids Phospholipid Bilayer o Sterols Cholesterol Steroid Hormones Vitamin D All built out of cholesterol 0 Proteins 0 Amino Acids 32 The quotbuilding blocksquot of proteins 20 amino acids 8 essentials Know what amino acid looks like 0 Polypeptide Biol 1114 Lecture 7 September 3 2013 25CD 31 AD Proteins 0 Amino Acids o Peptides Structural levels of proteins 34 KNOW 0 Primary ala thr cys tyr gluc gly Secondary curly or sheets Tertiary large folding of one Quarternary two continuous chains interacting Nucleic Acids 35 0 DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Chromosomes A T C G 0 RNA Ribonucleic Acid Ribosomes mRNA tRna A U C G Biol 1114 Lecture 8 September 4 2013 31AD 32AC 34AD 142A Cells 0 Cellular Basis of Life 0 Some History Hooke 1660quots observed cork tissue coined term quotcellulaequot Van Leeuwenhoek 1670quotS observed microorganisms with simple microscope Brown 1830 s nucleus Schleiden late 1830 s cells are in all plant tissues nucleus important in reproduction Schann late 1830 s cells are in all animal tissues 0 The Cell Theory Proposed by Schleiden amp Schwann A organisms are composed of one or more cells 0 The cell is the basic living unit of organization Virchow 1855 o All cells come from preexisting cells All cells have the following components 0 DNA 0 RNA 0 Proteins Ribosomes Cytoplasm 0 Cell membrane Surface Area and Volume 0 Figure 34 0 Variations on the Cellular Theme 0 Two major kinds of cells based on structural organization Prokaryotic No membranebound nucleus or organelles Bacteria Archaea Eukaryotic membranebound nucleus amp organelles o Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Ribosomes do not have a membrane surrounding it 0 Section 34AD pp 5661 Learn the structures and functions of these organelles and how they work together 0 Nucleus 314 Double membrane 0 Mitochondria 320 Double membrane 0 Ribosomes Make protein Free Bound o Endoplasmic Reticulum 315 Smooth Rough o Golgi Apparatus 316 o Lysosomes 317 Break down 0 Peroxisomes 318 Break down Oxygen Question cells that secrete a lot of proteins would have lots of what organelles 0 Rough ER Golgi apparatus Biol 1114 Lecture 9 September 5 2013 33 41AB 43AC 44A 45A C 61 0 Animal vs other eukaryotic cells 0 Not found in animal cells Chloroplasts only plants and some protists Cell wall plants fungi Vacuole plants fungi protists 0 Found ONLY in animal cells Lysosomes Centrioles Functions of Membrane Proteins 0 Transport of chemicals across membrane 0 As an Enzyme 0 As a Receptor site for chemical messenger such as hormones 0 Cell Adhesion and as Attachment sites for cytoskeleton 0 As Recognition proteins 0 Movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration 0 Movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration 0 416 Osmosis Membrane Structure and Function 0 Selective Permeability Some substances cross more easily than others 1 Permeability of lipid bilayer Nonpolar hydrophobic molecules 0 Cross easily O2 0 Polar molecules 0 Small polar uncharged pass easily H20 0 Large polar uncharged do not pass easily Glucose o All ions have dif culty passing 2 Transport Proteins Fig 419 0 Provide a hydrophilic channel 0 Movement by active transport ATP needed 3 Movement of Macromolecules Cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from plasma membrane 59 o Secretion of macromolecules out of cell by fusion of vesicles with plasma membrane An ATPproducing catabolic process in which the ultimate electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule such as oxygen Adenosine triphosphate contains unstable phosphate bonds that the cell hydrolyzes for energy 50 amp 51 0 Light energy gt Chloroplasts gt Organics molecules 02 gt mitochondria gt Carbon dioxide gt Back to light energy Glucose oxygen gt Carbon dioxide water 0 36 ADP P gt 36 ATP Biol 1114 Lecture 10 September 10 2013 Section 6266 72 amp 73 0 De nitions 0 ATP production by direct enzymatic transfer of phosphate from an intermediate substrate to ADP o ATP production coupled to transfer of electrons from food to oxygen oxidative phosphorylation ETC Glycolysis In cytoplasm 0 Figure 64 0 Figure 65 0 Figure 68 0 Figure 62 Summary Chapter 7 o Fertilization o Somatic Cell Division Division of all the normal body cells except reproduction DNA Structure 0 Early 1950 s Wilkins used X ray diffraction to determine 3D shape of DNA 0 1953 Watson amp Crick discovered double helix structure of DNA 0 Figure 87 Biol 1114 Lecture 11 September 112013 0 DNA Replication o Complications Replication proceeds in bubbles bidirectionally at multiple sites 74 DNA polymerase only can add nucleotides in one direction 0 Only can add to 3 end 0 New DNA strand elongate in the 5 gt 3 direction How can replication proceed 3 end of growing strands is easy 0 Figure 85 0 Strand that goes continuously is the Leading Strand 0 One with separations is the Lagging Strand Ligase joins Okazaki fragments and seals other nicks in the sugar phosphate backbone Biol 1114 Lecture 12 2013 Review Biol 1114 Lecture 13 182013 73B 74AB The process of nuclear division that occurs in somatic bodyceHs Results in the maintenance of chromosomal number 2n parent ce produces 2n daughters cells 62 Late interphase Cell checks for complete DNA replication Prophase Chromosomes condense become visible Spindle apparatus forms Prometaphase Nuclear envelope fragments Spindle bers attach to kinetochores Metaphase Chromosomes align along equator of cell Anaphase Sister chromatids now called chromosomes separate to opposite poles of cell Telophase Nuclear membranes assemble around 2 daughter nuclei Chromosomes decondense Spindle ber disappears Cytokinesis Ells resume normal functions 61 Early interphase of daughter cells September 12 September 0 Protein Synthesis O 0000 DNA codes for proteins 1 transfer of info from DNA to mRNA in nucleus 86 Mostly in 61 amp 62 2 transfer of info from mRNA into a polypeptide in cytoplasm ribosomes Read the Template Strand Promoter start Terminator stop 712 Messenger RNA Processing Exons amp Introns In Eukaryotes nucleus not in Prokaryotes Biol 1114 Lecture 14 18 2013 75AD 76AB o Transcription o Promoter Transcription Caps 5 and Tails 3 5 Exons A ntron 1 Exon B ntron 2 Exon C3 Splicing 5 Exons A Exon B Exon C Transport out nucleus in cytoplasm for translation September I TATA box 0 Transcription GG TATA CCC TATA binding protein Transcription factors proteins RNA polymerase Transcription begins 0 Transcription factors bend over and bind with TATA box binding protein 0 Add to new 3 0 Translation 0 20 amino acids 4 nucleotides 11 code only 4 amino acids doublet code only 16 amino acids triplet code 64 amino acids Figure 713 Written in terms of mRNA AUG for M or start UAA UAG UGA stop Codon 3 letter 0 mRNA language translated to polypeptide language 0 tRNA is the translator picks up amino acids recognizes codons on mRNA contains anticodons 1 Transcription is transposingwriting music Biol 1114 Lecture 15 September 24 2013 76AC 77AD Regulation of gene expression 0 All organisms respond to changing conditions 0 MulticeIuar eukaryotes have specialized cells 0 Specialization Cells express different genes in same DA 0 Examples Cell type Pancreas Eye lens Nerve Glycolysis On On On Crystallin gene Off On Off lnsulin gene On Off Off Hemoglobin Off Off Off 0 Enzyme induction the lac operon 718 The Lactose Operon Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes 2800 proteins or 10 of human DNA code for transcription factors 0 Steroid Hormone Lipidsoluble hormone secreted Hormone passes through cell membrane and binds to interior receptor Certain genes activated leading to production of new proteins Altered cell activity Mutations o A change in the DNA sequence Substitution lnsertion Deletion 0 Genetic Mutations Base substitution Eg Sicklecell disease 722 0 DNA Sequence Normal Sickled 0 mRNA sequence GAG GUG 0 Amino Acid Glutamic Acid Valine lnsertion and Deletion One or more bases 0 What happens to downstream codons o They ll probably change 0 Usually ruins proteins shape fatal if protein is essential o What if the of bases is a multiple of 3 Taking away 1 is worse than 3 Vocabulary Change in a single DNA base 0 Changes a codon to code for a different Amino Acid 0 Changes a codon to code for quotStopquot 0 Add or delete anything except multiples of 3 o 723 and Table 72 Why are they important 0 Create different versions of genes alleles 0 May change protein function Different appearance Different enzyme activity Defective protein may cause disease 0 Phenylketonuria enzyme Cystic Fibrosis transport protein 0 Sickle Cell hemoglobin Natural selection chooses which alleles are quotbest 0 Makes evolution possible 0 Useful in science 0 Mutate a gene to learn its function Where do mutations come from 0 You inherit some from your parents 0 Some happen at random in your cells 0 Physical or chemical mutagens damage DNA Radiation many chemicals Errors in DNA replication 0 Errors in the production of sex cells meiosis 0 Only mutations in ovaries and testis can go to child 0 Biol 1114 Lecture 16 September 25 2013 9196 Cancer 0 Two major classes of cancer causing genes Meiosis Normally trigger cell division such as in wound healing but are overexpressed in cancer cells Normally prevent a cell from dividing Arises from mistimed or misplaced cell division 0 Or absence of normal apoptosis Since proteins control cell cycle and proteins are coded by DNA DNA mutations can lead to inappropriate cell division 10 of human genes code for transcription factors 0 Animal body gt meiosisgtgametes sperm and eggsgt Fertilization Zygote gt mitosis o Homologous Chromosomes Matched pair Both carry genes controlling the same inherited characteristics Not identical they just carry the same types of genes Of our 23 pairs of chromosomes 0 22 pairs autosomes found in males amp females 0 1 pair sex chromosomes determine gender 0 94 o Meiosis 1 reduction division 0 Meiosis 2 equational division Meiosis stages 0 Before meiosis is interphase 0 Then 1 Prophase 1 2 Metaphase 1 3 Anaphase 1 4 Telophase 1 and cytokenisis 5 Prophase 2 6 Metaphase 2 7 Anaphase 2 8 Telophase 2 and cytokinesis o Meiosis 1 Prophase 1 late diploid Synapsis homologs line up next to one another to from tetrads quotCrossing overquot occurs Metaphase 1 diploid line up in pairs spindle bers 0 Independent Assortment huge source of variation Anaphase 1 diploid did not split centromere Telophase 1 diploid nuclear envelope 0 Meiosis 2 Prophase 2 haploid Metaphase 2 haploid Anaphase 2 haploid split centromere Telophase 2 haploid four nonidentical haploid daughter cells Meiosis 1 Mitosis Prophase Synapsis can be long No synapsis Metaphase Homolooous pairs align Individual chromosomes alidn Anaphase Centromeres do not divide Centromeres divide Meiosis 2 is similar to mitosis sister chromatids separate Mitosis starts 2n end 2n 2 identical cells Meiosis starts 2n end n 4 nonidentical cells 23 chromosomes from your dad sperm 23 chromosomes from your mom egg 46 chromosomes in you Meiosis generate genetic variety 0 2quot23 8388608 from independent assortment o 2quot23 x 2quot23 70368744177664 0 Does not count crossing over Biol 1114 Lecture 17 September 26 2013 98A 342B Meiosis o Gametes In males 0 Fig 346 0 DNA tucked in Nucleus 345 KNOW o Spermatogonium diploid o Meiosis Primary Spermatocytes 0 Second spermatocytes Meiosis 2 diploid In Females 0 Fig 917 0 Fig 348 Oogenesis diploid o Primordialfollicle Before birth Mitosis Called oogonia Up to 7 million Primary oocyte arrested in prophase 1 At birth about 2 million remain Childhood Primary oocyte still arrested in prophase 1 Puberty Prophase 1 400000 eggs 0 Growing follicle diploid Meiosis 1 complete 0 Secondary Oocyte Haploid First polar body 0 Fertilization Meiosis 2 complete 3rd and 4th polar bodies 0 349 Biol 1114 Lecture 18 October 1 2013 0 Brief intro to probability 0 Any event has a probability of occurring between 0 and 1 inclusive Mendel 0 Why garden peas Many distinct varieties Lots of offspring quickly Strict control of mating Possess 39either or traits Can crossfertilize easily 0 Fig 102 o What he did Started with truebreeding parents Crossfertilized two truebreeding varieties Example Purple and white purple f1 generation F2 705 purple 224 white About 34 purple 14 white 31 phenotype ratio in the f2 generation 0 Results Concluded that 0 Alternate forms of genes alleles account for variation 0 For each character an individual has two alleles one from each parent 0 If two alleles differ the dominant allele is fully expressed while the recessive has no effect 0 Principle of Segregation Pair of elementen alleles segregate separate during gamete formation Anaphase 1 Fig 106 0 Terms 0 Genotype 39I39I39 homozygous dominant Phenotype 1Tta Genotype Tt heterozygous Phenotype ta Genotype tt Homozygous recessive o Phenotype Short 0 Principle of Independent Assortment 0 Each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other Metaphase 1 109 o Tracing Two Genes Solid color is dominant to points Long hair is dominant to Short hair If both are truebreeding HHLL solidlong hh pointsshort o How to determine the gametes For two set of genes remember independent assortment Genotype AaBb o Gametes AB AbaBab HL HI hL h HL HHLL HHLI HhLL HhLI 0000 O HI HHLI HHII HhLI thl hL HhLL HhLl thL hhll hl HhLl 9331 Solidlong solidshort pointslong pointsshort Biol 1114 Lecture 19 October 2 2013 104AB Product Rule 0 The chance that 2 independent events will both occur such as 2 alleles both being inherited equals the product of the individual chances that each event will occur 0 You can use the Product Rule if you see the statements like this Assume the genes assort independently The genes are on different homologous pairs of chromosomes I The genes are not linked 0 Cross 2 trihybrid plants that are tall and have round yellow seeds What is the chance that the offspring is also t hyb d Tt RrnyTt RrYy 0 12 Tt X 12 RF X 12 Yy 18 Biol1114 Lecture 20 October 3 2013 106AB 109AB o All of these things complicate matters 0 Multiple alleles o Codominance Codominance multiple alleles o More than one allele may be expressed codominance o More than 2 alternative forms of a gene eg human blood type rabbit coat color multiple alleles 0 Human blood type 3 alleles IA IB i lAgt red blood cells coated with carb A 0 IB gt carb B o i gt no carb Immune system reacts to carbohydrates not found in your own body Fig 295 3 alleles IA IB i gt 6 genotypes o 126 in packet O O O O O O O O Donor Type B Recipient Type A Clumping Donor A Recipient B Clumping Donor A Recipient AB No clumping Donor B Recipient AB No clumping Donor 0 Recipient B No clumping Donor B Recipient O Clumping Donor A Recipient O Clumping Donor AB Recipient O Clumping Donor AB Recipient A Clumping Donor AB Recipient B Clumping Donor 0 Recipient A No clumping Donor OB Recipient B No clumping Universal Recipient Type AB Universal Donor Type O Couple 1 O and H A Couple 2 B B and S AB Couple 3 John B and N B 0 Baby 1 Type AB Couple 2 0 Baby 2 Type O Couple 3 0 Baby 3 Type A Couple 1 o Epistasis Where one gene masks another s phenotype 1017 0 Incomplete Dominance Fig 1014 0 Lethal Alleles Causes development to stop before birth 0 Polygenic Inheritance 1025 Skin color 0 Environmental Affects 1023 Siamese Cats Biol 1114 Lecture 21 October 8 2013 Chromosomes amp Gene Linkage Useful Resource quotHow to Solve Geneticsquot pg 226227 101 105AB Thomas Hunt Morgan early 1990 s Drosophila melanogaster 0 Associated a speci c gene with a speci c chromosome Prophase 1 0 These chromosomes carry alleles for skin color 0 Separate chromosomes carry alleles for stripe color Metaphase 1 o Principle of Independent Assort independently Genotype Ple not linked o Linked genes Located close together on the same chromosome Tend to be inherited together Fig 1011 133 in packet So these genes are linked on the same chromosome 0 If the genes are linked why do the other combinations occur at all 0 Because of crossing over during meiosis 0 Fig 1012 0 965 185 206 944 2300 o 185206 391 o 3912300 17 o 17 0 Genetic Maps Based on Crossover Data 0 AH Sturtevant Morgan s student 0 The probability of crossing over between two genes is directionally proportional to the distance between them 0 Map unit 1 recombination frequency Likelihood of crossing over 0 Genes A and B far apart crossing over more likely 0 Genes B and C close together crossing over less likely Linked genes 0 Distance between linked genes determines how often they will be split up Loci Recombination Frequency Approximate Map Units b vg 17 17 185 cn b 90 9 Ch vg 95 95 Biol 1114 Lecture 22 October 9 2013 107AC 108 Chromosomes and Sex Determination o Mammals male are heterogametic and female is homogametic 0 Birds and many other animals 0 Extremely diverse o SRY specifies maleness in humans produces protein that directs development in male production 0 Reptiles and Amphibians 0 High temp female 0 Low temp male Biol 1114 Lecture 23 October 10 2013 Review Biol 1114 Lecture 24 October 16 2013 111AD Cloning o Dolly was the 1st mammal cloned from an adult How 820 o 1 Udder cell from quotDNA donorquot sheep 6 year old 1996 o 2 Immature egg cell from another sheep 3 Remove egg cell s nucleus 0 4 Put egg cell no DNA next to udder cell donor DNA 0 5 Zap em with electricity 0 6 Cell divides for 6 days forming embryo o Mitosis 7 Transferred embryo to womb of another sheep 8 Dolly is born 5 months later 0 Each cell is identical to the udder cell Dolly is a lamb 0 Evolution 0 Gradual change 0 Biological de nition Changes in allele frequencies with populations over time Alleles alternative forms of a gene Biol 1114 Lecture 26 October 22 2013 113AB 115116AD Factors Affecting Alleles Frequencies o The gene pool and microevolution o HardyWeinberg theorem 0 Mechanisms of Evolution 0 The gene pool and microevolution o Localized group of individuals that belong the same species can potentially interbreed or share a common gene pool 0 All alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of a population HardyWeinberg Theorem 0 Relevance to the study of evolution Gives expectation for a nonevolving populations A null model Baseline for comparing actual populations Valid only when ve assumptions are met 0 1 No selection 0 2 Large population 0 3 No immigrationemigration of an individuals 4 No net change in mutations A to a a to A o 5 Random mating Figure 1111 0 Mechanisms of Evolution 0 Natural Selection Differential reproductive success of individuals Insecticide resistance Rock pocket 0 Genetic Drift Change in gene pool due to chance Eg disaster kills individuals nonselectively bottleneck Eg colonization of new location by few individuals quotfounder effect Small population Migration o Mutation Change DNA to create new allele Average rate is around one DNA sequence per 10quot9 base pairs You have about 120 new mutations in your sperm and eggs not present in your parents 0 Nonrandom Mating Sexual Selection 0 quotA form of selection characterized by a struggle between individuals of one sex that increases the chance of mating with other sexquot 0 Eg Elaborate feathers large horns courtship songs 0 Biol 1114 Lecture 27 October 23 2013 131AB132AB 133AD How do new species form 0 What de nes a species Appearance alone 0 No Sexual reproduction is the key Biological Species population whose members have potential to produce fertile offspring o Prezygotic o Ecological isolation Different environments 0 Temporal isolation Different seasons time o Behavioral isolation Dance 0 Mating 0 Mechanical isolation Parts to t 0 Gametic isolation Sperm cant nd egg 0 Fertilization Postzygotic 0 Hybrid inviability Not born 0 Birth 0 Hybrid infertility Liger 0 Hybrid Breakdown Problems with second gen Biol 1112 Lecture 28 October 24 2013 o How do new species arise o How does population get divided 1 Geogrpahical physical barriers New mountain ranges Rising seas isolate islands ood land bridges Glaciers o Speciation Speciation induced when the ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographical barrier 0 Example 0 Salt Creek pup sh Living in spring isolated from other water 50000 years ago Cant breed with other pup sh o Sumatra Tigers Separated 600012000 years ago 0 quotRing Speciesquot Ensatina Salamander Between microevolution and formation of new species Adaptive Radiation Evolution of many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor with geographical isolation Darwin s nches Sympatric speciation Characterized by new species forming within the range of parent population reproductive isolation evolves without geographical isolation o 202 Animal Classi cation Red dots how to group organisms o Tracing Phylogeny 0 Fossil Record amp Fossil Dating Any preserved remnant of impression left by an organism that lived in the past Dating fossils Relative dating 0 Sequence of occurrence in strata Absolute radiometric Dating 0 Based on known decay rates of radioactive atoms 0 Fig 126 Biol 114 Lecture 29 October 29 2013 125 126AD 136AD 141AB Continental Drift o 127 0 Movement of great plates of crust and upper mantle oating on Earth s molten core 0 N America and Europe are drifting apart at 2 cmyr o Explains the distribution of fossils 0 Continental Drift and Marsupial s o Sorting Homology from Analogy o Homology Likeness attributed to shared ancestry o Analogy Similarities due to convergent evolution not common ancestry o Convergent Evolution Acquisition of similar characteristics in species from different evolutionary branches bat wings and butter y wings o Bat wings are analogous to butter y wings but not homologous o Bat wings and bird wings analogous and homologous Vestigial Organs o Goosebumps Comparative Embryology o Homology is often obscured embryonic development can expose homology not apparent in adult structures 0 KNOW 2002 Animal Diversity and 2035 Biol 1114 Lecture 30 October 30 2013 201AD 202 203 o A group of organisms consisting of a common ancestor and all of it descendants aquotcadequot Group contains its most recent common ancestor but does not contain all the descendants of that ancestor Group excludes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group not based on homology Swimming animals 0 2002 Animal Diversity 0 De ning Animals Features shared by most animals Multicellular eukaryotic Heterotrophic via ingestion Carbohydrate reserves stored as glycogen o No cell walls Nervous tissues amp muscle tissue Diploid stage dominates the life cycle Gastrulation after blastula stage Gap junctions extracellular matrix etc 0 Survey of Animal Phyla A Subkingdom Parazoa B Subkingdom Eumetazoa 1 Radiata radial symmetry diploblastic o Bilateria bilateral symmetry tripoblastic o Parazoa vs Emetozoa Parazoa quotbeside the animalsquot 0 Lack true tissues 0 1st appearance of organized animal body 0 Contains only phylum Porifera Eumetazoa Tissue level of development Biol 1114 Lecture 31 2013 204207 Embryo undergoes gastrulation Development of germ layers Ectoderm amp Endoderm Contains all other animal phyla 0 Branch Radiata Eumetazoa Have radial symmetry Have oral and aboral but no front back left or right sides 0 Branch Bilateria Have bilateral symmetry Have dorsal top ventral bottom anterior head posterior tail left an right surfaces Cephalization trend toward concentration of sensory structures at anterior end 0 Interior of bastua is called bastocoe 0 Opening becomes gastrulation 0 Opening called bastopore Inside call archenteron o Ectoderm outside 0 Endoderm inside layer 0 Cnidocytes October 31 o Triploblastic 2004 0 O 0000 2 germ layers Bilateria add another one called mesoderm Mesoderm layer between ectoderm and endoderm Protostomes Deuterostomes Cleavage Lophotrochozoans rRNA gene similarities Embryonic similarities Unique pattern of development genes Ecdysozoans Different rRNA gene similarities Periodic molting Absence of ciliated cells in embryos Different pattern of developmental genes Coelom uid lled body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm Fig 205 Body cavities Flatworms Planaria Flukes Tapeworms Mollusk Snails slugs Clams Oysters Muscles Scallops Octopus Squid Cuttle sh Nautilus Chiton Fig 2018 Mantle secrets shell 0 Foot Used for locomotion Visceral Mass All various organs 0 Analids Leeches Earthworm o Nematods C elegans Ascaris Pinworms Trichina worms Heartworms o Arthropods Grasshopper Two groups Chelicerates Mandibulates Biol 1114 Lecture 32 52013 209 2010AB 2011 Deuterostomes 0 Radial o Determinant o Blast before anus November 0 Ex Star sh sea urchin 0 Start out bilateral then radial Phylum Chordata 0 General 4 unique characteristics 0 1 Notochord 0 Present in all chordate embryos o Phylum is named for this 0 2 Dorsal hollow nerve cord 0 Develops from a plate of dorsal ectoderm o Dorsal to notochord o Becomes brain and spiral cord 0 3 Pharyngeal slits 0 Present in chordate embryos o Filterfeeding in early chordates 0 Extensive modi cations 0 4 Muscular postanal tail 0 Tail extending beyond anus 0 Found in most chordates 0 Provides propulsion in many aquatic species 0 2034 0 2035 0 Chordates without Backbones Subphylum Urochordata tunicates c 2040 Subphylum Cephalochordata Lancelets c 2041 Biol 1114 Lecture 33 November 6 2013 20158 2016AB Chordates with backbone andor Craniums o Crainiates Hag shes agnathan without jaws o Vertebrates Lampreys agnathan o Jaws Gnathostomata Placoderms extinct Cartilaginous shes chondrichthyes Chon cartilage General 0 Sharks rays o Cartilaginous skeleton o Swim to stay in water column 0 Sharp vision no color olfaction 0 Electric sensory regions on head Lung Precursors Bony shes osteichthyes 0 General 30000 extant species most of ve s Skeleton reinforced with calcium phosphate Color vision Water actively drawn over gills Swim bladder Two major groups Ray nned most Lobe nned Tetrapods legs Amphibians 0 General Frogs salamanders caeciians 1st chordates on land 365 mya Need water for early development Ectotherms Breath with lungs skin andor gills Eardrums complex vocalizations Biol 1114 Lecture 34 November 7 2013 2015B 2016AB Phylum Chordata o Amniotes Reptiles General 0 Lizards snakes tortoises crocodiles dinosaurs birds 1st truly terrestrial vertebrates 1st ef cient lung Dry skin retards water loss Limbs snakes secondary loss of limbs Most are ectothermic behavioral adaptions regulate temperature Reptiles the birds OOOOO 0 General 0 O 0000 Mammals Endothermic Feathers modi ed scales replaceable important in insulation Ef cient lungs no diaphragm Light hollow bones Acute vision Complex behaviors General 0 00000 Biol 1114 Lecture 35 13 2013 241 242AB Tissues o Epithelial o Connective 0 Muscle o Nervous Hair Endothermic endo inside Ef cient respiratory system diaphragm Mammary glands produce milk Differentiated teeth Three major groups of extant mammals 1 Monotremes platypuses amp echidnas egg laying 2 Marsupial opossums kangaroos koalas young complete development in marsupium 3 Placental Mammals all others including us embryo joined to mother by placenta 217 in packet Fish 2 chambers Mammals Birds 4 chambers Amphibians Reptiles 3 chambers November 0 Regulating the Internal Environment Tissues A group of similar cells specialized to perform a speci c func on o 4 primary types Epithelial covering Connective support Muscle movement 0 Nervous control 0 Epithelial o 1 Features Covers or lines surfaces or forms glands Protection secretion absorption ltration Comes from endoderm ectoderm ectoderm or 000 mesoderm o 2Characteristics Ceuar Tightly packed Avascular lacks blood vessels Rests atop basement membrane Polar free surfaces apical attached surface basaD Regenerates rapidly 218 o 3 Classi cation of Epithelial by cell shape Squamous Cuboidal Columnar By cellular arrangement 0 Simple Strati ed o 4 Speci c types of Epithelia A Simple Simple squamous 0 Function ltration kidney diffusion Uungs 0 Example Endothelium lines blood vessels Alveoli of Lung Bowman s Capsule inside of kidney 0 Simple cuboidal 0 Functions Absorption secretion 0 Examples Glands Kidney Tubules Simple columnar 0 Functions Absorption secretion 0 Examples Digestive tract 0 Bronchi ciliated o Uterine Tubes ciliated Pseudostrati ed o Fucntions Secretion propulsion 0 Examples Upper respiratory tract ciliated B Strati ed Strati ed Squamous 0 Functions protection found in areas of high abrasion 0 Examples Outer layers of skin body openings Strati ed cuboidal o Strati ed columnar o Transitional 0 Function stretch 0 Example Urinary Bladder Biol 1114 Leture 36 November 14 2013 242CD 244 271AB274 Tissues o Connective Tissue 1 Features Widely distributed broadly de ned Protection connection insulation transport blood All come from mesoderm 2 Characteristics 0 Vascular lots of vessels 0 Extracellular matrix 0 Several cell types 0 245 o MuscleTissue Consists of long excitable contractile cells 3 types skeletal cardiac visceral All come from mesoderm o Nervous Tissue Basic unit neuron specialized to conduct an impulse Comes from ectoderm 227 0 Negative Feedback 2410 0 Chemical Signals in Animals 0 Overview of Endocrine System Hormones quotChemical substance secreted into body uids by one cell or group of cells that exerts a physiological effect on other body cellsquot 0 Secreted by speci c cells called endocrine cells 0 Typically arranged into endocrine glands Pheromone Communication chemicals between animals of the same species 0 Endocrine System Composed of ductless glands as opposed to exocrine glands Releases chemicals into blood Effects take longer than nervous system Usually have prolonged actions 0 Hormones Chemistry Amino acid base rapid actions less than 30 minutes 0 Amino acid derivatives 0 Epinephrine adrenaline Peptides o Gastrin secretin CCK ADH Proteins o Prolactin insulin FSH LH Steroids slower longer lasting actions hours to days more than an hour 0 Cortisol estrogen testosterone Hormone target cell speci city Receptors 0 Special protein molecules on or in target cells that respond to signal molecules hormones o Mechanisms of Hormone Action A Second messenger systems 0 Eg cyclic AMP cAMP cGMP P3 Used by amino acid based hormones B Direct gene activation 0 Diffused through lipid membranes into cells Interact with intracellular receptors 0 Which interact with DNA associated receptors which increases transcription of speci c mRNA which increases speci c protein synthesis 0 274 0 Feedback Loops 2711 Biol 1114 Lecture 38 November 20 2013 253A254AB Resting Potential 0 At rest outside more sodium inside potassium Graded Potentials vs Action Potentials o A Graded Potential quotThe magnitude of the potential varies directly with the intensity of the stimulusquot Magnitude decreases with the distance of the source 0 B Action Potential Do not decrease in magnitude with distance Action potential frequency information Saltatory Conduction 0 Action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to another speeds up conduction in vertebrates Chemical Synaptic Transmission 0 Action potential reaches axonal terminal 2 Triggers opening of Ca channels 3 Ca diffuses into the axonal terminal 4 Vesicles move and fuse with membranes 5 Neurotransmitter released via exocytosis 6 NT diffuses across synaptic cleft 7 8 9 1 l I NT bonds to receptor on postsynaptic cell EPSP or IPSP generated in postsynaptic cell NT cleared from cleft 0 Vesicles replenished Ca channels shut OOOOOOOOO Biol 1114 Lecture 39 November 21 2013 284AC Components of a re ex arc 0 Receptor 0 Sensory neuron O O 0 Integration Center Motor neuron Effector Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle o ExcitationContraction 0 0000000000 000 0 00000 O Sarcoplasmic reticulum Stores calcium Action potential travels down motor neuron Triggers opening of Ca channels Ca diffuses into the axonal terminal Vesicles move and fuse with membrane Neurotransmitter released via exocytosis NT diffuses across synaptic cleft NT binds to receptors on muscle cell Na channels open in muscle cell Na diffuses in Action Potential generated 10 AP spreads along muscle cell membrane amp down t tubules 11 Triggers release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum 12 Ca interacts with TnC of troponin complex 13 Which causes troponin to change shape and lift tropomyosin 14 Myosin heads interact with actin binding sites cross bridge formation 15 ADP comes off head 16 Myosin head ratchets 17 ATP binds to head 18 Myosin pulls away from actin 19 ATP hydrolysis recocks head 20 Repeat 1419 LOCDNOWU39lbULJNH Muscles can t push they can only pull Biol 1114 Lecture 40 26 2013 November 342AC 343AC Hormonal Regulation of Reproductive Function 0 The Uterine Cycle Menstrual Flow Phase Proliferative Phase Secretory Phase 0 The Ovarian Cycle 0 Hormonal Regulation Pituitary Gland Endocrine Gland Biol 1114 Lecture 41 2 2013 294 295 Test structure 0 125 unit 1 0 2650 unit 2 0 5175 unit 3 o 0 Guys Anterior Posterior Hypothalamus o Squirts GnRH Amino Acid based hormone Fast Second messenger system Stimulate release of FSH and LH Fast 0 Second messenger system 0 Water soube Receptors for FSH expressed for follicle cell membranes Binding of FSH stimulates growth of follicular ces Growing follicle cells secrete estrogen Low levels of estrogen inhibit LH and FSH secretion Growing follicle cells produce more estrogen High estrogen levels trigger surge in LH and FSH release LH interaction with newly expressed LH receptors induces ovulation LH promotes change of foice to corpus luteum production of progesterone o If no pregnancy progesterone and estrogen levels decline LH stimulates interstitial cells of testis to secrete testosterone Testosterone and FSH stimulate sperm maturation High levels of testosterone exerts a negative feedback effect on GnRH release With high sperm count sustentacular ces release inhibin which inhibits release of FSH December 76108 unit 4 3 points 0 Heart 0 lnf sup vena cava o Rt atrium 0 Right av valve 0 Rt ventricle o Rt semilunar valve 0 Pulmonary trunk o Rt left pulmonary arteries 0 Lungs o Rt lt pulmonary veins 0 Left atrium 0 Left av valve 0 Left ventricle 0 Left s valve 0 Aorta o Tissues Artieries vs veins 0 Arteries Carry blood away from the heart to organs Thicker smooth muscle layer than veins Smaller lumen tend to be smaller in diameter than veins Carry high pressure blood 0 Veins Return blood to the heart Thinner smooth layer than arteries Larger lumen and larger diameter overall than arteries Carry low pressure blood have valves EKG o Lub Closing of av valve 0 Dup Closing of s valve


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