Environmental Studies 3: Introduction to the Social and Cultural Environment
Environmental Studies 3: Introduction to the Social and Cultural Environment
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Date Created: 04/28/14
Midterm Study Guide Major IDs 1 The Bone a The first animal the man ape clubs to death with a bone is a zebra b A weapon used by the man ape Moonwatcher to kill game 2 Yai s Question a quotWhy is it Europeans developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea but we don t have that much cargo of our own b Due to ultimate factors interacting to create proximate factors c Ultimate Factors i Eastwest axis ii Many suitable wild species iii Ease of species spreading iv Many domesticated plant and animal species v Food surpluses and food shortages vi Large dense sedentary stratified societies vii Technology d Proximate Factors i Horses ii Guns and steel swords iii Oceangoing ships iv Political organization and writing v Epidemic diseases 3 Rancher power a Domestication of plants and animals lead to agriculture b Societies who developed agriculture were able to produce specialists who would make scientific discoveries advance technology create art etc c Societies who had rancher power were more advanced than those who didn t and were able to conquer them if they chose 4 CerealsPulses a Staple crops b Lots of important nutrients c Civilizations who developed these crops generally had more success than those who didn39t 5 The Axes a East west dominant axes yielded more advanced civilizations than northsouth b Northsouth axes involved crossing differing climactic zones made it harder to trade and spread ideas c East west dominant axes had similar climactic zones people could easily trade and spread ideas 6 Contagion a The spreading of disease from one individual or another through direct or indirect contact b European invaders weakened or even destroyed populations by infecting them with diseases c Often came from domesticated animals d Survivors of diseases passed on immunities to children 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Mesopotamia Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Civilization began in 5000 BC People Babylonians Assyrians Sumerians Main cities Babylon Uruk Ur 1 to go from hunting gathering to agriculture 1 to plow and build with stone tools 3 biggest crops wheat millet and barley Had irrigation Walled cities protected surpluses of grain Ancient Egypt a ProtodynasticOld KingdomMiddle KingdomNew Kingdom b Became a chiefdom before any civilization Kleptocracy a State taking fruits of labor of regular people to run the state Pharaohs a head of state level Egypt Great Pyramid of Khufu and Pyramids of Giza a Tombs almost 500 ft tall b Created for Pharaohs c Made tall to put them closer to the sun god Ra Sphinx a In Giza b About 4700 years old c Meant to guard the pharaohs Warfare and slavery in Egypt a Expanded southward b Big professional armies and navies c Constant wars with Hittites Israelites others d Captured slaves to work on public works projects Dynastic China a Not sure if China or Mesopotamia started herding or farming first Domesticated pigs chickens water buffalo silkworms ducks and geese Also domesticated tea tree rice and citruses Technological innovations Controlled water and created canals f No dominant axes or ecological barriers Grand Canal a Connected many major cities expanded for hundreds of years Great Wall a East and west across Northern China created to keep Mongols out WushuKung Fu a One of the oldest forms of martial arts b Developed by Chinese villagers to defend themselves without weapons c Necessary in environment of constant warfare between dynastic families Epic of Gilgamesh a First story ever written down b Written in Mesopotamian Cuneiform OJ 393quot quot P39 39 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 c Gilgamesh was the King of Uruk Clay tablets a First medium of writing Sumerians a First to develop written language Anu a Sumerian sky god Enkidu a Wild man created by Anu b Had strength of many men c Goes to Earth to be Gigamesh s rival Shamhat a Prostitute sent to seduce Enkidu and tame him taking away his physical powers Papyrus a Plant indigenous to Egypt b Can be used for food and stems can be used for building c Mostly made into a paper like substance and written on Parchment a Writing surface made of dried animal skins Paper a First developed in China in 1 or 2quot 39 century AD Indus Valley Civilization a Located in Northern India Pakistan and Southern Afghanistan b Always in Bronze Age c Main rivers Saraswati and Indus d Main cities Harappa and MohenjoDaro e Can39t decipher written language f Artifacts hint that religion was not very important g Good at firing bricks and making pottery h Sophisticated metal tools I No armor swords or spears j Traded mostly with Mesopotamia Indus Urban Planning a Streets sewers and water lines b Standardized brick sizes c Cities designed similarly ndusSanHa on a Open sewer lines b Carried waste to river downstream Indus Valley Seal a Seal of approval of the civilization used in trade b Crops used in trade wheat barley oats grapes dates millet and nuts Indus Valley Decline a Theory 1 Invasion i Aryans came from Caspian Sea b Theory 2 Over exploitation of natural resources i Used wood for baking bricks ii Entire cities made of brick 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 iii Deforested their land iv Overgrazing by livestock c Theory 3 Droughts i Heavily water based society ii Coudn t go long without rain Autocatalytic Process a Small steps leading to big accomplishments Gutenberg Printing Press a First development of printing in Europe Metal fabrication a Manipulating metal to make structures b Started in the Fertile Crescent Soft metal ores a Needed furnaces to heat them and boil impurities b Used for metal fabrication Copper gold and tin a Soft metal ores b Combine to make bronze Iron Age a Bronze easily broken b Iron fixed that c Better for weapons and tools than bronze d Lasted until Industrial Revolution when we developed steel Greece a Power society b Influenced by Mesopotamia Egypt and Indus Valley Minoan Culture a Centered on Crete b Similar artifacts to Greece Mycenaean Culture a North of Minoans b Warlike c Descendants of Western Mesopotamians Domesticated Animals of Greece a Sheep goats pigs cows horses Domesticated plants of Greece a Wheat barley rice grapes olives b Less plant cultivation since hunting gathering was easier in Greece Vin a Greek wine b Needed to be sedentary to settle down and ferment alcohol Homer a Founder of poetry Herodotus a Founder of historical writing Aristotle a Founder of logic 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Plato a Founder of debate and argument Pythagoras a Founder of math Periclean Athens a United Greek city states b Decided Athens was principle city state c Age of peace d Golden ages of arts sciences gov t and philosophy Greek nature worship a Influenced by Minoans b Greek theology based on nature worship c Polytheistic Greco Roman Times a Greece dominant culture until Rome conquered them b Rome 4700 BC 476 AD c Start of Rome end of Greece d Shared culture religion and values Founding of Rome a Legend 1 Romulus and Remus i Brothers Numitor and Amulius fight for power ii Amulius wins and kills all Numitor s sons sentences sister Silvia to be a virgin iii Silvia has sex with the God Ares becomes pregnant with Romulus and Remus Babies sent down Tiber River in basket so Amulius doesn t kill them v Found by she wolves who raise them until adolescence vi Go back and kill Amulius found city of Rome vii Romulus kills Remus Rome named after Romulus Legend 2 Aeneas i Aeneas demigod son of Venus ii Comes to Italy after Trojan War and marries daughter of King Latinus of Latinum iii Unites Latins and Etruscans creates Roman Empire Roman paganism a Inherited Greek religion b Intellectual not for uneducated illiterate masses a Developed from previous languages of Mediterranean b Originator of Romance languages Roman Architecture a Inherited architectural know how from Greeks b Built temples and coliseums c Roads d Really good engineers ZeusJupiter HeraJuno a Greek nameRoman name b King and Queen of the gods c Involved in human affairs and nature 58 Statelevel empire 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 a Expand through Mediterranean coast b Made language of state Latin c Didn39t care what religion you had Roman Environmental Manipulation a Used massive amounts of resources b Firing bricks for structures c Mining d Used lots of lead e Air pollution f Water pollution g Captured wild animals to be killed for entertainment h Worshiped and exploited nature at the same time Pax Romana a Roman peace Period of peace due to Roman dominance More environmental manipulation Spread politicians people specialists all through empire Conquest of Britain Period of good rulers g Followed by decline of Rome Barbarians a Another reason for fall of Rome b Sacked Rome Theory for Fall of Rome Overexploited Resources a Had to search farther and farther b Reasons for conquest c Barbarians attacked resources en route to Rome d Had to gather resources farther and farther away quot 39 a Attacked Roman settlements b Led to Fall of Rome 476 AD PolytheismMonotheism a Poytheism many gods b Paganism specific kind of polytheism i Negative term coined by Christians for polytheists c Monotheism one god d Henotheism worship one god accept that there are other gods Egyptian and Roman polytheism a Gods connected to nature b Egyptian gods had human bodies animal heads Greek Polytheism a Gods represented natural phenomenon b Ex Apoo s chariot was the sun c Gods have small fights but no great cosmic battle d Cosmic battle happened in the past is now resolved 67 Henotheism in Egypt b c d e 68 Dualism a b Akhenaten Named himself after Aton different sun god than Ra Living spirit of Aton Tried to change Egyptian religion to henotheism ignore other deities Religion changed back after he died Two fundamental parts of the universe batting each other Good and evil 69 Gnosticism Gnosis knowledge Knowledge is key to salvation Physical word evil Spiritual word good Physical created by evil god trying to imitate heaven 70 Zoroastrianism a quot 39 Based on teachings of prophet Zoroastra Zarathustra Creator god is good Ahura Mazda Based in Mesopotamia Battle between evil and good Physical is good Forces of darkness trying to destroy the world 71 Manichaeism a Combines Gnosticism and Zoroastrianism b From Mesopotamia c Spread throughout Eurasia and North Africa d Found by Mani in Persia 3rd century CE e Said he combined teachings of Adam Zoroaster Jesus f Spirituagood g Physicagood 72 Hebrews a Judaism b Nomadic herdsman c Highly structured ethical society d Used to be Henotheistic i Acknowledged Canaanite gods e Evolved into monotheism towards Yahweh i Earth is yours to subdue ii Be fruitful and multiply iii Idea of afterlife evolved over time 73 People of the Book a Judaism Christianity Islam i All worship same God b United by Hebrew Bible C 3 great monotheistic religions 74 Abraham promised to be father of Great Nations 75 Covenant God promised to make Abe39s descendants his special people 76 Hebrew Bible a Old Testament b Main Jewish text 77 Torah a 1 5 books of Hebrew Bible b Written by Moses 78 Jesus of Nazareth 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 a Born in Bethlehem Criticized focusing on word of law instead of spirit Christianity based off his teachings Preaching made him a threat to Romans crucified him Gained mass appeal in poor uneducated masses of Romans i Roman paganism too complicated for most ii Christianity had a more positive message than most religions iii Everlasting life in heaven appealed to those who lived in poverty Paul of Tarsus a Born a Jew b Used to persecute Christians c Had vision from Jesus d Missionary to Gentiles e Taught that you didn t need to follow old Jewish commandments to be saved Book of Genesis a God gave man land for them to use b Detailed how natural resources should be used Gospel a Paul of Tarsus spread the message of Christ through the Middle East b His message was for the gentiles non Jewish c Taught them they didn t need to be circumcised or follow ritual dietary laws ofJudaism d Paul39s interpretation became main form of Christianity e Became state religion of Roman empire f Utilitarian view of land from Genesis justified Roman environmental manipulation The Codex a Codex modern book b First text describing Christianity Dark Ages a Between Romans and Renaissance b Barbarians destroyed libraries and art Medius Aevum a Middle Ages in Latin The Papacy a Office of the pope b Dates back to 64 AD c World39s oldest organization d Spread Gospel around Roman Empire Catholicism a Western Roman Christianity Orthodoxy a Eastern Roman Christianit 9 39 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 b Centered in Constanstinople Byzantium a Eastern part of the Roman Empire b Built on previous cultures of the region c Spread north into Slavic areas d Wasn39t being sacked by barbarians e High end of late Roman Empire Lords a Leaders of remote outposts b Develop stronger relation with clergy as Roman influence declines c Control the masses Serfs a Peasants b Belong to the land Feudalism a Lords controls serfs b System of classes High Middle Ages a Called quothigh because things supposedly got better for common people b Institutions matured c More people feed d Longer lives more possessions Manorial system a Modified feudalism b Serfs still tied to the land but given wages c Manors had own laws often gave common people more rights d Could have their own land crops Rise of Islam 3rd great monotheistic religion Arabic definition submission and peace with god Based on teachings of Prophet Muhammad Followers said he was last of God39s prophets Allah is all powerful no creature can be compared to him Requires absolute submission in daily worship g Allah is in heaven not of the Earth Small is beautiful a Small selfcontained units did everything St Francis of Assisi a Close relationship to nature b Preached to dogs and birds c Thought they could be converted to Christianity Pleistocene Age a 1 million years ago c25 30000 years ago b Extreme cold guarded against northern migration Wisconsin Glaciation a Surrounded Alaska and Canada in ice Mega Fauna a Mammoths mastodons etc quot 399 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 9 QnD39 D fDQ0D399J 9 99539 5quot 5quot OJ 0 995quot quot 399 Prehistoric bigass animal Overkill Hypothesis Advancing humans killed off mega fauna Easy prey Didn39t fear people like they should have People killed them faster than they could reproduce led to extinction Cons not enough people to kill all those animal Natural dieoffs and extinction Mega fauna died without human interference Comet caused massive forest fires in North America Changed the climate Animals coudn t adapt PaleoIndians First settlers of North America Clovis Points Found in Clovis New Mexico Special arrowheads unique to the area Very advanced Neolithic Anasazi Near Colorado and Arizona Pueblo county Archaic Period Clovis and Anasazi signal the beginning People quit migrating and settled Chumash Lived between hunter gatherer and settled lifestyle Lived from Malibu from Santa Barbara Chiefdom Highest population density of all California Indians Extensive trade Harvested acorns Freshwater shortages regulated population Tomol Type of canoe Made out of driftwood tar etc out of lack of sturdy trees Chumash Trading Used shell bead currency Chumash Environmental Manipulation Would set mountains on fire to propagate plant growth Nuclear America Central and South America Olmec One the oldest civilizations Central Mexico Influenced Aztecs and Mayans First cultivated corn 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 DJ 0 quot 399 PCquot ED DQnD39 D 9 39moncgt395n 9039 0 Human Sacrifice Started by Olmecs continued by Aztecs and Mayans To please sun gods Led to bad relations with neighbors Mayans Greeks of the New World Had really advanced calendar astronomy Form of hieroglyphs Reservoirs aqueducts Lived in city states Controlled water for irrigation i Used too much ii May have led to demise Teotihuacan Biggest Mayan city state Biggest in Americas for 200 years Mayan Deforestation Around Yucatan Peninsula Made worse drought caused by overuse of water Clearing land for agriculture probably didn t help Aztecs Supplanted Mayas used to trade with them Took a lot from Olmecs Conquered Central Mexico Lots of cities Intense environmental manipulation Tenochtitlan Capital of Aztec Empire Had to drain swamp to build city Built dike to hold water back Andean Cultures Precursors of Incas Lived in Andes Mountains May have come across Pacific Cultivated cotton and corn Had irrigation Disappeared long before Incas Andean Ecological Barriers Mountains and Amazon rainforest Naturally isolated Manco Capac Brought people out of mountains into Cuzco Valley Huayna Capac Most famous Incan emperor Moved capital to Cuzco Empire reached peak Quipus Knotted strings used for accounting 123 124 125 126 Music OJ 0 Relay stations runnes roads Built for communication through empire Messengers would run length of empire to bring messages Relay stations were resting points Terraced agriculture Different levels of crops Pacific air would keep crops from freezing at high altitudes Used wells for irrigation Native Inca Plants Tomatoes squash and beans Animal Domestication Llama and alpaca Symphonic Metamorphosis from 2001 A Space Odyssey Atmospheres from 2001 A Space Odyssey Danse Baccanale from Samson and Delilah Baet by Camille Saint Saens Mesopotamia by The B52s Theme from Gadiator Hans Zimmer Enigma MCMXL The Mask and the Mirror Lorean McKinnett Music of the California Indians and Colonial Spain Film Clips 2001 A Space Odyssey King Tut Steve Martin Life of Brian Monty Python Monty Python and the Holy Grail
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