Media, Culture and Society Course Notes
Media, Culture and Society Course Notes SPCH 2015
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Thinking Critically about mass media pt1 11815 0 Culture 0 Fashion sports science literature etc 0 Mass media 0 Channels of communication that produce things to a large amount of media like books TV shows newspapers etc 0 Linear Model of communication 0 This is essentially senders and receivers Sender authors producers organizations Messages programs texts images sounds etc Sent through mass media Mass media channel newspapers books television etc sent to a large group of people Receiver readers viewers consumers Gatekeepers editors producers etc These people lter the messages 0 The process of gatekeeping allows for feedback 0 Media Convergence o Explains changes that occurred in media content and within media companies 2 roles o mostly everything magazine articles tv shows radio movies is available digitally on laptops tablets and smartphones Cross platform business model that involves consolidation various media holdings Ex Combining phone company internet provider and cable provider under one corporate umbrella High Culture 0 Things like ballet art museum symphony classic literature Ex Beethoven Hamlet Etc see chart in chapter 1 0 Has a diminished audience 0 Low Culture 0 Soap operas popular music video games etc Ex 50 shades of grey RHOA TMZ etc 0 Modern television music and movies distract students from serious literature and philosophy 0 Our popular culture has a short lifespan We use it for entertainment and throw it away Top 40 songs last for a month or so Newspaper circulates for about 12 hours then it is thrown away Thinking critically about mass media pt 2 12015 Postman vs Johnson 0 1985 Neil postman wrote a book called Amusing Ourselves 0 He argued that the move from books to television was creating and entertainment rst culture 0 People were becoming more passive and less critical losing the ability to learn because they expected to be entertained 0 At the same time television was becoming less and less intelligent focused only on style and packaging o 20 years later Steven Johnson wrote Everything Bad Is Good For You 0 He argued that television and other kinds of media are becoming more complicated and more intelligent 0 As demand for entertainment grows so does the demand for more engaging and intellectually challenging content and formats He calls the sleeper curve 0 So the entertainment culture shouldn t be feared by critics Culture and the Modern Period 0 1890519205 was a tremendous time for American culture 0 This time is called the Progressive Era 0 Two important constitutional amendments and social reforms were passed during this tome Women s suffrage Prohibition Federal income tax 0 Post Modern Media Culture 0 Text talks about shifting values in postmodern culture 0 The book does a bad job of talking about postmodernism o A good starting de nition of is quotSkepticism toward the grand narratives of the modern agequot 0 When it comes to media here are some ways this appears Stories and gures that question traditional forms of authority like government science religion etc Media artifacts that blur the boundaries of styles and genres including the boundary between fact and ction Enthusiasm for mixing culture styles and time pedods Re telling classic narratives to question their truth or to change out perspective Recognition that the audience is increasingly diverse and global with access to a disparate media options 0 Post Modern examples 0 Postmodernism blurs genres questions authority 0 Postmodernism also looks to the past Democrats v Republicans elections are interesting examples 0 Postmodernism can be populist Appealing to the everyday person creates con ict between quotthe peoplequot and quotthe elitequot Songs such as quotRoll over Beethovenquot or quotBohemian Rhapsodyquot t as examples Print Culture Pt 1 Books 12215 0 The beginning 0 2400 BCE Egyptians started wring on papyrus o 1000 BCE Chinese created earliest know books 0 650 BCE Greeks and later Romans used scrolls 0 Middle ages 4001500 manuscript culture 0 The printing press 0 Johannes Guttenberg 14531456 0 Produced rst modern books 200 Latin bibles 0 Spread rapidly through Europe after this 0 Fundamentally changed the world 0 Publishing in the US 0 18005 brought a great demand for cheap books Paperback books were introduced and dime novels which cost 10 cents were produce 0 There was rapid spread of knowledge and literacy as America began to industrialize o The late 18005 and early 19005 saw a shift from rural farm life to and industrialized urban culture 0 Amazoncom is the largest bookseller in the US 0 Book Censorship 0 As more people began to read more controversies 0 Over time rulers tried to restrict the books being read in order to preserve moral standards Some tried to banish dangerous books Some include versions of the Bible Marx s Das Kapital and The Autobiography of Malcolm X a Book Challenge 0 Yearly the American Library Association ALA puts a lost together of books that should be removed from a public or school libraries collection 0 ALA uses reasons such as offensive language violence gay themes religious viewpoints etc 0 Maya Angelou Judy Blume and JK Rowling have been some of the most challenged authors but the ALA Books and Democracy 0 Reading is and has been a key part of democratic societies around the world 0 Some say there has been an increased interest in reading again Print Culture pt 2 Newspapers and Magazines 12715 0 Newspapers 0 Play a variety of roles in our culture chronicle daily life inform and entertain opinion pages trigger public debate 0 History of American News 0 ColonialPartisan Period 16901830 Newspapers were determining what they could say about the government Key victories for journalist against the government emboldened the press After the war newspapers adopted a more harsher and aggressive tone Federalist party ultimately cracked down on partisan newspapers 0 John Peter Zenger printed New York Weeklyournawhich criticized royal governor of NY He was arrested for defaming the governor in print Went to trial and the jury defended the right to criticize gov t officials in print as long as It was true 0 Penny Press 0 Penny Press Period 18301890 Characterized by the rise of cheap popular papers that were distributed on the street and avoided politics Newspapers were VERY accessible This fueled the rise of paid advertising in newspapers New York Sun popular penny paper Focused on humaninterest stories Rise in ads and circulation led to an increased desire for news 0 Wire Services le Associated Press AP 0 Yellow Press 0 Yellow Press Period 1890 Great Depression Characterized by popular city papers that focused on human interest worthy causes and promotional stunts Sensationalism Led to investigative journalism 0 The Yellow Kid 0 One of the rst popular comic strips 0 Created in mid 18905 by RF Outcault o Pulitzer and Hearst battled to run this cartoon in their newspapers 0 Newspapers Today 0 Newspapers look to reach a wide range of audiences both culturally and geographically o In rst decade of 20005 newspaper readership has declined over 25 0 News is read a variety of ways le blogs digitally etc 0 Magazines Media Innovators 0 Magazines became more popular because they allowed you to seeread news with a speci c focus Muckraking o quotThe willingness to go to any length to get a storyquot We now call this quotinvestigative journalismquot 0 President Theodore Roosevelt coined this term because of his disdain for negative reporting 0 Some good did come out of the idea of muckraking Books such as Theunge by Upton Sinclair came out and it showed how horrible the meatpacking industry was back then 0 Photojournalism o quotThe rst real visual mass mediumquot 0 Photos are used to document everyday life le TIME Life Reader s Digest 0 Magazines Today 0 Magazines have led the way in specialization 0 To revive sales many magazines publishers have looked towards the digital world Sound and Music 12915 0 Sound History 0 1877 Edison successfully plays back sound which is basically the start of music 0 Emile Berliner made great strides by developing a machine that played round at discs His disk were differentiated from others discs which was big news 0 Convergence O O O 0 Apple 0 O O O 0 Internet has allowed music to be shared like never before Music saved radio from its extinction in the 19505 MP3 le format that allows digital recordings to be compressed into smaller more manageable les The music industry realized the importance of digital presence 2003 apple launched the iPod and iTunes 2008 iTunes became the top music retailer in the US lllegal music sharing still accounts for 4 out of 5 music downloads in the US Apple owns products software operating systems retail etc 0 Pop Music Bieber Who 0 0 Music firs achieved ma55 popularity through the sale of piano sheet music This mainly came from a section of Broadway called Tin Pan Alley TPA tradition started in the 18805 with music from likes ofJohn Philip Sousa TPA played a crucial role in making popular music a mass medium With the popularity of sheet music came jazz from new Orleans Jazz combined many styles blues gospel African rhythms Notable artist include Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Benny Goodman People were convinced that this music was going to destroy America 19405 vocalist like Frank Sinatra and Bing Crosby helped stabilize the record industry These guys were absolute celebrities o Beginnings of Rock 0 19505 rock n roll became a perfect storm It was associated with sex which made it very popular and controversial It was considered integrationist and took place during a time where North and South were beginning to integrate Rock n Roll became popular during a time where there was a strong culture of rebellion from the youth 0 Blues and RampB became very popular during this time also with explicit and sexual lyrics 0 Chaos 0 19505 saw the lines of race and popular music blurred O O White performers were playing the blues black performers were playing rock and country Battle between high and low culture Chuck Berry quotRoll Over Beethovenquot slap in the face to high culture Musicians changed how it was thought they should behave 0 Le Elvis Presley hip swivels Artist like Little Richard blurred the lines of male and female Genres like rockabilly combined country music blues and rock n roll into one sound Payola O O O The practice of promoters paying deejaysradio programmers to play particular songs There were no laws against it but it was considered a form of bribery 1959 congress held hearings Congress used these to talk about the negative in uence of rock n roll on teens Eventually congress created a 10000 ned andor one year in prison for being found guilty of payola o The British Are Coming o The early 19605 brought the music of the Beatles and the Rolling Stones to the united states 0 The British music showed the music industry how different styles of music could be packaged and sold worldwide 0 The British invasion gave America soul 0 Punk and Hip Hop 0 O O 0 Punk became popular In the 19705 as a challenge to commercialism Punk prided itself in DIY mentality Punk led to grunge movement out west Nirvana etc Grunge led to modern altrockindie rock Vampire weekend MGMT etc Hip Hop was created in direction opposition to the polished professional less political world of soul music Hip Hop was rst seen as a novelty by the music industry There was enormous success by Sugarhill Gang etc 0 Hip Hop allowed artist to take on issues like sex class inequality violence drugs etc 0 Hip hop is a huge business today 0 Music Business 0 The music business is an oligopoly meaning a few rms controlling the whole industry WMG Sony and Universal control most of the music industry 0 Independent labels are starting to make a rise 0 Today digital sales make about 50 of all music sold in the US market 0 Internet radio has become an alternative to buying music Pandora Spotify iTunes radio etc 0 Artist are trying to use internet to make it on their own SoundCloud YouTube 0 For Tuesday 0 Chapter 4 and chapter 5 0 Pay attention to chart on pg 147 dealing with pro ts of artists Radio 2315 0 Intro 0 Before there was radio there was the telegraph Morse Code a series of dash and dots that stood for letters of the alphabet o Marconi is seen as the quotFather of Radioquot for his work on developing a way to send high speed messages over long distances 0 Radio became popularized in the 1920s 0 WW 1 and Radio 0 WW I created a need for the United States to have a way to communicate with troops at home and abroad The US government decided that America needed to dominate the eld of radio 0 Radio Corporation of America RCA was formed as a vehicle for American domination of radio technology 0 In order to keep out foreign investors RCA was allowed to act as a monopoly until 1932 0 Communication Acts 0 The 1920s brought a rise in radio listeners and a rise in demand for air space by radio owners 0 Radio Act of 1927 brought order to the airwaves lt stated Licensees needed to serve quotpublic interest convenience or necessityquot Creation of Federal Radio Commission FRC to oversee licenses 0 Communication Act of 1934 created the Federal Communications Commission FCC To this day the FCC oversees radio TV cable internet 0 Radio The First Broadcast Medium 0 Radio was actually the rst medium to use networks groups of linked broadcast stations that share programming produced at a central location 0 Most modern TV networks actually started as radio networks NBC ABC CBS 0 Because early radio was dominated by news it helped create modern news organizations 0 Fireside Chats helped transform radio and how Americans interact with the president 0 Radio Conglomeration o Conglomeration or Consolidation same thing 0 The FCC removed many rules concerning radio station ownership in 1996 This was achieved in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 o This Act now allowed an individual or company own as many radio stations as wanted 0 How did this pass Congress National Association of Broadcasters In 1996 2100 stations changed hands 0 From 19952005 the number of radio station owners declined by 13 0 There are now at least 2000 fewer radio station owners Clear Channel alone owns more than 800 radio stations 0 Alternatives If the radio is becoming less original are there any alternatives Movies 2515 0 Development of lm 0 The concept of lm dates back to Leonardo da Vinci 0 English photographer Edward Muybridge credited with being rst to manipulate photographs to move while on screen First project moving image of a horse 0 Nickelodeons not TV channel for of movie theater whose name combines the admission price with the Greek word for theater Often in storefronts and ourished in the early 1900 s 0 Rise of Hollywood 0 1884 George Eastman developed the rst roll of lm 0 1908 Thomas Edison formed Motion Picture Patents Company The Trust A cartel of US and French lm producers trying to dominate all aspects of the industry attempt to dominate all aspects of the movie business Three levels production distribution exhibition Production 0 Initially producers kept actors anonymous for fear that they would want more money if popular a Studio system included actors directors editors writers etc all worked under exclusive contracts with major studios Extremely ef cient WHY Because they name the price Distribution 0 Movies initially seen between live acts 0 Producers would receive a cut of the pro t of the live acts in exchange for the showing of movies This is called 0 One distribution strategy was to have American lms play in Europe as WWI disrupted European lm industry 0 After WWI no one could compete with Hollywood 0 Exhibition 0 Independent movie producers began to resist Edison s Trust a 1914 major movie companies Paramount Warner Bros MGM etc created a 19205 major studios established in the movie industry a The Golden Age 0 Hollywood s Golden Age is said to be from 1915 around post WWII 0 Introduction of sound aided in Hollywood s dominance worldwide O 0 Movie companies began to experiment with feature lms and they were a huge success Hollywood ts a genre with similar characters scenes structure themes recur iin combination 0 The Hollywood Ten 0 O 0 With movie attendance reaching its peak in 1946 the government began too take notice 1947 conservative members of Congress began to investigate Hollywood for subversive and Communists ties witch hunts for political radicals inn the lm industry bby thee House UnAmerican Activities Committee HUUAAC led to the Holly wood Ten hearings HUAC coerced lm industry leaders to declare their patriotism and give up colleagues suspected of being Communist Ten members of the lm industry were subpoenaed to testify They refused to comply and were eventually sent to prison Clear violation of 1st amendment many were worried of Communist in ltration of the US 0 The Paramount Decision 0 O O Coinciding with the HUAC investigation the gov t increase scrutiny of the movie industry s business practices 1940 s Justice Department demanded an end to vertical integration 1948 Supreme Court ruled in the Paramount Decision that the lm industry could not own theaters as well as production and distribution They were told to divest themselves of their theaters Changes to Hollywood 0 0 Most Dramatic drop in movie attendance happened in the late 1940s as the nation moved out of a wartime economy people began buying homes cars and appliances instead of things of small entertainment value Late 19405 radio s popularity offered Americans a cheaper alternative for entertainment in the suburbs Economics of Movie Business 0 0 8090 of newly released movies fail to make money at the box of ce Today a handful of theater chains control almost all of lm exhibition Today there is a want for theaters to offer upscale concessions and luxurious stadium style seating o Synergy the promotion and sale of a product throughout the various subsides of a media conglomerate Le a company promoting the movie with books t shirts web site soundtrack action gures etc 0 Movies have taken a turn towards the digital EXAM 1 Television pt 1 21215 0 Development of TV 0 1948 1 of American households had a TV set 0 1953 more than 50 of American households had one 0 Since the 19605 more than 90 of homes had 1 o 3 major historical developments in early years of TV helped to shape it Tech innovation and patent wars Wrestling of content from advertisers lnfamous quiz show scandal 0 Technology and Patents 0 TV technology was founded on the idea that if audio can be transmitted from place to place why not visually o Inventors ran around the globe to understand quottelevisualquot images for 1005 of years 0 1800 invention of quotcatrode ray tubequot principles of a camera and electricity Paul Nipkaw German scanning disk separates pictures into pinpoints then transformed Patent battle with Vladimir Zwarykin and Philo Famsworth o Zworykin 1923 quoticonoscopequot 1st TV camera tube to convert light rays into electrical signals Worked for RCA He Recieved patent for it in 1928 o Fransworth 1927 transmitted rst electronic TV picture RCA challenged him because they thought he stole from Zwarykin He won a patent for 1st electronic TV pic in 1830 0 Television Standards 0 1941 to standardize TV the FCC adopted an analog standard for all US TV sets Lasted until 2009 when US switched to digital O 0 19405 FCC assigned channels to geographic regions to make sure there was no interference NJ had no local TV stations for years because the signals would have interfered with NY stations 1948 concern over th nite of channels and frequency interference issues FCC declared a freeze on new licenses from 1948 1952 Cities with TV stations saw a 2040 drop in movie attendance Night club library book circulation radio listening all dropped radio in cities with TV stations By the mid 19505 more than400 TV stations are in operation 0 TV Advancements O O 0 RCA leader in most all TV technologies Color TV was no different By the 19605 color TV was a dominant mass medium and cultural force With the rise of popularity of TV came a rise in advertisement 0 Advertising controls TV 0 Many top rated TV shows in 19505 were named after a sponsor Ex Camel News Caravan Colgate Comedy Hour etc o By mid 19505 broadcast networks were unhappy with lack of creative control over the content of their programs due to their agreement with advertisers 1953 David Sarnoff head of RCANBC and William Paley head of CBS gured a way to undermine advertising by increasing lengths of programs from 15 to 30 minutes longen 2 new types of programming came from the lengthening of programs Magazine programming multiple segments news talk comedy music Similar to lifestyle magazine led to the quotTonight Showquot etc TV spectacular quottv specialquot variety shows hosted by singers Frank Sinatra Nat King Cole includes TV versions of Broadway plays quotPeter Panquot and also sports ads 0 The Rise and Fall of Quiz Shows 0 1955 aired quotThe 64000 Questionquot game show Ran in prime time between 8 and 11 pm Became the most popular show in America during its 1st year Quiz shows are cheap to produced because of non actors as guest amp inexpensive 0 Problem many of the shows were rigged Many contestants were rehearsed and given the answers before the show 0 Impact of quiz show scandals had 3 major impacts Sponsors on TV executors to rig the quiz shows ended any role that sponsors had in creating TV content The fraud undermined Americas expectation of democratic promise of TV 0 That of bringing inexpensive info and internet to every household Quiz show scandals magni ed the divide between high and quotlowquot cultures attention to TV 0 FCC chairman 0 Quiz shows kept off air for 40 years 1999 ABC aired Who Wants To Be A Millionaire which was the number 1 program in 1999 and 2000 Television pt 2 21715 0 I Love Lucy o The most in uential show in the history of television First TV show recorded to be edited using multiple takes to be produced in Hollywood instead of New York broke many taboos such as showing married people in bed together Having a baby clip Lucy working clip 0 The Cable Company 0 Originated in late 19405 to serve rural communities with poor reception 0 Widescale cable wasn t attempted until the 19705 By 1985 46 of US households had cable 0 The growth of cable was slowed due to the fears that it would destroy local TV 0 The rst small systems were called CATV or community antenna television Originated in Oregon Pennsylvania New York where mountains or tall buildings blocked TV signals 0 Cable TV signals are processed at a computerized enter which has many large satellite dishes that receive and then distribute longdistance signals CNN in Atlanta ESPN in Connecticut 0 Its not TV its HBO 0 HBO was the rst company to try using satellite broadcast to reach its local af liates HBO delivered commercial free movies exclusive coverage of boxing matches for a monthly fee starting in 1975 0 Ted Turner realized he could use the same technology as HBO to reach af liates with a nonpremium channel 0 Turner s superstition became the rst standard cable station across the country and created a rush of new stations Narrowcasting o The cable TV era introduced this term It is quotproviding a specialized programming for diverse and fragmented audiencesquot o Allowed content providers and advertisers to target speci c audiences Example a golfequipped manufacturer can buy ads on Golf Channel to reach only golf enthusiasts 0 As narrowcasting has become more popular the big networks have become less important as cultural and nancial in uences In 1980 the Big Three evening news had a combined audience of over 50 million By 2012 it was a combined 20 million 0 Third Screens 0 Internet has changed the way people view movies TV and cable programming 0 These new viewing experiences are called third screens This means computer screens are the third major way to view content Movies screens and traditional TV sets are the other 2 ways 0 The most popular site for viewing videos is YouTube Owned by Google and by 2013 it had more than 1 billion views per month 0 Fourth Screens 0 2010 Nielson found that an average viewer spent 35 hours using a computer and television at the same time in a one month period 0 Also found that 60 of viewers are inline at least once a month whole watching TV 0 This multitasking has accelerated with 4th screen technologies like smartphones ipods ipads etc o The multifunctionality of third and fourth screens means that ppl need traditional TV sets less and less 0 Television News 0 In terms of trustworthiness broadcast news is the most trustworthy This has to do with the intimacy of television and loyalty of viewers 0 People associate with news anchors and have allegiances o The 24 hr news cycle of cable news changed the game of broadcast news Viewers do not have to wait until 5 or 6pm for the news they can now tune in at any time 0 Government and Television 0 Mustcarry rules the FCC mandate that requires all cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local TV broadcasts on their systems 0 Access Channels FCC mandates that requires cable systems to provide and fund a tier of nonbroadcast channels dedicated to local education government and the public 0 Leased Channels FCC mandate free publicaccess channels Citizens are able to buy time on these channels to produced their own programs to present controversial views 0 Telecommunications Act of 1996 o Supposed to create more competition in cable business 0 Congress used this act to get rid of regulatory barriers allowing regional phone companies longdistance carriers and cable companies to enter one another s markets Congress hoped for competition and to lower both cable and phone rates o It failed Most communities now only have one cable company 0 ln communities with only one cable company rates have risen faster than those with competition Digital Gaming February 18 2015 0 Game Timeline 0 Mechanical games preceded popularity of video games and paved way for them 0 Coin operated games rst became pop in parlors called penny arcades in late 1880s 0 Pinball machines became popular in 1940s 0 Modern Gaming 0 19505 and 605 computer science student developed video games as novelties but because of the massiveness of computers at the time they could not be easily distributed 0 The rst home TV game was invented in 1972 called Odyssey Cost 100 sold about 330000 consoles in 3 years Modern Gaming 0 1975 Atari began successfully marketing a home version of Pong o The 19705 and 805 saw the rise of Pacman Donkey Kong Asteroids in bars and arcades o Arcades showed gaming s potential as a social medium because many games called for competition Consoles and Advancing Graphics 0 Most gaming is done on home consoles devices speci cally used to play video games 0 Graphics have been getting better and better since the Atari 2600 was released in 1977 o 3 major consoles xbox play station nitendo wii lnternet Changes Gaming 0 Massively multiplayer online roleplaying games MMORPGs games that are set in a virtual world that requires users to play through n avatar of their own design World or Warcraft Grand Theft Auto Sims 0 Online fantasy sports players real life friends or online acquaintances assemble and use actual sports results to determine scores in their online games Video Game Genres o A lot of game genres Too many to go into detail Examples include action games rstperson shooter adventure games roleplaying games strategy games and sports Etc 0 Gameplay the way in which the rules structure how players interact with the game rather than by any sort of visual or narrative style Collective Intelligence 0 A term that describes the shared knowledge we often gain from online communication 0 Video games provide many examples of collective intelligence Ex Call of Duty Trends and Issues in Digital Gaming 0 Like TV shows books and comics electronic games have inspired movies Super Mario Bros 1993 Tomb Raider 2001 Resident Evil 2001present o Commercialism is prevalent in video games Advergames video games created for purely promotional purposes 0 Chester Cheetah cheetah from the Cheetos video game based around him to sell Cheetos lngame advertising subtler These are integrated as billboard logos and storefronts in the game 0 Gender Problems in Video Games 0 Nearly 12 of video game players are actually women 0 The average age of video game players is 30 0 Game development industry is heavily maledominated o This has resulted in a lack of female main characters as well as plotlines that tend to alienate female game players 0 Many companies have started to recruit female game developers in an effort to reverse this trend 0 Other Problems in Video Games 0 Addiction A 2011 study of 3000 3rdth graders in Singapore found that video games could jeopardize aspects of everyday life 0 Violence Many games are intentionally violent Can these games have affects on society Read chapter 2 internet quiz read chapter 3 as well lnternet ch2 February 24 2015 o The birth of the Internet 0 Al Gore didn t invent the internet 0 Originated as a militarygovernment project 0 The Defense Departments Advanced Research Projects Agency developed a way to share computer processing in the late 19605 0 To allow better communication between military personnel Ray Tomlinson invented email in 1971 He was one the one who rst decided to use the symbol for email Commercialization of the Internet 0 Prior to the 905 the internet was mainly used for email le transfers and remote access of computer databases 0 The World Wide Web changed all of this It was initially created as a data linking system that allowed computeraccessed information to be linked to other information no matter where it was on the Internet Welcome you ve got email 0 Web browser were the nest step for the internet These are software packages that help users navigate the Web Examples Microsoft Safari etc o The rst decades of the internet were through telephone wire connections AOL began connecting homes in 1985 and quickly became the United States top Internet service provider ISP Dial upquot The Bane of Existence 0 O O In 2001 AOL merged with Time Warner showing the economic power and potential for the Internet By 2012 about 66 of all households had a broadband connection moving away from slower dialup services Email was one of the earliest functions of the Internet In the late 19905 instant messages IM brought real time communication and real time trouble Social Media 0 Difficult to have a singular de nition for social media Some ways to describe are A venue for social interaction a place to share creations tell stories interact with others Multiplatform participatory digital An essential function of democratic public life Platforms that enable the interactive web by engaging users to participate in comment on and create content as a means of communications with others Social Media continued 0 Know the different types of social media Social Media and Democracy 0 O O In the past decade social media has shown tremendous power in the way that we communicate Social Media has proven an affective tool for democratic change and as a tool to undermine repressive regimes The Arab Spring in late 2010 was fueled by the use of social media Protestors used twitter and Facebook to post videos and updates to inform the rest 0 the world as to what was happening in Egypt Tunisia o The important thing to understand is that the internet sparked a revolution it can do good and it can do bad It can change countries elections and even democracy 0 Economics of the Internet 0 Telecommunications Act of 1996 overhauled the nations communications regulations This didn t work it just made prices skyrocket 0 Ownership and control of the internet has 3 issues for the public Security of personal and private information Appropriateness of online material Accessibility and openness of the Internet 0 Data Mining 0 Gathering of users location and purchasing habits This gathering of information also functions as consumer surveillance 0 Data mining raises issues of internet security and privacy 0 Despite these questions we LOVE ecommerce the buying and selling of products on the internet 0 Digital Divide o The digital divide refers to the growing contrast between the quotinformation havesquot those who can afford to purchase computers and pay for Internet services and the quotinformation havenotsquot those who may not be able to afford a computer or pay for Internet services 0 Net Neutrality o Refers to the principle that every Web site and web user whether corporation or single user has the right to the same Internet network speed and access 0 The ght is between keeping the Internet free and heavily regulating it o This is a huge debate currently taking place in our national conversation 0 John Oliver explains this really well last week tonight with John Oliver Net Neutrality on youtube Journalism pt 1 February 26 2015 0 Journalism in America 0 It is the only media enterprise that democracy absolutely requires True or False TRUE 0 Only media practice that is mentioned and protected by the constitution 0 However newspaper circulation has fallen traditional news audiences have changed 24 hour cable news has ourished and blogs have become news resources forcing journalism to search for new models to connect with the public In the US serous journalism has sought to provide information that allows citizens to make intelligent decisions There are 2 problems 0 1 We may be producing too much information o 2 The amount of data the media now provides has questionable impact on improving public and political life What is news 0 Newsworthiness information most worthy of transformation into news stories The idea has evolved over time o Journalists are taught to select and develop news stories on one or more of these criteria timeliness proximity con ict prominence human interest consequence usefulness novelty and deviance Values in American Journalism 0 News is both a product and a process Something that is current and something that is still occurringevolving 0 News is a set of subtle values and shifting rituals that have been adapted to historical and social circumstances such as the partisan press of the 1700s or the informational standards of the 20th century 0 Even though journalists transform events they generally believe that they are or should be neutral observers who present facts without passing judgment 0 With the rise of cable and the Internet partisanship has trumped neutrality 0 Today we see a decline in the neutrality that promoted fact gathering documents and expertise with a rise in partisan news This transition is symbolized with the rose of Fox News and MSNBC as 39experts with more grand standing than actual news at times Facts Values and Bias 0 Traditionally Reporters have aligned facts with an objective position and values with subjective feelings o The reporter provides readers and viewers details data and description In turn the readerviewer must judge and take a stand about the social problems being presented journalism and Television 0 The rules and rituals governing American journalism began shifting in the 19505 0 During this time CBS produced a show called See It Now which began to blur the lines of entertainment and news It was somewhere between neutral and narrative o The 19705 saw the creation of happy talk during news broadcasts 0 Happy talk is the adlibbed or scripted banter that goes on among local news anchors reports etc before and after news reports Happy talk is supposed to foster the illusion of intimacy with viewers This was created to counteract difficult news segments 0 Sound Bites 0 Sound bite this is the TV equivalent of a quote in a print news story 0 Sound bit is the part of a broadcast news report in which an expert celebrity victim or a person in the street responds to some aspect of an event or news 0 ln political campaigns the average sound bite has gone from about 4050 seconds in the 19505 and 605 to about 8 seconds in the 19905 What does this do for our understanding of candidates during a campaign Campaigns are won or lost this way this makes us get a one on one with the candidate and seeing what they have to say straight from their mouths Cable News Today 0 The arrival of the 24 hour cable news channel changes how we consume news 0 Cable news channels rely on a quottalking headquot which is when a pundit offers his or her opinion on an issue in studio It is much less expensive to have this than to have a foreign bureau or sending someone on location 0 Generally nightly cable news is built upon partisan lines Rachel Maddow Bill O Reilly etc Read chapter 16 possible quiz code of ethics fake news and re imagining journalisms role in our society Journalism Pt 2 3 March 2015 0 Ethics and news media 0 National journalists have occasionally faced ethical dilemmas o This is especially the case after 91 because of questions including but not limited to When is it right to protect government secrets 0 Ethical Predicaments 0 Nelly Bly Faked insanity to get inside asylum in the 18805 She wanted to undercover the brutal conditions of a woman s asylum and she did She wrote of extreme torture of patients including having ice cold water thrown on her 3 times a day After 10 days she was nally released and had her experiences published Was this ethical 0 To achieve quotthe truthquot or quotget the factsquot journalists routinely straddle the line between quotthe publics right to knowquot and a persons right to privacy 0 In 2011 New Corp s newspaper News of the world was investigated for hacking into voicemails of a 13yearold murder victim government of cials and celebrities This led to arrest of and resignations of many high levelexecu ves Was this ethical o Journalistic Ethics 0 The society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics includes 4 main prescriptions 1 Seek truth and report it Journalist should be honest fair and courageous in gathering reporting and interpreting information 2 Minimize Harm Ethical Journalists treat sources subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect 3 Act independently Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public s right to know 4 Be accountable Journalists are accountable to their readers listeners viewers and each other 0 How do reporters get stories 0 Reporters tend to use speci c strategies that the textbook describes as quotrituals of reportingquot These are general approaches that help explain American journalism and the way it works 0 Rituals of reporting o 1 Focus on the present This provides reporters with an endless supply of material and makes sure they report on important developments Also means focusing on reaction and timeliness and deemphasizing stories that provide analysis 0 2 Get the story This means that in addition to reporting facts journalists have to tell a story in order to capture the public s imagination and put facts into a larger context Also means that reporters should be persistent in pursuing news stories which can be important when those in power don t want certain stories told It can also result in journalists ignoring other important concerns like ethical standards or the safety and interest of the people they are reporting on o 3 Get the story rst Modern journalism emphasizes publishing a story before the competition This can cause journalists to publish stories whose facts they haven t carefully veri ed The ruse to publish rst often causes a herd mentality where many news organizations are pursuing the same story regardless of its newsworthiness Political operatives have been able to trick news organizations into publishing misleading stories by giving journalists incomplete information and letting the urge to publish rst take over 0 4 Rely on experts journalists increasingly use experts to explain complicated issues This allows journalists to seem credible while separating themselves from whatever the experts might say 0 5 Balance story con ict journalist like to tell both sides of any story involving con ict This can lead to charges of false equivalence making 2 arguments or people or organizations seem equally legitimate when they are not 0 6 Acts as advisories Journalists are trained to ask tough questions which can be bene cial when they are confronting powerful people who are trying to hide the truth An exclusively adversarial style can alienate readers and viewers and can cause journalists to miss the opportunity to ask broader questions 0 Public Journalism 0 Popular in late 19805 and 1990s as a way for newspapers to involve readers more 0 Public journalism has few key aspects including Moves beyond the limited mission of quottelling newsquot to a broader mission of helping public life It moves from seeing people as consumers to seeing them as public potential actors in arriving at democratic solutions to public problems 0 Public journalism has obscured the line between reporter community and talk shows 0 This is a way to involve the public and journalists more centrally in civic and political life 0 Fake News and Satire 0 Most popular examples includeincluded The Daily Show and The Colbert Report Expanded now to Last Week Tonight and The Nighty Show 0 jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert were able to invoke similar emotions that we all have towards quothard newsquot and make fun of it 0 Do they do a good job in their role What is their role Freedom of Expression pt 1 0 The culture and political struggles over What constitutes free speech or free expression have defined American democracy 0 Our nation s historical developments are often traced to how much or how little we tolerated speech during particular times 0 We are currently in an era that is as heated a time as ever for free speech issues 0 Such issues include 0 Copyright issues Explicit lyrics in music Violent images on screen Sharing of media files on the intemet O O O 0 Right of the press to publish government secrets Origins of Free Expression and Free Press 0 As a nation we make fun of our elected officials a lot 0 Many countries around the world jail torture kill their citizens for these speech violations 0 A 2013 survey found that sixtyfour nations across the world allow virtually no freedom of the press 0 In these nations the government has tight control over what is said and when it its said 0 Maziar Bahari O Iranian journalist who spoke out against gov t called leader a moron 0 Family tortured for it 0 Imprisoned Models of expression 0 Since the mid1950 s there have been four conventional models for speech and journalism used to categorize the differing ideas underlying free expression 0 These models are 0 Authoritarian Model 0 Communist or State Model 0 Social responsibility Model 0 Libertarian model Authoritarian Model 0 Developed around the same time that the printing press surfaced in the 16th century in England 0 Advocates of this model hold that the general public largely illiterate in those days needed guidance from the elite and educated ruling class 0 Criticism of the government was not tolerated 0 Censorship is a key characteristic 0 Today this system is seen in developing countries throughout Asia Latin America and Africa where journalism often joins together with government and business to foster development 0 Questioning the status quo is dangerous Communist of State Model 0 Under this model the press is controlled by the government because the leaders believe that the press should serve the goals of the state 0 Some government criticism may be tolerated but ideas that challenge the basic premiss of state authority are not 0 State run media systems have been in decline since the 1990 s but some still exist in Myanmar China Cuba North Korea Social Responsibility Model 0 This is the model that best characterizes the ideals of mainstream journalism in the united states 0 The concepts of this model were first explained in the 1947 Hutchins Commission Hutchins Commission 0 Formed during WWII to understand the role of media in a democracy by Henry Luce publisher of Time and Life and Robert Hutchins President of University of Chicago 0 Their report called for development of watchdog groups because the media had grown too powerful and needed to be more socially responsible 0 Recommendations included among other things 0 Comprehensive news reports that put issues and events in context 0 Stronger overviews of our nation s social values ideals goals Social Responsibility and the Fourth Estate 0 The Fourth Estate is part of the Social Responsibility Model 0 Here the press becomes an unofficial fourth branch of government that monitors the legislative judicial and executive branches 0 Theoretically by being privately owned the media can better watch over the government on behalf of the citizens 0 The press supplies information so that citizens can make informed decisions on social and political issues Libertarian Model 0 Radical extension 0 the Social Responsibility model 0 Encourages vigorous government criticism and supports individual and press freedoms above all else 0 Under this model there would be no restrictions on the mass media or free speech 0 Speaking out with absolute freedom is the best way to fight injustice and arrive at the truth Censorship as Prior Restraint 0 The original constitution that was ratified in 1788 did not include any guarantees of freedom of the press 0 The first amendment has theoretically prohibited censorship 0 However over time the Supreme Court has defined censorship as prior restraint 0 This means that courts and government cannot block any publication or speech before it actually occurs 0 based on the principle that the law is not broken until an illegal act has been committed Near V Minnesota 0 Near v Minnesota 0 1931 supreme court ruling that determined a Minneapolis newspaper could not be stopped from publishing scandalous and defamatory material abut police and law officials whom they felt were negligent in arresting and punishing local gangsters 0 The court did find that in exceptional circumstances the media could be ordered to halt publication such as during a war The Pentagon Papers 0 1971 during Vietnam War former Defense Department employee Daniel Ellsberg stole a copy of History of US DecisionMaking Process on Vietnam Policy report 0 This was a top secret study that Ellsberg and a friend leaked to the New York Times and Washington Post 0 The Nixon administration filed for and received a court inunction against the NY Times 0 not publish the papers due to national security The Supreme Court found the administration s attempt to stop publication appalling saying that the press must be free to publish Freedom of Expression pt 2 10 March 2015 0 Citizens United 0 Citizens United vs Federal Election Commission 2010 Supreme Court case that ruled it is in violation of 1st amendment limit corporate or union spending for political advertising This is usually done through quotsuper PACsquot The 2012 presidential election saw a combined 6 billion spent on campaign advertising Essentially this can allow one candidate to quotbuyquot and election Unprotected forms of expression 0 When thinking about free expression issues remember 2 things 1 The government is allowed reasonable restrictions on the quottime place and mannerquot of expression The Constitution primarily keeps the government not your employer or anyone else from restricting your expression Seditious Expression 0 Sedition Act of 1798 supposedly meant to increase national security but critics argued that they suppressed voters who disagreed with the government 0 After this laws of this nature did not appear again until times of war in the 20th century Espionage Acts of 1917 and 1918 were enforced during WW1 and WW2 which made it a federal crime to disrupt the nations war efforts 0 Schenck v United States 1919 Supreme Court case that upheld conviction of Socialist Party leader Charles T Schenck for distributing lea ets urging Americans to protest the draft 0 Copyright 0 O O O A copyright legally protects the rights of authors and producers to their published or unpublished writings music lyrics TV programs movies or graphic designs A copyright gives the creator of an original work of authorship exclusive rights to control its distribution Copyright Act of 1790 was the rst Congressional Act dealing with copyright It gave authors the right to control their work for 14 years with renewal privileges for another 14 years after that In 1976 Congress changed this to the life of the author plus 50 years or 75 years for a corporate copyright owner Example of a corporate owner would be Disney Public Domain occurs at the end of the copyright period Gives the public free access to the work Libel and Slander O O O O Libel is written or broadcasted and slander is spoken Libel refers to defamation of character in written or broadcast form Slander is spoken language that defames a persons character To count as libel The expression must be both false and damaging Also the publisher must have been negligent in determining the truth New York Times vs Sullivan 1964 Supreme Court case that ruled public gured must also prove that news organizations acted with actual malice Defenses against libel 0 Number of defenses against libel quotThe truthquot is always a defense Prosecutors in court are granted absolute privilege which means they cannot be sued for making false accusations in the court room Reporters are granted dualified privilege which means they cannot be sued for repeating false statements made in court of in legislative sessions quotOpinion and fair commentquot is protected although the line between what s supposed to be a fact and what s supposed to be opinion can be unclear Satire comedy parody and critical reviews are generally protected by law from libel suits Obscenity and right to privacy 0 Obscenity It is very dif cult to agree on a de nition for what is obscene Current legal de nition of obscenity comes form the 1973 Miller v California case Criteria for obscenity The average person would nd the material o engve The material depicts or describes sexual conduct on an offensive way 0 The material as a whole lacks literary artistic political or scienti c value 0 Even with these criteria deciphering what is obscene is dif cult 0 Right to Privacy a persons right to be left alone without his or her name image or daily activities public property 0 First Amendment v Sixth Amendment 0 1st amendment protects our freedom or speech and press 0 6th amendment guarantees an accused individual quotthe right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial juryquot 0 Any con icts Gag orders and shield laws 0 Gag order issued by judges to prevent someone involved in a trial from speaking to the press and potentially in uencing a jury 0 Shield laws protects reporters from having to reveal their con dential sources to police or other legal authorities The news media has argued Protecting the con dentiality of their sources maintains reporters credibility and serves the public interest by providing information they would otherwise not receive 0 Film and the First Amendment 0 Burstyn v Wilson aka The Miracle Case A 1952 Supreme Court case that saw the movie distributor of The Miracle sue the head of the NY lm Licensing Boar for banning the lm 0 Supreme Court decided that lms deserve the same constitutional protections as print media and other forms of speech 0 This case also called the activities of lm review boards unconstitutional because it had been engaged in prior restraint EXAM 2 Advertising 31 March 2015 o Advertisements everywhere 0 Advertisements are seen everywhere and in every media form movies internet TV shows newspapers magazines even bathrooms 0 Corporate sponsors spend millions for product placement buying space for particular goods to appear in a TV show movie and music videos 0 In our society it is dif cult to nd a space that does not have advertising 0 Early Advertising 0 Been around since 3000 BCE 0 Mid 18005 newspapers used advertisements to try to turn a pro t Most of these early ads were for land sales advancements in transportation announcements and runaways ads placed by farm owners and plantation owners for slaves who ran away 0 First full service advertisement opened ad agency was NW Ayer amp Son opened in Philadelphia in 1869 The agency helped create write produce place ads They collected a fee for each ad placed 0 Packaging 0 18005 manufacturers began to see a need to differentiate their products from their competitions o This caused consumers to become loyal to certain products and it allowed manufacturers to dictate prices 0 Product differentiation associated with a brandname packaging was the single biggest triumph of advertising Early examples are Quaker Oats Campbell Soup Levi s Patent Medicines and Department Stores 0 End of 18005 patent medicine and department stores accounted for half of ad agency revenue 0 Many of these patent medicines were simply a mixture of water and 1540 alcohol Some included morphine which is a way a patient felt better and why some became addicted to the medicines o By 18905 over 20 of ad space was for department stores 0 Department stores have always been criticized for undercutting local small businesses 0 Social Value amp Change 0 US advertising contributed major social changes in the 20th century Speci cally 1 Signi cant change from producerdirected to consumerdriven society 0 Advertisers now helped manufacturers create new markets and quickly recovered costs 2 Advertising promoted technological advances by showing how new machines such as vacuum cleaners cars etc could improve daily life 0 Ad Regulation 0 1900s saw many advertising watchdog agencies created 0 1914 the federal gov t created the Federal Trade Commission FTC to monitor advertising abuses o 1917 the American Association of Advertising Agencies AAAA responded to the FTC and tried to minimize government oversight by urging ad agencies to stop making misleading advertisements Subliminal Ads 0 Subliminal Advertising refers to a hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register in a person s subconscious and fools people into buying products 0 Some claim CocaCola s quotDrink CocaColaquot ad is an example of this 0 Research shows that these ads are no more effective than a regular advertisement 0 Advertising Today Thanks Don Draper 0 Until 1960s ads were determined by a slogan the phrase that attempts to sell a product by capturing its essence in words 0 During 19602 and 705 the visual revolution began to affect advertising 0 1970s agencies developed teams of writers and artists granting equal status to images and words 0 Development and Placement 0 Teams of artist writers and media planners decide how to develop and place ads O O 0 They can use a storyboard which is a blueprint of a potential ad For digital media viral marketing or short videos or other content is created to quickly gain attention online Sometimes saturation advertising in which a variety of media are inundated with ads aimed at target audiences is used to gain attention Miller Lite used humor and retired athletes to reach a male audience with similar ads on TV billboards and in print Persuasion 0 Many persuasive strategies in advertising Famousperson testimonial a product is endorsed by a wellknown person Plainfolks pitch associates a product with simplicity 0 Volkswagen original quotDrivers Wantedquot ad Snob appeal approach attempts to persuade consumers that using a product will maintain or elevate their social status Bandwagon effect points out in an exaggerated claim that everyone is using a particular product so you should too 0 Products that claim to be quotAmerica s favoritequot or quotthe bestquot Hiddenfear appeal plays on consumers sense of insecur y Toothpaste deodorant shampoo ads Irritation advertising creating product name recognition by being annoying or obnoxious Association Principle 0 O O 0 Myths 0 0 Association principle is a persuasive technique used in most consumer ads that associates a product with a positive cultural value or image even if there is little connection to the product Post 911 many companies and products began to be associated with patriotism and national pride Association principle can lead to stereotypes of women as only being homemakers of sex objects It can also claim products being quotrealquot or quotunnatural Coke callings itself quotThe Real Thingquot Myth Analysis provides insight into how ads work at a general cultural level 3 common elements found in many ads Ads incorporate myths in ministory form character setting Most stores in ads involve con ict These con icts are negotiated or resolved by the end of the ad usually by buying a product Public Relations 2 April 2015 0 Public Relations Framing of a Message 0 Public relations refers to the total communication strategy conducted by a person a government or an organization attempting to reach and persuade an audience to adopt a point of view Advertising uses simple xed messages These messages are generally transmitted directly through purchase of ads Public relations involves more complex messages that can evolve over time PR does not necessarily involve ad purchases PR uses the news media to transmit messages directly to the public PR can be much more powerful than ads 0 PR History 0 The rst PR practitioners were press agents those who sought to advance client s image through media exposure in the 18005 0 Used as stunts to increase media exposure of their clients 0 Eventually this evolved to publicity using media to spread information about a person or an issue 0 In the early industrial Revolution businesses like railroads used PR successfully to attract large government subsidies The pioneered the use of lobbyist PR specialist who try to in uence government to intervene directly on behalf of speci c companies or business sectors 0 PT Barnum o The most famous press agent of the 18005 was Phineas Taylor PT Barnum who used exaggeration fraudulent stories and staged events to secure media coverage for his clients museum and later his circus 0 He called his circus the quotGreatest Show On Earthquot Included midget General Tom Thumb Jumbo the Elephant and Joice Heth the 161year old nurse of George Washington 0 These publicity tactics were so successful that some companiesindustries were even able to achieve monopoly status Eg railroads and utility companies 0 The early tactics of PR practitioners in the 18805 and 905 haunted the industry as it tried to become a respected profession Modern PR 0 Most 19th century corporations cared very little about public opinion However by midcentury executives realized that they could sell more products if they had a positive public image 2 pioneers of PR sought to legitimize the industry with emphasis on interpreting facts and quotengineering consentquot lvy Ledbetter Lee Edward Bernays lvy Ledbetter Lee 0 Worked in one of the rst PR rms in the United States but later quit to work as a consultant for Pennsylvania Railroad after a horri c train accident let to unfavorable publicity He advised more openness with the press He advised emphasizing good stories during bad circumstances He advised putting executives in the public eye He advised truth in advertising He believed facts were malleable and could be formed in different ways Edwa rd Bernays O O O Bernays was a former reporter and the nephew of Sigmund Freud He was the rst person to apply psychology and sociology to PR calling himself a quotpublic relations counselorquot He wrote the rst PR textbook Crystallizing Public Opinion He believed that the masses were irrational and needed to be controlled for their own good and for corporate pro t Bernays termed the shaping of public opinion as the quotengineering of consentquot 19205he was hired by the American Tobacco Company to develop a campaign to get more women to smoke He played on women s newly acquired suffrage and independence from men He called cigarettes quottorches of freedomquot He gained free publicity through newspaper and magazine coverage o In the hands of right people public opinion could be shaped into forms that people could rally behind Propaganda o Propaganda is communication strategically placed either as advertising or publicity to gain public support for a special issue policy or program 0 WW2 saw the US government to try to drum up support for the war 0 The Messages 0 PR uses messages to persuade its audience 0 One way to do this is through press releases which is a critical function of PR Written announcements in the style of news reports that give new information about an individual company or organization and pitch a story idea to the news media 0 PR Events the Pseudoevent o Pseudoevent any circumstance created speci cally for the sole purpose of gaining coverage in the media Eg press conferences a march etc o Theodore Roosevelt set up the rst White House pressroom and held the rst presidential press conference in the early 19005 0 PR Events Astroturf Lobbying o Astroturf lobbying a phony grassroots public affairs campaign engineered by public relations rms PR rms can deploy phone banks and mailing lists to drum up support and create the impression that millions of citizens back their client s issue From 20022008 the Bush administration operated a quotPentagon Punditquot program which secretly had over 70 retired military of cers appear on radio and TV to shape public opinion about the quotwar on terrorquot Ap l92015 o What is this 0 Another aspect of media effects research is cultural studies This focuses on how people make meaning capture reality articulate values and order their experiences through their use of cultural symbols 0 These scholars examine corporate and political elites They use media to circulate their messages and sustain in uence 0 Early Research o Propaganda analysis post WW1 researchers started studying how governments used propaganda to advance war efforts 0 1927 Harold Lasswell de ned propaganda as quotthe control of opinion by signi cant symbols by stories rumors reports pictures and other forms of social communicationquot 0 Public opinion research Walter Lippmann distrusted the public s ability to function as knowledgeable citizens and journalist s ability to help the public separate truth from lies Lippmann argues that social science could be part of an expert class that would make quotunseen facts intelligible to those who have to make decisionsquot Today polls control most of our public insight HypodermicNeedle Model 0 HypodermicNeedle Model AKA magic bullet theory or direct effects model One of the earliest media theories that argues the powerful effects of media This model suggests that the media should be shooting their potent effects directly into unsuspecting victims MinimalEffects Model 0 MinimalEffects Model With more research social scientist found that the media alone cannot use people to change their attitudes and behaviors In most cases the media reinforces existing behavior and attitudes rather than change them 0 Two things came out of research of minimal effects They found that people engage in selective exposure and selective retention This means that people expose themselves to media messages that are most familiar to them and retain those messages that con rm the values and attitudes that they already hold 0 Media Effects Research 0 Uses and Grati cations Model Proposed to contest the notion of a passive audience By using indepth questionnaires researchers studies the ways in which people used media to satisfy various emotional or intellectual needs Researchers found some people use media to see authority gures elevated or taken down seek a sense of community ful ll a need for drama or con rm moral values 0 Social Learning Theory 0 Developed by Albert Bandura in the 19605 0 Demonstrated a link between violent media programs and aggressive behavior 0 Supporters say this shows real life consequences of media aggression 0 Critics argue this theory simply makes the media a scapegoat for larger societal issues of violence Cultivation Effect 0 Suggests that heavy viewing of television leads individuals to perceive the world in ways that are consistent with television portrayals Ex Law and Order lmed in New York people get raped and murdered so if you go you might think that will happen to you 0 Created by George Gerbner suggests that the more a person watches television and absorbs its viewpoints the more likely their worldview will be cultivated by the images and portrayals on television 0 Media messages interact in complicated ways with personal social and cultural factors These messages are one of a number of factors in determining individual behavior 0 Critics say this is nearly identical to quotmean worldquot syndrome 0 The Public Sphere o Jurgen Habermas 1962 0 Public sphere is de ned as a space for critical public debate 0 With the rise of the middleclass more public discussion was taking place in coffeehouses townhall meetings pubs etc 0 Regular people began building a society beyond the control of the elites 0 Today Habermas is useful as a way to view how democracies and mass media operate The Digital Age 14 April 2015 o The Digital Age 0 Digital Age has a tremendous impact on society 0 Bauerlein argues that Gen Y is doomed o Begley argues there is a difference between knowing facts and being intelligent o Howe says we are blaming the wrong generation 0 quotWhy Youth are Failingquot O O 0 Interview with Mark Bauerlein who is the author He blames a number of digital advances for the decline in Gen Y Technology He argues the rise in technology has decreased reading time Social life has become increasingly more important and it can occur anywhere and any time because of technology Business Ethics He argues that Gen Y wants it easy States about 55 of high school students spend one hour or less quotreadingstudying per week This leads to a workplace dream where recent grads can have maximum exibility in workspacetime make a lot of money quickly and not have to start from the bottom of a company Literacy He notes that reading is down because there is not instant pay off for a student However getting hundreds of likes on a photo or constant texting can lead to instant grati cation and social status among peers Texting has also made writing habits worse o It becomes hard 0 switch between text language and academic writing in the classroom Human socialization has been impaired Teens are really only equipped to socialize with people in their own age groups 0 quotThe Dumbest Generation Don t Be Dumbquot O 0 Sharon Begley counters some of Baurelein s arguments in her article Begley notes that Bauerlein is a little late to the party The ancient Greeks started to dialogue of complaining about the abilities of younger generations Numerous studies in the early 20005 found that 1824 yr olds did not know political leaders andor important aspects of US history Much of this doesn t have to do with the stupidity of students but a failure in our school system For Begley Gen Y cares more about nding information that retaining information O Is this a bad thing Begley s main argument from all of this is that there is a difference between knowing facts and being intelligent All hope is not lost for Gen Y o quotThe Kids Are Alrightquot 0 O 0 Video Games Neil Howe counters Bauerlein s argument by casting blame on Gen Y s parents He called this group quotearly Xersquot who were born from the late 19505 to mid 19605 This group is seen as the least bookish group of professionals that the US has seen in a long time While it is easy to blame Gen Y Howe argues that early Xers have some of the lowest standardized test scores and SAT scores Early Xers were kids during a difficult time in US history accelerated divorce more media in the home drugs were rampant US doesn t need to worry about Gen Y because they are resilient practical and can handle risk 16 April 2015 Blazing angels or resident evil 0 Christopher Ferguson 0 quotConcerns about harmful nature of media on consumers have been recorded since at least the time of the Greeks and romansquot Hypothesis that video games directly cause violence has been presented not as one side of a reasonable debate but as a fact and a public health crisis on par with smoking and lung cancer The news cycle about video games tends to focus on three main phenomena 1 Release of controversial games 2 Unsupported statement by nonscientist 3 Efforts to tie individual reallife violent crimes to violent games Ferguson thinks that the connection between video games and violence is a moral panic a quest by some members of society to impose their moral beliefs on the greater society through the tactic of fear The moral panic causes people to believe in a link whether there is one or nor and to demand research supporting the link Ferguson takes Bandura s Social Learning Theory to task He argues that the model does not take into account previous experiences or environment One of the outcomes of a moral panic is publication bias a bias among academic journals in favor of publishing studies that show positive results over studies that disprove hypothesis He thinks the research on the link between video games and violence demonstrates a publication bias He thinks that video game violence research is inconsistent contradictory and overstated by its own authors He points out that some studies show video games have positive effects He argues that there can be positive effects of violent video games Some research has found that playing video games can increase visual memory perception processing etc Multiplayer video games can increase social involvement They can educate a user a Remission He thinks the research that shows a link is often awed Why 1 Many studies aren t measuring actual aggression and measures are inconsistent from study to study 2 The link in many studies can be explained by other factors 3 The absence of a recognized threshold level for acceptable violence o In other words we don t know how much you have to increase violence in a person to make that person quottooquot violent Much Ado About something 0 Bushman et al 0 0 0 0 This article is a series of direct replies to a critique made by Ferguson and another author so it s a very instructive article The author say that even though the link they found in their study is small it warrants attention The authors admit that not all studies measure violence the same way but argue that those differences don t change the results The authors reject the idea that they are trying to create a phantom youth violence crisis They argue serious acts of aggression and violence are relatively rare as a result of video games and are harder to predict the cause of They argue video games aren t the most important causes of violence but should be controlled anyway 0 The authors found that the effects of violent video games are similar in size to those of second hand smoke asbestos 0 The authors conclude that video games are a primary cause of later aggression Media amp Race News Coverage Of New Orleans Following Hurricane Katrina 21 April 2015 0 Media and race post Katrina 0 quotMedia framing and racial attitudes in the aftermath of Katrinaquot HaiderMarkey et al 0 quotRace and media coverage of hurricane Katrina analysis implications and future research questionsquot Sommner et al 0 quotAnother disasterquot Khale et al 0 Media Framing and Racial attitudes in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina 0 HaiderMarket et al apply previous research on racial identity to understand how the American public had varying responses to government efforts post Katrina 0 They use framing theory to understand the role race played in shaping attitudes following Katrina Framing theory can be de ned as quotthe process by which a communication source constructs and de nes a social political issue for its audiencequot Framing can in uence attitudes on nearly any event 0 This essay focuses on news media framing of Hurricane Katrina s aftermath 0 When Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans the worst damage occurred when the levees broke News coverage focused on armed individuals that were looting 10000 people stranded in the Superdome and those individuals left behind in the city 0 Images of storm victims as poor African Americans dominated the news more than anything else 0 Images shown of black storm victims were at times more negative than those shown of white victims 0 0 One study argues that racialized framing of the events in New Orleans may enhance negative attitudes among blacks about government response and could lead to less sympathy by whites for the victims of the ooding o The research is this article supported the ideas that African Americans held distinctly different views about government responses to Hurricane Katrina than nonAfrican Americans Blacks had less con dence in federal government s ability to respond to future natural disasters andor terror attacks post Katrina The researchers could not de nitively establish that media framing of Katrina in terms of race leads to the development of stronger affinity between blacks and victims of the storm Sommers et Al O 0 race and media coverage of Hurricane Katrina Analysis Implications and Future Research Questions Focuses on Debate over the term refugees as a term to describe survivors of the storm Term looting versus nding food First person accounts circulated through new media accounts such as mass emails blogs etc Much of the media controversy following Katrina focused on issues of language A common description of survivors was refugee Many people including President Bush decried the use of this term News organizations moved to use evacuees survivors and victims This was not the only term scrutinized An image circulated of a black man carrying food in ood waters with a caption calling it looting Another image of a white couple carrying food through the ood waters had caption calling it nding food Although hard conduct a study on the circulation of the photo the authors conclude that these photos show that race played a role in language use during coverage of Katrina The word refugee had implications for identi cation of African Americans in New Orleans following Katrina O Some coverage drew analogies between images of New Orleans following Katrina and refugee scenes in Haiti or Kosovo There was a large focus by the news media on violent crimes following Katrina in New Orleans However the majority of the violent crimes reported either never occurred or were misrepresented o Kahle et al 0 O 0 Media and Gender quotAnother Disasterquot Kahle et al This study looking at photographs from 4 national news organizations covering Hurricane Katrina The study found that the photographic coverage while sympathetic reinforced negative stereotypes about African Americans while showing Caucasians in powerful leadership roles At the time Hurricane Katrina was the most visual news event sine 911 Coverage of Katrina hit a nerve with many Americans Never before had American citizens seen other Americans in such poverty and devastation on their home soil Photographs consistently had whites in the role of helper and African Americans in the role of victim Coverage of Katrina reinforced existing societal barriers for African Americans 23 April 2015 0 quotGrowing up Female in a Media Worldquot Thoman and Stieber O O 0 Woman are bombarded by media messages during their lives so it is important to analyze those messages Some results of this analysis show While women make up more than half of US population male characters outnumber females in primetime TV by a 2 to 1 margin Female characters are rarely nonwhite over 40 gay or anything other than thin These representations skew out cultures perceptions of what is normal for women In particular women have skewed perceptions about what constitutes a normal weight or body type Over 90 of TV news comments are made by men While the media is in uential it is not the only quoteducator of children Family in uence eg family communication role models etc have a larger impact that the media 0 quotBeauty and the Beast of Advertisingquot Kilbourne 0 Article focuses on the messages that are sent by advertisements o The study found that in ads women are either depicted as housewives or as sex objects 0 These images are worrisome because they are arti cial Women are made to want a look that cannot be achieved 0 Artificiality A Wall Street Journal study of 4 Chicago schools found that more than half of 4th grade girls were dieting and 3 quarters felt that they were overweight What contributes to this idea Dove commercial and what goes into the making of it 0 quotBiology Destiny and Bad Sciencequot Barnett and Rivers 0 Looks at how the media repeats myths about gender differences Keep in mind that this article looks to delegitimize popular myths about females in media and society 0 They argue that the best research tells us that most of these myths are false 0 Despite early myths and some that still continue today there is no evidence that male and female brains are very different at least not consistently and not in ways that matter a lot 0 In school boys and girls score about the same in math so there is no evidence of a sexrelated ability bias 0 Debunking Myths There is no evidence that women take fewer risks or are less interested in powerful or leadership jobs Despite the way commercials television and other media depict women there is no evidence that women generally wish that they could be housewives instead of working mothers Successful women do not have more trouble nding husbands
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