POSC 100 Lecture Notes Spring 2015
POSC 100 Lecture Notes Spring 2015 POSC 100
Cal State Fullerton
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Date Created: 08/24/15
Fundamentals of US Government Politics Thursday January 22 2015 129 AM Americans enjoy capitalism Most important core belief equality of opportunity vs equality of result 0 Equality of opportunity everyone has the same opportunity to succeed O Equality of result everyone should have equal things John Locke introduced Classical Liberalism aka Equality of Opportunity where everyone has the ability to pursue happiness as long as it does not infringe upon others Political parties 0 Beginning of Civil War 1865 Northern US is Democratic Southern US is Republican 0 1964 Democrats became more liberal due to race and civil rights issues 0 19805 Republicans became more conservative due to race and civil rights issues Northern US is Republican Southern US is Democratic 0 20005 Mostly Republican with Democratic Coastline and Midwest Ideological Spectrum farthest Left gt Right 0 Anarchists completely get rid of government because of a belief in an ideal world believes the government is coercive Radicals change everything about the government Communist Equal welfare Socialist increase tax rates on rich to support the poor Green Party began as an environmental party broadened into something more democratic Democrats liberal Center Republicans conservative Tea Party more conservative Republicans CDP Christian Democratic Party JudeoChristian party not common in US Libertarians get rid of most of the government keep some such as courts police etc more freedom more SS 0 Fascist Maintain social order exactly the way they want associated w dictatorship O Reactionaries want everything to stay the same OOOOOOOOOO Two views of Government Politics 0 Pluralism political parties for everything representing the people 0 Elite Small number of political groups that control the government The Founding of the Republic Monday January 26 2015 157 PM A Declaration of Independence a Jefferson39s premise for the Declaration P1 All are entitled to quotlife liberty and pursuit of happinessquot P2 British have infringed on Colonist39s Pursuit of Happiness Therefore the Colonists have a right to independence b Community Problems i Lack of common currency ii Inability of government to levy taxes iii Lack of domestic security 1 Shay39s Rebellion happened because no national militia a Highlighted no domestic security b Made states realize they need a national militia in order to create social order c Contributed to ratification of Constitution B The Federalist Papers 1789 a Federalists Hamilton V AntiFederalists Jefferson b Written by John Jay James Madison and Alexander Hamilton i James Madison began as an AntiFederalist until it became evident that there was going to be a new Constitution c Argued in favor of a new Constitution and how a central government could be designed to not abuse citizens One side of a debate on whether or not to create a new constitution What created a cleavage in America that would later grow into political parties f AntiFederalists wanted to leave things the way they were i Okay with Articles of Confederation ii Didn39t want to change anything g George Washington became leader of the Federalists C Constitution 1787 a John Locke i Popular sovereignty people should be the source of the power of the government b Montesquieu 09 i 3 branches of government legislative executive judicial c Newton i Checks and Balances d Hume i Representative democracy e Virginia Plan Fed e ra I IS m Wednesday January 28 2015 1129 PM A What is it a i Neither are completely supreme B Who does what a States maintain a certain set of powers i Budget wise 1 Educationalexpenses Criminal justice prisons Moral regulations ie legalization of marijuana Water regulations Environmental regulations environmental protection agencies b National g vernment maintain a set of enumerated powers i Foreign policy 1 All states need to be on the same page when it comes to war 2 National militia ii Printing money regulating commerce in order to maintain consistency iii Social Security social welfare ie Medicare c Rule of thumb ask yourself i Do all 50 states have to be in agreement with something If yes national government deals with it ii Does this cost a lot of money If yes national government deals with it iii Is this an issue where states are likely to have conflict ie water conflict in South West US If yes national government deals with it iv The bigger the issue the more likely it39s done at the national level C Why does it matter a i Civil War who would get to do what about slavery 1 Civil Rights Movement ending segregation freeing the slaves etc ii Environmental issues ie Obama set aside a forest as a Federally protected forest iii Same sex marriage usually a state issue but Bush attempted to amend Constitution and outlaw it but was declined iv Legalization of marijuana clash between national and Californian policy Controlled Substances Act 1 Drug regulation moral regulation b Conflict of who gets to do what D Background a ConstitutionalConvention i Unitary national government carries out most duties ii Confederal group of states that carry out their own duties 1 Didn39t work under Articles of Confederation iii Neither unitary nor confederal would work so ended up with federalism E Constitutionality a Supremacy Clause national government is the law of land mauve i If there is conflict between national and state government national government is supreme Commerce Clause gives Congress power to regulate economy domestically interstate and internationally i Set minimum wage ii Health and safety standards iii Gun control iv Child Abduction Clause v Set tariff rates Necessary and Proper Clause Elastic Clause Congress is allowed to write laws on anything they see necessary and proper and is not listed in the Constitution given it does not violate any provision in the Constitution i Homeland Security Spending Clause national government offers quotrewardsquot to certain states for enforcing certain policies i New Orleans drinking age of 18 while it39s 21 most everywhere else ii Federal Education money used to influence Southern states to integrate schools iii Use resources to punish certain states for enforcing different policies 10th Amendment all powers not specifically given to the government is reserved for the states i Clashes with Necessary and Proper Clause and Supremacy Clause Separation of Powers Friday January 30 2015 955 AM A Checks and Balances system of 3 branches keeping each other in check so that no one branch becomes too powerful a Legislative Branch Congress body of people that write laws i Power to impeach any and all federal officers ie President Cabinet Judges etc ii Veto Override override President39s veto but requires 23 votes from both chambers of Congress iii Advise and Consent allows US Senate power to approve various executive decisions ie appointments to Supreme Court ambassadors reps to UN major Cabinet decisions etc 1 Power to ratify treaties President may enter into with foreign nations iv Technically has the most power v Budget Control and Impoundment Act law that stops President from impounding keeping away money for programs Congress approves 1 When Congress appropriates money for a program the President cannot impound it 2 Created new rational way of budgeting b Executive Branch President chief executive i Appointment of federal officials ie Post Masters Military Generals etc check and balance on Congress 1 Congress cannot reject appointment but cannot chose their own 2 President comes back with another appointment ii Veto override a billlaw iii Executive Order statementorder 1 allows Presidents to do a certain amount of things without having to gain consent fromget a law passed by Congress 2 Allows President to rearrange bureaucracy without Congressional consent 3 Money is not appropriated to allow executive orders to carried out c Judiciary Branch US Supreme Court i Judicial Review allows Presidents to strike down laws of Congress and punish executive actions deemed unconstitutional 1 Not an enumerated power from the Constitution 2 Created by Marbury v Madison in order to place a check on the other 2 branches B Divided Party Control government being controlled by two different political parties divided government C Presidential v Parliamentary Democracy a Parliamentary citizens vote for parliament Congress who then selects the executive will be which means they39re both from the same party b Presidential citizens independentlydirectly vote for a president c Which might be the better system D Separation of Powers is a design while the Check and Balances is the operation of it a It is the apportionment of various powers to each of the 3 branches so they can check one another Representation Friday February 06 2015 955 AM A Founders thought of it has a government representing the people fairly B Modern Individual right to vote protest treated right by government etc C Modern Representation how representation has evolved and broadened a Citizenship has changedbroadened since the signing of the Constitution i Not only land owners ii Different peoplegroups are now considered citizens as well b Constitution i Amendments define what makes a citizen and what their rights are 1 14th Amendment 1868 granted former slaves citizenship a Foundation for civil rights today b Due process clause people can39t be deprived of their natural rights without due process i Also in 5th Amendment ii Due process set of legal procedures the government goes through before being able to take away your life liberty or property 1 Habeas Corpus list of laws you have apparently broken c Equal protection clause two groups of citizens can39t have separate sets of legal rights i Essentially designed to prevent South from creating caste system ii South did it anyway with segregation etc iii Government must give all citizens same set of civil rights 2 15th Amendment 1870 gave former male slaves right to vote 3 17th Amendment 1913 direct elections for US senators a Changed the way we elect senators b Prior to this amendment state legislature chose US senators c Passed during Progressive Era 4 19th Amendment 1920 women39s suffrageright to vote a Passed during Progressive Era when they were trying to make the government more responsible for the people b ALL women including African Americans 5 24th Amendment 1964 prohibited poll taxes a Poll tax tax that needed to be paid in order to vote i To suppress certain groups from voting primarily African Americans ii Jim Crow Laws included poll taxes literacy tests etc 1 Was not abolished by 24th Amendment 2 Abolished nationally in 1964 6 26th Amendment 1971 gave 18 21 year olds right to vote a Primary argument 18 21 year olds could be drafted into war and fight but could not have a say in policies regarding war c Statutory Laws laws that Congress passed i Congress realizes that not all of the new amendment will be respected by Southern states so they passed Acts to enforce them 1 Civil Rights Act of 1964 make sure the people are treated equally regardless of the groups they belong to a Outlawed segregation race mainly but also gender 2 1965 Voting Rights Act outlawed discriminatory voting practices including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting D Systems of Representation Congressional Elections usually a ProportionalRepresentation Political parties represented in proportion to number of votes they receive from the people Percent of votes percent of seats represented in parliament 2 states in Presidential Elections that are proportionally represented 1 Electoral College votes within each state are allocated proportionally for that state b WinnertakesAll single member plurality V People vote for ONE person for the House of Representatives second place doesn39t matter Each member from House of Representative represents their district 1 Constituency body of voters in a specific area who elect a representative to a legislative body Theoretically political party COULD win 30 of votes across all the districts but still not be represented 48 states in Presidential Election go with a winnertake all representation 1 All Electoral College votes are for 1 person and 1 person only not proportionally 2 Ex All 50 of California39s Electoral Votes go toward a single candidate Majority 50 1 E Who is Represented and why a DCquot hmo The affluent and wealthy Wealthy people make political campaign donations Typically the white and wealthy less likely for poor African Americans to be represented Rich and affluent citiesareas are more likely to receive aid from national government in national disasters quickly and without too much complaint Poor are likely to be uneducated the uneducated are very much less likely to vote Not voting is harmful to political campaignselections FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency Congress A Functions a Make national public policy b Representation represent constituents faithfully 0 Must find a balance between the two d Compromise between party39s opposing values B Powers a Primary branch of government b Retains most of the constitutional powers i Most representative branch of all 3 quotThe People39s Branchquot c Delineated in first Article of the Constitution d Enumerated speci cally given powers i Spending Clause tax and spend public money ii Borrow money on the credit of the US l Allows members of Congress to get states what they want without raising taxes usually unpopular iii Declare War 1 President has to request permission from Congress to go to officially go to war iv Impeachment oversight over other 2 branches 1 Not very common 2 More likely to be a federal judge than the President v Commerce Clause regulate international and interstate commerce 1 Environmental regulations 2 Minimum wage vi Allows Congress to establish uniform bankruptcy naturalization and copyright laws 1 Bankruptcy what happens to you when you become bankrupt a Courts seize some assets and create restructure and repayment plan b When you can39t pay back your debt 2 Naturalization immigration 3 Copyright ie having to pay for music vii Coinprint money viii Establish post of ce and post roads 1 Post road build roads for post of ces to deliver ix Establish lower federal courts 1 Courts below US Supreme Court x Oversight power of Congress to monitor other branches and ensure they are doing what they want them to do 1 Does this by threatening funding 2 Does this through things like hearings C Organization a Bicameralz sm division of Congress into two chambers i Arrived at by The Great Compromise ii Small states wanted equal number of electors for every state to not be overran by larger states iii Larger states wanted representation by population b Hierarchical i Party Leaders make important decisions ii Rankand le members Represent constituency vote on laws contribute to debate etc 0 Division of labor i Committees floor broken up into work groups that write laws in an area of their expertise 1 Percent of representatives per party in the House is proportional in committees ii Floor where debate and voting take place D Rules and Procedures a House of Representatives 435 i Majoritarian if majority of members 218 agree on a bill they can pass it ii Rules Committee last committee a bill goes through in a House 1 Sets conditions under which a bill will be debated and ruled upon Provides limited debate time for each party Includes what amendments changes can be offered What order amendments may be offered in Agenda setting gives advantage of choosing which bill to allow debate over a Determining subject of con ict Germaneness Requirement every Amendment not bill offered must be Germane to the bill that39s being discussed 1 Germane relevant 2 Chair of Rules Committee decides whether something is Germane 3 Can offer any nongermane amendment but it39s up to the committee whether or not to allow it Discharge Petition if majority of members 218 sign it allows them to bring a bill to a vote whether or not Rules Committee allows it Senate 100 i CounterMaj oritarian majority rule doesn39t work 1 Must have 60 votes not 51 ii F ilibuster really long speech intended to delay or kill a bill I Wasting time in hopes that the majority party will move on to some other bill 2 Using their unlimited time to speak about anything that want 3 Rule XXII Cloture 60 votes to stop a filibuster iii Hold threat to filibuster iv Nongermane Amendments allowed v UCA unanimous consent agreement 1 Broad outline of how Senate will carry on with a certain bill Similar to Rules Committee Both parties negotiate minority and majority leader Less formal intended to be simple Agreement to not filibuster 93999 iii iv 93999 E Committees a b Standing permanent never dissolves i Select one task dissolves Legislative some committees have the authority to writepropose laws that everyone is to vote on i Nonlegislative no authority to writepropose law 1 Rules Committee rule on amendments cannot propose 2 Administration Committee maintain House Intrachamber exist only in the House or the Senate i Interchamber some representatives some senators mixed 1 Conference Committee come to a compromise between proposed bills from House and Senate Appropriation Committee both Houses write final spendingbudget bills Ways and Means Committee House writes tax laws i Same thing as Finance Committee in Senate ii Comes up with revenue the appropriation committee spends f Purposes i Division of labor so not everyone has to research and be experts ii Ultimate purpose write legislationa bill so everyone can vote on it iii Exist to exert oversight monitoring other branches iv Investigation other branches of government something in the economy that needs to be addressed g Powers i Information collection collect whatever info they need to write a law 1 Info from experts 2 Info from interest groups ii Draft language of bills 1 Can make it sound favorable to certain representativesconstituencies iii Quasijudicial power similar to court of law 1 When investigating something they can act in ways similar to a court of lawjudge iv Gatekeeping deciding which bills will move on and be voted for and which won39t 1 Component of agenda setting h Chair person in charge of committee i Subcommittee committee within a committee F Party Leadership a House of Representatives i Speaker of the House 1 Leadership position required by US Constitution 2 Sets direction for House of Representatives 3 Make final decisions on committee assignments and which bills will come up in the House 4 Second in line for Presidency if President and Vice President are unable to serve 5 Administrative tasks ii MajorityMinority Leaders run daytoday business of the oor 1 Ensuring attendance 2 Majority party bills making it through committees 3 Minority Leader has no real power 4 Minority party want to get their message out iii MajorityMinority Whip exert party discipline on their members 1 Get their party representatives to vote a certain way 2 Done through rewards and punishment system a Campaign contributions b Assign committees iv Steering and Policy Committee Chair 1 Make recommendations to Speaker of the House about committee assignments 2 Receive input from rankandfile members about what bills they want to see come up on the agenda 3 Usually Speaker of the House v CaucusConference Secretary person in charge when a group of party members that meet by themselves vi F undraising Committee Chair 1 Raise campaign money for their party 2 Not a member of the formal party leadership 3 Stepping stone to rising up b G Senate i President of the Senate Vice President 1 Cast tie breaking vote should there be one 2 Second in line for Presidency after President ii President Pro T empore 1 Third in line for Presidency after Speaker of the House 2 Temporary President of Senate when VP isn39t there iii Maj orityMinority Leader 1 Minority party can filibuster and force majority party to come up with 60 votes or move on iv Maj orityMinority Whip v Steering and Policy Committee Chair vi Fundraising Committee Chair H Legislative Process a b i J k Bill Intro Committee Referral i Party leaders distribute proposed bills to their respective committees Committee Consideration i Writing the bill the way they want it to look before moving on to the Committee Floor ii Bill usually dies here iii Amendment possible iv Agenda setting can deny voting in order to force committees to introduce bills that they want to be presented to the floor Scheduling i House Rules Committee ii Unanimous Consent Agreement iii Agenda setting Debate i First in chamber of which it was introduced ii Amendment possible 1st Floor Vote Repeat steps l6 in the opposite chamber i Amendments possible Conference Committee i Senators and representatives work out compromised version of the bill to send back to both the Senate and the House ii Not supposed to amend bill here but do anyway sometimes 2nd Floor Vote vote on compromised bill Presidential Disposition sign into law or veto Congressional Veto Override 23 vote from House and Senate individually to override President39s veto rare 1 Elections a b Constituency people an officeholder represent i House of Representatives people who live in their district ii Senate people who live in your state iii President people who live in the country Terms in office i House of Representatives reelection every 2 years ii Senate 13 of the Senate up for reelection every 2 years 6 year terms iii President four year terms 2 term limit Executive Branch Monday March 02 2015 1033 AM A Speci c and Enumerated Powers CommanderinChief send troops into combat without Congressional approval for 90 days M allows Presidents to reject bills proposed by Congress Chief Executive executive orders Appointments judiciary seats cabinet members postmasters etc Treatymaking foreign policy making if President enters into treaty US must abide by it until Senate takes a vote 6 Presidential Pardon quotforgivequot people for federal crimes usually for tax evasion or mail fraud no check on this power 7 State of the Union Address address the nation every January about his plans intentions etc more of a requirement 8 Convene Congress call Congress into special session for emergency situations B Informal Powers not enumerated 1 World Leader not only does the US expect President to be a leader but also other nation39s leaders expect President39s reactions a National Economic Manager President is given credit for economic health good and bad i Set Fiscal Policy levels of taxation spending ii Enter Trade Agreements iii Monetary Policy how many dollars are printed and put into economy 1 President appoints members of Board of Federal Reserves and has in uence 2 Does not directly decide how many dollars are printed 3 Board of Federal Reserves sets interest rates b Crisis Manager i When there39s a nationalinternational crisis the people call on the President to respond ii US is among the wealthiest country in the world and is informally obligated to take action 2 National Party Leader a President makes appointmentrecommendation for a person who is going to be the new DemocraticRepublican National Party Chair is to be of their own party b Expected to raise campaign money for their political party 0 Get as many of their party members into Congress 3 Chief Legislator a Has a hand in the legislative process b Must sign a bill into law 4 Public Agenda Setter a In uence the problems the public focuses on that eventually leads back to Congress 5 Mass Communicator a Fundamentally affects a President39s successfulness as President b How the people view the President is important 0 Became important in 20th century when it became more available to majority of population C Milestone Presidents added something to Presidential Powers 1 Thomas Jefferson laid theoretical foundation of US through the Constitution a Build oldest political party in the world MPPNC b Stole land mass from French bought from Louisiana Purchase George Washington supported 2 terms Andrew Jackson emphasized importance of state powers a Shifted resources of national government national banks to state banks b Began to eliminate classrace gaps Jim Crow Laws c Began national government in building national infrastructure roads waterways etc Abraham Lincoln kept United States together a Prevented South from seceding due to slavery issues b Used nonenumerated powers to do so Theodore Roosevelt advocated President39s power outside of enumerated powers in Constitution a Policy accomplishments leader of Progressive Era Woodrow Wilson world leadership after WWI Franklin D Roosevelt prior to New Deal US didn39t have welfare state a Social welfare safety net created by The Great Depression b Prosecuted and successfully executed WWII in 4 years i First President to actively conduct foreign policy c Solved worst economic disaster The Great Depression Presidential Leadership Monday March 09 2015 958 AM A Current Affairs a Obama39s speech on 50th anniversary of March on Washington i httpwwwwhitehousegovphotos and videovideoZO130828president obama marks50th anniversarymarch washington ii httpwwwtheguardiancomworId2013augZSobamamartin Iuther kingSOth anniversary celebrations b Shelby County V Holder justice department no longer required to clear redistricting maps from states B Components a Clear Message with the public b Communication in respects to mass media c Persuasion primarily Congress C Two Theses a Power to Persuade 1960 Presidents who con ne themselves to formal powers of of ce are generally less successful than Presidents who engage in informal powers to persuade b Going Public 1994 answers the question of how the Presidents persuade i Mass media ii Presidents persuade members of Congress to follow them via the public iii Gin up public opinion in favor of their policy programs to in uence Congress to respond to those policy programs The Executive Bu rea ucracy Wednesday March 11 2015 956 AM A What is it a Hierarchically arranged organization which carries out tasks in a rational compartmentalized fashion b Purpose allows President to carry outimplement laws that Congress passes B Development a Progressive Era 19001920 modern bureaucracy born i Progressives like Teddy Roosevelt wanted to make the government liable to protect the environment ii Required expansion of government power b New Deal Era 19321950 WWII Era i Policy agenda of FDR ii Great Depression iii Social Security iv Required expansion of Department of Defense c Great Society Era 19641980 i End poverty ii Expand civil rights iii Department of Education d Expands when Congress decides the bureaucracy needs to do something new or do something more regulations C Organization a 15 Departments i Department Agencies 1 Post 1920 Bureaus ii Department Bureaus 1 Prior to Progressive Era iii Components of the larger Bureau b Independent Agencies i Central Intelligence Agency 1 Require independence from government 2 Require independent appropriations from Congress 3 Revenue from stamps ii Not housed in one of the larger departments c Independent Commissions i Given narrow tasks and power ii 5 people iii Budget iv Of ce space v Federal Communications Commission FCC regulate decencyobscenity in public airwaves d Government Corporation i Corporation set up by government to carry out relatively small nancial tasks D Bureaucracy and Politics Progressive leaders contributed to a representative government where a meritbased administrationbureaucracy was in place Civil Service ReformProtection i Hiring based on merit ii Firing based on justi able cause iii Advantage stop hiring of cial in government due to political loyalty and prevent President from handing out jobs to political allies iv Disadvantages inef cient based on the fact that they can39t hire and re those who are very well suitednot well suited respectively for their job The Judiciary Monday March 16 2015 958 AM A The US Legal System a b c Power of judiciary stems from Constitution that states a Supreme Court must exist Relies primarily on judges making decisions based on prior case rulings Is a Common Law System B Common Law Legal Reasoning a b c d g Authority gains power over time Marbury V Madison power of judicial review Common Law Legal System system of law developed mainly in England where judges make decisions in absence of written law Precedent judges rule cases based on prior cases similar to that case i Exists in order to maintain consistency ii Prevents the people from believing that the courts are being impartial or favoring a certain party iii Decisions of judges usually 1 Apply precedent 2 Overturn precedent 3 Selectively apply precedent iv Courts tend to be reluctant to overturn precedent of strong cases like Miranda v Arizona v Mapp v Ohio Relatively Short Legal Codes Laws that Congress writes does not take into account all possible situations where a law cannot be violated i Judges rely on precedent of previous judges Adversarial Court Proceedings in a court of law there is always 2 adversaries defendant accuser in a dispute Stare Decisis reasoning for precedent i Decision staysstands C Civil Law Legal System a b c Relatively long and extensive legal codes Don39t need adversarial court proceedings Judges don39t need to rely on precedent of previous cases Civil Liberties Monday March 16 2015 1043 AM A Civil Rights requires government to treat people equally no matter what group they belong to B De nition individual rights that all citizens possess protecting them from the power of the government C Elements a 1st Amendment freedom of speech assembly etc establishment clause b 4th Amendment free from unreasonable search and seizures c 5th Amendment due process i Right to not selfincriminate ii Government cannot infer guilt from silence iii Right to have the government issue a writ of habeas corpus 1 List of laws you have been accused of breaking 2 Presented when you are arrested 3 Why you39re being put in jail iv No Ex Post Facto Laws government cannot write laws about things that have happened already and then enforce it d 6th Amendment right to speedy trial by jury of your peers e 8th Amendment right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment f 14th Amendment due process steps government has to go through before taking away life liberty or property of a citizen D Issues a 1st Amendment i Establishment clause prohibits prayer in public schools ii Flag burning is a form of political speech iii Obscenity in music lyrics allowed because it would cause a slippery slope that infringes upon the rst amendment right iv Prior restraint prohibits media from presenting information that may be detrimental to the national government 1 Unconstitutional but the government has gotten away with it b 4th Amendment i Griswold expanded what unreasonable search and seizures meant 1 Right to privacy 2 Women can use birth control if they want ii Roe v Wade abortion is a right of privacy iii Exclusionary Rule any evidence obtained illegally must be excluded from trial 1 There are exceptions probable cause plain sight rule etc c 5th Amendment i Miranda v Arizona police are required to read you your 5th amendment rights when you are arrested 1 Right to a stateappointed lawyer d Eminent Domain legal doctrine that states that primarily local government has the right to take private property for public use i Set of legal procedures under the 4th and 5th amendment that they government must go through before invoking eminent domain ii Controversial What constitutes quotpublic usequot e Amicus Curiae quotfriend of the courtquot third party lobbyists who offers information that may in uence the US Supreme Court39s decision on a case The JudICIary Friday March 20 2015 955 AM A Powers a Enumerated power of the court b Gets power mainly from court decision i Marbury V Madison judicial review right to interpret the law ii McCulloch V Maryland national government is supreme law of the land B Structure of the Federal Judiciary a USSC consists of 9 justices i Decided matters of lawconstitutionality ii Serve tenure life terms to prevent outside forces to in uence case rulings iii Court of last resort b Courts of Appeal 14 country divided into 14 sections and each has a Court of Appeal i Decide which cases go to the Supreme Court ii Filter all the cases that attempted to be appealed c District Courts decide matters of fact all facts presented i Writ ofCertiorari certi ed copy of court transcript so appeals and USSC can make ruling easierfaster ii Can take up State Supreme Court cases if it39s obvious it39ll be taken into federal hands iii Decide matters of fact bring all facts forth C Theories of Constitutional Interpretation a Plain Meaning i No interpretation necessary ii Exact wording of Constitution should be applied directly to case iii Literal meaning nothing deeper iv Strict constructionist interpretation v Conservatives adhere to this meaning b Original Intent i Some words need interpreting ii e g state state of mind state of California etc iii Only interpretation necessary is to apply what authors intended it to mean when Constitution was written iv Strict constructionist interpretation v Conservatives adhere to this meaning c Living Constitution i Authors of the Constitution purposely wrote Constitution vaguely so it can be adapted to different future issues ii Meaning can be interpreted and reinterpreted over time iii Loose constructionistinterpretation iv Liberals adhere to this meaning Political Parties Saturday April 4 2015 436 PM A Development a First party system Federalists and AntiFederalists i Federalists new Constitution and central government ii AntiFederalists no new Constitution and no central government b Second party system DemocraticRepublican single party i Federalist party disappeared ii quotEra of Good Feelingquot iii Started during Andrew J ackson39s Presidency iv More power to the states less to the federal government 1 Dismantle federal bank of the US 2 Give states more power of banking i Beginning of political equality 1 Abolished poll taxes i Began government reliance for building of infrastructure c Third party system emergence of modern Republican party i Civil war reconstruction party era ii Competitive twoparty system developed iii Republican v Democrat iv Founded by Abraham Lincoln v A group of thirdparties condensed into one d Intermission neither party is in control i Republicans dealing with Republicans more liberal Progressives l Ultimately absorbed back into Democratic party i Democrats dealing with Democrats more radical Populists 1 Group of radical farmers 2 Wanted to take US off gold standard and put it on silver standard money 3 Ultimately absorbed back into Democratic party e Fourth party system classical economics i Classic aissezfaire economics if left alone a capitalist economy would thrive on its own ii The Great Depression unemployment at 30 iii Keynesian Economics government should get involved in the economy during times of economic recessiondepression l Depressionsrecessions happen because demand for goods and services decreases 2 Government steps in and creates artificial demand to boost economy e g grants building infrastructure etc f Fifth party system similar to today39s political system i New Deal party system ii Debated between Democrats and Republican some issues still present today B Fundamentals Purpose political parties represent the people Forms of political parties i Party in the electorate PIE group of people who are eligible to vote in elections ii Party organization PO people join a group of people who have similar beliefs 1 Party committees 2 Democrats and Republicans i Party in government PIG group of elected political officials who hold office 1 Usually based upon who holds presidency Immediate goal getting members elected to office Ultimate goal translate its members39 policy preferences into public policy Presidential Elections Monday April 6 2015 1017 AM Constitutional Requirements to Run for President 0 35 years old 0 Natural born citizen 0 Must have 14 years of residency in the US Informal Requirements to Run for President 0 Up until 19605 White male married Protestant Christians 0 Nomination from one of two major political parties Democrats or Republicans Terms in Office 0 Constitution doesn39t require President to serve a speci c number of terms 0 George Washington set example by stepping down after 2 4year terms 0 22nd Amendment 2 term limit Franklin Roosevelt served 4 terms and people became uncomfortable With it Stages to Election 0 Primary Election political parties elect candidate only from their party that Will be voted for in the general election 0 General Election general population votes for a candidate from any party 0 RunOff When a candidate doesn39t get majority of the votes so voting is held again 0 Not for Presidential usually mayoral Process of Presidential Election 0 Candidate Agenda Setting media begins to focus on serious candidates Allows both parties to decide Who their next Presidential candidate Will be 0 Nomination Primary Election vote for Who they want to be their candidate in the election 0 Nomination Convention PR event 0 Formal nomination Candidate chooses VP Convention delegate the person Who delegates your vote from the primary election at the Convention 0 General Election tickets With Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates are presented 0 Issue Agenda Setting focusing on certain issues rather than others 0 Election Day everyday citizens cast their votes at the polls 0 Electoral College Representatives cast their votes that suits their district and Whichever candidate receives the most votes in that state receives all of that state39s electoral votes 0 Certi cation states send a formal certi cation of the votes their state cast to the President to read to the Senate 0 Inauguration Jan 20th President sworn into of ce Interest 6 rou ps Friday April 10 2015 1003 AM What are they 0 A group of likeminded individuals who band together to advance or protect some common interest Don39t attempt to control or become the government AARP American Association for Retired People 1amp National Ri e Association Biggest interest group in the nation 0 NAACP Nation Association for the Advancement of Colored People Civil rights 0 ACLU American Civil Liberties Union Fight for broad interpretation of civil liberties Sources of Power 0 Campaign contributions to Congress members 0 Votes Organizations can be lent to campaign for political parties In uence over opinions Connections interest group lobbyists Often former members of the government 0 Information Consequences of a Pluralistic Political System 0 Wide open government structure where everyone can pressure the government in any way they want to get the things they want 0 Policy gridlock too many interest groups coming at the government from different directions that nothing happens Nonrational government growth and inef ciency Nonrational policy outcomes Alcohol is legal but marijuana is not Alcohol industry has political interest groups to pressure the government but the marijuana industry does not Less generic medicine Government funding antismoking programs but subsidizing tobacco farmers Mass Communications Media Wednesday April 15 2015 1006 AM A Constitutionality a First Amendment freedom of the press expression b USSC protect broad freedom of expression c New York Times vs Sullivan media has a right to criticize the government i Allowed to print things that may not be true ii Libel slander hard to prove iii Government official gives up the right to be free from libel or slander d Nixon vs New York Times public right to criticize and scrutinized the government outweighed national security i Pentagon Papers Case ii Nixon administration attempted to apply prior restraint with NYT for posting the Pentagon Paper 1 Showed no real progress with the war in Vietnam 2 Government lied over 3 administrations e Prior Restraint government tries to get media to not publish something about the government before it39s out f Freedom of speech that39s not protected i Libelslander saying or writing something about someone that isn39t true ii Obscenity words and actions 1 FCC requires that videogames and CDs be labeled as quotnot suitable for childrenquot iii quotFighting words quot any words that might create a public danger 1 Yelling re in a public setting when there is no fire 2 Saying quotbombquot on an airplane iv Commercial speech false advertising products that can harm the public can be regulated g Freedom of speech that39s always protected i Political speech B Power a Power lies in public agenda setting determines what we think about i Political consequence affects elections b H the media sets the public agenda i Editing presents only part of the news 1 Readers receive only the portion of the story that speci c news outlet believes to be the most important 2 Practical necessity to keep it concise ii Emphasis gives the story an angle 1 Emphasize some portion of it 2 Entertain people appeal to audience iii Selection decide which stories get presented on a given day and which stories get ignored C Bias a Priming media makes news hyper attentive to certain issues i Media presents certain stories frequently b Framing process of placing a storypersonpersonality into a certain context i Trying to show a story through a certain lens c Presenting information from a skewed fashion California State Govern ment Monday April 20 2015 1000 AM A Political Culture a Primary Goals of Progressivism i Political Equality ii Direct Citizen Control of the Government 1 Direct democracy 2 Initiative allow citizens to write their own laws 3 Referendum allows citizens to render judgment on a law that has already been passed a Type of initiative 4 Recall allow citizens to remove an elected of cial from of ce before their term is up iii Clean Meritbased Government 1 Civil service protection status b Individuals vs Moralism i Individualism allowing people to do whatever they want ii Moralism enforce laws that contain some common values 1 Environmental protection 2 Public education 0 Diversity i Racialethnic diversity 1 Business that need multilingual employees ii Agriculture 1 California is a major producer of many crops that feed not only the US but also the world B The California State Legislature a Congress make laws and represent citizens i California State Legislature is Congress at the state level b Assembly 80 equivalent to national House of Representatives i 3 2year terms 0 Senate 40 equivalent to national Senate i 2 4year terms d Term limits i Democratic 1 Give interest groups more power ii Doesn39t create much diversity which is what the initial goal was in the rst place iii Political ambition once term limit is up most aim for higher political positions 1 Ulterior motive 2 Not going to stick around long enough for long term effects so they don39t attempt at longterm policies e Primary Function pass budgets C Institutional Characteristics Committee System pretty much the same as federal level but more integrated Party Structure hierarchy Assembly i Speaker of the Assembly extensive agenda setting powers maybe more than in the House 1 Makes ultimate parliamentary rulings instead of independent third party 2 Unilaterally makes committee assignments ii MajorityMinority Leaders 1 Also acts as Whips Senate i President ProTempore leader of the Senate 1 Likely to be longestserving member 2 Agenda setting power 3 Take part in committee assignment not like Speaker D Legislative Process a b c d Introduction by member of Assembly or Senate Summary reading of bill Referred to committee by Rules Committee i Hold hearings deliberate amending etc Second reading and oor consideration i Floor amendments oor debate third and nal reading and oor vote ii Opposite chamber from which it originated Conference Committee i Two versions of the bill are reconciled Goes to Executive Governor to be signed or veto i Veto override applies Local Government and Politics Monday April 27 2015 1000 AM A Cities a Corber Regulate speed limits business licenses code enforcement parks and recreations etc i Practical daytoday functions Ensure people are allowed free public education K12 Maintain police and re department i Most important Street sweeping Local governments are subdivisions rather than a part of the state government Legislative Branch City Council elected Executive Branch Strong Mayor elected i Council Manager type of government which hires a city manager B Counties a 9900quot t39l39 j k Coordinate regional public services where it doesn39t make sense for cities to do it on their own i OCTA public transportation ii Environmental protection air quality management districts 1 Different cities shouldn39t have different environmental protection policies Country law enforcement sheriffs off1ce Run country jails Administer public jails and hospitals Administer limited county welfare systems i Homeless services direct and through nonpro t organizations Keep public records of property marriage and deaths Administer voting elections Provide public services in unincorporated areas that don39t belong to any city i County steps in and provides basic services police re department etc Two Types i General law set of general laws passed by state legislature and are applicable to counties state wide 1 Elected or appointed ii Charter Counties of their own design create their own constitution 1 Required to have something analogous to legislative body 2 Elected Legislative Branch Board of Supervisors Executive Branch small of bureaucracies and special districts C Special Districts small bureaucracy within a county that provides some service US Foreign Policy Monday May 4 2015 958 AM A Set by President without approval from Senate B General agreement about how the US interacts with foreign nations C Presidential Doctrines a Bush Doctrine issued after 91 1 by George W Bush i No such thing as a position on the war on terror ii Other nations much ght terrorism or they risk being attacked b Big issue communism i Most doctrines referred to how anticommunist the US was going to be D Internationalism vs Isolationism a Whether and how much should the US be involved in foreign affairs b Affects many policy areas economic development free trade human rights etc E Multilateralism vs Unilateralism a How should the US be involved in national affairs b Multilateralism US should be involved with other countries to build legitimacy and a come to collective conclusion c Unilateralism US should act independently from other nations F Bretton Woods Conference created international institutions to help developing nations a World Bank economic development b lntemational Monetary Fund give grants to developing countries in order to develop and boost economy c Funded by US and Europe Economic Policy Wednesday May 6 2015 1031 AM A Two Theories of Politics and Economy a Classical Economics government should maintain balanced budget and leave private economy alone i Tax as little as possible ii Capitalist economy will balance out with the number of people who want jobs and employers b Keynesian Economics government should be actively involved in economy i Government should arti cially create demand during recession or depression ii Increase taxes once recession or depression is over to make back debt B Types of Economic Policy a Fiscal Policy budget policy i How is the government going to raise money to do the things that they need to do ii How much is the government going to spend and on what Monetary Policy how much physical money should the Federal Reserve print and put into the economy i More money printed dollar worth less ii Less money printed dollar worth more iii Impacts employment rates and in ation American Political Culture Friday May 8 2015 957 AM A A Brief Sketch a b Hpr g Americans equally suspiciouscritical of government but also dependent upon Constitution Tied to individualistic ideas i Tied to capitalistic free market economy ii Appreciate ef ciency of it Americans tend to be most religious Largely disconnected from its government and community life in general Rugged individualism equality of opportunity Primarily European lineage but is become less common i Becoming ethnically and racially diverse 1 Sometimes have dif culty coexisting peacefully 2 Cause problems for government Somewhat libertarian until it harms someone else B What is it curb 90 9 Culture composite of elements that make a society distinctive WWII 19001920 Baby Boomer Generation 19451965 Generation X 19661980 Generation Y 19812000 Millennials 2000
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