English 90 English 90
Popular in Shakespeare
Popular in Foreign Language
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Date Created: 08/24/15
Characters Hamlet Prince of Denmark Son of Gertrude a melancholy cynical character indecisive and hesitant most of the time but can be impulsive plots to avenge his fathers death by killing his uncle the new king Claudius Calculating ambitious politician hamlet s uncle lust for power but true love for Gertrude Gertrude shallow weak woman who seeks affection and status rather than truth Polonius Lord Chamberlain of Claudius s court father of Laertes and Ophelia bumbling old man likes to please others Horatio Studied at Wittenberg with Hamlet loyal to Hamlet tells his story after his death Ophelia sweet innocent young girl hamlet loves her dependent on men to tell her how to behave Laertes Polonius s son Ophelia s brother passionate and quick to act foil to hamlet Fortinbras Prince of Norway wants to attack Denmark to avenge his father s death at king hamlet s hand another foil for Hamlet The Ghost begs hamlet to avenge his fathers death stuck in real world because Catholic thought that would have him in purgatory is gone Protestantism does not believe in purgatory no longer in same world that he died in catholic world becomes protestant world Rosencrantz and Guildenstern friend of hamlet from Wittenberg summoned to discover why hamlet is acting crazy Osric summons hamlet to Duel Laertes Marcellus and Bernardo officers who rst see the ghost Macbeth Scottish General predicted to be king taken over by these prophesies brave and powerful soldier but not virtuous better ghter than ruler never comfortable in role as the villain Lady Macbeth deeply ambitious lusts for power and status falls victim to guilt after Duncan dies commits suicide because of guilt Witches servants of Hecate ambiguous gender witches use knowledge of the future to play with humans especially Macbeth Banguo noble general who s children will inherit the Scottish throne his ghost haunts Macbeth and reminds him that he did not emulate banquo s reaction to the witches prophesies Duncan king of Scotland murdered by Macbeth death breaks order in the succession of the crown and chaos ensues until his son Malcolm occupies the throne Macduff leader of the crusade to dethrone Macbeth wants vengeance for the murder of his wife and son Malcolm son of Duncan whose seat on the throne restores order Hecate goddess of witchcraft who rules over the witches Othello Christian moor general of Venetian army eloquent powerful respectable his free and open nature is twisted into destructive jealousy by Iago Desdemona daughter of brabanzio pure meek yet determined and self possessed eopes with Othello before the play begins Iago delights in manipulation and destruction passed up for promotion to lieutenant Cassio young inexperienced Florentine soldier devoted to Othello loses his lieutenant position in a drunken brawl on cypress Iago uses him to make Otheo jealous of Cassio and Desdemona s friendship Emilia Iago s wife Desdemona s attendant cynical worldly woman distrustful of Iago Roderigo jealous suitor of Desdemona fooIish gives all his money to Iago to get him to help him win Desdemona s hand agrees to kill Cassio Bianca prostitute who loves Cassio he teases her with talk of marriage Brabanzio selfimportant Venetian senator father of Desdemona Duke of Venice sends Otheo to Cyprus Prospero father of Miranda was the duke of Milan brother usurped power so he had to ee with his daughter on a boat spends 12 years on the island re ning his magic to punish and forgive his enemies Miranda compassionate generous loyal to her father never seen men besides her father and Calliban she has a na39ive and nonjudgmental view of people Ariel Prospero s spirit helper ambiguous gender and physical form rescued from sycorax by Prospero mischievous able to change shapes at will does all of Prospero s bidding Caliban son of dead witch sycorax Prospero s servant believes island belongs to him and that Prospero stole it Ferdinand son of Alonso as pure and nai39ve as Miranda submits to servitude to win her fathers approval Alonso helps Antonio unseat Prospero very aware of the consequences of his actions regrets role in unseating Prospero Antonio Prospero s brother power hungry and foolish persuades Sebastian to kill Alonso Sebastian Alonso s brother cowardly but aggressive easily to persuade to kill his brother Gonzalo od honest ord who helps Prospero and Miranda escape Trincqu and Stephano jester and drunken butler respectively Major Plot Evens gtUUl 39 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 WNH 1 Watchmen see ghost walking in Denmark Ghost speaks to Hamlet asking him to avenge his fathers murder Hamlet enters into melancholy and apparent madness Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are brought by Gertrude to gure out why Hamlet is mad Hamlet and Ophelia ght Actors come to Elsinore and Hamlet uses them to test his uncle s guilt Claudius gets upset at the realistic play storms off but Hamlet cant kill him because he is praying and it would send him to heaven Claudius orders Hamlet to go to England Hamlet confronts his mother and stabs Polonius thinking he is Claudius through the curtain Hamlet is immediately sent to England and ordered to be executed Ophelia goes mad because of her father s death and drowns herself Laertes agrees to duel Hamlet with a poison scepter because he is mad about his family death King poisons goblet just in case hamlet scores rst point Gertrude drinks from goblet and dies immediately Hamlet and Laertes are stabbed by the poison blade Before hamlet dies he kills Claudius by forcing him to drink the goblet Fortinbras comes in and takes the throne Horatio tells of Hamlet s bravery and he is treated as an honorable soldier Three witches foreshadow dark play Duncan hears Macbeth and Banquo are successful in battle Witches tell Macbeth and Banquo that Mac will rule and Banquo s children will hold the throne Men are skeptical until Macbeth is declared Thane of Cawdor Duncan comes to Macbeth s castle for dinner Mac and Lady get Duncan s chamberlains drunk and kill him Mac kills the chamberlains and assumes the throne Duncan s sons ee in fear to England of their lives Macbeth hires murderers to kill Banquo and his son Fleance escapes Banquo s ghost haunts Macbeth and the people oppose his kingship Macbeth seeks council with the witches and they boost his ego He sends for Macduff s family to be killed Macduff and Malcolm raise army and head to kill Macbeth Lady Macbeth is stricken with grief sleepwalking guilt and kills herself Macbeth becomes depressed In battle Macduff kills Macbeth and Malcolm takes the throne Desdemona has married Othello even though Iago promised to help Roderigo with her if he gave him all his money 2 They tell Brabanzio that Othello and Desdemona have eloped sends of cers to nd Othello 3 Cassio asks Othello to return to help with the Turkish invasion of Cypress 4 Brabanzio accuses Othello of stealing his daughter with witchcraft infront of senate and duke 5 Othello says he won her heart with stories of his travels she con rms 6 Everyone goes to Cyprus and Turkish eet is shipwrecked 7 lago convinces Roderigo to kill Cassio gets Cassio drunk loses his lieutenant position 8 lago convinces Cassio to beg Desdemona to speak well of him to Othello 9 lago and Othello return to see the two together lago makes Othello think she is cheating 10 Emilia steals Desdemona s handkerchief lago puts it in Cassio s room 11 Cassio gives the Handkerchief to Bianca 12 Othello overhears Cassio talking to lago about Bianca and thinks its about Desdemona 13 Othello gets a letter saying he should return to Venice and Cassio would replace him in Cyprus he hits Desdemona 14 Emilia changes the bed sheets to the wedding bed sheets 15 He tells her to wait in bed that night 16 Roderigo tries to kill Cassio Cassio hurts rod lago wounds Cassio and runs away coming back to kill Roderigo 17 Othello smothers Desdemona in bed but Emilia walks in on it 18 Emilia realizes lago has concocted it all but after she tells lago kills her 19 Othello is sad he tries to kill lago fails and kills himself 20 lago is executed Storm strikes ship Miranda begs for Prospero to help the men Prospero tells Miranda about her past They survived the shipwreck because Gonzalo left them supplies and Prospero s magic books Prospero raises tempest to make things right with his enemies Everyone in the shipwreck arrives to the island safely but in small split up groups Ariel leads Ferdinand to Miranda and they fall in love Antonio and Sebastian consider killing their sleeping comrades mainly Alonso so Sebastian can take the crown 9 Everyone wakes up and they lie about being attacked by lions gtUUl 39 P P CDI 10 Caliban Trinculo and Stephano drink together 11 Miranda proposes to Ferdinand 12 Ariel impersonates stephano s voice and gets them to ght 13 Caliban plots to kill Prospero l Ariel overhears 14 Ariel calls forth spirits to preform a masque for the wedded couple 15 Prospero stops party to try and stop his murder 16 Ariel rounds up everybody Prospero confronts them for kicking him off the throne and forgives them 17 At Prospero s request Caliban is released from slavery 18 All plan to return to Italy Prospero returned to his dukedom in Milan 19 He sets Ariel free after making sure the waters are safe Pervading Themes Transitions Titus wants to transition from Virtus to Civitas change of heart as transition in midsummer transition from Theseus taking over Hippolyta to wooing her transition of political power in hamlet and Macbeth lady mac transitions from vicious to guilty Prospero transitions from ruthless ruler to a forgiving person Revenge when Titus bakes Tamora s sons into pies rape of Lavinia hamlet killing Claudius to avenge his father s death Fortinbras coming to attack Denmark to avenge father acts on revengeful feelings Othering Lavinia othered because she is a weak woman shylock as a dog or beast in merchant making hamlet seem crazy Jew and homosexual bad breeding othered Ophelia because she was a weak woman in hamlet Othello is othered because of his skin coor using witchcraft because he black Desdemona seen as an object nearly turns into her handkerchief Othering cannibalsCalliban in the Tempest Emulation mimic or parody of imitation that seeks to improve or exaggerate England emulates Rome Shakespeare emulates all genres Titus is the bloodiest tragedy midsummer is the most ridiculous comedy Henry the fourth emulates real history but uses fake characters women emulate men in trial scene of merchant when men chase women in midsummer Surrogate Play Writes Aaron is villainous and controlling manipulates others to do his evil Puck uses magic to manipulate character s feelings and manipulate audience into believing play is as imsy as a dream Portia manipulates the law and controls outcome of the trial and Antonio s life also comes from Belmont to control life in Venice she uses her language to alter perception like a play write uses words to shape new world Macbeth tries to control his own fate by killing those in his way Witches give Macbeth the means to try to control his destiny lago manipulates other characters into believing suspicion Prospero Terminology 0 Spanish Tragedy 1587 the original revenge play by Thomas Kyd PharmakosScapegoat 0 Someone has to cross a line to de ne the line 0 Macbeth crossed line with murdering Duncan to de ne where the line between sane and insane is Raptus bride theft 0 Rape or rapture VirtusCivitas 0 World of war lead by military leaders vs world of peace led by political and social leaders vir man patriarchy war Titus wants to transition but is stuck Theseus wants to conquer Hippolyta but woo her in a different key hotspur is tuck in Virtus Virgin whore syndrome women are either whores or pure 0 Women are one or the other extremes of sexual morality o Personi ed in Ophelia and Gertrude o Hamlet has trouble seeing his mother having sexual desires whore o Liminality a state of being in between thing like standing in a doorway 0 Play starts at midnight between days Ghost is inbetween heaven and hell purgatory Transition between Elizabeth and James Geography of war right on border Crossing of borders asking for permission to cross borders being sent across the border or sea Transition from happy comedic plays to more serious dark tragic plays More situational plays turn into more personal plays inside of characters heads 0 More claustrophobic plays stuck inside characters heads 0 Objective Correlative show inner emotion with external even or object o Coined by TS Eliot thinks hamlet is a bad play because it doesn t have an object to show Hamlet s mental state 0 Shakespeare purposefully left this out o Gives a psychological lack of clarity Stichomythia quick exchanges between characters 0 Hamlet starts with this pattern 0 Signals crisis and uncertainty often questions Contemptus Mundi contempt for the world 0 Hamlet s attitude toward pretty much everything 0 He sees the world as post lapsarian Hortus Conclusis enclosed garden prelapsarian world 0 De nitely a utopian place but can be claustrophobic 0 Where king is killed with poison in his ear 0 Chaos can ensue quickly in an enclosed space Stuttiferas Navis sending mentally ill people to the sea quotship of foolsquot o The sea is crazy and hectic sending crazy people to their origin a place they will t in o If the ship returns or they make it to land proof they are not insane o If die at sea the ocean is taking back its chaos o Hamlet comes back after being sent to sea 0 Etre quotto bequot in french 0 Not about living or dying o A broader question on how to live to matter or to not matter 0 Very ambiguous verb 0000 O 0 To be or not to b speech is a Contemptus mundi speech contempt for the world Wittenberg where hamlet and Horatio went to school 0 Seat of Protestantism 0 Where 95 theses on door of church by martin Luther 0 Means Horatio and hamlet received more factual realistic education rather than fantastical magical Catholicism Chiasma crossing points of view switching of roles 0 Two characters start off in very different places and gradually switch mindsets 0 Mac and Lady Mac she is aggressive and vicious he is hesitant by the end of the play mac has lost control and he is violet and she is riddled with guilt 0 Whole court scene switches point of view from shyock is right to Antonio gets all his money Demonologie written byJames l 0 Written about witchcraft 0 Shows parallels between James and Macbeth 0 Both are so willing to believe in witchcraft susceptible to manipulation 0 Theater is magical and manipulating Shakespeare is able create an entire play that is untrue or deceiving Bassilicon Doron written byJames l o quotKineg giftquot 0 Note to his son to not practice witchcraft Absolutism idea that king should be able to control nobles merchants and nobles 0 Should be able to dissolve parliament if they do not agree with him o If he has control over all he is absolute ruler 0 Duncan is nearly opposite always asking questions feminine line endings Gun Powder Plot of 1605 decided to blow up parliament 0 Guy Fox wants Catholicism back in England 0 Day parliament met puts lots of dynamite under parliament Equivocation unsure going back and forth ip op uncertainty 0 quotFair is foul and foul is fairquot linguistic equivocation 0 Political equivocation Elizabeth to James gunpowder plot everyone supported Elizabeth and now no one supports James 0 Everything is confusing and not coherent women witches with beards king who is feminine o Iago always uses equivocation never directly says things only hints many un nished sentences that he lets Othello nish his sentences Leaky vessel usually blood sometimes about menstruation 0 When Duncan died he bled a lot he leaked words as he was dying 0 Women bleed leaky vessel 0 Lady Macbeth asks for thicker blood to stop her own bleeding Transmogrify transformation to the uglier or darker side of things 0 From Elizabeth to James 0 Mac in the rst part of the play to the last part he becomes darker more cynical more ruthless 0 Weird sisters transmogrifying into men 0 Duncan transmogrifying into a woman Schadenfrede taking pleasure in others pain 0 lago s attitude on life maybe Aaron as well quotA Short view of Tragedyquot written by Thomas Rymer o Criticizes Othello for having all of the drama revolve around the handkerchief Travel Narrative story of a new different land popular genre 0 This time s obsession with discovery of new world traveling abroad 0 Exotic places are seductive o Foreigners are not human Asians are magical monsters in the middle east abroad is a fantastic place 0 Black people are from someplace else exotic and sexy Domestic Tragedy all tragedy happens at home 0 Othello is considered domestic tragedy 0 When Turkish eet sunk the play is no longer about war but is about individual characters lives and integrations 0 Play moves from Venice to cypress domestic tragedies occur in con ned place like this island 0 ln merchant when move to Venice to Belmont Heroic Tragedy nation and state being threatened o Tragedy happens widely to whole society 0 Titus Andronicus is a heroic tragedy UtopiaDystopia a perfect world quotno placequot 0 Book written by Thomas more 0 Gonzalo borrows this negative de nition to de ne his perfect world 0 Gonzalo s utopia is the island quotOf the Cannibalsquot 0 Written by Michel de Montaigne o Arguing no correlation between difference and inferiority Music of the Spheres theory that the universe sounds like a symphony o In an ideal world planets would all align and the universe would make a harmony 0 Instead of creating and fabricating worlds calliban says just listen to the world prelapsarian world before Prospero and everyone showed up 0 Argues nature over art from time to time you can still hear it but hardly Ariel s fake music and performances drowns it out Romance conglomerate genre 0 Mixture of tragedy comedy reality fantasy lntertextuality literature appearing in literature 0 Reference between texts Hamlet Only Shakespeare play where the protagonist is in every scene or every scene is about him Written in 1600 o Era of transition 0 Discussion of insigni cance was profound Play is about protagonist who discovers himself to be insigni cant 0 Take character who believes he is not a her and make him into a hero 0 He becomes famous for believing he is insigni cant A lot of this play takes place on the margin 0 Subtle murmurings from a character who believes he does not belong on center stage 0 Hamlet rst speaks as an aside 0 We overhear his thoughts sets the tone for this marginal character quotTheater as private spacequot moves inside of theater 0 Not inside of Denmark not about nationalism 0 Play is about how hamlet processes everything 0 During this time theater is getting popularbigl this makes it smaller more internal This is a play of transitions 0 1603 Elizabeth dies and James comes to the throne Shakespeare s company becomes all the kings men underJames World of comedy under Elizabeth turns to a world of tragedy under James The graveyard scene represents the death of tragedy o Catholicismlerotestantism Purgatoryno purgatory Ghost in hamlet dies in a world of purgatory but comes back into a protestant world without purgatory Protestantism doesn t believe in him 0 Play is liminal stuck in transition 0 Elizabeth was so old needed help walking 0 England realized they were not powerful little engine that couldn t in contrast to the Spanish armada Looking toward darker days Hamnet Shakespeare s son who died a year before 0 Transition for Shakespeare as well 0 This triggers him to go onto write mega hit after mega hit 0 Earlier plays are about concepts and after plays are about speci c people not about nationalism but more bout internal psyche TS Eliot calls Hamlet a failure because it lacks an objective correlative 0 Only way to show emotion on stage is through a physical object External stimulus to call up emotion to portray it o Hamlet has no reason to be emotional because no external stimulus making him anxious Shakespeare is doing this on purpose 0 He boldly creates a character with a problem that not even Shakespeare knows about This makes the play more real It is a play to explore limitations in understanding other people We are not all knowing just like hamlet No one has power or is a hero CLR James was a famous essayist and post coonia writer 0 Hamlet is the center drama of this century 0 Making transitions from world about the world to world about individual Play opens with stichomythia to signal a time of crisis 0 Nearly opens with the climax o Opens with truncated line 0 Opens with a question and spondee 0 Everyone is anxious Wittenberg is Hamlets school 0 Where the printing press was invented 0 Where 95 theses was posted seat of Protestantism o Horatio doesn t believe in the ghost because he comes from a protestant place and they do not believe in ghosts o This insists that protestants do not have all the answers not and Catholics did not have all the answers before Playwright again saying I don t have all the answers We cannot explain the world we live in How do you use the stage to explain inner turmoil 0 Drama that is happening is not on the stage but is in his head Nothing the audience can see existentialism How do we as people share our own inner reality Are we just acting The way we dress is an attempt to express our inner world that fails Language isn t trust it is just the best way we have to communicate truths we know Play is about discovering alienation and inability to communicate 0 We don t live in an external world we live in an internal world Hamlets rst soliloquy shows his agony o Asks if he could just disappear o Wants a state of nonexistence 0 Terri ed of his own existence and wants to disappear o Is also terri ed of disappearing Hamlet wipes away everything he knows besides his ghost encounter o Throws away protestant teaching 0 Old knowledge doesn t apply 0 0 00000 o What he knows doesn t matter In his 3rd soliloquies Hamlet recognizes he is alone 0 He says actors can do all their acting and complaining and screaming but what about him 0 He is conscious of his aoneness and the alienation we all experience 0 Can use super ciality to communicate unhappiness but how does he communicate inner turmoil and malaise Cant communicate person within quotTo be or not to bequot speech To exist or not to exist NOT to live or to die This is more complex it is about something not in your control One can be dead and exists but also alive and not exist Sense of misery keeps us in check Life sucks but maybe death is worse 0 He speaks of his contempt for the world lndividuated subjectivity transition to plays about individuals 0 BUT hamlet never once says I in a speech about himself Play is about reality and existence of the self but at the climax of the play there is no individuation o No self at the climax o In a play about hamlet he is not at the climax Profoundness of discovering yourself is discovering insigni cance 0 You have no control over your existence 0 Do you exist or not It doesn t matter o Is existence related to how much we matter Women are dealt with differently now 0 ln Elizabethan plays if women fucked up they got married 0 ln Jacobean plays if women fuck up they get killed 0 Ophelia breeder of sin quotGet thee to a nunneryquot o A real nunnery or a whorehouse Liminal 0 He cannot decide whether he thinks Ophelia is a virgin or a whore It was against the law to kill someone who was mad or not mentally stable 0 ln revenge tragedy people pretend to be mad 0 Claudius suspects hamlet isn t mad so he wants to kill him Graveyard scene for grave digger death is a profession o Hamlet wonders what is life what is death what is morality o Hamlet struggles with these questions but the gravedigger just knows o Hamlet never solves anything he just stops thinking about it quotPoor yorkquot lfellow of in nite jest 0 Death of comic life death of clown o No more comedy York becomes a sign of death 0 Hamlet stares death in the face OOOO We each travel the circle of life Death is the great equalizer No way to know what the mysteries of life are all we can do is act Don t get stuck in a world of Liminality 0 Let it go move on and claim your own subjectivity Play leaves world as a world full of injustice 0 Who we are doesn t matter unless it ts the world we live in Macbeth 0000 o This is an urgent play constantly in a state of panic 0 Only think about action after it has happened 0 First fully Jacobean play 0 Typical for the age 0 Man centered story 0 Tragedy marked by a world of blood 0 Blood in earlier plays was a symbol of procreation 0 Now is a sign of mortality and death 0 Same imagery from earlier plays comes back but in a violent way Critique ofjames l and his witchcraft o Brought a mirror to re ect James and make it look like he is on stage during the march of the kings 0 Made to look as though Banquo was a descendant ofjames o Leaked document so people in England could see what was coming when Elizabeth dies 0 Tried to say he was the father of his people in attempt to copy Elizabeth She did all her putting to death as a maternal gure She was married to England and all her subjects were her children 0 james said he was quota little god on earthquot and made subjects dislike him 0 james says avoid studying witchcraft 0 Gave him very dangerous powers 0 james is from Scotland 0 quotBassilicon Doronquot is a gift to my son and it is a gift to be king Also says to hell with the parliament church and merchant class lf parliament gets in the way dissolve them Always look like you re religious and working with the church but if they don t do what you want say you are the state and do not need them lf merchants piss you off raise taxes on imports and exports then bring in your own goods to destroy them 0 Play opens with witches in a very short strange scene 0 Open the rst scene with a question and stichomythia and shortened lines o Gives the scene a sense of panic and urgency 0 Thunder and lightning and night time can now be done on stage o The sister may represent the fates bearded women Witches in Shakespeare s days tended to be beyond childbearing years 0 They had outlived their cultural usefulness o What do we do with women who have no function Accuse them of witchcraft Men with beards usually play men but here they play women 0 Breaking gender roles o Postmenopausal womenbegin to grow facial hairwitches 0 Play about blood witches are women who have stopped bleeding Up until Act scene 5 every scene opens with a question 0 First 7 scenes go witches king witches king lady mac king Macbeth o lmplying Macbeth and Lady are witches Duncan needs to die 0 He was a monarch with soldiers at war and should speak in an imperative tone giving orders and commands 0 Yet he asks many questions implies inefficient monarch 0 Comments on the beauty of the castle when in fact he should be focused on its strength and ability to protect him 0 Puts absolute trust in the thane of Cawdor but a king should not put absolute trust in anyone Macbeth rhymes with death 0 Greet Macbeth with death 0 He will get the same fate as the previous than of Cawdor 0 quotHail Macbethquot sounds like hell Macbeth 0 Mac is stepping into hell Mac thinks no one can kill him because woods do not move and no one is not born from a woman First time we meet lady Macbeth she is reading a letter from Macbeth 0 Speaking Macbeth s words the words of a man 0 Emulates repressiveness of masculinity in the play 0 ln Jacobean world lots of masculinity Lady Macduff is a feminine presence but dies immediately 0 Femininity cannot survey in this world 0 Only masculine ruthless people survive Lady Mac s soliloquy begs the spirits to make her come 0 She is very sexual o Breasts quotunsex mequot o Ends with a spondee about to climax but has the power to stop it Ability to be in charge 0 Asks to stop bleeding to stop being a woman This is Shakespeare s global warming play 0 There is something unstable in the environment 0 Natural world is unstable 0 Not supernatural raging storm barren landscape quotTo do more is to be nonequot 0 Mac s response to being called not a man 0 There is a limit to how much you can do as a man before you become a beast 0 At what point do you draw the line of manliness 0 We never know what the boundaries are until someone crosses it o MacbethPharmakos he becomes a scapegoat Jacobean plays have lots of disillusionment 0 Mac thinks he owns the play but he has a growing disillusionment o Thinks he is invincible 0 He speaks of the quickness of time if he could just go and kill everybody faster than evidence could accumulate faster than god could blink o No breath in this speech rushed lapse of time without breath World is in a scene of panic 0 Can only survive if you are super man 0 Lady mac says be a man to keep Macbeth alive 0 She says screw conscience do whatever the fuck you want 0 Then goes crazy with guilt and commits suicide Mac starts the play like a meek person 0 Doesn t know if he wants to murder 0 But then becomes ruthless Act 2 scene 3 Porter scene 0 First knock knock joke 0 Lets characters into the castle opens gates of hell 0 Knocking point is the rst time in the play where the audience can take a breath o Conscious knocking Morality coming in First chance to get out of Macbeth s mind Banquo is killed off and almost immediately comes back as a ghost Malcolm and Macduff are godlike 0 Good people but very boring Act 5 scene 1 is a pornographic scene of Lady Mac sleepwalking 0 Out damn spot Leaky vessel Duncan 0 Passively leaks blood rather than bleeding 0 The old man has so much blood menstruating 0 Blood on lady mac s hands is not only guilt from Duncan s murder but from menstruation 0 She is weak and continues to bleed women brought Adam to fall in Eden Her blood is a punishment from god 0 Women who bleed are weak 0 No superwoman bleeds 0 Women cannot survive in this play 0 Death of Macbeth draws the line of what the limit of masculine force is Othello Iago enjoys the downfall of others 0 We think this is bad yet the audience is taking pleasure from the play about other people s pain Iago is the most ethical character 0 The only character with a set of moral principles he sticks to 0 He values himself only 0 Everyone else s motivations and priorities shift lots 0 Set in Venice multicultural capital of the west 0 Central for trade 0 Brought in generals from the outside so that when general got lots of power he could not take over Venice government with help from people cause they wouldn t rally around a foreigner If he lost the war it wont be a venetian general s fault 0 Venice is a stronghold in the west Ottoman empire world come and destroy Christian empire Venice and Cyprus split east and west Cyprus was always switching hands 0 Shakespeare takes Aaron evil and black and turns him into Othello 0 Good wholesome general 0 Now the evil man is white 0 Shakespeare moves the black character from the edge of the paining into bed with the white woman 0 Othello is the most positive dynamic black character until Oronoco by Aphra Behn Novella in 1688 o Often the black character on stage was a mercenary soldier evil character or hyper sexual Blacks were considered super smart This was how they did bad thingsable to outwit the white man Othello shows how Shakespeare manipulates stereotypes o Othello doesn t want to see swords or any phallic symbols Does he have sex with his wife or is he afraid of the stereotype pertaining to his marriage 0 People wanted to colonize Africa but didn t want to be black 0 Where did blacks come from o Moses s son Ham saw his dad naked and got turned black as a punishment 0 Blacks in Africa put chemicals on their skin for rituals stick to skin and turn them black 0 Blacks are so sexual and so hot that when they have sex they burn the child 0 O Othello was often whitewashed 0 Had him played by an Arab or Italian or white man with a tan When the play begins we have already missed the scene of Othello and Desdemona eloping Iago chooses Cassio to play out his narrative because he is not venetian 0 He is Florentine o Venetians are traders merchants o Florentines are all about art Florence is the center of humanism o Cassio is more sophisticated than everyone else Desdemona is the best white woman in town and Cassio is the best white man 0 When Iago says they are having an affair it makes sense 0 Roderigo is a typical venetian and is after her Othello is not aware of Florentine culture 0 When Cassio holds her hand he is not irting but Othello doesn t know that Iago takes language from hamlet and makes it better 0 He shows he is better than all other Shakespeare characters 0 He is good at manipulating everything everyone even his own creator 0 quotI am not what I amquot Moses says quotI am what I amquot when he tries to get his people out of Egypt 0 Iago takes gods words and perverts them 0 He is saying you cannot see who he actually is Interracial sex is seen as the worst thing possible 0 Compared to bestiality incest satanic sex adultery Play is a domestic tragedy not a great tragedy o No real war takes place 0 All the ghting is intimate and at home Duke wont throw Othello in jail because he wants him in Cyprus ghting 0 quotYour son in law is far more fair than blackquot 0 Actors were black on the outside and white on the inside Theater as alternative space 0 Allowed to travel in these plays 0 Travel to places different than how English usually think of themselves 0 Foreign places foreign state of mind 0 Takes audience to new experiences Othello is a claustrophobic play 0 Confined when Iago is watching Cassio and Desdemona 0 Lots of spying from hidden places 0 We are all spying on the black man and the white woman 0 Theater becomes bedchamber private space Travel into intimate space that is alternative Lets audience see a relationship they otherwise would not see Othello is about storytelling ore than exotic novels 0 He does not tell us about his adventures he tells us about storytelling Desdemona devours his discourse with her ear 0 quotThis is the only witchcraft I have usedquot 0 Doesn t mean to say this seduced her through the ear no witchcraft 0 Duke is seduced by his speech as well 0 Audience is seduced intimate space 0 Language has the power to seduce Desdemona is innocent and asexual to her father but highly sexualized to Othello Handkerchief is a white cloth spotted with strawberries 0 Symbol of wedding bed sheets spotted with blood Them doing it haunts the whole play Othello and Desdemona sex is taboo but always hinted at Wedding bed sheets show up all over the play Throwing around the handkerchief trivializes their marriage Giving away sacred objects just wiy niy o Handkerchief comes from secret sens Desdemona and Othello never get to have sex 0 Night when Othello needs to go ght off the Turks o On cypress 0 Night where Cassio gets drunk quotGive me ocuar proofquot 0 Audience is there for the ocular proof of a black man and a white woman Cannot prove innocence can only prove guilt 0 Can only look for more evidence Otheo often says what he doesn t mean to say Asks for proof of her disloyalty Iago tells of dream Cassio has Dream of having sex with Desdemona Image that is presented is homosexual scene of Cassio and Iago In order to make his point Iago would let himself be in a sexual scene with a man When the audience nally gets to see a black man in bed with a white woman it is not Othello and Desdemona having sex it is when Othello kills her 0 Passion between black man and white woman can only climax with death 0 They cannot have a romantic relationship 0 Sexual horror and sexual death 0 Theater has allowed us to see this type of cultural fantasy without traveling 00000 00000 The Tempest Generally thought of as Shakespeare s ast play 0 His farewell to the theater 0 Group of four plays at the end of his career after hard hitting tragedies are romances Romances are a compilation of comedy tragedy realism fantasy all in one o Pericles semiline winters tale the tempest Characters can die in a comedic plot Don t need romantic couple in a romance Romance is Latin root meaning storytelling or novel Flow between different genres with no de nite direction This play takes a cynical view of Shakespeare s career 0 Reduces everything to storytelling o Struggle between arti ce and nature 0 No way to get out of the theater 0 Wants to end his career with all the world a stage 0 Everything in this play is already covered Totally exhausted the theater Play about tyranny 0 Play as apolitical play This is Shakespeare s most American play Criticism of the new world Torture native Americans Could be set in Bermuda Allegory of the artist 0 James looks like Prospero o Fantasies of being an absolute ruler Shakespeare and James l are butting heads 0 Shakespeare as an artist 0 Fight between the stage and the state 0 This play asks what the difference between an artist creating a world than a monarch controlling a world 0 Who has more power 0 James who controls the state or will who controls our imagination on the stage 0 Clash of artist and monarch Shakespeare looks in the mirror and sees the person he has been ghting is so much like himself 0 Clash between art and nature 0 Contrast and contest which is better Opening of the play is a storm scene 0 Play is named and called a big storm 0 Storm controls the hole play 0 Tempest disorienting and unsettling 0 Sets up tempest with an aristocracy Moments of urgency strip away royalty and social status 0 We all are human life just the same 0 Island becomes a state of emergency O 0000 o No one has social constraints we only have who we are 0 Gets rid of roles we play 0 Strips theater of theater What power does man have in the face of nature 0 King is arti ce and cannot overpower nature 0 The opening scene was not nature storm was created by Ariel 0 You think it is nature but it is not 0 They manipulate the audience they re in the theater trying to give you truth but theater cannot give reality theater only yields more theater The Tempest Is one of two plays that Shakespeare did not quotplagiarizequot 0 His own original work Act 2 scene 1 quotyet he would be king on itquot 0 Description of perfect world 0 No way to have a perfect world without a tyrant Gonzalo offers up utopia his perfect world 0 Describes it with what he wouldn t do quotno placequot Barbarism is relative 0 Larger story is about how we communicate across our differences 0 Our imaginations are profoundly limited 0 Play is about how we respond to the trivial o Prospero can nally live out his fantasies Ariel is ethereal and Calliban is sub human 0 Ariel is often played as a woman and is always super white 0 Calliban is black If we lived in a prelapsarian world a perfect world then all the planets would align and you would be able to her the symphony of the universe music of the spheres 0 Doesn t sound like this because we are in a post lapsarian world 0 Island becomes prelapsarian The island is socially engineered for a perfect world Calliban says no 0 All you have to o is shut up and listen 0 You can talk yourself into a perfect world or you can just experience the world that you are in Shakespeare creates perfect world after perfect world Shakespeare humanizes Calliban by giving him dreams Shakespeare has become Prospero 0 Sent his time talking and writing trying to create a perfect world Prospero begins to give over rough magic for forgiveness 0 Shakespeare gives over his pen in this last play Calliban acknowledges his thing of darkness 0 Discovering ones self 0 The thing someone has been pushing up against for so long is what is so deeply rooted in them We can never experience someone else s interiority o Cant know their consciousness only our own 0 No one can see ours very lonely life to live Shakespeare sees everyone as a group of actors o No real signi cance as people Hamlet knows he is nothing Macbeth s wife dies he realizes he is no superman Othello kills Desdemona and gets depressed tempest drowns dark magic 0 Goes back to normal no catharsis Prospero s epilogue is an autobiographical goodbye from Will 0 His parting with the theater Characters Titus General of Rome Father of Lavinia and Lucius manly man Tamora Queen of the Goths mother of Alarbus Chiron and Demetrius ruthless Aaron Tamora s lover catalyst for all evil in the play Lavinia Only daughter of Titus engaged to Bassianus brutally raped and mutilated Marcus Roman Tribune brother of Titus commits no crimes in play voice of reason Saturninus Eldest son of late emperor chooses Tamora as empress Bassianus Saturninus s younger brother murdered by Tamora s sons Lucius Titus s only surviving son banished for trying to free his captive brothers leads army of Goths against Rome Alarbus Chiron and Demetrius Goth princes sons of Tamora rape and mutilate Lavinia murder Bassianus killed by Titus Puck Robin Goodfellow Oberon s servant mischievous plays pranks Oberon King of the fairies wants changeling boy Titania Queen of the fairies falls in love with bottom Lysander in love with Hermia wants to elope Demetrius betrothed to Hermia falls in love with Helena Hermia Egeus s daughter in love with Lysander Helena in love with Demetrius Egeus Hermia s father complains to Theseus about Hermia Theseus Duke of Athens engaged to Hippolyta removed from dreamlike world Hippolyta Queen of the Amazons engaged to Theseus Nick Bottom Weaver plays Pyramus gets the head of an ass from puck chills with Titania Peter Quince Carpenter leader of rude mechanicals Francis Flute bellows mender plays Thisbe Robin Starveling tailor plays Thisbe s mother and moonshine Tom Snout tinker Pyramus s father wall Snug joiner lion Peaseblossom Cobweb Mote and Mustardseed Titanic s fairy Helpers Henry IV King of England stole throne from Richard II disappointed in prince harry Prince Harry King s son Hal Harry hangs with highwaymen but plans to reform himself Hotspur son of earl of Northumberland Henry Percy erce in battle and hasty SirJohn Falstaff fat old man hangs with Hal likes criminal actions like stealing Earl of Westmorland ally of King henry Lord John of Lancaster son of king henry wise and valiant in battle Thomas Percv Earl of Worchester Hotspur s uncle mastermind behind Percy rebellion Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland hotspur s father doesn t bring his troops to battle of Shrewsbury Mortimer Earl of March had strong claim to throne before henry took it Owen Glendower leader of welsh rebels joins Percy s in rebellion against king henry Archibald Earl of Douglas leader of Scottish rebels against king henry Sir Richard Vernon ally of earl of Worchester The Archbishop of York conspires with Percy s Ned Poins Bardolph and Peto criminals and highwaymen friends of Falstaff and Hal Gadshill another highwayman and fnend Mistress Quickly bartender at boar s head tavern Shylock Jewish moneylender hates Christians Portia wealthy heiress from Belmont looking for a husband argues Antonio s case in Venice Antonio merchant who is in love with Bassanio promises 1 lb of esh to shylock if he cannot pay back his loan for Bassanio Bassanio friend of Antonio wants to woo Portia marries Portia Gratiano friend of Bassanio who accompanies him to Belmont marries Nerissa lessica Shylock s daughter in love with Lorenzo elopes with him Lorenzo friend of Bassanio in love with Jessica Nerissa Portia s ladyinwaiting marries Gratiano disguises as law clerk with Portia Lancelot Gobbo Bassano s servant after leaving Shylock s service Prince of Morocco Black prince who woos Portia picks golden chest Prince of Arragon Spanish nobleman who woos Portia picks silver chest Salario friend of Antonio escorts Jessica and Lorenzo to Belmont Solarino same as Salario The Duke of Venice presides over Antonio s trial Old Gobbo Lancelot s father servant in Venice Tubal friend of shylock Balthazar Portia s servant Portia pretends to be Balthazar at the trial Major Plot Events Titus returns from war with prisoners Sacri ces Alarbus Tamora is made empress by Saturninus He turns down the crown Chiron and Demetrius kill Bassianus and rape Lavinia Lucius pulls Goths into an army to attack Rome to overthrow Saturninus Tamora revenge rape and murder goes to Titus to ask for peace feast between Saturninus and Lucius 8 Titus kills sons and bakes them into pies 9 Titus kills Tamora and Lavinia 10 Saturninus kills Titus and Lucius kills Saturninus 11 Aaron is buried to the chest and left to starve FP P FP NE Theseus and Hippolyta talk about wedding Egeus comes in complaining about Hermia Hermia and Lysander plan to escape to his aunts house Tell Helena their plan and then she tells Demetrius follow them into the woods Oberon and Titania ght over changeling boy Oberon sends puck to nd ower for Titania and Demetrius s eyes Rude Mechanicals agree to meet in the woods to rehearse Puts it on Lysander s eyes and he loves Helena puts on Demetrius also loves Helena Helena believes she s being mocked by them 0 Titania wakes up and falls in love with bottom who was turned into an ass by Puck 11 Puck puts the potion on Lysander so he falls in love with Hermia 12 Theseus nds them and they go off to be married 13 Titania wakes up with antidote and forgives Oberon they agree to bless the wedding 14 Rude mechanicals put on their play Uquot FWN 0 Hotspur refuses to give up POW from the civil war Hal sits in the bar with Falstaff and friends talking about robbing people Hal plans to become a better person to improve the people s perception of him 4 Poins convinces Falstaff and friends to rob some travelers then Hal and Poins rob them Hotspur details why the Percy s are unhappy Percy s tell Hal of how they plan to overthrow king Henry WNH nuI 7 Men go back to tavern and messenger comes for Hal to meet with his father 8 King Henry expresses his disappointment in Hal who plans to reform and beat hotspur 9 Hal convinces tavern friends to ght in King Henry s army 10 At the battle of Shrewsbury Hal saves Henry kills hotspur 11 Henry sends Hal s army to suppress rebel forces Antonio is sad about being gay Bassanio asks for moneycredit to go to Belmont to court Portia Nerissa and Portia make fun of her suitors Antonio and Bassanio visit Shylock and agree on a pound of esh instead of interest 5 Lancelot Gobbo plans to escape from shylock while Jessica plans to eope with Lorenzo 6 Bassanio and Gratiano go to Belmont to woo Portia 7 Jessica escapes with Lorenzo 8 Prince of Morocco chooses gold casket 9 Shylock gures out Jessica has escaped and that Antonio s ships might not gtUUl 39 return 10 Prince of Arragon chooses the silver casket 11 Bassanio chooses lead casket 12 Gratiano wants to marry Nerissa 13 Portia gives Bassanio a promise ring 14 Bassanio and Gratiano go back to Venice to save Antonio 15 Nerissa and Portia plan to go to Venice as men 16 A trial is called to decide Antonio s fate 17 Balthazar says shylock is right but he cant have any blood if he cant follow the agreement exactly he should get nothing but he is found conspiring against a venetian so he must give half of his property to the state 18 Antonio agrees to not take all of shylocks wealth if he converts to Christianity and promises to give all of his wealth to Jessica and Lorenzo after he dies 19 Bassanio gives ring to Balthazar Gratiano gives ring to clerk 20 Back in Belmont wives accuse husbands of giving rings to other women 21 They reveal that they were the men in Venice 22 Jessica and Lorenzo learn of their inheritance Pervading Themes Emulation mimic or parody of imitation that seeks to improve or exaggerate England emulates Rome Shakespeare emulates all genres VirtusHCivitas world of war lead by military leaders vs world of peace led by political and social leaders vir man patriarchy war Titus wants to transition but is stuck Theseus wants to conquer Hippolyta but woo her in a different key hotspur is tuck in Virtus Metatheater theater about theater recognizes itself as a play pyramis and thisbe puck comments about how all plays are arti cial Hal and Falstaff roleplaying courtroom in merchant is theatrical with characters laws come out of no where to solve everything like the love potion in midsummer solves everything Dream World vs Real World Belmont and Venice tavern and royal court woods and Athens Virtus and Civitas lew vs Homosexual bad breeding two persecuted groups tied together non reproductive sex what Venice is like for low totem people vs what Venice is like for nobleman Characters as tools of the Plot Terminology 1588 Spanish Armada Phillip ll wanted to marry Elizabeth 0 He was catholic but England was protestant 0 He puts together Spanish eet to take thrown by force 0 England somehow wins and begins English nationalism in early 15905 0 England fantasizes about becoming the next roman empire Pharmakos scapegoat 0 Invite goat into community put problems on goat love goat then sacri ce goat to get ride of community problems Saturnalia debauchery hectic period of chaos 0 With Saturninus in charge entering into a time of chaos Raptus rape or rapture o Literally means bride theft Tragos quotgoat songquot Etymology going back to the root of a word 0 Also food reference end of play feast turns to perverse comedy Ekphrasis picture inside a poempicture inside a picture 0 lntertextuality text within a text 0 Midsummer reference to festival on June 23rd St john the Baptist feast on the 24th 0 Everyone quotlets it all hang outquot 0 Carnival atmosphere 0 Pre lapsarian before fall before Adam and eve eat the forbidden fruit 0 Post lapsarian after fall after Adam and eve eat the forbidden fruit Denouement after climax tying up loose ends 0 AntiRicardian Tudor Campaign come up with bad stuff about Richard III to make people think he was a bad guy Psychomachia split between personality 0 Angel and devil on shoulder Machiavel from Machiavelli s The Prince 0 Work about how to be an effective leader and how to hold on to power 0 Holding on to that much power makes you even more of an actor 0 Richard III is famous machiavel Palimpsest writing on top of writing 0 Chisel words on top of old tablets 0 Use the same stage for two different things to draw attention or layer the scenes 1290 Jews officially quotkicked out of Englandquot put in ghettos 0 Only Jews in England were conversos convert to Christianity 1594 Rodrigo Lopez Jewish main doctor for queen Elizabeth was framed for trying to poison her and put to death 1617 King James s version of the bible is translated Deus Ex Machina god from machine 0 Lowered onto stage to resolve things 0 Portia acts as this when she is Balthazar Eucharist body of Christ and blood ie bread and wine Titus Andronicus Aaron speaks about race in reference to his sons 0 Aaron predicts that if his baby son was whiter he could have been an emperor 0 Plans to switch his baby with a whiter one o Tells Chiron and Demetrius that the baby is their brother and they should love him Accuses white sons of being weak and white supremacists 0 Black skin cannot blush and hides emotion making it honest and consistent 0 He believes not showing emotion shows strength 0 References a swan representing purity trying to scrub away blackness could be Tamora having false purity slept with a black man 0 White sons are more slave to their emotions while black baby is slave to his color Shakespeare shows mutilated Lavinia on stage to show audience rape is not beauthl 0 Woman who ahs been raped is not a martyr or a symbol of purity 0 Seeing rape as a symbol or concept instead of an actual deed is bad Woman s Body as a concept instead of a real thing 0 Womb vs Tomb sex for rape death of body and innocence while sex for procreationbirth Lavinia has young innocence while Tamora has old ruthlessness At the end of the play anyone who would continue the cycle of revenge is dead 0 Titus is thought of as a rational play Pattern of brothers 0 Titus and Marcus Saturninus and Bassianus Chiron and Demetrius Quintus and Mutius all of Titus s children but Aaron known for being the brother of Moses has no brother in the play Shakespeare creates conscious villains to make the audience question why they support a villain in his evil endeavors by seeing his play 0 Evil characters play with us and what our expectations are 0 We expect them to be bad so they admit they are bad to fuck with us 0 Shakespeare emulates Christopher Marlow s villain who was famous in his day Marcus is a middle of the road character moral voice of the play Titus is a quotmanly manquot 0 25 sons 21 killed in war 0 Declines the throne because of his age 0 He is a gure of nostalgia representing a warring past so he is not good for the future Lucius light or Lucifer Moral ambivalence The play is about a transition from a world of war to a world of peace 0 Emulates Thomas Kyd s play The Spanish Tragedy When Alarbus is sacri ced to end the era of vengeance vengeance continues 0 Cannot sacri ce someone outside of your own community 0 Kill from within your community to end vicious cycle 0 Rome cheats by trying to sacri ce a Goth With Saturninus in charge entering into saturnalia period of chaos 0 Must get rid of him to restore order Titus commits bride theft when he offers Lavinia to Saturninus when she is betrothed to Bassianus Mutius Latin for penis o Titus kills him castration They sacri ce one of the Goths but the play forces Titus to take one of Rome s own 0 Kills Mutius 0 Cannot avoid tragic destiny 0 Characters wont do what s necessary so the quotpowers that bequot make it happen o If you refuse tragedy the play forces mega tragedy emulation Lavinia s body as an icon of Rome Son of Tamora and Aaron should be next crown of Rome according to patriolineage GothGoat sacred sacri cial rituals Titus begins to lose his mind because the world he knows is no longer the same 0 He cannot transform from Virtus to Civitas while world around him turns to Civitas Titus loses his hand which is needed for military prowess o Chopping away at the body of Titus chopping away at the body of Rome 0 He can never be a warrior again 0 Play could not sacri ce Titus at rst so now it chops away at him in pieces 0 He loses his son loses his daughter loses his hand sees two sons severed heads Lavinia s raped body pit Bassianus s body is thrown into pit on the stage 0 Woman s body as a nightmarish pit not a place of birth but a place of death Longest speech of the play is when Marcus sees Lavinia after she has been raped o Shoves RAPE in the audience s face 0 At the time rape was seen as beautiful honorable creation story but Shakespeare is showing his audience s that rape is in fact horrible brutal and ugly Daphnie and Apolla allusion to Ovid s metamorphosis o Lavinia s hands being chopped off like ornaments falling off a tree 0 lntertextuality Lavinia throwing metamorphosis down on the ground 0 Allusion to Philomela as well raped by brother in law gets her tongue cut out o Lucrece Rome ghting Tarquins look for most beautiful virtuous wife she gets raped because she doesn t want rumors of her impurity she kills herself romans overthrow Etruscans for her start of roman empire Shakespeare takes classic rape stories and outdoes them allleMULATlON Lucas Cranach made a living painting women committing suicide Shakespeare does not like elegant poised plays loves crude and ugly images 0 This is why Lavinia stands on the stage bleeding out for so long 0 Shakespeare uses classical images and perverts them into grotesque ones 0 He takes beautiful Rome that England thinks they emulate and destroys it o quotWhat are we really trying to imitatequot Lavinia is rst raped when her father takes her from Bassianus and tries to give her to Saturninus 0 She is then raped again when she is given back to Bass 0 Then raped literally 0 Then raped when she is killed by her father Lavinia is literally raped by Goths so to bring her back to purity and reclaim her for Rome a roman must rape her 0 In order to save his daughter Titus must kill her 0 Another tragedy for Titus ultimate act of tragedy is to slaughter your own daughter The play takes its tragedy with vengeance Emulation is not only celebrating classical culture it also opens doors to the most horri c tragedies A Midsummer Night39s Dream Hippolyta and Tamora are both queens and both prisoners of war 0 Revenge appears here as well as in Titus Oberon vs Titania o Puck manipulates fate Titus attempts to manipulate tragic fate A play about marriage nishes by act 4 so why do we have act 5 0 Maybe the play is not about marriage 0 Maybe used to delay the audience feel the strain of waiting for a play to conclude the same way the lovers would wait for their marriage entertainment to nish Athens is the birthplace of law 0 When law gets in the way characters go to the woods world of dreams 0 From city to suburb to relax Dreams are a world without law or logic 0 Realm of fantasy 0 Things that make sense in a dream do not make sense in reality 0 Dream world is a place of possibility with no inhibition Play is about human desire and how we get our desires and satisfy them while still tting them into society s expectations 0 Society would go to chaos if we all pursued our desires with reckless abandon 0 There would be no motivation to do anything without desires 0 Shakespeare looks for middle ground between law and desire 0 Marriage of lovers is like marrying law and desire Shakespeare was commissioned to write this play for a wedding 0 Entire play is foreplay after wedding ceremony Marriage is a type of theater 0 Taking on a part to play for the rest of your life Theseus tells Hermia to question her desires 0 Change her fate o Nunnery death because it is to close out all your desires 0 Has three options marry the wrong man nunnery or death 3X DEATH 0 She must escape into the world of desires Many parallel worlds 0 Royals fairies players lovers Pyramis and Thisbe all overlap Oberon and Titania ght over the changeling boy 0 Conceived between votaress and Titania 0 World of femininity and India make child very woman identi ed Titania is very feminine and Hippolyta is very masculine 0 Shakespeare wants to nd marriage of opposites happy medium Bottom is the only character that enters all realms o Considered the lowest quotbottomquot but his is a play of inversions so he has the play s largest role Hermia wakes from a bad dream 0 Crawling serpentphallic symbol 0 Rape dream allusion to serpent in garden of Eden World of woods is pre lapsarian o Rape dream turns it post lapsarian o This part of the comedy borders on tragedy Shakespeare comments on necessity of law governing marriage 0 Need some guidelines of our desires cannot run rampant o Titania and Hippolyta represent untamed desires must be tamed by Theseus and Oberon o Titania s desires are too feminine while Hippolyta s too masculine Play is about lovers other people are noise 0 Adds noise around lovers to remind audience that high class romantic comedy genre isn t all that exists 0 There is a crude real side to life and to this play 0 Gives audience what they want out of a typical romantic comedy but also reminds them of real life makes them step back and realize what they are enjoying Bottom is open to playing all the parts 0 All the world is a stage and most of us are afraid to play all of our roles 0 He wants to be man woman beast homoerotic autoerotic At Helena s climax speech romantic comedy gets serious 0 Stops play to say what the hell are women doing in romantic comedy 0 This is not about joining together but about women losing things and being torn apart 0 Losing friendship losing innocence losing virginity losing family 0 Shakespeare breaks the genre saying even he is to blame for this subjugation of women EMULATION Theseus thinks the lovers were in the woods waiting for his wedding 0 In his world the play is about him 0 There is always a disjunction inbetween many characters and their thoughts of why they are there Bottom refuses to leave the world of dreams 0 In his waking speech his eyes can taste is tongue can feel etc o What if we did not have limitations 0 He refuses to set boundaries laws or bottoms on anything lall possibilities Theseus s speech right after bottom discourages imagination and lovers fantasies o Opposite of bottom 0 Stuck in a world of law Bloody Thisbe cloak bloody sheets couple brings out during dinner after consummating the marriage 0 Think about rites tradition desire and law Henry IV 0 Theater participates in social statements 0 Nationalism commenting on culture and government clash of state and stage 0 Shakespeare takes on idea of Englishness in his historical plays 0 Move to create more English identity 0 8 history plays 0 Tetralogy group of four plays 0 He has two 0 Richard llleenry lVHenry V one of most celebrated monarchsHenry VlRichard Ill 0 Bolingbroke s Henry IV relative took property so he gets exiled and Richard takes his property 0 Bolingbrook wants to reclaim the property then tries to take the thrown 0 Starts a 100 year long war 0 Fighting is among the Plantagenet s family 0 Two branches Yorks Richards and Lancasters Henrys o Bolingbroke takes throne and puts Richard II to death becoming Henry IV Needed money from the catholic church to pay for civil war 0 One way to unite a country is to go to war with another country France 0 Unite under Henry V marries Catherine of France 0 Have binational children no more ghting 0 Everything falls apart under Henry VI warwarwar 0 Richard III kills lots of people so he can bring throne back to the Yorks o Supposed to think of him as evil and bad so when we kill him off and Richmond Henry Vll takes the throne can feel satis ed with family ruling 0 Henry Vlllwives and daughterslearyleueen Elizabeth 0 BAD move to take throne from Richard II all the way back 0 How can Elizabeth be on the throne legitimately Elizabeth is a Tudor Lancaster 0 Touchy to write plays with Yorks in power 0 Shakespeare doesn t want to be a historian he wants to be a historiographer how people tell history not how people study history 0 Richard II gives Bolingbroke the crown and says quotAye no no ayequot o Reluctant to give it up 0 quotI know no Iquot England loses itself 0 Richard says long mayst thou live in Richards seat to sit 0 Meaning the throne will never be yours it will always be mine 0 England has a belief of King s two bodies 0 One spiritual and one physical 0 Classical body and grotesque body 0 At usurpation of throne you can kill of the physical body but you cannot kill the spiritual body o If body on throne does not have both bodies England will suffer in an era of chaos 0 Richard loses the throne England loses identity 0 When Richmond kills off Richard III there is a sigh of relief because it means that England can start over with a new monarch that has both bodies 0 This makes Henry Vll Henry VIII Mary and Elizabeth all legitimate At beginning of play henry is old exhausted 0 Language says he will try to end this war with another war with France 0 Changes to history Shakespeare makes 0 Makes Hotspur Hal s age when he was actually about 60 o Introduces Falstaff 0 History play is about time 0 Only character who doesn t exist in history asks about time o quotWhat hast though to do with the time of dayquot 0 Falstaff is a gure of antitime 0 Doesn t belong in the play Falstaff is used to critique the historical genre 0 Vice gure pushes back Manipulates official story 0 Figure used to emphasize and act as a foil Tavern dream world escape from political world 0 Hal gives a speech in same place as Richard Ill 0 Palimpsest makes audience wonder if he will emulate Richard Ill 0 Hal says lots of good things he plans to do but audience questions whether or not he will do them because he is paralleling Richard Ill 0 Henry IV and Falstaff are both thieves o Thief of the throne pickpocket When Hal kills Hotspur he only has a few syllables but Hal takes his line and nishes it o Takes breath away takes over his body worm that consumes hotspur is Hal cannibalistic monarchs taking over Falstaff has speech about honor 0 False character false nationalism 0 When Falstaff dies in part two audience has sympathy for him o Is this sympathy against the state Sympathy for fake character over a real person in England s history The Merchant of Venice 0 Venice is the opposite of Rome 0 England wants to emulate Rome but was terri ed of turning into anything like Venice 0 Venice and Belmont are law world and dream world Venice is a large port city 0 Commerce trading Suitors come to Belmont to woo Portia o Portia port she is a commodity Venice was at the edge of the west 0 Near ottoman empire on east making it the multicultural capital of the west 0 Mix of many communities 0 Ghetto was founded in Venice England is trying to be center of trade and commerce but does not want multicultural thing Antonio is gay for Bassanio 0 English portrayal of venetian society 0 Jews homosexuals whores virgins crowded dirty Jews practice usury money lending with interest 0 When state needed money they would take it from Jews so they learned to keep their money in ways that could not be taken Cash NOT kept in land Jews go into banking start cheep stereotype Money is bred through usury thought to be unnatural Usury is like homosexuality should not be allowed to breed At the beginning of the play Antonio is sad because he does not know himself 0 Sense of longing and unful lled desires o Indication of queer desires he longs for something that cannot be named 0 He perks up when Bassanio comes into the scene Bassanio says he is in love with a woman who is richly left 0 Cannot separate money sex or religion in this play 0 All go together 0 With Portia nothing goes undervalued Jews are kept around so if merchants need a lone they have someone to get it from Being weary appears twice in the rst two scenes 0 Portia is weary from following her fathers will 0 Antonio is weary of things he cannot speak on Portia s father leaves her marriage choice up to chance 0 The wrong guy cannot choose the right casket Men who choose the wrong casket have already quotpeaked behind the curtainquot 0 They cannot have sex with anyone else under sexual contract with Portia Figure of the Jew and gure of the homosexual bad breeding Spilling of blood appears three times in the play 0 Prince of morocco let us cut them and see who s blood is redder o Shylock pricks us and do we not bleed O O O O 0 Antonio cut him but do not make him bleed Very wealthy people are buried in lead caskets Shylock runs through the streets yelling about his duckets and his daughter 0 Cannot choose which means more to him his money or his family 0 Yells about his quotstonesquot testicles Shakespeare humanizes shylock when he hears whatJessica has done 0 Sold mothers ring for a monkey Emulation of Christopher Marlowe Jew of Malta Barabbas was as evil as Aaron 0 Forces his daughter to become a nun to get the money that was buried under their house that was turned into a convent then burns all the nuns o Shylock is much more real and has actual love Jew and homosexual battle for the storyline o Jew wants bond from deal Antonio is so willing to sacri ce himself for Bassanio Shakespeare breaks his plays Helena with why are women in romcoms Shylock speaks to audience about how he is hurt by their prejudice Hurt by Antonio s rudeness about him being a Jew Justifying his very human desire for revenge o Says I know this is a comedy but I am a real person Shylock nds out that the law will always protect the dominant cultural and ethnic group in Venice 0 No laws are on the side of the Jew Portia has most real and truthful speech in the play 0 Ends with mercy seasons justicequot 0 Talks of Christian justice and mercy but then goes and gets vengeance on shylock 0 Most truthful speech in the play is said by a character that is a lie 0 She does not practice truth when she pretends to be Balthazar Play can have moment of truth but the play is not embodying mercy o If Christianity is about mercy this play is not Christian Shylock asks for 1 lb of esh o Mocking Christians that want to eat Christ 0 Christians already eat esh Portia says cannot have blood 0 Cannot complete Eucharist cannot complete mocking the riteritual Antonio wants to join with Bassanio 0 Join in marriage become one unit one esh 0 Marriage and consummation spills blood the same way his blood would spill if he lost 1 lb of esh o Portia stops blood from spilling no homosexual bond noJewish agenda met Audience is left with the Jew and the homosexual both at the end of the play 0000 0 Neither are involved in the comic community 0 Lovers are married and both Jew and homosexual are left out
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