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HDFS 2200 Semester Notes

by: Kristy lee

HDFS 2200 Semester Notes HDFS 2200

Marketplace > University of Georgia > HDFS > HDFS 2200 > HDFS 2200 Semester Notes
Kristy lee
GPA 3.5
Introduction to Human Development
Melissa Landers-Potts

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HDFS 2200 Semester worth of notes
Introduction to Human Development
Melissa Landers-Potts
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This 78 page Bundle was uploaded by Kristy lee on Tuesday August 25, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HDFS 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Melissa Landers-Potts in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Development in HDFS at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 08/25/15
172014 Wednesday Development a pattern of change involving growth and decline HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IS INTERDISCIPLINARY THE FIELD OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Scientific research based Applied difference between hdfs and other social sciences is the idea of taking the research and using it the applied aspect DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES ARE A RESULT OF BIOLOGICAL COGNITIVE AND SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES Biological physical processes includes well being of different stages of life Cognitive processes processing information how do we process what we expedence Socioemotional processes how we feel about ourselves and others guides how we interact with others these three processes overlap didn39t get enough sleep 0 Biologically don39t have enough energy more susceptible to sickness tired 0 Cognitive harder to focus sower processing 0 Socioemotional more emotional in a relationship MANY FORCES INFLUENCE DEVELOPMENT Sociocultural and environmental contexts Historical circumstances Life events or unusual circumstances impacting the speci c individual SOME SOCIOCULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS Culture 0 affects the food that we eat tying in with health and physical appearance Ethnicity o differences in access to resources Socioeconomic status Gender Family parenting quality of education HISTPORICAL CONTEXTS AFFECT HUMAN DVELOPMENT women39s right movement 705amp 605 women began receiving education birthcontrol 911 NON NORMATIVE INFLUENCES LIFE EVENTS AFFECT INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT Examples parental divorce 0 Severe illness 0 Car accident 0 Winning lottery having a parent incarcerated 0 Death of a parent or sibling 0 House re gt these are quotnonnormative in uencesquotmay happen to just 1 person anytime CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFESPAN PERSPECTIVE Development is o Multidimensional a lot of dimensions in development 0 Lifelong o Multidirectional GROWTH IS MULTIDIMENSIONAL Adolescence become more egocentric decline PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT Prenatal period conception to birth Infancy birth to 1824 months Early childhood 35 years Middle and late childhood 61011 years Adolescence 1012 to 1821 years Early adulthood 205 and 305 Middle adulthood 405 and 505 Late adulthood 605705 to death 192015 Friday GROWTH IS MULTIDIRECTIONAL Have decline in gray matter in adolescence 0 Gray matter connection between neurons PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT know when ages correspond with the periods IS CHONOLOGICAL AGE BECOMING LESS IMPORTANT Chronological age number of years since birth Biological age age in terms of physical health Psychological age adaptive capacity compared with others of the same chronological age 0 How well does someone of a chronological age adapt to change Social age social roles and expectations relative to chronological age THEORY An orderly integrated set of statements that o Describes behavior 0 Explains behavior 0 Predicts behavior THEORIES DIFFER IN UNDERSTANDING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AS 1 Continuous or discontinuous 2 More in uence from nature or nurture 3 Stability and change plasticity IS DEVELOPMENT CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINUOUS Continuous Development happens in the same was in infancy as it does in middle child hood adolescenceetc but that the mechanism process is the same Discontinuous distinct differences in the way we develop NATURE VS NUTURE which has more in uence Nature inborn biological givens based on genes Nurture physical and social environment Current thinking nature and nurture are interactive 0 Nature can in uence nurture and nurture can in uence nature IS DEVELOPMENT STABLE OR PLASTICCHANGEABLE Stability change unlikely forever shaped by early experience or genetics Plasticity change is possible or likely Modern developmental theorists advocate that all development is plastic 0 Varies individually o Varies by age RESILIENCE The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development Factors of resilience 0 Personal Family Other social support Community 000 PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY Freud39s 3 parts of the personality Id Ego Superego conscience FREUD39S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES 1122015 Monday RESILIENCE The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats of development Factors in resilience 0 Personal 0 Family 0 Other social support 0 Community ERIKSON39S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES BEHAVIORISM amp SOCIAL LEARNING Classical conditioning John Watson 0 Stimulus response Operant conditioning BF Skinner o Reinforcers and punishments Social learning Bandura 0 Modeling COGNITIVE THEORIES Emphasize Conscious Thought 3 important theories 0 Piaget39s cognitive developmental theory 0 Vygotsky39s sociocultural cognitive theory 0 Information processing theory PIAGET39S FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Sensorimotor Stage birth to 2 years Preoperational Stage 2 7 years old Concrete Operational Stage 7 11 years old Formal Operational Stage 11 adulthood VYGOTSKY39S SOCIOCU LTU RAL TH EO RY Transmission of culture to a new generation 0 Values beliefs customs skills Language development Zone proximal development INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY 1 Sensory register input we take info in from our senses 2 Short term memory working memory mental processing until where info stored temporarily 3 Long term memory memory storage encyclopedic memory in which info is stored and from which it can be retrieved 4 Behavioral responses output ETHOLOGY Study of adaptive value of behavior and its evolutionary history Konrad Lorenz imprinting John Bowlby focus on attachment Cd calpenod Sensitive period BRONFENBRENNER39S Bio ECOLOGICAL THEORY Societal institutions that affect us exosystem 3 Interconnection between microsystems mesosystem 4 Place where we experience our daily lives microsystem 5 Broad system of cultural beliefs and values macrosystem 2 Changes that occur over time chronosystem 1 Individual 6 1 most general 6 most speci c WHICH THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE IS BEST TRUE Eclectic theoretical orientation 0 No single theory explains complexity of human development 0 Each furthers understanding of factors shaping development 1142015 Wednesday Exploring Lifespan Development Biological and Environmental Foundations GENEOTYPES and PHENOTYPES Genotype genetic makeup of an individual Phenotype observable physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual CELLS CHROMOSOMES amp DNA 10 100 trillion cells in the body Nucleus control center Chromosomes in nucleus 0 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 chromosomes GENETIC FOUNDATIONS DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Strings of amino acid pairs substance of which genes and chromosomes are made Genes units of hereditary information composed of segments of DNA located along the chromosomes Chromosomes threadlike structures made up of DNA store and transmit genetic information DNA REPLICATION DNA organizes itself into chromosomes before division occurs When cell division occurs called mitosis or meiosis the cell duplicates the genetic code and forms a new cell Chromatin daf 1162015 Friday Guest Speaker Prenatal Development and Birth Pregnancy 10 12 weeks organogenesis is nearly complete 0 Fetal heart is formed Spinal cord has closed Eyes are formed Limbs are actively moving Genitalia are recognizable 0 And morning sickness has just started tapering off 50 of pregnancies in US was unplanned OOOO Preconception Care Counseling Psychological readiness both parents 0 Rationale for childbearing 0 Stability of relationship nances o Expectations for childbearing and parenting Timing of childbearing education career Stopping contraceptive methods Nutrition 0 Achieve ideal body weight 0 Balanced diet prenatal vitamins o Folic acid supplement 04 mgday 0 Limit eliminate caffeine Genetic screening Dental care poor dental hygiene increased risk for preterm labor and birth Medications Chronic health conditions diabetes heart disease hypertension seizure disorder advanced maternal age Environmental and workplace issues 0 Teratogens o Cigarette smoke o icit drugs Don t forget the male contribution Limited data Genech Alcohol drugs smoking Recent evidence of increased risk of autism and schizophrenia with older fathers Choice of birth place and provider 0 Birth center vs hospital vs home 0 Obstetrician vs midwife Desired labor support 0000 Midwifery in the News Patients that use a midwife were 0 Less likely to lose their babies before 24 weeks 0 Less likely to give birth before 37 weeks 0 Had fewer epidurals fewer assisted births 0 Had fewer episiotomies surgical incisions to reduce risking of tearing What are teratogens An agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo Potential teratogens 0 Alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome how much is too much 0 Medications anti seizure antidepressants thyroid drugs thalidomide Accutane isotretinoin Illicit drugs withdrawl syndrome behavioral effects Radiation DNA damage Occupational chemical exposures Toxoplasmosis Rubella measles Cytomegalovirus SythE OOOOOOO Sensitive Periods of Development Maternal Anatomical and Physiological Change Pregnancy affects o Posture o Digestion 0 Blood volume 0 Breathing rate Women should expect 0 Increased urinary frequency 0 Stretch marks 0 Emotional lability o Nesting instincts 1St trimester quotperiod of adjustmentquot 2nCI trimester quotperiod of radiant healthquot 3rCI trimester quotperiod of 1212015 Wednesday guest speaker part 2 Fetal Development 6 7 weeks Placenta begins to form Fetus weighs 0001 02 Uterus small orange Head is largest portion Internal organs formed Heart is beating Baby is oating in amniotic sac Armleg buds with ngertoe buds quotfetusquot at 7 weeks Fetal Development 20 weeks Abdominal crowding Fetus is fully formed Eyelids still fused Vernix mixture of sebum and skin cells covering the body Fetus is 65 inches and 1 lb 500g Time of anatomical ultrasound scan Sex easily determined Fetal movement felt by mother Noticeability of pregnancy depends on abdominal muscle tone and placenta loca on Fetal Development 28 weeks All organs are fully developed but not ready to function outside the uterine environment Hair is present fetus covered with lanugo Suckling motions becoming more coordinated Eyes can open and shut Fetus is 9 inches and 225 lbs 1000g Fetus could survive if born at this point but would need intensive care Fat storage begins Developing ability to lactate milk Fetal Development 36 weeks Birth can occur at any time More fat has been deposited fetus is less wrinkled Fetus can control breathing motions and body temperature Baby is fully developed about 125 inches and 55 lbs Fetal Development full term 37 40 weeks Fetus is hopefully in vertex head down position Childbirth is imminent Finishing quottouchesquot Onset of Labor 1st stage Start of labor 0 Not clear what initiates labor probably a combination of maternal and fetal hormonal interactions quotlighteningquot baby is kind of popping out Pelvic pressure Slowing of fetal movement quotbloody showquot loss of mucus plug Low back pain ow abdominal cramping Cervix is effacing but little dilation past 2 3 cm Eadylabor 0 Talking laughingjoking 0 Does not take full focus to deal with contractions o Cervix is effacing dilation of 4 5 cm Cervix is opening to the uterus Effacement gradual thinning shortening and drawing up of the cervix measured in percentages from 0 to 100 Dilation gradual opening of the cervix measured in centimeters from 0 10 cm Active abor Labor becomes more quotseriousquot Dulla birth attendant that supports them during hospital and at home Contractions require full focus Pain medication may be requested Good evidence that labor support during this sage results in feeling a satisfaction with the birth experience Cervix dilates from 5 cm to 10 cm 8 10 cm I 5 point of transition requires coping skills Latent Patient 2nCI Stage of Labor Often ignored in many obstetrical settings No need to start pushing as soon as complete dilation is achieved Unmedicated births mother often rests as contraction Oij The Girth 2nCI stage of labor Fetal descends into the birth canal Head rounds the Curve of Carus Head seen crowing at the opening of the vaginal quot2 steps forward I step backquot More and more of the head will emerge with each push Once the head is born it39s all over usually Cesarean birth 3rd stage of labor Most dangerous part of growth Placental usually delivers within 5 3 mins after the birth Separation of the placental from the uterine wall leaves a wound there Storage uterine contractions afterpains clamp down on the bleeding vessles Uncontrolled bleeding postparticu hemorrhange is the 1232015 Friday GENETIC FOUNDATIONS DNA deoxyribonucleaic acid strings of amino acid pairs substance of which genes are chromosomes are made Genes units of hereditary information composed of segments of DNA located along the chromosomes Chromosomes threadlike structures made up of DNA store and transmit genetic information DNA REPLICATION DNA organizes itself into chromosomes before division occurs When cell division occurs Called mitosis or meiosis the cell duplicates the genetic code and forms a new cell DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Mitosis 0 Process by which most cells somatic line or quotbodyquot cells divide 0 DNA replication and division creates 2 diploid cells Meiosis 0 Process by which cells that become gametes germ line or quotreproductivequot cells divide 0 Process restricted to gonads testicles and ovaries 0 DNA replication and division creates 4 haploid cells CHROMOSOMES CELLS and SEX TERMINOLOGY Gametes sex cells sperm or ova Xygote sperm and ova united Autosomes the rst 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes the 23rd pair of chromosomes 0 Determine sex 0 XX femaile and XY male 0 quotsex linked traitsquot are on this chromosome TWINS Fraternal dizygotic 0 Two zygotes or fertilized ova o 1 in 60 births in US Identical monozygotic 0 One zygote that divides into two individuals 0 1 in 330 births in US 0 When occurs determines what is shared ALLE LES Different forms of the same gene 0 Appear at same place on both chromosomes in a pair 0 One inherited from each parent Homozygous the 2 alleles are like 2 alleles for sickle cell trait Heterozygous the alleles differ 1 for sickle cell trait 1 for typical blood cell shape Monogenetic inheritance your phenotype is determined by a single gene 0 Very few human traits o Unsure of whether many traits are monogenic or polygenic Polygenic inheritance your phenotype is determined by multiple genes which are addictive or interactive TYPES OF INHERITANCE Complete dominance one allele completely masks another Incomplete dominance one allele doesn39t completely mask another results are somewhere between pink ower from red and white ower Codominance neither allele completely masks the other results is a little of each both the red and white ower MONOGENIC DISEASEPA39ITERN dominance recess CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALTIES 1St example Down syndrome problems with the 21St chromosome Ex 2 sex chromosome abnormalities 0 Problems with x or y chromosomes REPRODUCTIVE PARENTING CHOICES Genetic counseling Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine Adoption GENETIC COUNSELING Recommended when 0 Couple has dsafjifjewoifja PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS MEHTHODS Ultrasound Maternal blood analysis fetoscopy Amniocentesis chronic villus sample AMNIOCENTESIS AND CHRONOIC VILLUS SAMPLING REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES Gamete donor insemination and egg donation In vitro fertilizatoin 1282015 Wednesday REPRODUCTIVE TEHCNOLOGY AND ETHICAL ISSUES Reasons for using IVF o quotdesigner babiesquot 0 Reducing number of pregnancies SET single embryo transfer Laws 0 US has more lenient laws about IVF they can select the gender through IVF 25000 for IVF Unused embryos Surrogate mothers 0 Reproductive outsourcing and global inequality India has thriving surrogate industry since it39s cheaper 0 Could be biological genetic material of child or individual gametes aren39t viable People who have 2 different eye colors is that codominance No some sort of malfunction THE EPIGENETIC FRAMEWORK Epigenesis development resulting from ongoing bidirection exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment 0 Things in the environment that affect our genetic make up 0 Ex cancer exposure to higher levels of estrogen can change genes to express and create abnormal cells Autism possibility pregnant mothers that get a virus during 2nCI trimester gt in ammation in fetus gt higher chance of autism GENETIC ENVIRONMENT CORRELATION Passive correlation individual doesn39t have say but they39re absorbing it in their environment Evocative correlation evoking things in their environmentgetting more praise for certain activities and choosing one over another Active correlation more control over activities they pick or choose 0 Niche picking ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXTS FOR DEVELOPMENT Family Socioeconomic status Neighborhoods towns and cities Cultural context SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS Access to resources in society Affects all aspects of our development Ex children in poverty have higher cortisol levels WHO IS POOR Statistics 0 14 of Americans 0 201523850 household for family of 4 Poverty line is variable to people in the household Groups more likely to be poor 0 Those 65 and up have the lowest poverty rate is the least poor Children most poor Women Parents under age of 25 with young children Elderly living alone especially women Ethnic minorities OOOOO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND FAMILY FUNCTIONING Timing and duration of family life cycle 0 Wealthier kids are more likely to go to college 0 Lower divorce rate for the rich 0 Wealthier people live longer Values and expectations 0 Valuing college Parents39 involvement 0 Wealthier parents will voice themselves more in schools and gets more involved Communication and discipline styles Children39s cognitive development EXTENDED FAMILIES Three or more generations living together More common in many minority cultures Bene ts 0 Economic and socioemotional INDIVIDUALIST VS COLLECTIVIST SOCIETIES lndividualistic 0 View self as separate from other people 0 Focus on personal needs and goal 0 US is individualistic Collectivist 0 View self as part of a group 0 Stress group goals over individual goals Body Growth and Change Chapter 3 The newborn and prematurity Body growth in infancy and childhood Skeletal growth Factors in uencing growth Pubertal change TH E APGAR SCALE Activity muscle tone Pulse heart rate Grimace re ex response Appearance color Respiratory breathing 5 minutes APGAR is better than the 1 minute one INFANT MORTAILITY AROUND THE WORLD We have a higher infant mortality rate than many of the other wealthy countries 0 Because of disparities 0 With technologies we try saving premature babies LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND DISABILITIES Low birth rate gt more likely to have a disability 0 55 lbs or less is considered low birth rate 0 If baby is under 22 lbs a quarter has major disability and another quarter has a minority disability Low birth weight 0 Heart disease stroke diabetes earlier age of menarche ower testicular volume High birth weight 0 Greater risk of some diseases Breast cancer twice likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis and brain tumors 13015 Friday INTERVENTIONS FOR PRETERM INFANTS Steroids to the mother surfactant to the newborn Isolette Respirator Feeding tube Intravenous nutrition medication Special infant stimulation 0 Kangaroo care 70 of premature babies died in 0 using kangaroo care dropped to 30 IN FANT39S BO DY G ROWTH Tremendous increase in height and weight weight gain doubles in rst 5 months Girls vs boys Increase in quotbaby fatquot until about 9 months then gets inmmer PRENATAL INFANT GROWTH TRENDS Cephalocaudal 0 quothead to tailquot 0 Head grows before lower parts of body Proximodistal 0 quotnear to farquot 0 Head chest and trunk grow fast followed by extremities PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD ages 3 5 Body growth slows 0 Shape becomes more streamlined BODY GROWTH IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Slow regular patter Girls vs boys Lower portions of body growing faster Bones Iengthen ossify Muscle mass and strength Permanent teeth arrive SKELETAL GROWHT epiphyseaI plate growths through towards the shaft ERUPTION LOSS OF NEW TEETH Eruption begins in infant ends in emerging adulthood Loss begins in middle childhood ends in adolescence DEVELOPMENT OF SKULL Fontanels present in newborn 0 Purpose to get through birth canal and brain to expand 0 Closure on top takes longest to close INFLUENCES ON EARLY GROWTH Nature 0 Heredity o Hormone production Nurture 0 Nutrition Breast vs bottle feeding Malnutrition Emotional well being 0 Problems can cause nonorganic failure to thrive Illnessimmunizations Childhood injuries 222015 Monday PUBERTAL GROWTH Driven by Changes in the Endocrine System THE ORDER OF PUBERTAL EVENTS Girls 0 Downy of pubic hair 0 Appearance of breast buds 0 Growth spurt 0 Growth of sexual and reproductive organs 0 Menarche rst period 0 Secretion of increased skin 0 and sweat 0 Development of underarm hair 0 125 is average age that girls go through puberty US has youngest age compared to other countries Boys 0 Growth of testes 0 Appearance of pubic hair 0 Growth spurt 0 Increased growth of penis o Deepening of the voice 0 Secretion of increased skin 0 and sweat 0 Development of facial hair PUBERTAL TIMING Average age declining for past 120 years 0 Better nutrition health reach puberty earlier 0 Body fat reach puberty earlier 0 Family makeup and climate higher stress within family system reach puberty earlier Girls vs boys girls go through 23 years earlier guys nish around 17 18 years For girls starting puberty earlier being shorter For boys earIy puberty and a long progression taIIer PHYSICAL DVELOPMENT amp ADOLESCENCE EMERGING ADULTHOOD V02 MAX 0 Maximum amount of oxygen in millilitres one can use in one minute per kilogram of body weight 0 At highest level in late teens earIy aduIt years 0 reach pinnacle of lungs uptake during this time Muscle strength 0 Muscle mass and grip strength at peak levels in early adulthood Reaction time o Faster in emerging adulthood than at any other time fo life Cardiac output 0 Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by heart in a minute 0 Peaks at age 25 Immune system CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY CHANGES Heart 0 Few resting changes in middle adulthood lower performance under stress Lungs o Maximal vital capacity declines after 25 0 Capacity declines 10 per decade Ways to reduce hypertension HBP and keep heart lungs healthy exercise stop smoking reduce salt intake alcohol consumption decrease stress lose weight increase potassium CHANGES IN THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Muscle 0 Strength peaks in mid 205 o Sarcopenia De nition Statistics Fast twitch vs slow twitch muscle loss 0 age 25 60 in physically inactive people loss of about 5 of lean muscle mass every year after 60 the percent goes up even more Bones 0 How grow change in adulthood o Decreased height men lose about 125 inches from age 25 75 women lose 2 inches MUSCLE FAT MAKEUP IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Middle age spread common fat gain in torso 0 Men upper abdomen back 0 Women waist upper arms 0 Absence good indicator of wellness Very gradual muscle declines Can be avoided 0 Low fat diet with fruits vegetables grains 0 Exercise resistance training CLIMACTERIC AND MENOPAUSE Fertility peak age 22 for women age 25 is average age women give birth Gradual end of fertility o 10 year climacteric 0 Age range extends from late 305 to late 505 0 Advanced maternal age 0 Menopause Drop in estrogen and progesterone o Shorter monthly cycles eventually stop 0 Can cause problems Sexual functioning Cholesterol Bones 2415 Wednesday AGE AT FIRST CHILDBIRTH Average in US 25 years old More women are waiting to have children Changes for age groups CLIMACTERIC and MENOPAUSE Fertility peak 22 years for women Gradual end of fertility o 10 year climacteric 0 Age range extends from late 305 to late 505 0 Advanced maternal age 35 and up 0 Menopause Drop in estrogen and progesterone 0 Short monthly cycles eventually can stop 0 Can cause problems Sexual functioning Cholesterol Bones MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS Research shows menopause link 0 Hot ashes night sweats 0 Sexual problems problems with lubrication Not directly linked to menopause other cause should be investigated 0 lrritability 0 Sleep dif culties 0 Depression MENOPAUSE SYMPTOMS AROUND THE WORLD Asian countries experience less physiological factors after menopause hot ashes HORMONE REPLEACEMENT THERAPY FOR MENOPAUSE Bene ts 0 Reduce hot ashes vaginal dryness 0 May help mood 0 Bone bene ts 0 Stroke and blood clots heart attack 0 Breast cancer increase may be lower risk for some cancers 0 Cognitive declines and Alzheimer39s Alternatives 0 Vitamins soy based products herbal products eg black cohosh and red clover o Antidepressants o Blackcohosh MALE REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Reduced sperm and semen after age 40 Gradual testosterone reduction 0 Sexual activity stimulates production Erection problems 0 Frequent problems may be linked to anxiety diseases injury loss of interest 0 Viagra and other drugs SKIN CHANGES IN MIDDLE AND LATE ADULTHOOD Skin changes 0 Wrinkles Forehead starting in 30s Crow39s feet 405 o Sagging Face arms legs 0 Age spots After 50 Explanations for skin changes 0 Sun UV rays loosening of epidermis collagen elastin and fat 0 collagen is a filler in our skin Reduction of collagen wrinkles o subcutaneous is also a filler Bottom layer fat Decreases in subcutaneous layer 0 epidermis loosens to the dermis CHANGES IN SKIN etc IN MIDDLE AND LATE ADULTHOOD Skin thinner rougher wrinkled spotted Ears and nose Hair Yellow teeth hair thins for women Hair thins and baldness for men IMMUNE SYSTEM IN LATE ADULTHOOD Declines in functioning Explanations 0 Higher levels of stress hormones Adrenopause counters cortisol effects and DHEAS o Withering of thymus Decline in T cells body produces more cortisol a stress hormone Chapter 3 LONGEVITY AND BIOLOGICAL AGAING Human lifespan longevity Aging and theories INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY OVER TIME 1900 average life 473 years Group differences 0 Gender 0 SES 0 Race ethnicity o Nationality Socioeconomic and longevity are directly correlated women have had longer longevity then men 262015 Friday Healthy life expectancy number of years of vigorous healthy life as individual born in a particular year can expect to live in full health without disease or injury CATEGORIES OF AGE Young old 65 74 Older old 75 84 Old old 85 and older 0 Cetenarians 100 years old 0 Supercentenarians110 Jeanne Calment 122 oldest lady PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD We reach the top then nowhere to go but down SENESCENCE BIOLOGICAL AGING Theories about why we age Factors affecting differences among us 0 Genes 0 Lifestyle 0 Socioeconomic societal advantage or disadvantage 0 Historical period THEORIES OF BIOLGOICAL AGING Evolutionary theory evolution process is focused on reproduction Cellular clock theory cells are limited due to teIomere shortening o Telomere shortening Free radical theory 0 Mutations and cancer 0 Free radicals they move around body and bump into other cells because they39re unstable Trying to steal an electron Antioxidants FOODS HIGH IN ANTIOXIDANTS 1 Small red bean THEORIES OF BIOLOGICAL AGING continued Mitochondrial theory 0 Cell39s power source 0 DNA 0 Sensitivity to environment Hormonal stress and immunity theories 0 Role of cortisol 292015 Monday Chapter 4 Nutrition and Eating Behavior BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR BABY Perfect human food 0 Has a lot of taurine which plays a big role in brain development Immune system bene ts 0 Mother transmits antibodies through milk 0 Lower incidence in ear respiratory and other infections allergies diarrhea meningitis asthma SIDS hospitalization better vision orthodontics Better growth Better infant health Attachment Different tastes Higher intelligence Fewer diseases later in life 0 Obesity diabetes MS heart disease childhood cancer orthodontics BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR MOTHER Helps uterus contract Burns extra calories Delays ovulation Lower risk of disease Convenience Financial Emotional Mothers can transmit diseases like HIV through breast milk And donating milk online rislq Ethical issues 0 Sale of body uids NUTRITION IN CHILDHOOD Food quotpyramidquot plate 2011 0 Lots of veggies and grains 0 Moderate amount of Fruits and proteins 0 Least amount of dairy o No fats and sweets INFECTIOUS DISEASE amp MALNUTRITION Malnutrition facts Malnutrition can cause disease 0 Rickets lack of vitamin D can39t absorb Calcium 000 O Kwashiorkor extreme lack of protein Scurvy lack of vitamin C Goiter lack of iodine Colagaria lack of nyosin Disease can cause malnutrition O Diarrhea 13 of children suffer from malnutrition before the age of 5 o dsf Especially in underdeveloped countries 21115 Wednesday WHAT IS MALNUTRITION Not getting enough food or not getting the right food Even if people get enough to eat may still be malnourished Over nutrition over consumption of food and nutrients 0 Can develop into obesity 0 Growing global problem UNICEF STATISTICS Percent of overweight children lt age 5 is increasing Percent underweight children lt age 5 is decreasing o 25 of children in 1990 gt 15 of children in 2013 NUTRITION IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Regular eating schedule is good Variety of foods with signi cant calcium zinc and iron Growth spurts more caloric intake during growth spurts Percentage body fat increases before puberty Increase in obesity in middle childhood 4 1975 gt 20 2010 15 of girls get enough calcium NUTRITION IN ADOLESCENCE What body needs protein calcium iron 0 need 2700 calories for boys amp 2200 for girls in adolescence Body typically gets fast food and diet is getting worse Obesity overweight Eating disorders 0 Americans 1 of teenage females anorexia amp 12 bulimia Increase in obesity in adolescence o 6 1975 gt 18 2010 0 increasing globally But US is leading in this growth CORRELATES OF OBESITY IN CHILDHOOD ADULTHOOD ANTIOXIDANTS IMPORTANT Random events free radicalsamp roles of antioxidants NUTRITION IN LATE ADULTHOOD Need fewer calories but extra nutrients o Protects bones immune system 0 Fight free radicals Problems eating 0 Sensory changes 0 Appetite o Chewing digestion 0 Shopping cooking Supplements diet change might help 21315 Friday Play Leisure Exercise and Media Screen Time Chapters 4amp15 not going to cover brain amp sleep for Exam 2 PIAGET39s STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Sensorimotor stage way we interpret the world is using our senses EARLY CHILDHOOD quotThe Play Yearsquot 25 years Development of play 0 Nonsocial Sensorimotor Play birth 18months 0 Parallel play 18months 4 years 0 Associative play cooperating a little bit Borrowing toys 0 Cooperative play 4 5 years 0 Games with rules 5 years Importance of make believe pretend play 0 children gain social language and literary skill with interacting helps control their emotions strengthens imagination and creativity impulse control BENEFITS OF THREATS TO PLAY Essential to brain development 0 Maturation of cerebellum amp cerebral cortex Skills learned in free unstructured play 0 Social interpersonal development 0 Language 0 Physical 0 Academic Threatened by visual media 0 Less time playing 0 Piaget amp Senses o Vygotsky amp quotprivate speechquot PLAY IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Games with rules amp multiple players 0 Sports early childhood vs middle 0 Invented games Rough and tumble play Adult organized sports Physical education Video games PERCENTAGE OF US CHILDREN IN DAILY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS 1969 to 1999 PLAY EXERCISE THREATENED BY ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE VIDEO GAMES AND DEVELOPMENT Prevalence Negative correlates o Obesity 0 Violence 0 Addiction 0 Weakened social skills Positive correlates 0 Hand eye coordination 0 Skills for business world ADOLESCENCE Activity levels decrease EXERCISE IN ADULTHOOD 13 get enough 0 At least 30 minutes moderate 5 days a week 0 More often more vigorous is better 13 of North Americans inactive 0 Women 0 Low socioeconomic status BENEFITS OF EXERCISE Reduces fat builds muscle Boots immune system prevents some diseases Cardiovascular bene ts Cognitive bene ts Mental health bene ts 0 Stress reduction 0 Self esteem Long life MIDLIFE EXERCISE percent inactive percent getting enough MIDLIFE EXERCISE quotwalk or diequot Weight bearing exercise 0 Weight lifting Psychological bene ts 0 Self ef cacy Cognitive bene ts 2162015 Monday EXERCISE IN LATE ADULTHOOD Bene ts of exercise 0 Physical functioning Cardiovascular respiratory muscle strength bone mass digestion bowel functions sleep 0 Brain function 0 Self esteem 0 Some cellular explanations for bene t Telomeres and exercise 0 As telomeres get shorter life gets shorter changing lifestyle gt telomeres get longer Health Illness amp Disease excerpts from chapter 4 CHILDREN AND HEALTH Immunizations are important Leading cause of childhood death accidents neonatal Then pneumonia causes are largest cause of death around the world Important factors 0 Caregivers 0 Family socioeconomic status IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE immunizations don39t cause ADOLESCENCE AND HEALTH Critical time to adopt health relevant behaviors health 0 Eating exercise substance use smoking sleep Families peers schools neighborhoods culture in uence adolescent health 0 More susceptible to peer pressure and higher risk taking EMERGING ADULTS 1825 yr OIdS Emerging adult mortality rate 2x rate of adolescents Awareness of health information but often don39t apply to self or consider later effects HEALTH ILLNESS and DISEASE Cancer is leading cause of death in US middle aged adults 0 As individuals age they39re more likely to die of cardiovascular disease Alzheimer disease appears with aging Chronic disorders 0 Rare in early adulthood increase in middle adulthood common in late adu hood LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN US 2010 decreases of death due to greater knowledge of the diseases In US 0 Middle aged females leading cause of death lung cancer coronary heart disease breast cancer 0 Middle aged male leading cause of death coronary heart disease lung cancer liver disease CANCER IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD 13 of US midlife deaths 0 Lower in lower socioeconomic statuses more likely to receive treatment and quality of treatment and preventive care 21815 Wednesday CANCER IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD 13 of US midlife deaths 0 More in lower socioeconomic statuses Results from mutations o Germline genetic o Somatic occurring in a single cell Often curable 0 Treatment and survival emotionally challenging likelihood of cancer does increase with age CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Symptoms 0 Heart attack 0 Angina pectoris chest pain 0 Arrhythmia Risk conditions 0 High blood cholesterol 0 High blood pressure Systolic where heart beats higher number and diastolic lower number 0 Atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries Three stages of Atherosclerosis o Damaged intima inside of arteries is in amed 0 Cholesterol lled cells 0 Plaque MENTAL DISABILITIES IN LATE ADULTHOOD Dementia global term for neurological disorders in which primary symptoms involve deterioration of mental functioning 0 Alzheimer39s disease most common cause of dementia o Parkinson39s disease 0 Cerebrovascular dementia Strokes o Misdiagnosis reversible dementia Depression Medication side effects 0 average amount of medication those over 65 take 8 PERCENT ADULTS EXPECTED TO DEVELOP ALZHEIMERS women are more likely to get Alzheimer especially as we age ALZHEIMER S DISEASE Incidence higher with age Symptoms o Forgetting disorientation personality change depression motor problems delusions speech problems infections Brain changes neuro brillary tangles amyloid plaques in cerebral cortex Risk factors protective factors 0 Genetic predispositions 0 High fat diet Mediterranean diet may help 0 Education active lifestyle may help guys typically have higher educationallives OSTEOPOROSIS Changes uses calcium and phosphate for bone production Risk of severe bone loss fragile bones o Osteoporosis Factors effecting likelihood little old white women are most at risk for osteoporosis Prevention amp treatment of osteoporosis 0 Factors that contribute to osteoporosis Smoking alcohol aging DISABILITIES amp AGE Disabilities more common with age 0 17 of US adults from 65 74 years old have disability MOST PREVALENT CHRONIC CONDITIONS IN MIDDLE AND LATE ADULTHOOD arthritis is most common then hypertension Percentage of age range is affected Substance Use ADOLESCENCE CRITICAL TIME FOR SUBSTANCE USE US has one of highest rates of adolescent drug use of any industrialized nann 0 Alcohol is most common used drug 0 Marijuana most widely used illicit drug 0 21St century declines in LSD cocaine cigarettes sedatives tranquilizers ecstasy use Cigarette smoking 0 One of most serious yet preventable health problems 0 Responsible for 60000 deathsyear Parents play role in preventing adolescent drug abuse 0 Educational success deterrent SUBSTANCE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS BINGE DRINKING AND EMERGING ADULTS Higher substance use in early adult hood rate than adolescents Transition from high school to college critical risk period for alcohol abuse 0 Drinking common even expected by peers Binge drinking 0 NIAAA de nition blood alcohol concentration BAC levels to 008 gdL typically after 4 drinks for women and 5 drinks for men 2 hours 0 Having 10 drinks in a row 0 1 in 7 college students report drinking this heavily o Missed classes physical injuries trouble with police unprotected sex Drinking before going out common among college students AGE AND SUBSTANCE USE highest in 21 22 years emerging adulthood 22015 Friday BINGE DRINKING amp EMERGING ADULTS AGE AND SUBSTANCE USE Many people 65 abstain from alcohol but with prescription drugs it39s the other way around COLLEGE STUDENTS WHO REPORTED BINGE DRINKING DECREASED 18 PROPORTIONALLY FROM 1991 2013 13 of college students Caucasian students more likely to drink Students in Greek life more likely to drink Males are more likely to drink POSITIVE EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL USE Protective effect of moderate alcohol use in older adults 0 Bene ts in better physical and mental performance self efficacy social connchons Moderate drinking of red wine linked to better health and increased longevity o Lowering stress and reducing risk of coronary heart disease and possibly some cancers SUBSTANCE USE amp ADULTS Substance abuse among older adults as quotinvisible epidemicquot 0 Growing concern about abuse of illicit drugs and prescription drugs 0 Effects death depression inadequate nutrition liver failure heart failure frequent falls automobile accidents Growing use of antidepressants 1 in 10 Americans 0 1 in 4 women in their 405 and 505 o Overprescription of painkillers More people die in drug over dose than car accidents US takes 80 of pain killers in the world 600000 doctors prescribe Vicodin Accidental overdose is more THE BRAIN39s FOUR LOBES FRONTAL PARIETAL OCCIPITAL TEMPORAL know location of these and cerebellum Prefrontal cortex most nerves are compact here FUCNTIONS OF LOBES OF THE CORTEX Frontal involved in voluntary movement thinking personality and intentionally or purpose Occipital function in vision Parietal active role in hearing language processing and memory Cerebellum OTHER IMPORTANT BRAIN PARTS Amygdala and corpus caosum THE NEURON Neurons nerve cells handling information processing at the cellular level 0 Axon sending messages away from neuron to the next neuron dendrites receives impulses from other neurons synapses gap 0 Myelin sheath beads of fat insulates and myelination o Neural connections THE BRAIN IN INFANCY Born with about 100 billion neurons Dendritic spreading occurs Blooming and pruning of connections in the brain Myelination NEURAL BLOOMING DENDRITIC SPREADING EXUBERANCE Ages 3 6 most rapid growth of frontal lobe Ages 6 puberty most dramatic growth of temporal and parietal THE BRAIN IN INFANCY Brain needs stimulation sensory exploration amp loving care Newborn brain average weight 333 grams Synapses are what grows not your brain Brain is almost nished growing by age 20 22315 Monday ASTHMA from the illness topic example of how environment affects us Asthma Bronchial tubes very sensitive to stimuli Increasingly common 1980 gt 1996 Different rates for certain populations 0 More asthma in children who are from low income ethnic minority or inner city families 0 Rural Africa vs Western Industrialized Countries more common in industrialized 50 more Theories explanations for higher rates in certain populations over time in all populations Obesity associated with breathing problems Pollution more likely in industrialized countries Vitamin D lack of vitamin D higher rates of asthma Cleaning chemicals Aspirin causes somerays disease vs Acetaminophen began using TylenolgtAsprin o Hygiene hypothesis why more autoimmune problems in wealthier industrialized countries Wealthier societies are cleaner gt bodies become more sensitive OOOOO NEURAL BLOOMING DENDRITIC SPREADING EXUBERANCE Ages 3 6 more rapid growth in frontal lobe Age to puberty most dramatic growth in temporal and parietal lobes THE BRAIN IN INFANCY Born with about 100 billion neurons Dendritic spreading occurs Brain needs stimulation sensory exploration amp loving care Greatest anatomical brain increases from ages 3 15 years distinct bursts of growth Brain areas do not mature uniformly 0 Example myeIination visual cortex takes extra year or two to become myeIinated but prefrontal cortex takes untiI age 30 to become fully myeIinated TED TALK Pruning about the connections gray matter during adolescence 0 White matter layer of fat Too little stimulation of the brain is bad Too much stimulation of brain 0 1970 watched tv at age of 4 0 Now watch tv at age of 4 months 0 Prolonged exposure to rapid image change during critical period of brain development Precondition mind to expect high levels of stimulation ln attention later in life More television watch before age 3 more likely to have attentional problem 10 increase every hour More cognitive stimulation reduced attentional problems 0 1 hour of cognitive stimulation reduced attentional problems 30 BRAIN LATE RALIZATION At birth greater activity in left hemisphere 0 left language 0 right Refers to increased specialization of different parts of brain Examples language development and handedness HANDEDNESS Re ects dominant cerebral hemisphere for language 0 Right handed 90 in the left hemisphere 0 Left handed 10 both hemisphere May be genetic basis but affected by experience 0 Position in uterus prenatal experience practice most babies left on left side of uterus more opportunity to move the right side of the body 0 Culture East Asian fewer than 10 lefties Considered to be awkward to be lefties Correlates of left handedness o Disorders 0 learning disabilities stuttering autoimmune systems are more common in lefties o Overrepresented among most successful intelligent WHY ADOLESCENT BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Especially in prefrontal cortex 0 Age 10 11 blooming exuberance increase in synaptic connections more gray matter 0 Adolescence pruning of unused connections Use it or lose it Myelination THE BRAIN N ADOLESCENCE Corpus callosum axon bers thicken helps smooth out connection between right and left side Prefrontal cortex pruning after pre adolescent blooming high level thinking most dense neurons Teens greater reliance upon amygdala primitive structure ADULTHOOD AGING amp THE BRAIN Brain loss 5 1 of weight between ages 20 90 Dendrites decrease myelin sheath damage Shrinkage not uniform most in prefrontal cortex General slowing of brain and spinal cord function 0 Begins in middle age accelerates with age 22715 Friday ADULTHOOD AGING the BRAIN Brain loss 5 10 of weight between ages 20 90 Dendrites decrease myelin sheath damage Shrinkage not uniform most in prefrontal cortex General slowing of brain and spinal cord function 0 Begins in middle age accelerates with age Functions in neurotransmitters INFLUENCES ON ADULT BRAIN FUNCTIONING Use it or Lose it Cognitive reserve extra connections between the synapses 0 Educational attainment 0 Novelty HOURS OF SLEEP IN CHILDHOOD More sleep in infancy than any other time Shared sleeping with parents controversial Adequate pattered sleep a necessity AMOUNT amp TYPES OF SLEEP ACROSS LIFESPAN older we get less we sleep and the less we need amount of REM sleep is greater in infancy children need about 10 or so of sleep infants get around 16 hours of sleep INFANTS39 SLEEP SIDS Infants stop breathing most die suddenly in night One of leading causes of infant death in US Highest risk ages 2 4 months Best prevention infant sIeeps on its back SIDS RISK FACTORS Not using paci er Soft bedding Fan in room Low birth weight Sleep apnea Lower SES Sleeping on stomach or side Passive exposure to cigarette smoke Sibling died of SIDS SLEEP IN ADOLESCENCE Optimal amount 9 14 hours sleep Sleep debt 0 Inadequate sleep patterns less than 8 hours a day 0 Try to make up on weekends 0 Effects correlates Changed biological circadian clock 0 Releases of melatonin 0 Policy recommendation later school start SLEEP ADULTHOOD amp AGING Recommended sleep 7 hours day Many sleep deprived Middle age may bring sleep problems 0 Wakeful periods at night less deep sleep Many older adults go to bed amp wake up earlier Insomnia increases in late adulthood Excerpts from Chapter 5 Motor Development REFLEXES built in reaction to stimuli Have survival value since brain not adapted to environment Govern many of newborn39s movements Involuntary but infants may have some control 0 Become incorporated into intentional movements as baby ages Some disappear ex Babinski re ex some lasts throughout life time coughing blinking NEWBORN REFLEXES Eye blinking Roo ng Sucking Stepping Babinski foot Grasping Moro startle Tonic neck fencing pose Gag Crawling Breathing Swallowing 3215 Monday NEWBORN REFLEXES Eye blink Roo ng Sucking Stepping Babinkski foot Grasping Moro startle Tonic neck fencing pose Gag Crawling Breathing Swallowing DYNAMIC SYSTEMS VIEW AND MOTOR SKILLS Increasingly complex systems of action with each skill Each new skill is joint product of o 1 Child39s motivation goals 0 2 CNS development 0 3 Body39s movement capacity 0 4 Environmental supports GROSS MOTOR SKILLS INFANCY Important milestones of development 0 Posture o Locomotion and crawling 0 Walking Caregivers important 0 Providing safe environments during efforts Individual timing varies MILESTONES IN GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT from top to bottom MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Critical prime time of development Correlated with cognitive skills 0 Ex motor music skills amp Suzuki study 0 Explanations Piaget Two types of motor skills gross amp ne GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD InvoIve large muscle groups Balance improves Infant39s gait disjointed but smooth rhythmic by age 2 Upper and lower body skills combine into more re ned actions as children age Greater speed and endurance GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Improved smoothness mastery of movement 0 Boys usually outperform girls More con dence Longer period of paying attention sitting still 0 Need physical activity for development attention Organized sports valuable 0 Recommended 3 hours week ORGNAIZED SPORTS PROS AND CONS Possible consequences 0 00000 Distraction from academic work Risk of physical injuries Pressure to win or achieve Unrealistic expectation for success Expensive quothurried childquot Less free play time with family Possible bene ts 0 00000 Better physical development motor skills Improved cognition Provide opportunities to learn how to compete Higher self esteem Peer relations friendships Lower risk of obesity 3415 Wednesday GROSS MOTOR SKILLS ADOLESCENCE amp ADULTHOOD Adolescence 0 Skills continue to improve Early adulthood gt age 30 0 Peak physical performance before Often between ages 19 and 26 0 Biological functions decline after Not uniform organ decline varies Individual differences GROSS MOTOR SKILLS LATE ADULTHOOD Important factors in functioning Natural aging gt gradual deterioration 0 Lifestyle habits patterns have impact Physical activity Linked to biological psychological cognitive health Singhodest man to run a marathon AGE amp REACTION TIME FOR GROSS MOTOR SKILLS decline as older as we get FINE MOTOR SKILLS involve more nely tuned movements such as nger dexterity age 2 children can stack 6 blocks copies to draw a line age 3 stacks 8 blocks wiggles thumb copies O age 4 copies draws person with 3 parts age 5 copies a square age 6 copies triangle draws person with 6 parts Ex writing drawing Example progression of reaching and grasping o Prereaching babies batting at something 0 Reaching with 2 hands then 1 o Ulnar grasp using the whole hand Adjust grip to object Move objects from hand to hand 0 Pincer grasp just using 2 ngers FINE MOTOR SKILLS ADULTHOOD Skills may decline in middle amp late adulthood o In healthy adults functional skills remain good 0 Dexterity decreases o Explanations Pathological conditions Neural noise interference with incoming stimuli 0 Compensation by engaging in other strategies 0 Handwriting remains competent Sensory amp Perceptual Development Chapter 5 SENSORY amp PERCEPTUAL Sensation information stimuli processed by sensory receptors 0 Eyes Retina optic nerve ears cochlea auditory nerve tongue nose skin Perception what is perceived interpreted from stimuli DEVELOPMENTS IN HEARING Prenatal amp newborn sense of hearing can hear in 3rCI trimester lnfant hearing milestones below 0 47 months sense of musical phrasing o By 10 months quotscreen outquot sounds from non native languages 0 79 months recognize familiar words natural phrasing in native language mandarin Chinese shou IMPROVEMENTS IN VISION Visual preferences of infant Brain and eye maturation Improvements in visual acuity 0 Over 1 year 0 Depth perception 0 should have 2020 by the end of the year binocular vision being able to process both images from both eyes INFANTS39 VISUAL PERCEPTION Visual activity 20600 at birth 0 Near 2020 by 1 year 3615 Friday ate HEARING Adolescence 0 Most have excellent hearing Risks for loss loud music high volume on headphones Adulthood o Decline begins age 18 other factors impact 0 Prebyscius INFANTS VISUAL PERCEPTION Visual acuity 20600 at birth near 2020 by 1 year Color see some colors by 2 months preferences by 4 months Perceiving patterns prefers bold patterns colors reddish tones amp human faces shortly after birth Depth perception developed by 7 8 months Visual expectations begins by 4 months all know visual cliff by 6 to 12 months 9 VISION CHANGES IN MIDDLE amp LATE ADULTHOOD Presbyopia quotold eyesquot 0 Change in eye 0 Dif culty in accommodation especially in seeing nearby become farsighted nd out which numbers are looked at for nearsightedness and farsightedness Slower dark adaptation dif culties in dimness Reduced color discrimination Declining depth perception Dif culty with glare SPECIFIC VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS amp AGING Glaucoma the pressure of the eyeball from the uid in there the spurt of air Cataracts 0 34 of people over age 70 develop cataracts Macular degeneration mini strokes in your eye AGING AND GENDER VISION AND HEARING IMPARIMENTS graph Hearing problems become more of a problem Men are more likely to have hearing problems Women are more likely to have vision problems SENSE OF TOUCH Touch and pain 0 Newborns sensitivity to pain touch Anesthesia historically not used like during circumcisions Adulthood 0 Touch sensitivity decreases in old age SMELL amp TASTE Infants 0 Preferences babies have preference for sweet and salty amp don39t like the smell of rotten eggs and sh Breastfeeding studies 0 Breast oil 0 Openness to different tastes Late adulthood Decline can start in 205 declines with age health 0 Affects satisfaction with life food 316 Monday Cognitive Development excerpts from chapter 6amp7 PIAGET39S FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET39s THEORY SCHEMES Organized ways of making sense of experience 0 Change with age Action based sensoriomotor patterns Later move to quotthinking before actingquot pattern creative amp deliberate BUILDING SCHEMES Adaptation building schemes through direct interaction with environment Assimilation using current schemes to interpret external world Accommodation adjusting od schemes and creating new ones to better t environment USING ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMODATION Equilibrium amp disequilibrium 0 Use assimilation during equilibrium 0 Disequilibrium prompts accommodation Organization 0 Internal rearranging and linking schemes SENSORIMOTOR STAGE Birth to 2 years Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration Circular reactions repeating actions over and over again SENSORIMOTOR SU BSTAG ES 1 Re exive schemes birth 1 month newborn re exes 2 Primary circular reactions 1 4 months simple motor habits like making bubbles with their saliva sucking thumb centered around own body 3 Secondary circuIar reactions 4 8 months repeat interesting effects in surroundings 4 Coordination of secondary circuIar reactions 8 12 months intentional goaI directed behavior object permanence 5 Tertiary circuIar reactions 12 18 months explore properties of objects through noveI actions 6 Mental representations 12 months 2 years internal depictions of objects or events deferred imitation MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS Internal mental depictions of objects people events information 0 Can manipulate with mind to come up with ideas solutions 0 Allow deferred imitation and make believe play DEFERRED IMITATION Piaget develops about 18 months Precursors o 6 weeks facial imitation o 6 9 months copy actions with objects 0 12 14 months imitate rationally o 18 months imitate intended but not completed actions OBJECT PERMANENCE Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight According to Piaget develops at 8 12 months Not yet complete 0 A not B error PIAG ET39S PREO PE RATIONAL STAGE Ages 2 7 Gains in mental representation 0 Symbolic representation of real world 0 Make believe play Limitations de ciencies in thinking 0 Conservation 0 Egocentrism perspective taking 0 Hierarchical classi cation 0 Animistic thinking 31815 Wednesday PIAGET39s THEORY ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE Conservation 0 Decentration reversibility Classi cation Seriation o Transitiveinference Spatial reasoning o Directions 0 Maps PIAGET39S THEORY FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE Propositionalthought 0 Evaluating the logic of verbal propositions Hypothetico deductive reasoning o Deducing hypotheses from a general theory No intelligence Chapter on the test WGOTSKY s SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY Social contexts other people especially older caregivers contribute to cognitive development Zone of proximal development ZPD tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help of more skilled partners 0 Scaffolding changing level of child guidance to reach ZPD 32315 Monday CORE KNOWLEDGE THEORY humans are born with innate special purpose knowledge systems Numerical Physical Psychological emotional Linguistic Core domains allow quick grasp of related information INFORMATION PROCESSING IMPROVEMENTS IN ADOLESCENCE Processing speed capacity and automaticity Knowledge Attention Inhibition Memory strategy age 2 can remember 2 numbers Age 7 can remember 5 numbers Metacognition thinking about thinking frontal lobes prefrontal cortex matures rapidly CHANGES IN THINKING IN EARLY ADULTHOOD quotThe more I learn the more I learn how little I knowquot Socrates Theme cognitive exibility o Epistemic cognition Perry Justi ability of conclusions Dualistic vs relativistic thinking more tolerance amp exibility o Pragmatic thought LaBouvie Viel pragmatic realistic 0 Cognitive affective complexity we become more complex We realize people have good and bad qualities COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE COMPLEXITY ACROSS ADULTHOOD graph Peaks in middle adulthood HIGHER EDUCATION Opportunities for exploration amp cognitive growth 0 Increased levels of relativistic thinking worldview 0 Importance of involvement in campus life Living on campus Class campus participation Interdisciplinary connections VOCATIONAL LIFE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Reciprocal effects 0 Cognitive exibility 0 Positive link to SES Higher SES more likely to seek intellectually stimulating leisure CRYSTALLIZED VS FLUID INTELLIGENCE De nitions and examples 0 Crystallized intelligence ability to remember and use information acquired over a lifetime 0 Fluid intelligence ability to solve novel problems that require little or no previous knowledge Developmental changes 0 Crystallized don39t see early decline Increases later 0 Fluid see decline in middle AGE RELATED SLOWING OF INFORMATION PROCESSING Neural network view vs information loss view 0 Neural network longer we live more we experience death of neurons With neurons death new pathway of neurons are needed 0 Information loss lost at each step of cognitive system as we get older information processing in brain is not as ef cient 0 Relevance of this decline to everyday functioning EXPERTISE AND CREATIVITY Expertise acquisition of extensive knowledge in a eld 0 Takes many years 10 year rule 0 Most often seen in middle and late adulthood o Affects information processing Creativity 0 Early childhood Creativity rises especially novel insights 0 Middle adulthood More deliberate thoughtful Sum upintegrate ideas Goals more altruistic MEMORY Improvements from birth through adulthood o from birth to early adulthood 325 Wednesday MEMORY IMPROVEMENTS IN INFANCY Infantile amnesia possible explanations Brain maturation Nonverbal sensory vs verbal memory systems No metacognition No capacity to tell narrative story Can39t take perspective of others Lack of understanding OOOOOO MEMORY IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD More dif culties in working memory 0 Linked to slower processing 0 Less use of memory strategies 0 Experience practice training help adults compensate MEMORY AND LATE ADULTHOOD Declines o Episodic episode of rst memory and working memory place we do mental work Fewer changes 0 Semantic information you call upon to do that you know how to do and implicit memory automatic Declines in perceptual speed gt memory decline Successful aging reducing or adapting to its change in memory M ETACOGN ITION Literally means quotcognition about cognitionquot or thinking about thinking 0 Involves overseeing whether a cognitive goal has been met Infants toddlers do not display Comes with perspective taking ability THEORY OF MIND ToM an understanding of human mental processes If you have ToM you understand that people can have a quotfalse beliefquot which IS 0 1 accepting that someone could have a belief that you know is false or that they could believe something different than you 0 2 knowing that you can deceive someone else The ability to attribute or instill a false belief in or to others indicates the presence of theory of mind Typical children social competence amp ToM 0 Social importance 0 Peer social status Autism Asberger39s and ToM 0 Dif culty THEORY OF MIND AND CONTEXTUAL FACTORS 1 general language ability 2 having an older sibling 3 culture 4 parenting style 5 engagement in pretend play especially imaginary friend Intelligence and Mastery Motivation chapter 8 and 16 WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE ability to solve problems adapt to and learn from everyday expe ence Individual differences fairly stable consistent across development Can39t be directly measured De nition controversial o Sternberg intelligence is about weighing options and making the best choice 0 Multiple intelligence theories Flynn Effect MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE TH EORISTS Gardner verbal mathematical spatial movement musical interpersonal intrapersonal naturalistic Sternberg analytical creative practical SalvoyMayer emotional FLYNN EFFECT Explanations 0 Better prenatalchildhood nutrition 0 Higher education parents children 0 More intervention programs 0 Lower poverty levels NATURE AND NURTU RE Nature genes substantial effect heritability 075 0 Genetic effect increased with age Nuture substantial effect modi es gene expression 0 SES opportunities education parenting style nutrition etc 0 Years of education 0 Occupation type Ionger we re in a challenging occupation more our IQ gmw RESPONDING TO DIFFICULTIES Mastery Vs Helplessness Orientation In uences on response style 0 Parenting teaching style 0 Culture eg American vs Chinese parents Mastery orientation 0 Credit successes to ability 0 Attribute failure to controllable changeable factors Learned helplessness o Attribute failures to ability or lack thereof 0 Attribute success to external factors eg luck 0 Belief that ability xed and cannot be improved by effort 33015 Monday WHEN DO WE BEGIN LEARNING LANGUAGE Begins to hear during second trimester TED talk Most important learning happens before we re born when we re in the womb Fetal orgins our health and wellbeing is affected by the 9 months we spend in the womb First learn voices of mother 0 Through amniotic uid around 4 months LANGUAGE a form of communication weather spoken written or signed that is based on a set of symbols LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY Birth crying 1 2 months copying begins 6 months babbling begins babbling consonance sound followed by soft vowel 7 11 months change from universal linguistic to language speci c listener 8 12 months use of gesture showing and pointing comprehension of words appears 10 15 months rst word spoken 18 months vocabulary spurts starts 18 24 moths use of two word utterances SUPPORTING EARLY LANGUAGE LEARNING gt SUPPORTING SOCIAL COGNITION Infants 0 Respond to coos and babbles 0 Establish joint attention like pointing and telling them to look over there 0 Use child directed speech aka quotmotheresequot with infants 0 Play social games Toddlers 0 Play make believe together 0 Have frequent conversations o Read often and talk about books 412015 Wednesday THREE THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Behaviorist o Learned through Operant conditioning reinforcement Imitation Nativist o lnborn language acquisition device LAD biologically prepares infants and toddlers to learn rules of language lnteractionist 0 Inner capacities and environment work together 0 Social context is important LANGUAGE LOOP IN BRAIN Broca39s area Arcurate fasciculus Wernicke39s area Patricial Kuhl babies keeping using statistics on phoneme frequency INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Environment Gender 0 girls acquire language sooner than boys 0 we talk to girl toddlers more than boy toddlers 0 males and females process language differently Personality Language style 0 Referential master a lot of nouns o Expressive emotion or feeling quotstop itquot LANGUAGE INPUT IN PROFESSIONAL AND IMPOVERISHED FAMILIES and YOUNG CHILDREN39S VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT graph wealthier parents talk more to their children signi cantly more than impoverished parents number of vocabulary words signi cantly less in impoverished families LANGUAGE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD chart THE RULE SYSTEMS OF LANGUAGE chart know meanings of the words Phonology sound system of a language Morphology system of meaningful units involved in word formation adding s plural Syntax system that involves the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences Semantics system that involves the meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics system of using appropriate conversation and knowledge of how to effectively use language in context LANGUAGE ADVANCEMENTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD By age 3 children39s language quite advanced o Syntax typically correct quotI eat red applequot 0 Begins to use plurals understand use past and future verb tenses Exhibit Overregularization Frequently over apply grammar rules to exceptions to the rules LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT GAINS IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Vocabulary o Increases 0 Connection between ideas Pragmatics appropriateness of language use Metacognition amp learning LANGUAGE ADVANCEMENTS N ADOLESCENCE Gains in abstract thought 0 Understand create metaphors amp similes 0 Understand satire sarcasm different meanings of language LANGUAGE ADVANCEMENTS amp CHANGES IN ADULTHOOD Vocabulary gains into late adulthood o Increasesgt especially related to areas of developed expertise Tip of tongue phenomenon in late adulthood 0 Because of slower processing Chapter 14 Families Lifestyles and Parenting BRONFENBRENNER39S bioECOLOGICAL THEORY FAMILY PROCESSES Microsystem quotreciprocal socializationquot o Bidirectional in uence children parents other caregivers socialize each other 4315 Friday FAMILY PROCESSES Microsystem quotreciprocal socializationquot o Bidirectional in uence children parents other caregivers socialize each other Macrosystem sociocultural effects 0 Affects family processes Chronosystem historical changes DIRECT AND INDIRECT INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN ow chart thing between caregiver s relationship child behavior and development and parenting reciprocally in uential LAUNCHING Statistics 0 half of 18 25 year olds live with parents Family affecting Economy gt boomerang generation Empty nest syndrome 0 Family relationships often improve SELECTING A MATE Most select partners who are similar Top qualities desired 0 Mutual attraction o Pleasing disposition temper o Emotional stability 0 Dependability Research on online dating and classi eds 0 men concentrate more on looks ask women out as long as above a certain threshold 0 women are pickier focus less on physical attraction focus more on practical qualities education income tradeoff height for income FRIENDSHIPS IN EARLY ADULTHOOD Friends are usually similar Positive effects Friendship basis Centrality in life changes Siblings TRENDS IN ADULT RELATIONSHIP STATUS Fewer marriages why 0 More people staying single 0 Cohabiting 0 Not remarrying 0 810 of 65 year olds never marriage Marrying later 0 Women age 27 men age 29 More cohabitation Same sex marriages now legalized in many states 4615 Monday TRENDS IN ADULT RELATIONSHIP STATUS Fewer marriages why 0 More staying single 0 Cohabiting 0 Not remarrying o 810 not married Highest it39s been Marrying more 0 Women age 27 Men age 29 More inhabitation Same marriages now legalized in many states COHABITATION Dramatic increases 0 Increasing especially among older adults 0 Lower rates than in other countries and shorter lasting More likely among lower income couples More egalitarian relationships Higher likelihood of abuse for women MORE STATES ALLOWING SAME SEX MARRIAGE 13 states where same sex marriage is banned 0 GA 37 states where same sex marriage is legal FACTORS RELATED TO MARIATAL SATISFACTION Similarities Age at marriage ages 23 and older higher level of marital satisfaction Length of courtship at least for 6 months Timing of rst pregnancy waiting a year after marriage to get pregnant Relationship to extended family Financial and employment status Family responsibilities perception of equality Personality characteristics more emotionally positive higher levels of marital satisfaction SUCCESSFUL MARRIAG ES Premarital education bene cial higher commitment to spouse might be good might cause divorce and people ght nicer From John Gottman s research 0 Establishing love maps can talk about important milestones in relationship with spouse and this would be done in a loving way nice memories 0 Nurturing fondness and admiration Turning towards each other instead of away Power sharing mutual in uence Solving solvable con icts Overcoming gridlock where no one can move Can you get out of it Creating shared meaning OOOOO BENEFITS OF HEALTHY MARRIAGES Better physical health Longer lifespan Better mental health 0 Most couples satis ed with marriage TRANSITION TO PARENTHOOD Trends in fertility declines Affect on marriage of parenthood Predictors of marital satisfaction 0 Sharing of parenting tasks 0 Gender roles 1St and 2nCI births Dsfoijowir RELATIONSHIP AT MIDLIFE Many have more close relationships than any other period of life 0 Children 0 New family members 0 Parents often living 0 Friends MARRIAGE IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Time as a couple Marital satisfaction curve u shaped passion intimacy decision commitment DIVORCE RATES Stabilized since 1980s highest in 805 45 of marriages in US 0 Signi cantly lower for college educated couples EDUCATION MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE Less than high school diploma almost half Bachelors degree or higher around 26 4815 Wednesday DIVORCE RATES Stabilized since 1980s 45 of marriages in US 0 Lower for college educated 0 Higher for remarriages 0 First 7 years midlife most common times Less likely with longer marriages 0 Negative health effects Especially hear health for women EDUCATION MARRIAGE and DIVORCE chart DIVORCE RATE IN RELATION TO NUMBER OF YEARS MARRIED graph Highest risk of divorce is in the early years of 510ish years PARENTING AND DIVORCE US divorce rate much higher than other countries Effects of divorce on children 0 Poorer emotional adjustment 0 More academic and behavioral problems 0 Overall adjustments affected by social maturity gender temperament custody situation SES Adjustment improves postdivorce if 0 Con icts reduced by divorce 0 Parents harmonious amp authoritative Chapter 14 Parenting and Discipline DIANA BAUMRIND39S CLASSIFICATION OF PARENTING STYLES chart Accepting responsive Rejecting unresponsive Demanding controlling Authoritative Authoritarian Undemanding uncontrolling lndulgent Neglectful Which is associated with best child outcomes authoritative 4102015 Friday PARENTING STYLES AND DISCIPLINE Quick x approaches not effective good parenting takes time and effort Quality more important than quantity Baumrind39s parenting style 0 Authoritarian restrictive amp punitive concerned with punishment 0 Authoritative warm supportive accountability stressed o Neglectful uninvolved in child39s life no controls norms o Indulgent highly involved chiId sets ruIes no controIs Important adjustments for developmental stage should be made DISCIPLINE Consequences of corporal or harsh punishment 0 Parent out of controI role model 0 Instills fear range and avoidance in child 0 Shows chiId what to do and what not to do 0 Can be abusive Sweden outIaws physicaI chiId spanking in 1979 0 Positive effects PUNISHMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Frequent and harsh physicaI punishment has undesirable and negative side effects Alternatives to harsh punishments 0 Time out o Withdrawing privileges 0 Positive discipline Parent can increase effectiveness of punishment 0 Consistency 0 Warm parent child relationship 0 Explanation GRANDPARENTHOOD Average become grandparents Iate 405 Grandparenting styles vary 0 Detached passive supportive authoritative and in uential 41315 Monday CARING FOR AGING PARENTS quotsandwich generationquot 0 generation that s in middle adult years Caring for older generation and Factors affecting likelihood 0 culture Asians African Americans are more likely to not get childcare and do it themselves Highly stressful 0 average of 20 hours week taking care of parents Chapter 10 Emotional Development ERIKSON39S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES Basic trust vs mistrust Birth to 1 year Autonomy vs shame and doubt 1 3 years Initiative vs guiIt 3 6 years Industry vs inferiority 6 11 years Identity vs roe confusion adolescence Intimacy vs isolation early adulthood Generativity vs stagnation middle adulthood Ego integrity vs despair Iate adulthood We rely on him the most of social 0 We deal with different stages of social crisis for life APPEARANCE OF PRIMARY EMOTIONS Happiness o Smile from birth 0 Social smile 610 weeks 0 Laugh 34 months Anger 0 General distress from birth 0 Anger 46 months Fean 0 First fears 2nCI half of rst year 0 Stranger anxiety 812 months SELF CONSCIOUS EMOTIONS Shame Embarrassment Guilt Envy Pride these are examples of metacognition Emerge 18 months Children become aware of self as separate and unique Require adult instructions when to feel these emotions UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONS OF OTHERS Emotion contagion 0 Early infancy Recognize others39 facial expressions 0 4 5 months Social referencing o By one year 0 Re ects attachment A39ITACHMENT a close emotional bond between two people Theorists on attachment 0 Freud infants attached by oral satisfaction 0 Marlow comfort preferred over food Monkey dude o Erickson trust vs mistrust Trust arises from physical comfort 0 Bowlby newborn is biologically equipped to which attachment behavior from caregivers SEPARATION ANXIETY Description Emergence around 1 year Explanation when baby is securely attached they don39t want caregiver to leave Appropriate handling Factors affecting can be worse of child is hungry or tired STRANGER ANXIETY Description baby is anxious when stranger comes near Emergence around 1 year or sometimes before Explanation baby is securely attached to caregiver Factors affecting how nearby is caregiver where stranger meeting occurs stranger39s behavior 4152015 Wednesday STRANGE SITUATION EXPERIMENT Strange situation tests strength of infant attachment 0 Securely attached 65 caregiver is secure base to explore environment from better emotional health better social competence academically Insecure avoidant 20 shows insecurity by avoiding caregiver o Insecure resistant 1015 clings to caregiver then resists by ghting against the closeness o Insecure disorganized 5 1 shows insecurity by being disorganized disoriented Demonstrates attachment 0 Separation anxiety Stranger anxiety Primary emotions Trust vs mistrust And often social referencing O 0000 EARLY ATI39ACHMENT amp LATER DEVELOPMENT Adolescence 0 Secure attachment to both parents positively related to peer amp friendship relations Adulthood 0 Adults attached to romantic partners as secure base for comfort security in stressful times Childhood attachment patterns in uence Secure avoidant anxious attachments Communication patterns can impact EARLY amp MIDDLE CHILDHOOD developing emotional competence Early childhood 0 Ages 2 4 more ways amp words to describe emotions 0 Learn about causes consequences of feelings 0 Ages 4 5 greater ability to re ect on emotions ToM metacognition Middle childhood 0 Better understanding managing emotions 0 Ages 5 7 shift increased competence in selfconscious emotions Harter 1993 MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Development of emotion Increases in coping with stress 0 More coping alternatives and strategies Can intentionally shift thoughts By age 10 most use cognitive strategies Unsupportive families traumatic events may lessen abilities ADOLESCENCE development of emotion More extremes of emotion More rapid emotional changes 0 Girls more vulnerable to depression 0 Moodiness is normal 0 Result of hormonal and cognitive changes environmental experiences TEMPERAMENT Reactivity speed and intensity of o Emotional arousal 0 Attention 0 Motor activity Selfregulation 0 Strategies that modify reactivity 4172015 Friday TEMPERAMENT Reactivity speed and intensity of o Emotional arousal 0 Attention 0 Motor activity Self regulation 0 Strategies that modify reactivity STRUCTURE OF TEMPERAMENT Easy 40 usually in good moods adjust easily with change eat on regular schedule 0 when fussy they nd their own way to soothe themselves like sucking thumb Dif cult 10 constant physical activity restless easily distracted loud crying hard to soothe o dif culty with selfregulation light sleepers demands a lot of attention Slow to warm up 15 shy need more time to warm up to people or experiences may withdraw from new things very cautious with their approach more likely to watch than being active physically 0 can quickly be overstimulatedamp will turn away responds slow and quietly to physical comfort like hunger Unclassi ed 35 have characteristics of each quotGoodness of tquot t between caregiver and infant EMOTIONAL SELF REGULATION Adjusting own state of emotional intensity 0 Improves over rst year with brain development 0 Caregivers contribute to child39s selfregulation style EARLY CHILDHOOD Selfregulation and Self Control Better able to regulate emotions and body Can exercise selfcontrol o Marshmallow test Walter Mischel o Correlates later in life BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR TEMPERAMENT Kagan Inhibited shy o React negatively withdraw from new stimuli 0 High heart rates stress hormones and stress symptoms 0 Higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity 0 Greater use of amygdala Uninhibited sociable React positively approach new stimuli Low heart rate stress hormones and stress symptoms Higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity Lesser use of amygdala OOOO KAGAN39S RESEARCH ON TEMPERAMENT Stable trait 0 Toddler gt adulthood Association with later mental health GENETICS AND ENVIRONMENT IN TEMPERAMENT Genetic in uences o Responsible for about half of individual differences Gender Environmental in uences 0 Nutrition 0 Caregiving 0 Cultural variations Goodness of t 0 Combine genetics and environment Child rearing to match temperament Gender MIDDLE amp LATE ADULTHOOD Affect Optimization Greater ability to maximize positive emotion and minimize negative emotion o Feelings mellow fewer highs and lows 0 Positive connections with friends and family 4202015 Monday MIDDLE amp LATE ADULTHOOD Affect Optimization Greater ability to maximize positive emotion and minimize negative emotion Labouvie Vief 2003 o Feelings mellow fewer highs amp lows 0 Positive connections with friends and family Chapter 10 amp11 The self Self esteem amp Aging SELF RECOGNITION IN INFANCY graph DEVELOPMENT amp SELF UNDERSTANDING Eary amp Middle Childhood Increases in perspective taking Theory of Mind Movement from focus on physical concrete characteristics to internal characteristics eg personality preferences etc Increases in social comparisons Real vs idea sef More accurate selfevaluation THE SELF amp ADOLESCENCE EMERGING ADULTHOOD Increased sef focus egocentrism Erikson identity development vs identity role confusion James Marcia identity statuses o 2 important questions to ask Exploration of identity Commitment Commitment Yes No Exploration of Yes identity achievement identity moratorium Identity No identity foreclosureidentity diffusion Identity dimensions amp in uences SELF PERCEPTIONS IN MIDLIFE More complex integrated selfdescriptions Increases in feelings of o Selfacceptance o Autonomy 0 Environmental mastery Midlife gt increased wellbeing happiness 0 Why MIDDLE amp LATE ADULTHOOD Fewer daily stressors A PERSONALITY the enduring personal characteristics of individuals Big 5 factors traits of personality OCEAN o Openness Imaginative or practical Interested in variety or routine Independent or conforming o Conscientiousness Organized or disorganized Careful or careless Disciplined or impulsive o Extraversion Sociable or retiring Fun loving or somber Affectionate or reserved 0 Agreeableness Softhearted or ruthless Trusting or suspicious Helpful or uncooperative o Neuroticism Calm or anxious Secure or insecure Selfsatis ed or selfpitying Neuroticism predicts health status and they found higher BP more sickness more physical ailments Openness associated with cognitive positive development higher levels of IQ Conscientiousness associated with higher grades in college Believed to result from trait situation interaction 4222015 Wednesday PERSONALITY STABILITY Personality changes most in early adulthood age 20 40 o Explanation cumulative personality model DEVELOPMENT amp SELF ESTEEM Selfesteem global evaluations of the self 0 1 Correlates o 2 Some researchers nd no declines in late adulthood LATE ADULTHOOD amp SELF ESTEEM WELL BEING Control autonomy 0 Non institutionalized Good health Lack of negative life changes 0 Not becoming widowed Social support Social interaction Religiosity spirituality MIDDLE ADULTHOOD amp ERIKSON Generativity vs Stagnation Generativity taking care of next generation 0 Developed through many activities Stagnation selfabsorption develops when one senses shehe has done nothing for next generation CHANGES IN GENERATIVITY graph SIZE OF SOCIAL NETWORK DECREASES graph As we get older we have smaller social networks 0 retiring physical limitations AGE RELATED CHANGES IN NUMBER OF SOCIAL PARTNERS graph also decreases LATE ADULTHOOD Erikson Ego Integrity vs Despair 3 tasks of ego integrity Robert Peck 0 Body transcendence vs body preoccupation Psychological vs physical pleasures o Ego differentiation vs role preoccupation Satisfaction with self vs roles in the world 0 Ego transcendence vs ego preoccupation Focus on past vs present and making life better for future generations being able to accept the past Gerotranscendence heightened sense of spirituality 0 Joan Erikson believed shift from materialistic and rational view of the world to a more transcendent one This is achieved when at peace withself Sense of self that isn39t grounded in our roles physical sense a sense of self that is more spiritual More integrated based on experiences RELIGIOSITY amp WELL BEING AMONG OLDER AMERICANS graph COPING IN LATER YEARS Coping strategies two types 0 Problem focused coping see a problem amp feel like you need to go solve it o Emotion focused coping see a problem amp change the way you feel about it more common with older people Coping in late adulthood o Centenarians Edna Parker 115 CHARACTERISTICS AT AGE 50 HEALTH amp HAPPINESS AT AGES 75 8O graph Find a person Exercise Eat healthily Learn to cope with stress


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