Nutrition for Health
Nutrition for Health
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Date Created: 04/29/14
ESS 3 Midterm Exam Study Outline Chapters 15 Chapter 1 Nutrition 1 Nutrition a Definition The scientific study of food and how food nourishes the body and in uences health II Wellness a Definition A multidimensional lifelong process that includes physical emotional and spiritual health b Dimensions of Wellness This book specifically focuses on physical health which is in uenced by both our nutrition and our level of physical activity III Nutrients a Six groups of Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water b Macronutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteins c Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals IV Carbohydrates a Energy contribution 4kcal gram b Main sources primary source of fuel for our bodies V Fats a Energy Contribution 9kcal gram b Sources important source of energy for our body during rest and low intensity activity VI Protein a Energy Contribution 4 kcal gram b Main sources not a primary source of energy for our bodies VII Healthful Diet a Adequate diet that provides enough energy nutrients and fiber to maintain a person39s health Moderate eating the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthy body weight and to optimize our body39s functioning Balanced diet that contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper proportion of nutrients Varied eating different foods each day VIII RDA a Basic understanding Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA The average daily nutrient intake level that meets the nutrient requirements of 97 to 98 of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group IX UL a Basic understanding Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL the highest average daily intake likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects X EER a Basic understanding Estimated Energy Requirement EER the average energy kcal intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult XI AMDR a Basic understanding Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR Range of intakes for carbohydrate fat and protein that is associated with reduced risk for chronic disease and provides adequate levels of essential nutrients b Value for macronutrients Chapter 2 Digestive System Human Body I Hunger vs Appetite a Hypothalamus function and triggers A brain region where sensations such as hunger and thirst are regulated II GI Tract a Major Organs mouth esophagus stomach small intestine and large intestine b Accessory Organs Gall Bladder Pancreas c Bile uid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that emulsifies fats in the small intestine III Digestion a Mechanical i In mouth Primary action 9 digests carbohydrates ii In Stomach Primary action 9 digests proteins and lipids b Chemical i Enzymes in general role Chemicals usually proteins that act on other chemicals to speed up body processes ii Salivary amylase the first of many enzymes that assist the body in digesting and absorbing food IV Small Intestine a Duodenum connected via the pyloric sphincter to the stomach Iejunum middle portion of the small intestine Ileum last portion connected to the large intestine at another sphincter called the ileocecal valve b Role in digestion and absorption c Villi constant movement in the small intestine helps them encounter and trap nutrient molecules V Nutrient Transport a Blood travels through the cardiovascular system b Lymph travels through the lymphatic system VI Absorption a Disorders related to Gastroesophageal Re ux Disease GERD VII Liver in general The largest organ of the GI tract and one of the most important organs of the body Its functions include production of bile and processing of nutrient rich blood from the small intestine Chapter 3 Carbohydrates I II III IV Simple a monosaccharide or disaccharide such as glucose commonly called sugar and Complex a nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules such as starch glycogen and fiber Sweeteners Monosaccharides Glucose Galactose Fructose Disaccharides Lactose Polysaccharides Molecular structure of each a complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of glucose a Starch sources the storage form of glucose in plants food sources include grains legumes and tubers b Glycogen A third complex carbohydrate not obtained from our diet c Fiber Sources nondigestible part of plants that forms leaves stems and seeds fiber consists of long polysaccharide chains i Soluble fibers that dissolve in water ii Insoluble fibers that do not dissolve in water VI Carbohydrate and Fuel VI VII a Gluconeogenesis the generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins b Glucose Pathways Insulin and Glucagon a Definitions Insulin A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose facilitates uptake of glucose by body cells Glucagon A hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose causes breakdown of liver stores of glycogen into glucose b Functions involved in regulating blood glucose Diabetes a Type I The form of diabetes in which the body cannot produce enough insulin b Type II The form of diabetes in which body cells progressively become less responsive to insulin or the body does not produce enough insulin c Risk and Prevention May prevent it by losing weight establishing healthful eating patterns and exercising regularly can control the symptoms in many people More severe cases may require oral medications such as pills Chapter 4 Fats Lipids I Triglycerides A molecule consisting of three fatty acids attached to a three carbon glycerol backbone a Basic structure glycerol backbone 3 fatty acids b Saturated Fat Contain the maximum amount of hydrogen II III IV VI Vll i Molecular structure long chain of carbon atoms bonded to other carbon atoms two attachment sites and to hydrogen atoms two more attachments sites ii Sources iii Risk factor c Unsaturated Fat i Monounsaturated fatty acids structure and sources A fatty acid that has two carbons in the chain bound to each other with one double bond these types of fatty acids are generally liquid at room temperature ii Polyunsaturated fatty acids structure and sources Fatty acids that have more than one double bond in the chain these types of fatty acids are generally liquid at room temperature d Trans Fats i Hydrogenation The process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids making them more saturated and therefore more solid at room temperature ii Health concerns Trans fats are more detrimental to our health than saturated fats because they change the way our cell membranes function and reduce the removal of cholesterol from the blood Essential Fatty Acids a Linoleic Acid sources an essential fatty acid found in Vegetable and nut oils also known as omega 6 fatty acid b Alpha linoleic acid sources an essential fatty acid found in leafy green vegetables axseed oil soy oil fish oil and fish products an omega 3 fatty acid Phospholipids a Basic molecular structure glycerol backbone bound to two fatty acids b Sources Definition A type of lipid in which a fatty acid is combined with another compound that contains phosphate unlike other lipids phospholipids are soluble in water Sterols a Basic molecular structure multiple ring structure different from that of triglycerides b Cholesterol most commonly occurring sterol in our diet c Sources Function of Fats Energy Protection Insulation AMDR of fats Lipoproteins a VLDL Very Low Density Lipoprotein A large lipoprotein made up mostly of triglyceride Functions primarily to transport triglycerides from their source to the body39s cells including to adipose tissues for storage b C VIII a b C LDL Low Density Lipoprotein A molecule resulting when a VLDL releases its triglyceride load Higher cholesterol and protein content makes LDLs somewhat more dense than VLDLs HDL High Density Lipoprotein A small dense lipoprotein with a very low cholesterol content and a high protein content Cardiovasular Disease Causes related to fats Risk factors metabolic syndrome Prevention Maintain your total intake to within 20 to 35 of energy and keep your intake of saturated and trans fatty acids low Chapter 5 Proteins 1 Protein a Functions i Cell growth Our cells are constantly turning over meaning old cells are broken down and parts are used to create new cells ii Enzymes small chemicals usually proteins that act on other chemicals to speed up processes but are not apparently changed during those processes iii Hormones substances that act as chemical messengers in the body iv Fluid and electrolyte balance must be maintained at healthy b C levels inside and outside cells and within blood vessels v Acid base balance pH by buffering acids and bases proteins help maintain acid base balance vi Immune system antibodies Antibodies are special proteins that help our body defend itself against foreign substances vii Transport nutrients oxygen viii Structure ix Energy gluconeogenesis during times of low carbohydrate and fat intake the body breaks down proteins into individual amino acids which are degraded further to provide the building blocks for the production of glucose which provides needed energy to the brain Amino Acids 20 a Essential 9 don39t need to know names b Nonessential 11 c Nitrogen d Peptide bonds dipeptide tripeptide polypeptide Shape Denaturation Change in the shape of proteins x Complete proteins sources all 9 of the essential amino acids xi Incomplete proteins do not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities to support growth and health Complementary Proteins examples Two or more foods that together contain all nine essential amino acids necessary for a xii g h complete protein It is not necessary to eat complementary proteins at the same meal Mutual Supplementation The process of combining two or more incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein Digestion Intake requirements AMDR and recommendations i Intake for special populations children elderly athletes ii Excess intake issues direct and indirect Supplementation Don39t rely on supplements if you can get it naturally from real nutrients and vitamins in foods Vegetarianism terminology The practice of restricting the diet to food substances of plant origin including vegetables fruits grains and nuts xiii i Deficiency issues Reduced consumption of meat and dairy products can result in inadequate intakes of nutrients ii Different classifications There are many reasons for people becoming vegetarians such as religious ethical personal philosophical and food safety reasons The health benefits reduced risk of obesity type 2 diabetes heart disease etc iii
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