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Week 1 Class Notes/Power Point

by: Alyssa Spiering

Week 1 Class Notes/Power Point ARC 310

Alyssa Spiering
UW - L
GPA 3.32
Midwest Archaeology
Dr. Connie Arzigian

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Notes, cultural summaries, and power points from entire semester of this course, p.s. this might not be in correct order
Midwest Archaeology
Dr. Connie Arzigian
75 ?




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This 1290 page Bundle was uploaded by Alyssa Spiering on Tuesday August 25, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ARC 310 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Dr. Connie Arzigian in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Midwest Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.

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Date Created: 08/25/15
Bands Tribes Chiefdoms States W Dozens Hundreds or low Thousands Tens of thousands and ship sizg thousands more iubsi ence Hunting and Huntinggathering Agriculture herding Intensive largescale gathering horticultureherding hunting and gathering agriculture 13mm Rare Moderate to substantial Substantial Maximal surplus 5313mm Mobile nomadic Mobilevillages Villages public Villages and cities public architecture architecture public architecture Kin episodic Kin based clans episodic Ranked ascribed positions Centralized bureaucracies leadership leadership Big Man chiefs with central control class and can hierarchies W Reciprocity Reciprocity quotBig Man39 Redistribution by chiefs Redistribution andMarkets redistribution 39 re 39a None individual Moderate individuals Present Dominant individuals guilds unions lnformalfamily clan lnformalfamily clan Centralized chiefs and Centralized laws peerpressure peerpressure clans Mill Communal Clans lineages Clanslineages elite Various public and private Religion Polytheism Polytheism shamans Polytheism shamans Fullrtime priests shamanscurers curers clan based incipient priests clan polytheismmonotheism ancestor worship based ancestor worship theocracies mam Rare individual Endemic revenge Endemic revenge interfamily group conflicts prestige defense acquisition of resources prestige territory defense conquest Endemic professional armies empires lt M T73 LEVEL 1 q 0 LEVEL 2 o M LEVEL 3 l i i l 73 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 o LEVEL 6 BUNDLE sum Q nocx e cnzunnou I 1 RED ocnnz f 39 c5 5 K FLEXED 104me w 39 i u 39 0 quot quoti 39 39 oc F39 a kquot 39 39 l v Pquot J 39 s FLEXED on sun 43 1 4quot1quot 439Q5Lgp1 n l 39 I 393939quot quotquotF 39 3939E397 3 8 FLEXED ON BACK 39 i391 L 3939 elf4 gust 53233 F 39 5quot 1quot33939 39z39quot 3913939 39 39 212 i9 5 4 I iy 11quot I a1 3 I 39 39 quot39 u u wut Figure 7 Burial typ s 311 tnngpfac cesfFeatnre25j Timeline for Wisconsin Projectile Points LOCO BC 4 39n 5 2000 e r 3 7 Paleo lndlan Folsom PlainVieW I 1 r Cody Complex zav 5 3 E s l i 39 l 4 a RMW a quotI quotquot39 Scottsbluff Ir iii 39 are e a q 6000 m r a j 2 gt Arr 2 LU Hardin Barbed arles NOtChed 5000 I Kirk Corner Notched 4000 4 Archaic Osceola 3 39 0 Matanzas 3000 5 Raddatz Side Notched Madison Side Notched I 2000 4 rI l 3 6 4 P my Wm quot Synders Corner quot rem me Manker Corner Notched Early 39 39 Indian Isle Phase 39 Prairie Phase BC 139 AD I Trempealeau Phas ei Middle Woodland I Minvme phase Steuben Expanded Stemmed 39 Hm r quot a Cahokia Double Notched EE Mlddle IMiSSiSSippl O ema Madison Triangular quot3 Historic 2000 AD m Welcome to ARC 310 Midwest Archaeology Instructor Dr Connie Arzigian PhD Anthropology University of WisconsinMadison 1993 Lecturer in Archaeological Studies Program since 2012 Research Archaeologist Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center MVAC since 1988 Lecturer Archaeological Studies Program since 2012 Offices Room 3360 Wimberly Hall Room 110 Archaeology Building Office Hours Tuesday 2 4 pm 3360 Wimberly Hall Thursday 2 4 pm in Archaeology Lab Or after class or by appointment Or email any time I check my email regularly throughout the day Lab and my office The Archaeology Some of my Wisconsin archaeolog experiences pr39f w quot 39 I LANDFORMS OF WlSCONSlN V 3 f at v A Gumg 3 and ntwai u v Swan 7 r 39 439 7 rmpa xlgt39v r nquot s v9quot I h w Ir 4 a a 5 626 6 3mm 055mg a i quotI 1 U x l 24 320 W 39 r 11 quot I 2 AW r 39 3619quot a Vs m v 9 5quot wquot 39 1II3h l a I IJ E 1 bx rt i y 739 quot454quot 4 9 V J v 35 as V If 7 J 0 ft 0 I n4 naltkgz 39439 397 I r 3101 1 k 3 r L w 39 397139 2quot quotmmquot Rant 24 I 1 7 91 39jn r Hulurlm 111 3 h I x 1 75 quotM 3139 V a l n Deu39ri uun 39 I A vf 39 53395quot 1 9quot W quot r w5 uxz g v Dnlr nr Range Condition Heighl Lenglh Dhmetu Weigh x litquot I 3939I y 39 Eu 4 39 A 1I 39u L u39U 39 V l I 1 Jr quot Colinclot Silt Pl origin Event Malerhl Found Used Mule Owned Till Prone Illgun uhrllrunr thnnmr n uuuu dllr H4 In NJ 39llll dllc Uh N 201quot I N H mull H I I h unumn ILumnrr UruundMunc 3 4 Grmwcd Maul Well vmm dongmds where ll wnsuwd Idc u numbed md pulnhcd m mu possibly from bemg hamd 0 0 Good 1 000 in 5000 in 0000 in 0000 02 wan 2000 in Depth 0000 in Clrcum 0000 in Count I l mlhu ablc mild Muluplc 139s Mill s laul Slims Dim Nola Sma dne OHM2N0 SunI by Klompcnhower Ryan Actuation I I E Timber sales along Central Wisconsin River Valley by Stevens Point Telling the story of past lives through the garbage or material remains that 0 lit bi i l 391 3 39 v J39 95 quot 39 J v I 39 d 1 f 39 I 39 u l 39 39 n C D I 1 NI 3 39 I v 39a 1 v 5quot 32 39 ENTER b0 quotrrlcs ARCHAEOLOGY C and L1 n u ifacts people made and used Art wczma m3 8ng 2 6 063 Ht 6 w w V adv mzm 1 a V a g Iv K 0 a I u x N 39 n 3 k 4 Smallgroup discussion List 10 things you know now about Midwest Archaeology List 10 specific things you would like to learn about Midwest Archaeology Be ready to share with the class What we know now What we want to know Course overview Syllabus Course outline Course etiquette Questions Midwest environment and resources The view today Terminology Biome Community of living organisms within a single specific ecological region Biota animals and plant life within a particular region all part of the ecosystem and biome Biotic Province A community occupying an area where similarity of climate physiography and soils leads to the recurrence of similar combinations of organisms Midwest Biotic Provinces Biotic Province a major type of terrestrial community categorized by its 1 dominant plant form 2 seasonality of leaves 3 leaf morphology 4 latitude Determinants climate soils fire grazing and topography habitat for specific animals For archaeologists lead to specific human adaptations 3 POLAR ICE CAP TUNDRA TAICA AND NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST TEMPERATE GRASSLAND CHAPARRAL I j DESERT TROPICAL RAIN FOREST 3 TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST TROPICAL SCRUB FOREST TROPICAL GRASSLAND AND SAVANNA 4 variables distinguish biomes worldwide Forbsg rasses Shrubs Trees l l Deserts TempTrop Shrublands Forests Grasslands Temp Tundra Arctic Evergr en Deciduous Conifers Broadleaf Temp Trop Temperate Tropical httpwwwlifeillinoiseduib203Fal2009 Biomes delineated by average temperature precipitation and seasonality Whittaker s scheme E 8 z 2 4 9 8 h o 3 a c c lt Increasing precipitation Tropical rain forest 9 ft V Decreasmg temperature Boreal forest Subtropical Temperate desert grassland desert 20 10 O 10 Average temperature C 7 Tundra La Crosse Average temperature for each season Average precipitation Seasonal distribution httpwwwweathergovoimatexmaoisph pwfoarx Midwest Biotic Provinces To far north Tundra Hudsonian Biotic Province Taiga or Boreal Forest biome coniferous forest Canadian Biotic Province northwoods transition zone Carolinian Biotic Province Temperate Deciduous forest inoian Biotic Province Temperate grassland 3 POLAR ICE CAP TUNDRA TAICA AND NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST TEMPERATE DECIOUOUS FOREST TEMPERATE GRASSLAND CHAPARRAL 7 A TROPICAL RAIN FOREST TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST Tundra Formed at the end of the ice age Far north of the Midwest now Permafrost Cold and dry Tundra cont Mosses heaths lichen grasses shrubs sedges Climate cold all year Summer thin layer of ground thawssoggy Huge herds of caribou wolves polar bears deer shrews hares muskoxen snowshoe rabbits Insects migrating birds Carbon dioxide sink 3 POLAR ICE CAP 1 TUNDRA TAJCA AND NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST TEMPERATE GRASSLAND CHAPARRAL D DESERT TROPICAL RAIN FOREST 3 TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST TROPICAL SCRUB FOREST 39 I TROPICAL CRASSLAND AND SAVANNA Hudsonian Biotic Province Boreal forestTaiga Largest biome Conifers adapted to cold and snow Needles Tree shape Species Jack Pine black and white spruce balsam fir tamarack cedar hemlock white birch poplar cedar willow Also some lichens and mosses Winters very cold summers relatively warm humid average temperature is below freezing for 6 months summers can drop to 20 degrees 50100 frostfree days Total precipitation 1233 inches Hudsonian Biotic Provincecont Wildfires common many trees have thick bark to protect them Animals moose caribou black bear predators lynx wolverine bobcat mink snowshoe rabbits red squirrel vole fishwhite fish sturgeon Many insects and insecteating birds many migratory Difficult for people to find sufficient food throughout year population low and dispersed 3 POLAR ICE CAP 1 TUNDRA TAJCA AND NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST TEMPERATE GRASSLAND CHAPARRAL D DESERT TROPICAL RAIN FOREST 3 TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST TROPICAL SCRUB FOREST 39 I TROPICAL CRASSLAND AND SAVANNA Canadian Biotic Province northwoods Mixed coniferousdeciduous forest Transitional Pine birch cedar elm sugar maple basswood Moose mountain lion bobcat Whitetailed deer Winters still long and cold summers longer and warmer Glaciated landscape Lake Forest Climate ameliorating influence of lakes 3 POLAR ICE CAP TUNDRA TAICA AND NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST TEMPERATE GRASSLAND CHAPARRAL A TROPICAL RAIN FOREST TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST Carolinian Biotic Province Eastern Deciduous Forests oakdeermaple biome Deciduous trees oak hickory maple beech walnut elm ash basswood cottonwood forests understory of shrubs and herbs Abundant animals whitetailed deer black bear elk opossum cottontail rabbit other medium and small animals occasional buffalo Climate more moderate shorter winters less snowfall longer hotter summers four seasons average annual temp 50 degrees average annual precipitation 3060 inches Rich deep soils Very favorable to human occupation 3 POLAR ICE CAP TUNDRA TAICA AND NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST TEMPERATE DECIOUOUS FOREST TEMPERATE GRASSLAND CHAPARRAL I j DESERT TROPICAL RAIN FOREST TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST TROPICAL SCRUB FOREST TROPICAL GRASSLAND AND SAVANNA linoian Biotio Province GrassOakBison biome Prairie and oak savanna g wide variety of grasses short to tall forbs flowering plants Oak savannas with bur oak and pin oak gallery forests along waterways with less fire aspen scrub oak slender willow bog bkohhazel Wetter land wet prairie grasses and sedges lllinoian Biotic Province GrassOakBison biome Huge herds of buffalo elk badger jack rabbit skunk ground squirrel gOpher coyote wolf Deep soils Precipitation 1030 inches Temperature great range longer growing season 100175 frostfree days Fires Highly productive agricultural land VERY little native prairie still exists Prairiesavanna and gallery forest 3 POLAR ICE CAP 1 TUNDRA TAJCA AND NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST TEMPERATE GRASSLAND CHAPARRAL D DESERT TROPICAL RAIN FOREST TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST TROPICAL SCRUB FOREST 39 F TROPICAL CRASSLAND AND SAVANNA Great Lakes Tomnm o lAKE ONTARIO Mam 39 39 Falls a The Great Lakes Distribution LABEL each of the Great Lakes on your map Resources MANY fish httpseagrantwiscedugreatlakesfishLakeM ichFishIndeXhtm Note how many fish are exotics or non na ve httpseagrantwiscedugreatlakesfishexoticshtml Lake effect on weather Midwest biotic provinces Driftless Area mosaiodiverse environments in Close proximitymany vegetation zones intermixed Prairies Eastern deciduous forest Northwoods Gallery forest along waterways Tension zone through Wisconsin Wisconsin Forest Tgpes P r mi e notice the absence 39fi quotf NW 39 4 Oak Savanna wider spaced mixed oak trees with no understory in v 3 quotquot gt94 at 3fl 5 Pine Barren even aged stand of iack Dine trees u39i IMquot 2 I Mixed Forest a mixture of deciduous u and coniferous trees 8 Oak Woodlands d area with mixed oak trees FINLEY39S PRESETTLEMENT VEGETATION x Jr 5 3 1 n M x 39 I 1 Kyla 1 1 439 7 2 K 1 r i l 1 39 ll 3 i Lake Superior LowlancL n quot Natural Divisions of Wisconsin Laike 5 Michigan I quotSHMcla i 2 f39 39 39 Nimlicm 3 llxiswsd Lgomk mhs Forest quot9quot quot S39Ea39 39 5 Ridgeamp Lowianas 7 L I oL Utticiduyus forest E S E Savannb i 39 r f andil rairic 5 n i Fquot 39 I I l L J quotT 39 WEN S n1 iall 4 T J fQquot quotquoti quotquotL gi f im ZEqu Jr EndAWE d I 39 I lx I L thEr ijim iquot 1 r 39Em 39i 39 1 illi ili amine I r Th Wiscnsim Map showing the tension zone in Wisconsin Glacial advances Llama FEEEtEene Rimssharia and the Glaciiall wales 11 yeara BF Eppm H merican a Alipii a namea iE na a quot an quot f i A 5 Hm 1 min 39 mia 39 39 quot 39 9515335 399 7 Emmaquot 39 I Hi Sewquot ml 1 I mi H IIIIIJI an mum quotquotln iepaain and r r r Ean5ann1 11 mmm Em indexl IIiIIinlniiE W gigg nailm IRES 39 I A E A 1393 ha 1 a a a 1 1 E I 45 42339 51 J a a a a a a a a E E39 5 39 15 399 a Early Holocene End of Ice age vegetation adapts sprucedominated forest moves north elm and then Oak moves in in South Pine in north Shift of Prairieforest ecotone through time 90006000 BP warmer and drier than today Peak dryness 6000 BP 80 of modern precip After 6000 BP precipitation increased gradually Mean July temperature decreased in north increased in south cooler up north warmer in south Extnt of last gciatin 39 8 Solid linelast glaciation dashed earlier glaciations A f 39 Vegetation at glacial maximum We lumena Seesawfee Lima fje equot 4QElmi si i IeeI er eliher JemIememi FriFair me39 fpfme EelJeni Tammie d39drjp39l grem anie39 lee L L ILHEi39E Eieeiel Maximum lei5e and epem WEIIEF39 B E39 39 m TmFlijE39i u mml Eli391 I I Tundm Vee39teilien 0 u i 1 w 7 7 r 1quotfiiquot i did I w 39 quot7 7 mm Tmgal I remeg Lnlpem iL wee an r Trepilii gmsslemd mk m a in d Memsem er39 Ell freed Eleepe lemem TmFliri Wi39m39j m El E n n nw pine m m 7777 if Emedleewd iels39l lil lemie M lmm Elmira Enh lpi m Parkland Tmpimi mnxlij dug errer39greem I39re m mlam impimi 315 Tunngij dumpi Trepti mi Shem and ME HT EFIFIE n wee 2 1 q i pem hereel wetliemtls Tenllpemie semi cleaneri Tmpimi remand Tree sleeee Laurentide ice sheetat glacial maximum Greenlan Ice Sheet ayremid ce Sheet North America39s natural vegetation is divided into plant provrnces or regional vegetation types Key to Map A lce B Arctic Tundra C Boreal Forests D Pacific Coastal and Cascade Mountain Forests E Palouse Prairies F Great Basin Desert G California Forests and Alpine Vegetation H California Grasslands Chaparral and Woodlands l Mojave and Sonoran Deserts J Rocky Mountain Forests and Alpine Vegetation K Central Prairies and Plains L Eastern Deciduous Forests M Chihuahuan Desert N Coastal Plain Forests 0 Tropical Forests quot 39 v y r quot U h Driftless Area w Ef gy U nglaciated I39 nl u 2 O 1 W 1 MO gt N 5 I l To I I g5 ICE AGE DEPOSITS OF WISCONSIN V 639 f Innaramquot I w39SfIZ aslr 17HSIIJ Ganloguzal and Manual HIstcny Survey 1964 LEGEND l l TIII I I Vu39l39fi rms i I Other IIquot I I Outwash unpltted LJutvvaS L ulh33 I 1 Luke basms Drum In trends In I qtf qd 39Fll39 l 4 L 39 3 I I 39 WMONSW Srmmrm H39WWA V5110 LANGLADE mas 10quot ton lnm A39A M gt x l l n 39 4 r r N quot o i I quot L M39T JFF W10 Tl f bl 5 I 39u 1M Hl dll39l In Mll l a 7 quotmx Rm 392 3 3939 lUBl lquot39tli I l u 2 g x hm wmu AN 3 a It figuri I v39 aquot rquot 6391 39 7 139 1397quot o39 quot 39 i0 oil 1 Northern Highlands 2 Baraboo Hills 3 Central Wisconsin sand plain 4 Lower Wisconsin River a 39 o 1 LAMINATED CLAYS 4 at 4 a 0 q A b S v D 5 Q 39 R D TILL VALDE a ma v m b E R b v V lt3 q o w 8 l q 39 T LAMINATED CLAY SILT AND SAND FOREST BED 39 LAMINATED RED AND W quot 39 GRAY CLAYS q 39 39 quot INTERBEDDED WITH LENSES 0F SILT 39 AND SAND abdvapocDOQOQGRAYTILL p 4 5 9 o D d 4 4 4 p A WISCONSI STATE PAR AND FORE Nun Hum Itl m MR OO39 Nut lobMM NIquot arccm Ila cunt Mm Namonquot no H 1 MEN m r a Fianna J I LU ME mEEEEE 1 1 11 Eim ln ng HEEFE 1 15 1 35 I Eili Hagan g m i uiiHEII HEEIE 1 1 ilr Hill 1 11 J 1 Hw anwi u 1 1 d 1 11 u Ens NEEHEEHEml Em m n 1 a1 1 u I Ema Hahn 11 E m FEW mu ENE Hawk m1 1 Mi In a r i 1 1H 1 1 a an 1 1 1quot m H 1 3 I 1H J a mum Eulvl 1in at quotanti waif Era 1 3 Rivers Why are they important Mississippi 7 ivcr Basin I IBg 39 quot4 u 1 V quot m 1 l A 6 H h 1 11241 anuw g 95gt 2 55 QOE 50gt 33 Resourcesfood and tools Fish Estimate 75 poundsacre annual possible yield in Illinois rivers Waterfowl Freshwater mussels Deen SW Wisconsin optimal habitat 2050 per square mile Plants nuts hickory walnut hazel acorn fruits cherry berries blackberry raspberry strawberry blueberry 1 Han H l ll W unI Fl I Iii Harm mm g E Fi B h e I Finnd TE lujr H a Hmwainm nunnmiinu mum unuunngi l 39D LED an i i 1 5 i i DD C an film HEELEH I f h 39 fx a H Hath F A i H114 h aum Jr 39l ff 539 quotm It WI Hil a HawaiiJ5quot J w L r m in if mm A x39 5 m quot quotrt Ki 39 lilyuquot Hui allquot 39539 E Eiairm Iquot39 Vquotquot E39Glmuiahnlaia j I i Halilgln Eh399 rqHJ 39 l x JpnJR mn Email ii Him J L Fquot Hmism 39 i ILIE EH1in Fianna 51 Vfl l r hll i D HemeJr L quot n In 1 r u If 1 How do we know what resources were here in the past and what people ate seeds and bones ooprolites pollen Ozark rookshelters and dry caves exoellent preservation of unoharred materials n 1 P v s p 5 4 wdr way 3 mW n V w v w Ll Basic archaeology concepts Culture Dating Stratigraphy Context and provenience Radiocarbon calibration Excavation and analysis Artifacts and ecofacts Make sure you do the readings as assigned on the course outline Dating amp calibration of dates how have they changed Calibration s effects Debate on the proper calibration curves Main effect Shifting earliest dates back Radiocarbon dates 11000 10800 years ago Calibrated 1325012800 years ago based on floating treering record from Europe Or 13110 to 12660 based on alternate calibration Most texts are waiting for more work on calibration curves and will use the radiocarbon datesMilner for example T31l3 1 33mm and i1t111313d 115312 in Fig 1 H3111th EitE EltE39 1E JE F u I j i E Err rii iri a hrai 3123 13335331112153333 hrEITIk Arl ngtnn 5r1ng3 T g Eddy 1311111313ille E i 351133 E hyr EEH E EITE 31111311331 E351 W n w Hedden Hi 7 1 II Hn ian E11333 13133 I11Ff K311131131 1311113531151211 LEH39TiWEI Ludk L333 13111113131 Ering3 Palieu I1331555111 ShawnEsEM nisi r k El 39i H3113 Hail 11 1113 111332 11111 111 1113 1115 1113 1113 11125 1115 111235 1113 1112 1113 113 1113 111 1113 1113 111355 1111 11153 35 E 53 5 12 5 25 3 113 3 35 111 25 V r L L L 1311 5 5 5 E I I I 5 IE5 5 111115 123225 13111 123555 12123 1231 115 12335 1325 121325 12325 12325 123125 12315 12334 12331 13111 123325 123125 12333 12333 12255 Yrs mu MW ILIrrIFIn I39I39 I39BID Bl39iJ IIIII Elii Q illl 1 mullIII shimmy rquot TEFlquot E Emil LEII lll39il Il39farlxliml 39 i i 3i quot5 m Ln IIi iIIimr lialillr u mumm Flrllx l 39flli 39 39Il39ifr 1hquot ilii ulra annularanvil I ml39 iil39ll irl E l 39 LI39mi Iaaf llIlquotIII IIII lFll airIii llaii39i39l lll IIIII Iilli39rlla lila mm 39 r rig3951 II in lunarawn Il ijij Emil iill illh I1qu brim 53mm IHII lil iflli ilii39li lbilr wn39 I El magni Il l39r mi l IlaII an ad imam Ei il i Ii ill39ilfs l i ll Iiii iiilull ir39i Lin Hm I39rlhal II i I iil f an I Haikun Pith u r it ir i la Pri h h39li I4quot illi B39Ill l lti I llil39 HI i1 nur Ehlill l 111 namuilgxagl Hmlnualgm lLIIIH illlllj39 ill ilih Milk iiiJIM IllIllil39 39 lialii ti I IIILl in min lnllil ll I M EH 1quot Fi llll39l 3 Hyper EH prn lle If Shelter EIFEIL Stratigraphy principlesnot always in correct sequence Rockshelters and floodplains articular problemse9 Modoc Context and provenience terminology how do we record Some early records do not have much provenience info Excavation and analysis what affects what we can know about a sitescreening flotation preservation potential Artifacts and ecofacts What kinds of artifacts and ecofacts are preserved and how does that vary with soil and environmental conditions Fig 1 A Specimen 2 a 253cmlong padded sandal with a pointed toe a slinglike heel formed from twisted lengthwise elements and a warp faced interlacing sole The tie system consists of side loops and a braided cord that crisscrOSSes through the loops and over the foot and is Secured at the ankle B Specimen S a 245cmlong slipon with a rounded toe and a roundcupped heel A row of twostrand Ztwist twining and a row of what appears to be a form of looping were used to Secure the lengthwise elements at the heel C Specimen 3 a 290cmlong slipon that has a rounded toe a slinglike heel formed from twisted lengthwise elements and a sole produced by a combination of twostrand S and Ztwist twining at the heel and 11 interlacing at the middle and toe Climatic Change Climatic change from end of Pleistocene upper Midwest Smallgroup discussion What do you think were some of the most important aspects of the Midwest environment for ancient people Make your own list then compare your responses to your neighborsany you want to add or modify Share with the class on the board Quickwrite On the halfsheet of paper that is distributed 1 What is one thing that you found interesting today 2 What might still be fuzzy or confusing Turn the halfsheet in at the end of class Make sure you add your name Late Archaic Paleodemography Late Middle Archaic 39002800 BC Helton phase Koster siteHorizon 6 Relatively permanent settlements wide range of resources exploited Burials of elderly men with arthritis and injuries also adolescents and infants buried with domestic artifacts grinding stones points drills Gibson cemetery under later Woodland mound Burials of healthy men and women 1840 years old More elaborate grave goods Higher status than infirm and adolescents status based on age and ability Middle Archaic differentiation in burial places and goods hints at later more formal status differentiation Working copper httpwwwuwaxedumvacpreeuropeanpe opIeearlvcuIturesnative nativecopperhtm Wisconsin Late Archaic Known primarily from rockshelters Preston Rockshelter has Late Archaic occupation Gives name of Preston Notched points Grant County Excavated 19661969 by Harris Palmer UWPlatteville Never published but collections studied later Jim Stoltmanpoints Jim Thelerfauna Provides evidence for stratificationwith Durst points found above Preston points Preston points also found at Riverton site Late Archaic in southern Illinois well dated to 15001000 BC Similar types different names Merom Expanded Stem Trimble SideNotched in Illinois Preston CornerNotched from Preston and Durst Rockshelter Durst Rockshelter Sauk County on tributary of Wisconsin River Sandstone bedrock Excavated by Warren Wittry 195455 Overhang 20 feet deep 80 feet long but only about 50 feet is good for occupation Excavation in arbitrary 4 inch levels except features and natural strata Screened inch Features v3 39 I 1 burial fully flexed 397 3 old adult female 56 Sig 75 yrs old several pits near rear 39 wall 14 t03ft diameter 04 to 1 ft thick No evidence of their I use as fireplaces so probably storage Fig l The Durst Rockshelter Sk2 Photo courtesy George Bloedau Excavating Durst rockshelter Fig 2 The Durst Rockshelter Sk2 Photo courtesy George Bloedau ga v2 42 1a 39 WI DOOOOOIOOOOOtOOOOOOOIn o Archaic burial 39 o 00009000o0000 000 a 39 J 19 I c M 4 i v same zone as most of Durst f w Stemmed points x O 11 v39 6 T13 Fig 6 Burial 1 Dun Rocksheltcr Skz I d H1 7 Bath 1 Dan mum m l 39 45quot Iquot quot 9102 00 c O I nc00000000000hlc0000 In 0000 gt 3 glen ayca Hz 5 Row 7 l39ro lr Dun RocksheIur SR2 How to tell stratigraphy at a rockshelter 11 imamME Firmsimam m MinnaMm PHLMH uratc Emkahnibian Red Ocher culture Terminal Late ArchaicEarly Woodland transition more social complexity than earlier people Long distance trade of exotic materials Elaborate burial practices using red ocher to decorate or cover the corpses of their dead Red Ocher is ground up iron ore that is red in color Objects of exotic materials with burials to mark the individual39s status Copper ornaments marine shell beads and ceremonial blades knives or points that were thinner and larger than could be practically used The trade networks and use of copper by the Red Ocher people have their beginnings in the trade and copper use of the Old Copper Culture Red Ocher people used copper more to make ornaments beads rings than tools Not all Archaic or Woodland people were involved in the Red Ocher Culture Changing role of copper in culture Tom Pleger former UWL student now Dean at UWBarabooSauk County Dissertation research comparing two cultures use of copper Oconto cemetery Middle Archaic Old Copper culture 4000 BC Oconto county WI Riverside Cemetery terminal Late Archaic Early Woodland Red Ocher site Menominee county Michigan c 400 BC Oconto few mortuary goods made of local material primarily utilitarian distributed across all ages and sexes Riverside more abundant mortuary goods frequently of exotic materials predominantly related to prestige associated primarily with young adult females and young children particularly infants Suggests quottransformation from egalitarian to nonegalitarian social organization and the beginnings of individual and corporate status gradation Other Late Archaic burials Convent Knoll burials SE Wisconsin discovered 1978 Pit with 6 individuals several shot with spears scalped decapitated Red ocher and marine shell beads Nearby Red Ocher infant burial pit Illinois Late Archaic Riverton site Howard Winters excavation Late Archaic site on Wabash River SE Illinois Some of earliest native domesticated seeds all being used at same siteso part of a quotcrop complex Prior to using domesticated plants typical hunting fishing gathering diet diverse resources farming even lowlevel might have been out of choice rather than necessity Archaic Traditions of North America Several Regional Variants Glacial Kame Shield Late Archaic Laurentian IVIaritime The Old Copper Culture IVIast Forest Late Archaic Central Riverine Archaic Late Archaic emergence of regionalism Regional and spatially restricted settlement and subsistence systems Trade and transmission of exotic items For ceremonial and status Mechanisms of trade Possibly downtheline with no one going too great a distance Ringler dugout canoe suggests some travel at least was limited in overall possible distance Glacial Kame Mortuary complex with burials in natural glacial rise kames Lower Great Lakes into Ohio Burialsmostly flex primary also extended partially cremated and bundle Exotic grave goods from central Midwest to Atlantic includin copper mica shell steatite nonlocal cherts Ornamental mostly Sandalsole gorgets with three holesdistinctive artifact For example Harrison site Kalamazoo Michigan excavated 1910 in gravel pit Flexed burial with sandalsole gorget slate birdstone placed crosswise over skull Zimmerman site Hardin county Ohio not to be confused with late prehistoric Zimmerman site in IL Huge glacial kame with 148 burials reported to be 22 ft below surface Gorgets beads birdstones tubular stone pipes copper galena almost no chert tools Birdstones Mostly found east of Mississippi River Very well carved carefully made i V q 39 36 inches hf Were they atlatl weights If so did they really function or are they ornamental Ringler Dugout canoe One dugout canoe reported i Radiocarbon dated 3550 70 RCYBP 1600 BC Found in Ohio Savannah Lakepeatfilled bog in Ashland County Ohio httpfilercaseeduNimr27 E 22 ft 7 inches long White oak When waterlogged weighed aboutlton 39gfLM Ea f 1 uuv39 m yaw quotHrquotHaul 1quot y AA A a 9 88 Somsvaasm Canoe Capacity experiments and mathematical models suggest Crew 600 pounds Cargo 250300 pounds Nonwaterlogged condition canoe weighs almost 900 pounds Very low center of gravitygreat stability but poor maneuverability May have just been used in Savannah Lake and Vermillion River during seasons with sufficient water depth Late Archaic cemeteries Formal cemeteries imply corporate lineal inheritance burying your group repeat association over long period of time Crucial and restricted resourcestherefore emphasizing territorial claim through descent and ancestors buried there Usually associated with at least semisedentary settlement Competition among groups might be indicated by spatial patterns in cemetery Lower Illinois River Valley Two types of places with cemeteries blufftops and valleys Blufftops visible quotthis territory is defended Valleys main valleysmostly primary burials resident population Secondary valleysmostly secondary burialsmore mobile population First earthworks Series of sites in Louisiana and Mississippi that date to Middle Archaic but show signs of some later trends Earthworks constructions as platforms to live not burial mounds Best documented Watson Brake Dating to end of hypsithermal warmdry period did climate become more unpredictable Did people need to concentrate in valleys for resources Watson Brake Floodplain Ouachita River near Monroe northern Louisiana Earliest dated mound complex in North America 11 mounds each 325 feet tall Connected by ridges to form oval formation Oval is 900 feet long 600 feet across Series of 27 radiocarbon dates Earliest nonmound occupation of site 4000 BC Earliest mound construction 3400 BC uncalibrated Mound construction lasts roughly 500 years Site abandoned 2800 BC Series of episodes of mound construction People live on top of mounds and ridges in the interimmidden deposits form with their garbage Were construction and abandonment associated with El Nino weather pattern and catastrophic flooding episodes Saunders at at WATSON BRAKE 397 t J T t H t g Poverty I Hcdgcpcth POW o 3 Frenchman39s Bend 39 Lower Jackson Plum Q I h H 1 Nn39an o 1 39 Mctz Middcn Watson Brake d C ancy 39Mounds 0 NA 633 t 25 1 5t 9 u v kilometers Figure l Location of Watson Brake in N E Louisiana in relation to other mentioned in the text Watson Brake Soil for mounds and ridges taken from bank of bluff also borrow pits outside oval Central area had very little debris group activity area Ritual area Q 39 01 A o u 1 O In 0 1 39 A t 0 v d 3 II p v v A O Q I u l u o q 8 n d 2 J v e it J 1 0 ll Jlf 39 0111 16 tirecmledlngt quottired objects 39 quot1 M033 8 a m New 39 Mound A i platlnnn Mound D M ndgc BIA n o Tl39l W A I 339 l i 39Or C ndSC 39 r n39 39 v91 I 13 n l 1 I L H l 39 39D39 it 39 4 1 I t 39 I W quotl quot h v I 1mm 39 39 1 2u u 9quot M I 39 x1 Iquot 39 quot 339 i quot I Mquot 0 V39m 39 l L quotl t Xl r n mm It 39 quotn u w Am ll 3 o ym It dawn mun null H z w r L loamy ne and ne and loam loam m loamy and Z Ml km 71 clay loam Figure 4 Watson Brake north mounds pro les of the seven test units showing soil horlmm inclusions and sediment sample columns with texture classes Ap in TU6 refers to Mound A platform Mound B t quot euimuu ullunottl39NN M m WA V t 39 D I I I I ally W tll ml 39nl My t gqghxt u R d d w W I amount I39 mug 39 mquot quotquot 39V th m 39 more menu 1 My BxA inn between 04 Mound C ridge C B Ap3 construction e 391 w ApZ39 episodesnote soil 3 w Ing v News l I 39ra m M39 m A f0 O n Dz If m aurainn 1 v quotWI tlk lm M a Ap 7 n I pr all u m f APamp 1 w I I l39 M Ih 21quot t nounKr Wah Anna in it I ix39ltlun39VI nu lull K A 2 I Ml Ill noun a r I I Dquot InotI rim 1 s w l 39N a KI AI J 39 m39d mm Jaw K WWW ht HIKt Q lDNV KIAtr l madman V V amp q39d In wall lost l qua intervals through t m in amm WW profile Figure 5 Watson Brake north mounds profiles of test units with numbered earthwork tilts over terrace ttr deposits Textures of the terrace deposits under TB 8 and BM ttr resemble lls Pointers show locations of dated samples L mquot quot U 39m A The North Mounds quot r 39 r 39 IJ 539 Mn F I mumwnm gt O A gt u 8 r r r c t KM13 IIK39 J 8quot 9 4 le A I y D 39 lalfonn x I USO 108139 39 A p WS quot8 H 39 u 1fl W39 i a g x A 3917 51 le MI gt 0 39 or 7 39 z 31 K u N w n gt I quot quot39 2 an gt q I Mlxlwl 39 39 I l39 w If I293 11 39KIW39 thHSlSsiil x J Hl IIHII39 wuudcuucluu muum docs I I IN mutton I I sun A midst m tm by Mo 5 I It nun H w aquot 39 E Intx tutu The So uh Mout k J anquot x in I 5 W QOII39 4Q 39 f 3 n l I 5 l i39 39 3971 o 39 561 a 0 I Figure 9 Partial mrrelalions of Watson Brake earthwork based on the accepted chmmmelric dates Schematic crosssection shows different mounds and different dates of construction Excavations Series of small 1x15 meter units Augers Soil probes Soil all finescreened 32 mm screens lVIidden floated Only the lowest midden layer had any faunal preservation many mussel shells changed pH ofsoH Subsistence Broad spectrum foraging Floodplain backwater and woodland habitats Fauna Deer all bones broken for bone marrow Only highmeat elements presentoffsite processing small mammals beaver raccoon muskrat otter Waterfowl ducks and geese Aquatic turtles Water snakes amphibians frogs Fish bowfin gar sucker catfish bass sunfish drum Drumfish are very small compared to modern average sizelimited technology Flora hickory nuts grape hackberry goosefoot marshelder both wild Season and habitat All seasons represented Deer 15 25 45 years old from dentition fallwinter newborn fawn summer Also fish otoliths earbone have annual growth rings can see when fish caught Many habitats riverine and terrestrial Artifacts Firecracked rock use in hearths roasting stoneboiling Points lVIicrodrills probably hafted Flakes bifaceslithic reduction at the site Local cherts Saunders et at WATSON BRAKE 653 I f A h 39 39 bl 39 I b J s 39 p A 1 A l K d z u 39 g 0 2 39 39 O o a L f l 39 A 0 O a t I I 39 t t A quot r d x A L r 9 39f I t 39 t I 9 390 390 0 s 439 39 39 39 lquot 39 I h h o I 39 a 0 v A k 39 b t 5 a quot In I I quot Q G 39 9 g a 50 h I Q I I k I O A t C 0 o 39 r F w n k t t r v t 391 J quot 39 l 39 o t w I 39 t V I I n I l r w 39 t mm n 39 aquot o quot tquot I r f t c b 4 i Figure ll Stone artifacts from Watson Brake a h Evans points to d Ellis points 2 Pontchartrain point f 2 bladdet cores h i drill preforms j k microdrills I m aked bead preforms n 0 ground bead preforms tprt chert beads x f E l a l 39 b 39 E 39 s 39 J 1 I quot x I g 39 1 c quota 0 50 j I11LIJ 39 mm 0 1 J c 39 d g x 3 J 3 II J I Figure l3 Fined earthen objects fmm Wath Brake a b cuboidal c cylindrical d rounded cube e spherical Why constructed and abandoned Don t really know But episodes of construction correspond with particularly several El Nino climatic events catastrophic flooding for several years Last episode probably worst Site abandoned after that Why build Maybe because of flooding But construction took place after each flooding epBode Middle Archaic earthworks Watson Brake one of 13 Middle Archaic earthworks sites in Louisiana and Mississippi Sites vary in contents size structure no evidence of trade connections between them So not a quotpackage deal but independent developments Start rougth 6000 BP 4000 BC last about 1000 years then stop Don t see again till Poverty Point 1500 BC Poverty Point Best known Late Archaic earthworks construction in lower Mississippi valley Doesn t seem to have a connection to earlier Middle Archaic earthworks in Mississippi and Louisiana 1500 BC Largest most elaborate earthworks in the western hemisphere at that time One of three world heritage sites in US 0 2 I m o W h I I I is Oklalhpma quot Felt Worth o Danes 5 Texas 3 39 v 0 Austin 0 San Antonio Al IIL 5 I 39 e 139 Irnth4I v 1 xx gt Vl 1 T 39 L39 m i 39 J I 3 e 39 x aquot 4 v23 v 15 I i J g 39139 A 4 Tennessee 5 I A k Memphis Lt M V Eur ansas Ab Hf f I 3 a 1 a l I g X r lt E l a a 39 quotx I x outh a 0 Atlanta k l 39 i u 39 33 y i x j t a N 1 5 I 0 Iquot K i 39 sPoveyty Point I byquot I a i l I I r n 2 83 39 J 39A 39Georgia 39 V MISSiSSIppI labama I 1 7quot 5 lt 39 1 b C 1 39 3 5 1 e q v7 quotquotM V M quotm 39 z Lounslan my s 2 v v Q quot quot9 gt0 t L Nun quotIm3 e39ySDA Fatm Sewnce Agency 39 V F39 Trun A a I 32 42390687 N 9 ai if quot IEI W 91 073942 36quotW elev 106 n 2010Eur9paschnplggiegf 201039Ggog l e39fxw j up e lauadr l 1 C quotN Eve alt 92535m1 It Poverty Point Blufftop overlooking Mississippi River swamplands NE Louisiana Group of mounds and embankments Radiocarbon dates place construction between 1350 and 1730 BC First reported 1873 excavated 1950s Aerial photos showed scale of earthen enclosure pattern hard to detect from ground gamma u m f o V 0 p l c U s r quot3 Lf 191 1 r39x Cshaped central ring with 6 concentric earth embankments now 46 feet high and 140200 feet apart Separated by ditches where dirt removed to form ridges Ends of ridges 3950 feet apart 34 mile two large mounds shaped like flying birds Site and surrounding 2025 miles of occupation by locals People lived on embankments worked outside the enclosure and along bluffs J 7g 25 foot high bluff Embankments end edge of Miss River floodplain Small stream right below bluff in floodplain oBquf eroded and PP people tried to stabilize the bank No definite house patterns found here probably plowed away Cut by 5 corridors 35160 feet wide Astronomical sight lines Or boundary lines between social and functional zones Or geometric lines used in setting up earthworks Series of individual mounds and borrow pits Central plaza37 acres Several huge postholescalendar markers Poverty Point culture Distinctive artifacts and nonlocal materials Imported rocks and minerals Cherts soapstone hematite magnetite slate galena copper Trade over large areas by 1730 BC Artifacts Very little stone in region so do trading and alternatives Handmolded baked clay cooking objects instead of FCR Simple thickwalled pottery Stone vessels Chipped stone tools spearpoints adzes hoes drills perforators worked flakes and blades Polished stonecelts plummets gorgets ornaments Closest to earthworksmore likely to have artifacts of nonlocal materials At fringeslocal gravels used Plummets points atlatl weights gorgets tablets clay objects knives nutting stones mortars Axes drills lVIicroliths perforators Clay objects clay and stone pots Cooking in open hearths and earth ovens Poverty Point earth oven Hole dug in ground Hot quotclay balls packed around food Pit covered Clay balls hand molded from silts and fired quotPoverty Point objects because so common Experimental cooking different shapes can be used to control temperature Clay vessels First appearance of pottery in Lower Mississippi Valley Local products appear before other pottery imported Wide variety of materials and inclusions deiberate or accidental temper Mostly plan sometimes decorated with fingernail or tool Also stone vessels soapstone and sandstone Soapstone imported from quarries in N Georgia and Alabama Some decoratedone with bas relief of bird another of a panther Pots sometimes repaired with drill holes Pieces also made into beads pendants plummets Poverty Point subsistence Huntergatherers though we have very poor evidence Fish reptiles small and large mammals birds Fish most important source of meat Gar bowfin catfish gaspergou bass sunfish others Mussels only on coastal sites not rivers Deer next most important meat Also small mammals rabbit squirrel raccoon opossum waterfowl some upland birds Very limited view of flora Nuts hickory pecans acorns walnuts probably very important Persimmons wild grapes wild beans hackberries honey locust seeds goosefoot knotweed doveweed all wild Squash rinds seeds stems found at another related site but probably as container and probably wild form Stone hoes founddigging for roots Differences between related sites in what was consumed Habitats multiple particularly backwater habitats Productive with sufficient to allow major building program Poverty Point site Earthworks have no burials Used for house platforms Was the Poverty Point site earthworks a habitation area or ceremonytrade fair place Poverty Point center of a regional pattern over the Lower Mississippi River Valley Similar kinds of tools and ornaments up to Tennessee and Missouri and to Gulf coast and Florida But artifacts spread too widely and trade too extensive for all being one group or one language Probably unrelated and independent groups interacting across Lower Mississippi Valley More than 25 miles from Poverty Point site itself trade goods and artifacts arm less common but some k 3jitfm modru Mio39u nikim found hundreds of miles quotto 39 Maw away i Furthermore differences Each cluster had high land swampland All connected to Mississippi or a close tributa rywater travel Within each site cluster An earthworks siteoften with embankments 18 mounds at each site Dirt domeshaped Individual settlements around earthworks Small permanent villages seasonal camps and huntinggathering camps Range from 1100 acres Long distance resources quot Mquot Source Areas K z of Poverty Point 391 r Trade Materials z Cower Gray Noahcm Hm I n Galena f5 Crescent Hills Cher E Novamliba Hatname 51quot n Mogncdm Quint Crystal L Citroncllc Gmcl Catahoula Sandstone Soapstone Schist E T91qu Qumciu G PickthChc DiodwlyOvbcAM m Trade Trade in different stone objects Either as raw materials or partly or completely finished objects Poverty Point site has exotic materials But there are no Poverty Point objects at the far distant sites And northern sites with rocks do not need poverty point clay balls So probably not simple barter or downthe line trade no gradual decrease of material from sourceit all goes to Poverty Point heartland with no intermediary sites Possibly trade expeditions But once reached Lower Miss Valley and region of Poverty Point sites direct trade system between the different related sites Each site has similar types of materials though not all will have full range Most common trade rocks made into utilitarian objects Others made into different ornaments Steatite bowl hematite Symbolic objects ritual religion So far no Poverty Point burials at any of the related sites Possibly one human cremation Lack of identified burials suggests not using a cemetery Some drilled teethmade into ornamentsancestors or brave enemies S We 2 it Symbolic objects more common here than earlier sites Stone beads oPendants in zoomorphic and geometric shapessilhouettes of birds and bird heads animal claws or talons feet or paws turtle shells oRepIicas of open clam shells Aso found polished tablet with human face copper and galena beads Hundreds of solid stone objectscones and other geometric shapeswhy stone and clay pipesshaped like slender cones or tubes lntheround pendants like fatbellied owls found across Gulf area from western Louisiana to Florida Figurines of bakedf clay w Small handmolded clay figurines Women kneeling or sitting Often pregnant Heads nearly always missing Snapped off during ceremonies Ceremonial use of utilitarian objects Deposit of thousands of soapstone vessel fragments in oval pit southwest of big mound at Poverty Point Not from vessels broken at the spot because couldn t be refit Some came from pots found mile away on top of ridges Four small fires burned in corners of pit ceremonial deposit Offerings Other sites also have deposits of broken and whole vessels Engravings Plummets and bannerstone Engravings different animals quot Fox man 3 Long tail designs Duck foot Bird figurines All important animals in southeastern Native belief systems connected with death witchcraft early warnings news bringing origin stories Animism World full of spirits and power Social and political organization kinship ties Status determined by personal abilities But construction of earthworks particularly if done quickly required more organization Vaster plan for design and construction Leadership no evidence of coercion Poverty Point Abandoned by 1350 BC VVhy Regional Late Archaic cultures Green River 39 Sites marked by intensive use of river musselscreating huge heaps ILLINOIS NDIANA Indian Knollone of most important a OH39O Kentucky 2500 2000 BC w 39sr Shell midden over 4 feet high almost 400 ft l C 39 Lquotquot Squot39l i L39jxmon V39RG39N39A xii ong Excavations in 19305 Paradise culiphq 111491 1100 burials quot quotquot5 i 3quot I Lap Individual burials all ages and both sexes I 51ng 39 quotI Often with gender specific objects 333555 Men axes fish hooks tools Nashvillc N I f3 Women mortars pestles beads stone K 5 gravers a 139 t 1 4 of graves have exotics conch shells yquot X coppen Grave goods for children suggest social obligations ascribed status Possibly kinship groups mostly egalitarian One of the best samples of human remains from this period Shellfish only supplemental to dietmostly deer acorns hickory fish Also Read site and Carlston Annis 334 Cm g l 0 3 a a w ot gtdod39i quot H 1 O O D A 7 D V IV u v T 1 inhiii sitiavggzg i I 9 a I O o 39t u a Col 3 r v Q o p C 391 1 m4 a quot o 39339 39439 quot1quot 4quot quot Mfg 392 r39 39v 1 39 1 3 quot9quot W J 39 A O a M 3 L tlatl hooks weights and handles from burials n J Jl Ban nerstones atlatl weights Indian Knoll paleodemography 1100 burials One of the best samples of human remains from this period Individual burials all ages and both sexes Often with genderspecific objects Men axes fish hooks tools Women mortars pestles beads stone gravers Men and women with turtleshell rattles bone flutes shaman s bones 4 of graves have exotics conch shells Gulf Coast or Atlantic seaboard copper Lake Superior Both adult men and women also infants and children 143 graves had total of 18378 diskshell beads Competition or violence Fractured bones 11 of burials 23 individuals with stone or antler points as cause of death Sporadic feuds competition for choice resources Grave goods for children suggest social obligations inherited or acquired status Some controversy no strong status variation fluid social groups Possibly kinship groups mostly egalitarian Some differences in distributionage related even among infants and children Were the shell midden burials a special cemetery area or were individuals buried in village midden Seems like these were burials within midden Green River Archaic Paleopathology Evidence of arthritis 60 of adults Men particularly wrist and elbow joint atlatl use vs lVIississippian elbow and shoulder joint arthritis bow and arrow Women arthritis in spineparticularly lower spinechildbirth trauma Sexual dimorphism Bilateral asymmetryfor both men and women Use of atlatl for men Teeth Heavy wear minimal cavities teeth often worn to gum line and abscess in tooth rootinfection Tooth wear inversely related to cavities from soft food but some evidence of occasional secondary deposition of dentine to fill in pulp chamber No evidence of scurvy vitamin C deficiency Rickets Vitamin D in several infants perhaps from infant coverings Iron deficiency anemia also rare low evidence of cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis when found with children Worn teeth I o 1 L 1 centimeters Caries and dental problems Caries and aveolar resorption Caries and impacted molar steoarthritis Osteoarthritis of knee I 5 CM L l I l l J Fig 77 plCl1 bti3939i3 da ceinnme ent c bony nllgycwtns nfosner3hI 39e3a on the marmns m the txigtIr IJIquot39J Center of a vettrzm39n Stem 39ms recog zed tw stage which can be used fm estimmu u39z IaJU ill death Cribra orbitalia or porotic hyperostosis Lesion of the roof of the eye socket associated with iron deficiency Injuries Fig 106 Tip U a 510m mam3mg puim unharmed m the upper H9 105 NealeJ Colic Imam can sand at Me 06513 cm quotquot3quot Cquot a quotquotL39 quot3quotquot quot quotHMOquot COU quotquotquot3U d39 quotquot3 quot 03 49quot 0 910 inL Ham 0 heck1m from w cwnulev or Ayalnn on 2 quot 39quot 50mquot Dam RUquot quot35 390 quot WWW quotquot3 NW 0 the C033 ul Ecuador 1M5 m of mmme onequot wants trcu u 3 W wean m mad 15 rm mm 6 Green River Archaic paleodemography Mean age 22 yrs for whole population Mean age with only adults 33 yrs Life expectancy at birth 22 yrs old At age 15 could expect another 20 years Life expectancy at beginning of adulthood 19 yrs High rate of infant mortality 15 infants died before age 1 Then lower mortality between 5 and 15 years Slight increase in mortality at pubertychildbirth and male dangerous activitieswarfare hunting etc regular rate of mortality till mid 40 s Rarely survive into 605 or 70s Female mortality exceeded male from ages 1525 then reversed Riverton Culture Late Archaic 15001000 BC quot5 Linear cluster of sites along 40 mile stretch R39VeltT Wabash River in eastern Illinois Excavations by Howard Winters 19605 Major publication on settlement systems Mentioned earlier as place where plant domestication documented Seasonal round Riverton base camp mid May to late September Swan Island temporary autumn and spring camp for foraging Robeson Hills winter until late Marchcold weather settlement on promontory overlooking floodplaindeer mammals valley resources Summary of Late Archaic continuing several earlier trends Subsistence increased focus on riverine resources Possible food storage surplus Artifact assemblage different point types continuation of basic tool kit Population increases Major earthworks constructions Poverty Point and related sites began in Middle Archaic with Watson Brake and related sites Increasing sedentism and indications of territoriality depending on region and availability of abundant local resources Often riverine resources Though much of population may still be seasonally mobile Burials in cemeteriessuggest both strong social entities lineages etc and also ties to specific placestied by ancestor s bones Alliance building and trade networks Continuation of plant domestication process Started in the Middle Archaic continues into Woodland Use of native copperutilitarian in Middle Archaic more ornaments in Late Trade for exotic materials as with copper and with Poverty Point sites More evidence for ceremonial life with carved and etched objects nonutilitarian objects Late Woodland Late Woodland Development of many local sequences of archaeology postHopewell In southern Wisconsin AD 400500 to AD 12001300 up to the appearance of Oneota In northern Wisconsinup to contact period1600s no Oneota Late Woodland New mound typeseffigy mounds Bow and arrow Increasing reliance on corn though still not full agriculturalists Population continues to increase Density might reach carrying capacity Late Woodland Effigy Mounds Animal shapedmounds are called effigies and represent a culture that was confined to the area around southern Wisconsin as indicated on this map Fish Farm Mounds Iowa Conical mounds quot39 39 2 It39d3 9 V g f 39 Q 30 5 yr 2 39 5 J 3 v i w L 5 d y A I y a u 39 9 u o i we quot It has been suggested that the conical mounds may represent beaver lodges because numerous tribes have origin stories that begin with an animal such as the beaver which brings up mud from the bottom of the ocean or large lake and makes land This modern beaver lodge looks very similar to conical mounds 39 IV I Q A I r 39 l v l i H v f A l o t 39 39 39 0 Q l q 0 39 ai 7 I 39 C C 39 quot J I v o lquot 1 o O r I h quot b 39 l V o 39 D o oi M 39 V 4 I 39 c o g 3 n at 0Cquot 39 quotw K y39 5 a quot 39 L a V 39 39 why 39quot39 39 quot z 1 51 Nag s 39 39 39L I 39 1 0393 a u h 1 7 0 39 H v t w v a A A J 39 I quotn If a 39 s l r V 3 u 39 Q The peOple who built the Middle Woodland did not vanish but continued to live in the area as they had before in much the same way Mounds however Changed in size and shape By AD 800 the mounds in southern Wisconsin began to be built in the shapes of animals like this bird roquot f l r l t y V lt M l 139 iquotquoti lquot I I e l l quot V g quotx 7 x w n l J Effigy Mounds were built in all sorts of shapes including birds bears and longtailed animals that are often called panthers Most are 23 feet high and 3050 feet long but some are several hundred feet long and these are often arranged in groups INTAGLIOS An unusual variety of Effigy forms are depressions or intaglios in the shape of animals These drawings are of panther intaglios near Fort Atkinson WI NYLCHIBIW W DBMS 50 ATMNLSDH IMYCIENCquot CW 3115 YfJAH JEFfELCLH Mun 5 h At iaxm Effigy Mound Groups Effigy Mounds were often built on groups near lakes or rivers or on bluff tops This group was mapped in 1852 on a ridge top near Eastman in southwestern Wisconsin and included birds and bears All of these mounds were subsequently destroyed by plowing ToHackson Mounds This group of effigies is located on a sloping bluff in western Wisconsin The birds representing the sky are situated above the bears which likely represent the earth This group has been preserved by the Archaeological Conservancy Crawfordsville Mounds This Effigy mound group from eastern Wisconsin shows birds flying ahead of long tailed panthers The birds clearly represent the sky while panthers are thought to represent the under world or waterspirits ANCIE39IYJ if DEX 39 CRAWFORDS YELLI z W 1 141 u r 39 u w quotquot 53 quot 3 M 33 i 3 L V3171quot 2 quot7quot 6 39 39 l v n 39fri u39 J 0 h l I 39 r 39 Inl 4 w o 393 sh x quot1 r 39 2 A i If f It I 39 39 39 A 4 l 5k I 392 I quot a r t L1 v y l39 39 39 wig quot 39 5 was c 5amp5 4333 I u N5 i A V 5 391 Vquot V w Nutfi u39 I 39 2 n 39 39 430 I W w r quot3931 3 n quotq 39 39 1quot u 1 quot 7quot 7 H L l 1 a V 1 L a 4 ItOU Jon A la llo P r 4 u up x r o 39 v Q i I 39 r H ILU a 39L t 39 m z I Ml kg I 39 r t t u 2 aquot r quot J I quot r y 17 r I quotI 39 I quot11quot 34 39 39 31quot quot fraumfgb v I v o If 1 I A 74 to r39 I Ill quot39 quotr Li I w n H 7 x b D 390 Ia39 r 1 r39 I V v 9 y i N QM 39 Mm 39 46396 lm 71539 39 In 1926 this panther mound was mapped by an archaeologist in Mauston Wisconsin and then forgotten about In 2004 after coming across this map a member of the HoChunk Nation relocated the mound and worked with the local school district to develop a preservation program The panther spirit mound project was undertaken in 2005 and has ensured longterm preservation while raising awareness of the importance of these special landscape features Panther mound project and Native Views of mounds httpwwwpantherspiritmoundorgfaqht m httpwwwpantherspiritmoundorgpanthe rspirithtm Lizard Pipe This elbow shaped pipe was also found near Mauston and is of a style that is usually associated with the Effigy Mound Culture This pipe has a panther etched on both sunaces Etched pipe from Minnesota WWW UWax edum vacpdffiesmailneWSett ersarchneWeiune2006pdf If Bird 0 Animal Water spirit Ef gy Mound Builders Recent research has shown That there is regional variation within the Effigy Mound Culture For example panther mounds tend to be common in southeastern Wisconsin while bears are more common in the west This suggests both environmental and social subdivisions and the mounds are often thought to relate to clan spirit animals of the Ho Chunk and related tribes Mound functions Burial of the dead Corporate activities Religious activities Territorial boundary markers Territorial claims through ancestors Effigy Mound Pottery This pot is fairly typical of an Effigy Mound pot which were decorated by impressing twisted cords or fabric into the soft clay near the top before firing Type Madison cord impressed Late Madison ware Madison Cord Impressed Madison Plain Madison Fabnc Impressed 17 I 1 W l i o 7 quot V 39LIJ 7 W1 quot 1711mm Thinner Fine crushed rock temper Larger pots globular shape Sometimes complex designs with cords Surface cord roughened Latest pots have a collar Madison triangular pointsthe first true bow and arrow points How does hunting Change with the bow and arrow Lithics Mostly of local materialstherefore less longdistance trade IstrIJutIon 0 ate om am r39OJectI e omt ty es if I r J J quot Aztalan v 1 MOUNDS 50 t39 50 100 Mll S Territoriality Suggested by the distribution of points Also ceramic differences by region though there are also major similarities Populations occupying all parts of landscapemajor river valleys small streams interior settings I 5 rquot quot 45 5 f I V q Traditional Seasonal Round ca 3000 BC AD 900 a wk Winter ring Summer if N 0 30 miles 5 Summer open air camps and mounds Winter most are rockshelters Resources Fish Mussels sometimes extensive beds Deer Small and large mammals All nuts berries seeds Continue sunflower knotweed Corn becomes more common about AD 800 1000 AD still not as common as it will be with Oneota 0quot 0 quotquotl quothll 39 quotcanquot t I y t magmam mammommzs Mill Pond site Late Woodland mgtmo EEEH PHASE n Ayn 391 i r Red Wing True m pieglean Silver Maund39 7 39 ma Site quot r quotEam Fisher Manni s Eh Edam pie 39 H fltj Furl v Fred EdWrd Site 1 apple miter Erljiiiii39l39i E imHthme n i M n Haj I39Lrta lm5 mm uuml in in mum 1 HJ WW and Eastman phase Elf HIE Et iar MEIind mum Packed La n ap z earEun EffigyDEE Mam Emma n a mat n l a I I L E I w a 39 7 maruni mung I m lms HI 39mdude IEEIII39I IEHEEEJ Initial Villages AD 1050 1150 EFFIGY MOUND Hartley PEOPLE Fort ABANDONED Mr Fred Edwards l Else Forti ed villages Terminal Woodland and Mississippian Omsoam m ammm Emergent Oneota AD 1150 1250 qu Mng M 1 53 1 0 30 miles S v 1 0 9 m River Extensive agricultural villages Late Prehistoric populations Regional Oneota manifestations quot Mussxsswmn amp nmm mums i A l httpuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthumb99eMississip pianculturesH Roe2010jpg290px MississippianculturesH Roe2010jpg Eastern WisconsinLake Koshkonong httpwww4uwmedua rchlabOneota Dating different than Western WI ends 200 years before they do in LAX Houses long houses and Wigwam structures Subsistence wild rice Burials Example 1 adult with child and infant in each arm Blood Run httpbloodrunnhlcomplacehtm Oneota complex Big Sioux RiverNW Iowa and SE SDakota AD 12001750 Mounds stone circles village enclosure Protohistoric Omaha Ioway Oto into historic contact period Sites like this make that connection through European contact n c 0 3 9 r C10 9 lt0 we DE 99 1 3 80 KC 3 quotu D 0 5 E H D Norris Farms 36 Santure Harn Esary 1990 Morton Village and Norris Farms 36 Cemetery Central Illinois Conflict and warfare Direct evidence perimortem injuries scalping etc 50 of 142 deaths violent 19 male 23 female 1 adolescent 2 children Table pg 154 144 figures 145146 Nutritional stress Irondeficiency anemia p125 infection p129 130 Result of regional conflict restricting access to food Pipestone quarries httpwwwnpsgovpipeindexhtm Neutralterritory Sacred stone Trane Site TRANS ACCESS ROAD AAAAA A OLD WARD AVE NUE 663 TRANS ACCESS ROAD ROLE 3 a 5 TPO HOLE k mo AVENUE OLD WARD AVENUE 663 ff quotI f TRANE ACCESS ROAD M Trane Access Road AAAF x L f K Oid Ward Avenue E L 955 Road M Trane Acc X N Floodplain Q l I 41 I Edge 01 Excavatlon llllll Steep Slope HIIH O33 Q8 69 TesxPllg rquot339 Top of R159 D 39 39 29 26 CS quot 04 I229 l I Q 243 42 31 I 3 427 3 l f 4 a 1 no C V39 A 54 V 56 3 I 6 58 Gentle Slepe 0 y G o0 ll Maze I Banal E 130 Q Introduction Rock art consists of carvings and paintings and this form of expression has been created by people around the world for tens of thousands of years Rock art is most prevalent in places where there are exposed outcrops such as the Desert Southwest In the Upper Midwest the unglaciated Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin has more exposed rock than surrounding areas that were covered by the glaciers Consequently nearly 95 of the known rock art in Wisconsin occurs in the rugged Driftless Area There are three basic kinds of rock art Petroglyphs carvings Pictographs drawings and paintings and portable rock art tablets pipes etc Unlike portable rock art which can be moved from one location to another petroglyphs and pictographs are fixed on the landscape in rockshelters caves and on outcrops Rock art is an amazing expression of our ancestors but the meaning is often difficult to understand and determining how old it is very difficult Rock art is also fragile and many sites have been severely damaged by modern graffiti and natural erosion Preservation is a goal of archaeologists and the HoChunk Some rock art is easily recognized such as this buffalo carved into the wall of a sandstone rockshelter in La Crosse County The bison faces right with its horns and hump emphasized Although erosion has begun to affect the head area careful inspection reveals an arrow or heartline running from the mouth into the chest where the heart and lungs would be Gullickson s Glen Rockshe er Here is another buffalo carved on the back of the Gullickson s Glen Rockshelter near Black River Falls This buffalo also has a heartline and a nursing calf which tells us the adult is a female and the season is probably summer Samuel s Cave Samuel s cave was one of the first rock art sites found in the Driftless Area It was discovered in 1878 and contained approximately 35 carvings and a few paintings The carvings were traced in 1879 creating a record of the original art This slide shows copies of most of these tracings and you can clearly see several buffalo note the curved horns and humps as well as a deer or elk antlered animal on top a standing bird that may represent a prairie chicken and a few humans including a bow hunter near the top and a person with a headdress toward the bottom In addition there are several abstract designs such as the diamond in the lower center Most rock art in fact consists of abstract designs which is often difficult to understand Unfortunately in the 125 years since it s discovery the rock art in Samuels Cave has been extensively damaged by graffiti and erosion Today only a few carvings remain However in the 198039s a series of paintings were discovered in the back of the cave These include this black painting of a human figure with a fringelike dress and turtlelike feet The person may be wearing a hat and the face is painted with vertical stripes You can also see that someone carved the word BUBBLE across the body of this painting Bison from Samuel s Cave Nearby is a painting of a buffalo with a longtailed animal carved over the rear end Longtailed animals like panther or lizard effigy mounds are thought to represent underworld or water spirits and it appears that the underworld spirit is breathing or blowing smoke into the Chest of the buffalo The circle above the buffalo s slashed hump may represent the sun or moon Viola Rockshe er People are often depicted in rock art and sometimes in canoes Here is a carving of a human with three power lines radiating from the head in a canoe on the water This carving is in the Kickapoo River Valley Thunderbirds Soaring birds are often depicted in rock art of this region and like bird shaped effigy mounds these are usually called Thunderbirds This carving is one of a series of birds carved at Twin Bluffs near Mauston It was found and recorded in the 195039s and a plaster cast was made unfortunately leaving plaster residue around the bird We have since learned that applying plaster chalking glyphs for photographing and even touching rock art is damaging EI OSiOh This carving of a hawk or eaglelike bird is located on a bluff top in the Kickapoo Reserve which is co managed by the Ho Chunk Nation The Kickapoo Valley Thunderbird was first recorded in 1960 and photographed along with several adjacent birds Since that time the rock has eroded so that the lower portion of the bird to the right of the Thunderbird has fallen away You can also see the initial M carved between the two birds Pictographs I39vr qm f a h K h 7 7 K i V ea Pictographs like this red image are created with a paint made from a mixture of pigments that may have included ground up stone and animal fat This painting on the ceiling of a small overhang near Black River Falls shows an abstract rake motif with several lines and a string of dots running perpendicular to a main line The meaning and age of this glyph are unknown Portable rock art such as this pipestone tablet is sometimes found at village and camps sites Because they are found with pottery stone tools or charcoal which can be Carbon14 dated the age of portable rock art is often more easily estimated than glyphs carved or painted onto walls This tablet shows a large circle with radiating lines which may represent the sun To the right is a circle surrounding a headless birdman with a star above and a moon to the right This table was found on a village site that is about 500 years old The village was near La Crosse but the pipestone came from southwestern Minnesota nearly 250 miles to the west Occasionally rock art combines both carvings and paintings This glyph is located at the HoChunk owned Nine Eagles Resort near the confluence of the Lemonwier and Wisconsin Rivers It shows a carved human head with red painted horns and a red serpentlike body Indian Cave Sometimes rock art panels clearly depict stories This set of carvings at Indian Cave in the Kickapoo Valley depicts a story teller at the left relating a hunting episode to the right Red Horn Story One of the most famous rock art sites in Wisconsin is Gottschall Rockshelter along the Lower Wisconsin River This series of paintings was not discovered until around 1980 and consists of a panel of Intricate drawings that are of a style which is distinctive to the Mississippian Culture dating around 1000 years ago Note the tattooed humans with sun bursts on their foreheads and the large bird with a forkedeye The panel has been interpreted as depicting the story of the HoChunk legend of Red Horn who is the figure on the right Red Horn fought with giants to the left with the aid of turtle above and StormsasHeWalks the Thunderbird with the forked eye For alternative interpretations see httpIwwwhotcakencvc0pediacomhoGottschallht m The Gottschall rockshelter has been studied by Robert Salzer since its discovery One of the most interesting finds was this carved sandstone head It is 10 inches high and the face is painted with vertical strips like the painted human figure in Samuels Cave The statue also has a dotted circle on its chin Mr Head Vandalism Vandalism is one of the biggest threats to rock art Most sites have been marred by graffiti over the past 100 years and in some cases people have even tried to steal the art to sell After the Gottschall paintings were publicized someone snuck into the site one winter and tried to cut away the Red Horn figure with a stone cutting saw The person failed to remove the glyph but scarred the panel including major cut marks across Stormsas HeWalks This incident led to a new state law protecting rock art sites and unfortunately the best preservation method is to keep their locations secret RocheaCri State Park The only publicly accessible rock art site in Wisconsin is in Rochea Cri State Park The art consists of both carvings and paintings situated at the base of a 300foot rock outcrop The DNR built a viewing platform and interpretive signs with hopes that high visitation would deter vandalism Unfortunately in the spring of 2004 vandals spray painted over the Rochea Cri art The HoChunk Nation worked with the DNR and state archaeologists to assist in the costly effort to remove the graffiti Deep Caves Some of the most recent and spectacular rock art discoveries have been in Deep Cave sites Found as recently as 1999 Tainter and Larson Cave contain hundreds of paintings along the walls and ceilings many of which are beyond natural light These would have required torches to light the way Tainter Cave E b 39 t J l i h A i a 39 l t 39 39 y b 1 x quotA 39 o I I V x n I l 3 39 1 0 Va I n i l r t A V a t a 39 39 D u I o ft 39 L 39 7 v i c o v 0 a t 39 m A L x a l oh i 39 w n 7 v 39 it v I 4 v ig Tainter Cave in the Kickapoo Valley was first reported to archaeologists in 1999 although it was well known as a party oave to local residents and has graffiti dating to the 180039s Nonetheless the cave contains over 100 piotographs that are organized in a series of panels that extend throughout three interoonneoted Chambers which extend into the hillside nearly 250 feet The entrance to this cave is only 3feet high but one can stand up once inside the first Chamber Just inside the entrance on the ceiling is a panel of drawings that show a cradle board and a Thunderbird The cradle board figure consists of a circular head inside a rectangular box with horizontal lines across the body and a smaller Cradle boards were common to most tribes in the Americas and crrcle on the cheat area Th t d t th were used to carry babies They I 39S 393 Corlmec e 0 9 often caused the back of the skull to mm by a 19 The b39rd has become flattened and burials from a Speckle body and fan tail a 1500 year old burial site in the The left wing is missing same valley show evidence of because that section of the cradle board flattening It is roof has couapsed possible that the connection to the bird represents a naming ritual On the back wall of the first room in Tainter Cave in total darkness is a panel of abstract designs and a bird human and lizard The bird is at the top of the panel the human in the middle and the lizard at the bottom suggesting that these were arranged to represent sky earth and the underworld Human Figure This is the human figure from the middle portion of the panel at the rear of Room 1 It consists of a triangular body with bent legs There is no head but zigzag lines radiate from where the head should be These speech lines are found at a number of rock art sites Within the abstract designs is a design element which is repeated over 10 times in various combinations These are called spiked arcs but their meaning is unknown light is a panel that is divided by a horizontal fault line Above the fault are a series of glyphs that represent stylized birds consisting of headless birds wings and bird feet Below the fault is a composition of bow hunters and deer Room 2 This drawing of the panel in Room 2 brings out the charcoal drawings The separation of the sky Images from the deer hunting scene again reflects a skyearth division This world view is comparable to the Great Seal of the HoChunk nation which features a Thunderbird above a Bear and reflects the clanbased social structure of the tribe This Close up shows some of the sky images depicted on the upper half of the hunting panel Note the stylized birds with arcing wings triangular bodies and no heads along with isolated wings and two large bird feet one of which is filled in the other open Bowhunter This close up of one of the 9 bow hunters shows a straight arm holding the bow and a bent arm pulling back on the bow string The path of the arrow leads from the bow to a deer which is off of this slide Bow and arrow technology was introduced to this area around AD 700 and so this panel must have been drawn after that time Charcoal from another drawing in the cave was Carbon 14 dated to 1200 years ago This age corresponds with the Effigy Mound Culture Pregnant Deer While some images are faint three of the 7 deer in the hunting scene have smaller deer drawn in their bellies suggesting that these were pregnant does This indicates a latewinter to earlyspring season when deer often congregate in yards The deer are drawn with large bodies straight narrow legs and heads consisting of a long snout and forked ears Although relatively simple these emphasize the essential parts of whitetailed deer Buffalo Another image at Tainter depicts a horned animal that may represent an extinct form of buffalo Longhorned buffalo lived in the Midwest from about 10000 to 8000 years ago and were predecessors of modern buffalo with curved horns If this drawing does in fact depict an extinct buffalo it would be the oldest known painting in Wisconsin Birch Bark Torch Archaeologists have not conducted any excavations at Tainter Cave However some artifacts were laying on the cave floor and were vulnerable to damage by trespassers These include several birch bark torches such as this one Tightly wound birch bark burns like a candle and must have been the light used by the Native artisans a thousand years ago Moccasin Another artifact found on the cave floor was a hide moccasin This is the only archaeological moccasin ever found in Wisconsin and it s preservation is due to the constant temperature and humidity of the cave A closeup of the moccasin shows the holes which were punched into the hide to sew the sole to the sides A tiny fragment of the moccasin was Carbon14 dated to 500 years ago Larsen Cave The second deep cave site is known as Larsen Cave and was found a year after Tainter Cave was discovered Larsen Cave consists of one very large room that extends nearly 200 feet into a bluff top The opening to Larsen is extremely large and natural light reaches almost twothirds of the way to the back of the 20039 deep cave However some of the Larsen rock art is still in the dark zone beyond natural light Ribbed Deer One of the panels in the Larsen Cave dark zone is a set of deer that are similar to those at Tainter cave except the Larsen cave deer have ribs drawn in the Chest area This may represent starving deer Some of the drawings in Larsen Cave are made of red pigment which probably was made from bloodred sandstone veins that occur naturally in the cave This painting shows a stylized bird with a human arm extending from the right wing This may relate to the Lakota story of Long Arm Thunderer who snatches Spring Boy into the sky Preservation While landowners and archaeologists can t stop natural threats such as erosion or moss care can be taken to preserve rock art sites when discovered Prior to announcing the location of Tainter Cave archaeologists from the Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center consulted with the HoChunk and worked with an experienced cave preservation group to build a steel gate in front of the cave Building awareness of the fragile nature of rock art and educating the public of its importance should help deter people from vandalizing rock art Early Woodland Pots mounds and domestication REMINDER YOU HAVE A TERM PAPER FOR THIS CLASS YOU SHOULD BE THINKING ABOUT A TOPIC AND STARTING YOUR RESEARCH IF YOU WANT TO DISCUSS YOUR PAPER E MAIL ME FOR AN APPOINTMENT TO TALK ABOUT IT Terminology Period tradition culture Distinguish temporal segments from cultural behaviors Woodland tradition Traditionally defined as pottery mounds first evidence of domestication of plants Now we know that all three are independent developments and start earlier But Woodland tradition brings all together Along with marked increase in site density And therefore population density See transition with Red Ocher culture from Archaic to Woodland Pots Mounds Domestication Defining characteristics of the Woodland Tradition Discussed agriculture already 0 What are the implications of the adoption of burial mounds How did ceramics affect seasonal mobility o What were some of the other consequences of the adoption of pottery Red Ocher culture Terminal Late Archaic Early Woon transition Great Lakes and Midwest 1200 BC to AD1 more social complexity than earlier people Long distance trade of exotic materials Elaborate burial practices using red ocher to decorate or cover the corpses of their dead Red Ocher is ground up iron ore that is red in color Objects of exotic materials with burials to mark the individual39s status Copper ornaments marine shell beads and ceremonial blades knives or points that were thinner and larger than could be practically used The trade networks and use of copper by the Red Ocher people have their beginnings in the trade and copper use of the Old Copper Culture Red Ocher people used copper more to make ornaments beads rings than too s Not all Archaic or Woodland people were involved in the Red Ocher Culture Red Ocher sites In Illinois and Iowa Red Ocher cemeteries may be associated with mounds and Early Woodland pottery and points Turkey Tail points Transitional Late ArchaicEarly Woodland Cemeteries in natural knolls as were Old Copper burials Copper as ornaments suggests some indications of higher statusgrowing social complexity First mounds Watson Brake and Poverty Point Middle Archaic But not burials Use of natural mounds by Glacial Kame other Late Archaic groups Burials in shell mounds middens with Green River Late Archaic Early Woodland will construct earthen mounds specifically for burial Antecedents in steatite vessels at Poverty Point and sites in southeast and Middle Atlantic Where steatite available Carveable soapstone First clay pottery at Stallings Island Savanna River near Augusta GA Shell midden site 38003500 BP 18001500 BC Fibertempered First temper accidental inclusions Soon discovered value of temper during firing Drag and jab punctate design Pottery terminology Paste clay Various sourcesI usually d1st1nct1ve m1neralogy Temper deliberate inclusions Fiber first then sand crushed rock last is shell Each type and period uses distinctive temper Manufacture Coil slab Surface finish Cordroughened byproduct of surface preparation with cord wrappe paddle Smooth or with other overall patterns Decoration Incised lines punctates fingernail summarized N impr se cord 1mpress1ons Early Woodland and Adena Woodland tradition Traditionally defined as pottery mounds first evidence of domestication of plants Now we know that all three are independent developments and start earlier But Woodland tradition brings all together Along with marked increase in site density And therefore population density 0 Local developments as well as a panregional phenomena Adena Midwest pottery Marion Marion Thick is first pottery in Midwest 500 BC Interior and exterior cord roughening Often no decoration Crushed rock Thick straight walls at bottom Indian Isle Punched Related type with fingernail or punctate decorations over cord roughened exterior no interior cord roughening 39b quotx pLIJu Prairie Phase Early Woodland Ceramic type Prairie Incised Wisconsin 100 BC to AD 100 Tempered with sand Thinner walls and more rounded base than Marion Surface decorated with rows of fingernail impressions and H geometric patterns of lines cut into wet clay Nodestool pushed partially into interior of vessel Fzurv 78 Pruinv phmu39 vcumln from 39ruwl39orrl mmlyz Wm WW r h I J ll lifo 5 W g 39u 1 quot39P r SI 3931 p 173quot Early Woodland Wisconsin and upper Midwest Seasonally mobile Base camps move seasonally ogistica mobility while at base camp But probably staying in one place somewhat longer than Archaic populations Riverine focus during summer Extensive mussel shell middens first extensive use of mussels in this region Fish Eary domesticated squash fruits berries Winter Rockshelters deer and nuts Stratified site with Early Woodland shell midden Site is on an island in the Mississippi River Mill Pond Al Reed local collector and river survey first identified site Excavation 1980 UW Madison field school 0 Island boat access 0 Arzigian and Theler site directors 0 Block excavation o 36 square meters down 16 meterstotal 46 cubic meters of excavation o o Floated all soil from all cultural features 10 70 cm of alluvium over 1 meter of strati ed deposits 0 Early Woodland through Late Woodland occupations First evidence of Early Woodland squash in Wisconsin 0 Extensive use of mussels Good context for Early Woodland ceramics and Waubesa contracting stem points Lin 1quotquot in i p Muskrat 0ndatra Zibethicus Raccoon Proc onlotor Freshwater Drum y Aplodinotus grunniens Al Reed and a snapping turtle Winters in rockshelters Deer bonesbroken to extract bone marrow excellent source of fat Deermain source of meat during the winter CamedpipemadeQt Q pipestone from the Adena mound in 39 Chillicothe Note the W 39 10in cloth ear spools 3 and jewelry on this mag http wwwohiohist0ry centralorg media filep hprec8 http wwwohiohist0ry centralorg media filep hprec1 The Myth 0 First European settlers saw thousands of earthen mounds o with gorgeous artifacts They couldn t believe that the current native peoples did this too spectacular Proposed some ancient moundbuilder race but the current nat1ve peoples d1splaced them 0 Possibl Aztecs the lost tribe of Israel or some other fancifu group We now know that the myth is wrong these were bullt by the ancestors of the modern Natlve Americans Myth of the Moundbuilders What effect did this myth have on initial explorations of mounds and first interpretations Mounds Mounds as burial sites ceremonial sites gathering places Conical burial mounds Later also earthworks defining areas Adena sites about 300 in Central Ohio Valley maybe another 200 in Indiana Kentucky West Virginia and Pennsylvania a few sites along Chesapeake Bay Md 3 A v quot Q l IGoodall 5 I I Miamisb39llrg Adena d quot I O ax an i u f Mlo mg L I M L 39 39 3 3939 3 1w 2 39 39 II GREA MBRICAN BOTTOM For NEItptii 3 i39 C amp Mama 6 II use K 9 quot a 591 i quotquot3 51quot OCahukia 39 a rpcnh rump I u Crab 39 0 build I Outward I 323139 O I or o f39 m quotquotm I 39 o s O f Knapp A V quot 1 510m 6 quot I MilkaI 00W Cm 39 0 mm o 39 3 39 o u 39 okock 13ch I I 1 l OMounds ale mg J I r 0 Immn o w r 395 Emerald Mound k bm h IIIMarIminc 39 3 quot l quot 39o Lakmauor39 ea i l i gricl Moan 39 Adena Hopmu Ohio Hopewell Mimh ppian rim Cam Mississippiau 0mm A1 Mme Far A mien MUOOJIP Adena Special burial complex within Early Woodland centered in upper Ohio Valley into Ky WV extends to Chesapeake Bay Leads into Hopewell Roughly 800 BC to 100 AD 0 http wwwarchaeologychannelorg content Video adena gookWhtml Worku rs t l39ui7tll m lmlum muumi H Um pawl Ham 139 quotI unumnm of HM39 Munmnvntul Ummh39ur of Ilu39 1rs1 imn r39hlh y pumh39d unmml 185 by I I gun In an umpunuu In hm39 sr39ru s m Hu migim of tha39 muzimi In mmm39ur urrlnzmlugw Mmeth39 W Thi kt x mx ch39kc39wn IN m tum m Mquot 1m Inn39grmmd nutmg ubwrmfmm m his MM Adena culture 800 BC to 100 AD Early Woodland mound builders Southern Ohio adjacent West Virginia Kentucky Indiana 0 Small Villages near gardens still seasonally mobile 0 Wild plants nuts fruits berries and cultivated crops squash sun ower sumpweed goosefoot knotweed maygrassEastern Agricultural Complex 0 Animals depending on region deer fish mussels intensive use of local resources 0 Pottery thick walled probably used to cook the seeds into porridge Use of exotic raw materialscopper marine shells beads Conical burial mounds with elaborate grave goods 0 Mounds as territorial markers 0 Earthworks might define ritual spaces 0 Not everyone participated in the more specialized ractices the term A ena culture represents the common art1 act styles arch1tecture etc not a spec1f1c tr1be of people Adena Mound Chillicothe at base of hill mth Gov Worthington s home which he called Adena Hebrew word meaning delightful place Mound 27 feet tall 140 feet in diameter Excavated 1901 William Mills curator of Ohio Historical Society Copper bracelets and rings slate gorgets spear points of Flint Ridge int many bone and shell beads The Adena effigy pipe 39 I 39 39 39 e n 39 U 39 39 Adena house Earthworks 0 Defining a space Chenopodium Sun ower and workshop sites a Bright colors white with Flint Ridge light gray also red quarries yellow blue green 0 Very important esp with Hopewell later Ohio s official gemstone 0 High quality chert outcrop in eastern Ohio 0 Nearly 8 miles long hundreds of quarry pits Stemmed points 0 quot0 c71 1rbi do 394 tr dz hr I vvrnitlt 51L blades Turkeytail blades Virtual tour of Adena artifacts http 66195173140 ga11ery2 mainphpg2 itemI d238 W Adena Pm lcry Ov39OcllaJ n Mo39l quotl39n v 39li boOnolsA m MOI39DIOO amp 4 4 3900 Q p v Other Adena tools 0 Stone hoes int blades points scrapers ungrooved axes celts shells as spoons and ornaments bone and antler combs beads gorgets copper axes and ornaments tobacco pipes from stone Pottery not buried with the dead grit or limestone tempered simple pottery designs from fabric or nested diamond shape 0 Diet fish mussels wild plants deer elk rabbit hickory walnut gooseberries Shamanism As indicated by portable art Weeping eye cross and circle design become important Shamanic practices tranformation of humans into animals birds wolves bears deer and back to human Tubular pipes altered consciousness from tobacco Nicotiana rusticavery potent variety 0 Also serves as organic pesticide Gaitskill mound Gaitskill mound Montgomery County Kentucky found 1920s in mound no further info 92 cm x 81 cm 16 cm thick Carved on one side onlyother side grindstone Spider image Back of spider is human face Visual pun Or face is death s head Or decorated skull Carved intaglio Adena tablets quotquotquotquotquotquotquot falcons hawks or eagles or comb1nat1ons of b1rds and humans May occur as m1rror images or bird elements with human hands or faces Used as tattoo templates Backs1des have grooves from sharpenmg needles A 0340000001 CM 0 m is 05 Ln391luxltn39 quot39quot 1quotIHquot mun lmuu I will Engraved human skull as gorget A 1706000126 Adena cones and pipes Cones well made with at bases smooth surfaces and symmetrical sides many of hematite 0 Purpose Tubular pipes Effigy pipeshoveler duck very simple Typical Adena tubular pipe Pipe from Toephner mound Franklin County Ohio Pottery bowl on curved platform one end was stem other end was handle A 1994000028 Bone combs 8 known combs All found in burial context Two rectangular pieces of at mammal bone fitted together Teeth either paired or single 40x60 to 5ox1oo mm No apparent association with age sex or occupation Fm quot Hurmin I tml 4 Hu39L cL x mnou unwaner Li l mMu 1quot i39 quot I lv39mu rumba 39nm Mr 1 14 mummi Nu L39xr MM 139 14 Um l39v 5 5 39 Ufununn k 43quot I m quotrmmm itquotqu 391 Hummi Hms Cu J39iull culfquotb 139n y39 U 39 1 MM 1139 n warty Un39umim 39 0 I39m quot39 GUMup ul m39mmru Lani 1 v uth 39quotf m39 Iawum Hm quotu Mm I39um39 with Nut an mm tu nah m lhme quotnlmmi HM um Mum rm mm r39wm39 m M cm 4W m39m mu39 39n39mfc 4 Mr Hu39 Ohm Hrsnrrnm39 M39L Ic rv In39umv39ma Grave Creek mound 0 West Virginia 250150 BC 0 69 feet high 295 ft diameter 0 largest Adena conical mound 0 Shallow moat surrounding base of mound with several passageways across dltCh Moundsville West Virginia art of complex of mounds and earthworks Moundsvil e Bottom but others are not well known 0 1838 examined three burials grave goods including thousands of shell beads 5 copper bracelets mica objects 2 gorgets all artifacts now lost 0 1975 testing with soil cores constructed by continuous bu11d1ng over more than a century Cresap Mound quotquotquotquotquotquotquot quot vawr mu 0 oywvtc 390 d Inna NI quot00quot Along the Ohio River in West Virginia quotw o Dragoo Mounds for the Dead 1963 39 5 38 o Periodically more layers of soil were added to cover later burials until the mound was nearly 17 feet high and 70 feet across 0 The first burials were on the oor of a circular wooden ritual structure or in shallow graves below 1t x Extended burials in barklined sub oor tombs l 39 I cremations and isolated skulls in fired pits extended burials on mound oor I 0 Later the wooden structure was torn down and 39 39 39 burials were placed in low mounds of earth above the first graves o Cremations extended exed and bundle burials in the fill above the burned structure 7 59 0 Third stage excavated depression in center of mound w1th 10 more bur1als 0 Fourth stage on surface placed extended fragmentary and cremated burials around a fireplace and then mound fill over tip Cresap Mound cont Dragoo was able to separate early and late Adena with the top of Cresap Mound being late Adena similar to Robbins md Excavation by WPA at Wright mound http siris archivessieduipac2oipacjspurifull3100001218557ofocus WPA excavations in two mounds Burials in log crypts21 individuals recovered larger mound 30 feet high 4 construction stages 14 log tombs most bur1als extended on back within tomb others scatted throughout mound in bark line or puddledclay pits o 4 types of log tombs Logbox Log platform Rectangular pit most elaborateperhaps the central burial Circular pit Grave goods include copper bracelets whetstones mica ornaments bone combs dlsk shell beads gorgets tubular p1pes Underneath mound Adena paired post structures Adena plain potteryconnects the village with mound complex OOOO 39f 39 I 39 Athens County Ohio Much smaller and simpler I 1 V One male 25 35 yrs old I p w forquot A 3 Grave 15 ft long 5 ft deep quot 39 39 Sides plastered with gray 39 39 p clay llned with vertical 39 7 wooden posts 39 1i I Poles over the grave and A 39 on the ground around it formedaplatform about V 25 ft square t 39 quot x 39 0 Beyond that a ring of I gravelly soil 0 Then whole complex 39 covered with mound 30 feet high 114 ft wide 0 Originally 70 feet high M iamisburg 0H 39I Adena O Serpent mound Early attributed to Adena 0 Nearby mounds are Adena 0 Wood charcoal dates it to Fort Ancient x late prehistoric Ohio plateau overlooking Brush Cree t One of few effigy mounds in Ohio Largest serpent effigy in US 0 14 mile long Great Serpent Mound Ohio Robbins Mounds excavated by Webb 19391940 0 See Milner p 58 59 Wolf Plains group 0 Late Adena group of 22 conical mounds 9 circular enclosures Northwest of Athens Oh1o SCALE 2000 Plum In 011 l q 391 397 l L Liz 39 Jill fty rquotquot39 r 17 394 M a Salt quotPI m 111653 5 f I ANCIENT WORKS THENS C OHXO 611 I M3th Surveyor 1 p anpm Other Adena mound sites Toepfer Mound Grave Creek Natrium Mound Sand Hill site and ossuaries o Chesapeake Bay Md 0 Largest assemblage of Adena artifacts in Middle Atlantic including bifaces 30 tubular pipes 165 gorgets birdstone celt pendants paint cups bannerstones 0 Not professionally excavated Cole 0 Goslin Adena site types Mounds 0 Big and small 0 Sealed pits and log crypts x Key elements Size grave accessibility permanence of mortuary structure x Crypts allowed for reuse of facility basically a burial vault Circular paired post structures below mounds Ceremonial circle earth works Habitation sites poorly known Adena mounds and ritual Variation in mortuary ritual es that suggest stratified society NO Monuments to the dead or records of social interaction Adena Mnund Detail Adena mounds are accretlonal Vertical Shaft added to over long periods of time IIIPm mfg o Mortuary building built used for multiple m f J39s ceH 39 39 39 39 I I I upper Vault individuals then burned with dead mound constructed over burned building 0 Another building built on top of first mound process repeats mug EmmaH 0 So overall size might not relate to quotI m 12 Iquot 3 ft importance but to length of use 0 Initial burials often fairly simple Covered E E E3939 I F 39 I h 39 au I Brig11131 I 39 39Il Il I39u I39I Adena burials closed gravesonly for that burial 0 Eg Robbinsall graves closed 100 individuals 0 Log crypts reusable facility 0 Eg Wright mound much larger than Robbins but all log crypts only 21 individuals recovered probably the last ones buried in the mound Burials both inhumation and cremation Burial goods copper bracelets gorgets celts shells Adena mounds probably did not contain all individuals cultural decision not necessarily status differentiation Social organization ideology Probably clan and lineage based 0 Social standing important in both the construction of mounds and who is buried in them Clans and lineages control access to food and territory organize group labor and exchange with neighbors Corporate identity reinforced by burial ceremonies Religious beliefs important death symbolic 0 Use of red ocher on burials as well as other colors 0 Burial with goods tools ornaments Burial goods might not be for the individual but for the family either that of the family burying the dead or for a group of burials in a cluster Sacred Landscapes Places Where corpses and valued items had been buried were usedto divide and mark the landscape in ways that carried social political and religious meaning Buikstra amp Charles 1999203 Links development of specialized permanent and bounded areas for disposal of dead to ritual affirmation of corporate group control over crucial restricted resources Social hierarchy Display of wealthmore a statement about the people building the mound rather than those being buried 0 Children have nice burial goods beads etc x But probably not high status themselves 0 No clear evidence of hierarchy over multiple generations x rather group leaders emerge to mobilize labor and resources through consensus Increasing regionalism Population growth leads to better defined and circumscribed territories More Visible territorial markers including points pottery styles 0 More formal exchange mechanismsbarter in web of reciprocal relations 0 Exchange maintains right of access to outside resources in times of shortages Trade Widespread including 0 Marine shells from Gulf Coast 0 Copper from Lake Superior 0 Ohio pipestone Changes in Adena Early Adena more egalitarian utilitarian burial goods smaller earthen mounds Late Adena after 1 AD mortuary centers more elaborate special burials exotic and finely made grave goods larger mounds often with circular enclosures sacred circles for gathering places For next week and Hopewell Read Tremper Mound report for at least one mound excavation Be ready to discuss in class 0 How the excavations were done 0 What they were looking for o What they found in the mounds Mounds and Burial sites Big picture on Woodland Three traits characterize Woodland mounds pottery cultivation of plants Though evidence of all three earlier they become prominent and most important during the Woodland period Woodland Distinguish two specialized burial complexes from the rest of Early and Middle Woodland culture Adena and Hopewell are specialized burial and ritual complexes A quotburial complex is not the same as a complex of burial mounds Habitation sites Mill Pond site is an Early Woodland site in Wisconsin but it s not associated with Adena Millville is a Middle Woodland site in Wisconsin but it s not associated with Hopewell Big Picture on Adena A burial complex emerging out of earlier burial complexes such as Red Ocher One type of burial complex within Early Woodland but not all Early Woodland cultures are a part of Adena Adena has construction of large mounds often with multiple construction phases Exotic raw materials such as pipestone and copper and elaborate artwork such as carved human pipe but not as extensive or elaborate as the following Hopewell complex Concentrated in Ohio Kentucky West Virginia area Big Picture on Hopewell Burial complex associated with extensive trade in exotic material elaborate artworks complex burial sites and earthworks Probably a result of competitive display between lineages More powerful people organizing construction of earthworks acquiring and manufacturing exotic artifacts such as obsidian mica pipestone copper effigy pipes and being buried with them The earthworks and mounds are ceremonialritual centers NOT places of residence There is no habitation material within the earthworks or near the mounds The few habitation sites known are small scattered hamlets up and down the river valleys Common Misconceptions quotmass production with HopewellNo There are large quantities of some items each was made individually probably by a specialist But these are probably not fulltime specialists as they would be with true mass production quotmass production applies to more quotfactorylike processes such as moldmade pottery with the Aztecs Possibly some ceramics with Cahokia But not with Adena or Hopewell Mounds surrounded villages NO no real villages known for Hopewell small homesteads or farmsteads for individual families agriculture with Woodlandnot really it s more cultivation or gardening lowlevel food production Agriculture is more intensive food production that we won t see till Mississippian times Mounds and burial sites Identi cation of Cemeteries and Graves Archival Research Surface Survey Geophysical Survey Soil Probing and Coring Topsoil Removal w 4quot quot 39 v Soil core showing mottled grave shaft ll Adapted 7 N 30 OWSICY 3 31 1997 Dense vegetation within an agricultural eld marking the location ofthe Cargile Cemetery lSCtlUS Clinton County Kentucky Rough eldstone marker at the Upper Prater Cemetery 15mm Pike County Kentucky Geophysical survey of the Reynolds Cemetery 4 6Ka349 in Kanawha County West Virginia Adapted om Cl ay 1999 Gravesha at the 39 7 West Virginia quot h f Sampling Surface Artifacts 9 cry 4 b dl 4 rm 39 J39au Lia f Hand excavated test unit placed over grave to sample i surface artifacts lSCp l canetery Campbell County 1933 A ican39Amencan gravem Georgia Adapted from Kentucky Vlach 1990 4v 4 6quotquot 4 P c 4 739 Q v i I z I 91 Kw u wig gt 3me w a Minnesota Burials project Conducted by Arzigian and Kathy Stevenson Funded by MnDOT and Minnesota Office of State Archaeologist OSA Compile all known info on excavated mounds in Minnesota Answer some basic questions How many mounds have burials Where are the burials within the mounds How deep can we expect to find burials and how does that change across Minnesota Some mounds have been preserved but over 90 have been lost or have been plowed down and are now invisible quot hch How 1 0A 7 v 39 3 Mu lawSch 9 l Dmv mwvp pug JIML Io l 5 c 3 u I 1 x 11 it u it thm fmauyuxru 1 gt2 u C N 1 Wd rushrp quotu u 3m xmkh o w 4 It I tmv a m lll II 3 l 391 i r r lqunnI Pw sdivn l x r EAR m u h n 121711 9 I n x yr J in L 9 Mud ME L uhorb u u ls ogt u 1 7110 In 1 a A LA 4395 1 3 ama n ama f uw hr Ja 1 s 7 Mw74wvmlt4 U wm r m a LL 535 r 3 easy 1N F u 5 r v L u 1x 31 M1 gr 7 z u v w qu a 10 4r m u f 39 h39 i39 A My I I M II t39 l g 757 ff I 93 quot2 5 25 39 12 39 39 3 u Aquot 3 Qquot quotquot r 112quot quot o I ll l 39 39 9114 v sf 215 lllol vi I s u on 3 iv 1 l 311423 19 12 nquot 1 n 249 A 39 uni af x33 u 1 32 litquot 11 O 1 39 A i MorniaryICemetery MoundEarthwork 1 3 Lam L PJE X 3 3393 W39m Mississippi gt 39 39 39 Valley 5 Archaeology 1 Center 339 331C E 0F 4 Ef mw Or WNESDW I l l l l Eile Edit Eiew lnxert anmat Ioolx Tgble indow elp ElataFurlduc Moun d b urials Site 21 EW 1 g ENTERED lfl39 l 39 39 3 General Descrip on In 1954 Wilford excavated another mound the largest mapped bv Lewis had a Lewis mound 4 Wilford found one multiple secon shallow pit39 some bones were stained with red ochei In Lewis mound 5 Wilford found a heavilv disturb to have been on the ground surface or in a pit too sl SITE H JFDRL39IATION No of Mounds 5 Mound formis conicals Mound sixesfrange Not mentioned in Wilford lar to see WinchellfLewis for re st39 Two largest desig Setting Cln high ridge separating Minnesota and C Disturbances According to Wilford the remainin completelv de stroved for dirt fill Wilford desigr probablyr match Lewis Mds 4 and 5 When he ex trench through the mound County Brown Site Name Mound Group Information Sources where checked in bib reference notes SIF39CI EIEDIIQPE site les copies of site form 1iWilford 1952 a 1954 memos lgs excavation map a pro file showing burial locations Wilford eld notes USA TISIIE QS site files quotquotquot V A lit 39 m mvxc neness g Wilford Johnson a EXCAVAIED MI Lewis 4 Wilford s 1 e 3933 MEI11115 19593333 Mound Summary Although heavilv disturbed bv previous excavation an undisturbed buriz Hmlme 139341993 EDmPutEf les had been shallowlv dug into the yellow subsoil and contained ll closelyr grouped bundle ca evidence of red ocher U Elf M 31993 31m ll Eggs WWquot also Wilford ms W3 and Nelson rid IJAGPRA inventorvj 4 Identification confidence Moderate WIV interpret Wilford s Mounds 2 and 3 to be Shape Conical Sixe EWH E39s reliability Lewis 45 ft diameter 35 ft high39 Wilford center of mound 405 Distinguishing attributes different from rest of group None apparent location within map in site file Disturbance After removing the sod Wilford found a definite previouslv excavated north s center mound fill had black soil mixed with some vellow clav so WIV interpret this to n excavation had reached subsoil Excavation August 1954 Wilford 50 ft square stalced39 with 3 0 in northwest corner ISent bv 25E was approximatelv the highest point of the mound with elevation of 405 ft Cir circumscribed about center stalte39 excavated in 6 inch levels with floor of first level set a39 Construction ground prep nature of fill artifacts in ll WJF cannot tell how ground s dean of fill no artifacts found Reuse no evidence Number of features 1 multiple secondarv burial in shallow pit Burials con rmation Positive Preoebte Positive Negative Prehebte Negative Iiitieterseir Justification Human remains rec overed39 interpreted as interment Featurer39Feature complex burial complex burials 14 to 14 Soils no info Md r is one r 1 o11ri1 1 t re Summarv A shallow submound pit contained ll bundle burials of 27quot individuals quot eexl lj 39 e I Page 2 Sec 1 235 IAt 5quot Ln 25 Eol I32 lFlEl lb IFIK IEHT IIII39v39Fl quot39quotF39H I Mierea e Aeea Eile gait 39l l ll l lilgl llala ai ieu insert thmat Eeeerde Ieels indeu Help a a alal a war ill l JLMg i I39r SITENUM llzl KDDDl human ramaina raptI yea alt Elie 11 ll addl ferma prepared yea Site Summary 39l39 greup ef ever 133 meunda and the type eita fer the Middle quot39quoteedand Malme phaae Brewer add datahage entry 533 erreavated 3 meunda in 1333 Euahnell erreavated 2 in 1333 the Llniveraity ef Minneaeta erreavated 13 aite type W burial releferl T39 MD F39H T39SEIH39I ll He avidanea ef a prepared greund aurfaee U ef M netea en F39refile 2 aereaa the aeuthern aide ef Hm rnnr Inrll an quotTim eubmd tepeeil rame3939a 21 39139KII2E1 leeua identifier D1 idant eenfiI l1 leeua Summary fairly large 45 by 35 feet eenieal meund that eentained a peerly preaerved maaa aeeendary burial peaaibly in a large ahallew pit in the tepaeil SITENLIM l diaturb39anenm pethunting 035 eheelteda date 222321333 ether aeureeex date IHamline 1 Cennia39a netee W deaeribe dietur Previeua te 133E erreavatien quota hele had been dug inte the eaat end reaehing aubaeil 3eil within j Eluriale were aeeempaniad by red eeher pettary thie hele waa aeftquot Erreavatien rquot 39 further eeureae ef Ian ILI ef M bat IDCUS type elay preaetrla pernte and a aerapar 39139 peaarbla hum rem hum di urb PBS md Strum Elem 3D band llmeund d md eantar diaturbad39 lleartially primary rafaranea eentarrt humar fE m 2139139KII1 MNI ne eenterrt er p 3TENLM EECUnd l TEfETEHCEE lSHPD Elle MNI t t faa eemplarr ty heriz gen leeat aeuth ef eantar faa length ne een arr r T lit definite meunda 12 mm 3 MM If mam identifier lm llllquotquotquotTI 3m quot0 V39E39ble 3934 min 11 ft frem e 2 fea width aetting diaturbaneae aeila deaeriptien W 11 featurea F md ferm md erig length F md EllEDEN lang F md erig widthf F md SHEEN widt E md erig height If md errea3939 heig height IIIECIEEIE eenieal md aizr r Fleeerd Flaeerd 2 ef 1351 leeua type meund fee in burial 2 human ramaine lyaa faa Summary tetal lit burialex39 3 d 11 bundle buria 3 11 primary buria eramatiena If if 11 pit buriale wquoteehar 39 pparently a maaa aeeendary burial near the eenter ef the meund Errtremely peer preaervatien maltee the number ef individuala uneartain Feund with the buriale were aeme red eeher lumpa ef pettary elay 2 preieetile peinta and a DESI FE393quotEILFll39l39L Eluriala deaeribed Hume a3 maea burial ef Several individuale perhapa a3 many a3 nine in a eentral burial pit with the maierity in eeeendary bundle burial mede Hume aaye that quotit eah net be determined whether it wae a primary er aaeendary bundle burial Hewavar the nine akulla ehewn en Iinveetigater39e detailed verbal deaeriptien ef featurequotburia ineludea guetee Hamline infe j marr 11 ft frem I vart gan leeati belew greund aurfaee d daae 3939ert leeal deptha ef 25 te 33 are Slightly belew datum but may tep lt md tep bet 21 md tep tep quot erig gd eurfaea ll bet quot erig gd aurfaea ll typee mertquot aaeee ebieete min 11 ft quot erig grd eurl F marr 11 ft quot erig grd aur 9555 F H II J IILI fee 11 ft thiek ahapeherizent ahapavartieal MNI eriginal MNI updated burial ferm praaarvatien Mr39hTEFl 39139L r phaea daeigna 1 i a l l l l l l I 95 3 1 she39dton 55 Hoie Mr I I I I II I 1 dc I I I I o f 9719 b i r now an Manquot I a If H m M g 5 upquot JJW 0 d if M 1D I in I MW MN ME IN 0 a 5 5 m quot395 53 105 1135 39 if cigara JE Hichlkd HIu 39 F r thIIfl I I I I cunt M if fths nor mth I en t 139 End i39d39 Ft 3 I 53 I inc1 3 Pr 15quot 39 Lgafar innateI Ht Cav f wr Auu39 r I lK ET H Ara Excava39faa Confirmed Presence of Burials in Excavated Minnesota Mounds l brbbable P ltl u39 3 393 P 39twe II Indetermlnate 11 13 El brbbablb nega ve 2 III nega ue 3 Percent of Excavated Mounds Within Each Region That Have 100 80 60 40 20 0 Ze 2n 25 39 3w 4e 45 4w 50 5n 6n 65 7e 8 1 00 80 60 40 20 0 100 80 60 j 40 20 0 Minnesota s Archaeological Regions Comparison of Two Regions Percent of Excavated Mounds That Have Features in the Following Vertical Locations l V 39i Archaeological Regions f 80 39 39 V 40 20 0 below onlnear infill below orig onnear infill orig orig ground orig I 23 We 2 39 3139 9mm 9mm surface ground J e 7w LLquot 1 g if l surface surface surface Subsurface Feature Bases by Region 0 lb w WU U u 439 c39n ft B 9 low Origin I 1 std deV f 8 x 1 Q a a I Range D 1 O u 1 2e2nU23H3e3wj4eu4s4wj5cu5efi5nrr5su5w16n 6sH7eu7w 8 J9nu93L Archaeological Region Ma ximum diatamg h 39 l em helm angina gmwnd 5m rimse in 25 SW 4E aLw 5 5n En Es ing a ArchjaeuluaiBal rEUi n EbLirnHEAET FEIIHIE Feature Base Depths Comparison of Two Regions quotn i 39 I 39 1 Archaeological Regions An example of a site where we conducted field research in 1994 The archival information was summarized for this and all other mound sites in the book McKinstry moundsfar northern MN W quotEWW McKinstry Mounds Laurel culture Middle Woodland in Northern Minnesota s 39 39 I I o 39 39 O quot 1 I 39 l quotfa39 39 g quotoquot 0 39 gt 2 A 39 39 gt Aggie an39 I 39iquoto39uquotx 39 1 l A q 1564 4 39gt gt gt I 3quot I nriquot 117 39 lVIcKinstry death 1 9 g 7 E a DMD maskinterior IIllIllllllIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll c quotr av J 39 39 gt H39 39 f J g Q Site also has bones with holes tapped into long bonesto release spirit or cannibalism 39 I HTEHD MMHHESDTE 39n a HAM mura lu HUHEET mug tumun t mad habitatim Hammad 3 LH JH MEET Maislid arm haihi Ltium szflasnd 3 WE EAULT mamas and whimairnji Headland hall min it HJ39LHITEIJ imunxda and hhi tati maj Handiamii 5n l HHEH Eh hit tinn T l i Indi m39 Ehylg r huig 5 SHITT39H film and Mhi bmium Mime Archaic E Erquot g 1 a E n in H ns n 3 m 5 Hils rm litr FEET FEEHEEEJ iir EEHATi ML mm a E r A A 139 it A 39 BMW i jiinm r L T HEEIHSTH39W39 my PElLAH n um s am hnh tntian Hmndlnnd1 rgh 1 PhigqIndjnm A E IWFEEHlT H L F Lu rd FEET FEJHEEE muundm am habitutimm gamriyndj H i l d EL H IJSH FISHTE hayit ti HDEIIJIEMJ Archaic Figum E I quot him d mamad mm Tami 195Figm E rig Sim5 and EiTEE Imsfmm wiil n this ning River Rhyming qj Ellu39El mm FiEi39liliii39ilt i 39F39Ea39 Eli EtchHm H39i i I 155 mum c im 3i EbbEFF tag51in an away 5a myquot Figure 5 inf 5m shm ng HI h E gi Immi n m 193349511 war IE Es ngq 1994 MAE mi naming Human m wag it I nding um dim mu l f mad 39W mm Tum lg zFigum 31 Figure 4 View of Mound 2 on the lower terrace in back of ht person With th UPPCT terrace in back Taken February 1991 1 39 394 W a Tc Figure I Overview of 1994 MVAC coring projcct area Drill rig us sci up over bridge abutment area by Core MKl Figure 12 Photo of 1994 MVAC project area showing the locations of the six cores The photo is 100ng east from the river with THl I running on the right M i mtry F atum 13mm E g Em n S j j 39 N351 fawn Nani3mm EE ne Iragmmis i thm cks l3 if hun 11m Hand WHITE water EEI EEEEL 39 1 em Fgm 15 1994 mm M4 frme pr lle Example of Mound authentication study Red Wing IVIN Several clusters of mounds totaling about 500 burial mounds Whole area heavily impacted by growth of the city Several projects have examined fields before being developed to see if any burials remain in the area 394 H II quot I Haj 39 Q I H ugt 39n A x HM I39 quot m la 39i393939 39 7 Hurt w llama1 Led I UHLEIEE FIELLI39J EHEEEEUI L IH IAN q s39aF39lL ii a war1M5 2amp1 GD 45 33913 r A 13 39 if g L 23 1 Fa MIME J Lama gang 7 I n 39l EFh if E MFILEJE a 7 1iLg 2 J l L55 k L r 15539 ll g ill 115 Euiilluuaugi El Emil I HUUEHG DE39VEIQJ MEHW GRAVEL F39II39IT AH Eig a ee i aE Lil Hwy I I ls EI nd Waitlea Earaly39 Warma Hum 39ia39tsfih se mam11 22i ham a 21 ilgilii lilquot Other natural features often look very much like mounds Tree falls IVIima mounds gophers Frost heave Other causes Usually in lowlying areas too wet for burials Burial Site Ethics Legal and moral obligations NAGPRA Local and state laws Cultural sensitivity and cooperation Benefits Information about past health disease social systems diet etc Late Paleoindian and Paleo wrapup Paleo Readings What argument is presented What evidence is presented Is the evidence sufficient to justify the conclusion What other info is needed Site types Kill or butchering sites Living sites Quarries and workshops Caches Burials Paleoindian overview Length Only a few hundred years Similar points suggests rapid expansion Fishtail points at southern tip of South America by 12900 CalyBP Were people here before Largescale interaction and trade Microbands and macrobands Seasonal movements Subsistence big and small game Movement of cherts and orthoquartzites long distances Get familiar with new landscape Endmay have been quick climatically Plants and animals took longer to adapt Wisconsin has both mammoth and mastodon mixed vegetation in this area But probably most of the food came from smaller animalselk moose deer etc Western US Mammoth kill sites Bison kill sites Mostly lithic debris and tools Very few other kinds of remains have survived Younger Dryas 12800 to 11500 BP colder and dryer climate Transition over a decade or faster Brought on by collapse of North American ice sheets Draining of Glacial Lake Agassiz influx of fresh water disrupt ocean circulation Solar flare Early and Middle Archaic O Dates for each period va regionally exist Southern and of Early Archaic 6O t Late rchaic 15120 to 10 Nrthern siisconsin Late Paleo Early Archaic transition delayed End of Late delayed till or later Midle Archaic generally correspns to Altithermal roughly 308C riest BC li 77 H 35i H H ll M if 1 H H J H H A H H n l dz H W i H H H i 7 W W 7 39 7 i l T w l a H H n H H a H H H l D H ii g7 iiiil l l C 7 3H 5 quot ug N o rt h we ste r n U n ive rs ity j E z f a excavations 19691978 Lower Illinois river valley One of largest deepest most complete sequences in Midwest Specialized reports only Sequence from 8700 BP to 800 BP Includes Early Archaic cemetery 39 I K I l l 339 y l I 39 39 quot 39 gt VI 39V I yl39 quot iwflr f 3031208 1 K STIEIR SHE mas SQUARES cur away 0 Sour SIDE quotHORIZON 2 HORIZON 5 1quotJERSEY BLUFF CULTURE 800 to 1200 AD ZBLACK SAND CULTURE 1quot a jr o Dongsnc DOG gumm 1 7quot I gt 39 T 35 39 I r i 1 8 gt I 395 0 a f quot3 f a 115quot 73 4 quot3939 HORIZON I 1 39 d HORIZON 393 39V 4 39rl39 392120110 quot 7 a 0 011739 DJ 120KB PA 7 39 Q i goBI39Zai 9 600 to 900 8C 3 RWERTON CULTURE 1500 to 1000 BC quot 0 QTITTERING EOH CULTURE 3000 to 2000 BC ln i 5000 to 395 c EARLY ARCH PERIOD cgrrUREs CLEAR AYE mm em 9128111 5 I1 139 II I 4 711a 7 A a r p 2 AC r t 411 1743241HJ a Q 13 a L a 1 Hz 5 Q be t M c 3 1 I 28 v I At 4 V I Waterscreening at Koster 1 21quot f1 quot quot L 5quot I I L by 1 I quot Jo 5 Dog burial at Koster Koster Early Archaic 8500 Paleoindian brief visit Early Archaic 6500 BCHorizon 11seasonal camp with temporary dwellings St Albans points link to St Albans site in West Virginia Notched IOOints are similar to those found at Graham Cave in Missouri Family probably people repeatedly visited seasonal EXploit hickory and pecan nuts deer small mammals fish freshwater mussels Tools grinders and hand tools near hearths 4 adults and 3 infants tightly contracted in oval graves some covered with limestone or logs Also 3 dogs buried in shallow pits Middle Archaic at Koster IVIore permanent occupation Horizon 8 5600 5000 BC 4 occupations based on distribution of artifacts Someoccupied for long period of time maybe 100 years orso Houses 2035 x 1215 feet long walls with wooden posts up to 10 inches in diameter in trenches 810 feet apart Branches and clay filled in gaps No end wallshides Possibly for yea rround use Fish scales suggest late spring through summer Nuts and mussels in fall maybe abandoned for winter Focused adaption on optimal resources Modoc Rockshelter Illinois Randolph County Illinois 90 miles SE of Koster Rock cliff at edge of Mississippi River Occupied from 8000 2000 BC 28 feet of stratified deposits First excavations 19505 Melvin Fowler 19805 by Illinois State Museum Major record for envt change For example through gastropods shortterm camp 9000 years ago by 6000 BP longerterm base camp First occupants generalized huntergatherers Early Archaic little use of aquatic resources before 5600 BC Middle Archaic after 5600 BC fish mussels freshwater crayfish hickory nuts become more important Also small mammals cottontail rabbit muskrat squirrel No deerhunting in uplands instead Graham Cave 23MT2 Montgomery County Missouri Northern prairie habitat Southfacing entrance Excavated 19491961 Saved from use as livestock shelter 6 feet of deposits University of Missouri and Missouri Archaeological society investigate 1930 and 19491960 First archaeological site to be designated National Historic Landmark Dalton Horizon 9800 8800 BPlate paleo 78006800 BC Occupation continues to 4800 BC Also Late Woodland occupation Fireplaces 1 burial Graham Cave Hunting and gathering seasonal use of cave Deer most important animal Points Dalton Agate Basin Hardin Barbed St Charles sidenotched Also end scrapers drills rubbed hematite Bone awlsplinters antler tip tools eyed bone needles Handwoven nets Mortar and pestles and nutting stones For nuts seeds berries 1 burial Graham Cave burial Placed below original floor of cave Partial burial semiflexed position Drilled coyote canine tooth with burial Coyote the trickster Graham Cave scrapers and drills mull Wm llllllllllll mmgpmm l39 drill notquot quoter and Drui Graham Cave Point Bone hairpin eyed needle Twinedbag impressions in moist clay hardened by fire fingerweaving industry in Early Archaic continues through Late Woodland Archaic start of groundstone Graham Cave stratigraphy Graham cave stratigraphy Mixed Culfural 8 Organic Materio DLsturbea S ro o Animal Burrows Sterie Clay Undistrbed Fire ute Abor39vgino Pitsm ttI u cw 0 1 k 77ulll7ll7ll 39 quot 8800 BP Chapman circle of boulders might be council or ceremonial circle OR it outlines a shelter within the cave overhang where skins brush mud and stones created a protective shield against harsh winter winds 39 Graham Cave Variety of artifacts suggests spending more time in one place Fine needle suggests fitted clothing Awl sufficient ifjust making loose garments Scrapers for preparing hidessuggest women s work in cave clothing etc Rodgers Shelter Southwestern Missouri Game seeds vegetables foods Deer squirrel cottontail 25 feet of deposits Dalton component and stratified Archaic Icehouse Bottom Tennessee Earliest occupation 7500 BC Sandbars in floodplains of Little Tennessee River Mobile bands Near sources of finegrained chert Hearths made from red clay brought from nearby hillside 29 hearths have impressions of basketry or netting preserved in firehardened clay deer small mammals fish birds turkey mussels hickory nuts acorns berries roots greens Part of seasonal round Cemeteries Formal cemeteries first in Middle Archaic Earlier burials but not necessarily in formal cemetery Sugest corporate lineages inheritance of crucial and limited resources ancestor ties to land Corporate behavior is form of territorial behavior Group acting as one with respect to other groups and to interaction with resources Territories may be defended 39 Old COpper cemeteries seem to be transition to Late Archaic will discuss later Windover Florida 60005000 BC Early Archaic in Florida overlapping Middle Archaic for Wisconsin Organic preservation nearly unique for sites this old Pollen record from end of fleistocene to recent Burial site human remains and artifacts deposited in a pond covered with 36 ft of water found while backhoeing pond Excavating below water ta blepumped constantly keep peat and contents damp to preserve 160 individualsnewborns to those in 605 and 705 years of age With full range of ages can study population Some With signs of violencepoint embedded in pelvis crushing fractures Largest skeletal sample older than 7400 years Dead submerged within 48 hours of death in peat and water deposits with neutral pH giving excellent preservation Brain tissue survived in almost half allow DNA recovery Samples removed from water and immediately placed in plastic bags and flooded with nitrogen gas and frozen to preserve Dietary reconstructions from gut contents and isotopic analysis Windover excavation Windover httpwwwanthrofsueduresearchdoranwindoverwindov erhtm Windover Age Distribution 20 rg bx E F22 U 59 l l i 1I i 1 5 Mp x I d 2 in my 5 amo lgt l MN f1 mg g F lorlda has more 3T1 quot U 10 gt 6 0 BP skeletal ix quot ffi jifquot 393 materlal than 25 If quot 539 ll l c a1111e1e 2 x1 l J else 1n US l l l lrf39R39l lNENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL Sl39l39LIb l I 94 quot39 39 39 39 39 quot 0 quot5 Jquot I A 010 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Age in Years 7 different textile weaves used for Wlndove r clothing Florida Sabal palm andor saw palmetto Fine weaving25 strandsinch Clothing bags matting blanket or poncho Atlatls with wooden shaft bone hook stone weight Also bone artifacts including awls and points Windover People ranged over large region out to Atlantic Coast deer edible plants and bottle gourds as containers oldest north of Mexico Distinctive tools Middle Archaic Ground stone tools become important with Archaic increasing through time Axes Fully grooved for Middle Archaic Threequarter grooved Late Archaic Wood workingmore trees available wide range of artifacts probably made rarely preserved Missouri drycave archaeology Arnold Research Cave 23CY64 Central MissouriCallaway County MO Dry cave with no fluctuations in temperature or moisture Archaic period 7500 600 BC Slipon Shoe with heel worn through Grass Rattlesnake Master Sandals found that fit only left foot or only right foot but no pairs were found Wisconsin rockshelters Raddatz Sauk County in Natural Bridge State Park Stratified Archaic deposits Excavated 1955 by Warren Wittry State Historical Society of Wisconsin Tested 1955 and 1957 Cultural down 7 feet dug to 12 ft Features include hearths pits Probably 75 of shelter excavated Generator for lights Deepest occupation 8 to 9000 BC lVlain Raddatz component 3200 BC f V N 39 quot x xt39 39 a lquot 39quot n 39 3 to 39 39ihg wf L A 2 17 39 ii 1 quot 7 Fig l The Natural Bridge and the Raddatz Rockshelter Sks Camera orientation castsoutheast Natural Bridge and Raddatz Rockshelter 0 I It nquot 639 A39D39 knives E39L39 Scrapers M39 611 quot Raddatz Sidenotched Projectile Points G I ix 8 Antler artifacts A flaking tool BC barbed projectile points D is a waste section 2 cut section F drift G anvil H rubbing tool Fla 7 Al split bom awls J deer ulna awl KL pollshed bone awls M cut bird bone NP ground wolf teeth Q split beaver in cisor chisel RS shell spoons Raddatz rockshelter No grinding stones only 4 tiny fragments of any groundstone tool Deer skulls in antlerless conditionantlers dropped in January Lack of fish and mussels and very few waterfowl Therefore winter occupation Hunting station Fires in rear of sheltercooking and heat Other rockshelters Most of our evidence for Middle Archaic Raddatz Durst Lawrence I Broley Governor Dodge rockshelters Driftless Area i First occupation usually Raddatz i Whitetailed deer most common fauna Usually with shed antlerstherefore December to April Also smaller game Nutshickory walnut hazel Only one Old Copper Culture spear point but the Raddatz points suggest the Old COpper burial sites are related to the rockshelter occupations Old Copper Culture Middle Archaic use of native copper Coldhammered not smelted Sources of copper Lake Superior especially Keweenaw Peninsula and se Royale Copper artifacts of Old Copper Culture Middle Archaic found predominantly in Wisconsin possibly 20000 copper artifacts found Period Date Late Mississmplan AD 1700 AD 1200 Early MlSSISSlpplan AD 1000 Late Woodland Lewis 0 AD 500 Middle Woodland E l W dl d AD 1 ary 00 an 500 BC Late Archaic v 1500 BC Middle Archaic I 4000 BC I Early Archaic 7000 BC PaleoIndian 101000 BC WISCONSIN PREHISTORIC TIM ELINE Old Copper Culture Distributed probably along trade networks throughout Wisconsin only some in Michigan later use of copper by Hopewell and Mississippians is more widespread lVlost Middle Archaic copper artifacts are utilitariantools and weapons not ornaments Hunting tools Points Fishing fish hooks harpoons gorges Woodworking axes adzes celts spuds chisels gouges wedges Food preparation knives awls drills punches spatulas Limited numbers of beads bracelets rings clasps pendant head dress feathers Almost all artifacts found on surface Sources of native copper Ontario Minnesota r Mound Wisconsin 2010TeeA w quot15390069quotN as2ooo 44quotw elev 587R Old Copper Culture Native copper mining build fires over copper deposits 39 quench with water and rock spalls away then hammer rock and it will crumble away Veins of copper followed down to 20 feet or more Nearly 100 pure copper Cold hammering to process heating to relieve stress annealing quenched in water repeat as needed This cycle prevented copper from becoming brittle Virtually no manufacturing sites have been identified and investigated not found at mines but elsewhere where later manufacturing of artifacts occurred c 4 l mx0gtltgt452 2 2 20524 34 10320 ZCImDOCm m ozm mFMOOmm dedmmmo HIxOcOI 41m 1550 V v Iquot Figure 69 Sr39wted mppm artifact typtn mm the Old iuppvr complvx munr b 10 Svlovvtwl ld npppr complex artifacts Old Copper burial sites Four sites all excavated prior to 1961 under threat of destruction now mostly gone 39 Southwestern Wisconsin Osceola Price III Eastern Wiscnsin Oconto Reigh Osceola and Price I Secondary or bundle burial most common Cremation second most common Primary interment only at Price lll Mass raves Osceola 500 individuals in 1 grave Price Ill 88 individuals Grave gods rare and usually not with specific individuals Points Raddatz and Osceola Sidenotched Price III One individual human vertebra had tip of point embedded in itearliest clear evidence of humanhuman assault in Wisconsin Osceola N O 39P Fm 71 Osceola sire Im39hcrs AC sockered copper spuds D copper knife EF bunncmones G conical copper projectile point H4 copper owls I cherr scraper K rocketed copper projectile point LM chem drills NT hen projectile points 93 nuural size Price Discussion in 12 lVliIlennia Excavated by Joan Freeman Wisconsin Highway Salvage Program 196061 Knoll above Wisconsin River 14 miles above junction with Mississippi 21 pits with 129 individualsmixture of cremated secondary and flexed primary All ages both sexes Burial pits with multiple levelsrecurring event Rock slabs and red ocher Dates 3700 3100 BP Few artifacts 4 stone points 2 antler points 1 copper fish hook drilled black bear canine Largest burial pit Feature 25 see handout 88 individuals 3739 episodes of interment 15 cremated 65 secondary 8 flexed primary Used over 400 years Red ocher with lower individuals One individual with a point embedded in vertebra Macroband gathering and burial of dead Oconto and Re ig h Oconto may be oldest Primary interment most common Cremation and bundle burials also found Multiple discrete graves for single individuals most common Largest multiple grave has 7 individuals Grave goods placed directly with specific individuals Points of Reigh type side notched Burials only of 28 lived beyond age 34 Teeth with much weargritty plant foods Bone chemistry suggests up t 40 of diet could have been plants Oconto site excavations A g O y x 539 1 h z F 3 u i 393 v 05TU8393L30 AK 1quot H V m mm s I BURM FITS O I ALTA 11 cmmnmw 915 0 5mm 1 5mm i Q I Fu xw gunu Jvo V 39 LUZWM p BUAIM 990 I FEARA1 r l 1 SfAA F x sou I o A Io 39 I I I a Copper artifacts and points 4 r h t u t39v mi C l 2 aches quotm M quot j S 1U v w FIO 72 Deonto rite artileets end burials AD copper projectile points E Are 2 Feature 1 Burials l 2 and 3 50 copper spatula H39K copper crescents L copper bracelet M bone awl or gorge N chen scraper 04 char projecrile points Q copper shhoolt R sheet copper spiral SW copper ewls X snail shell bend Y Future 5 showing bone whistle and hematite lumps at hose of chuld39s skull 2 whistle made mm lelt hm uterus of trumpeter swan V5 natural rlxe Reigh site Figure 612 Copper feathers from Burial 6 at the Reigh sue HSUI e 613 Marin shell sandalsole gorge from Burial 13 at the Ruigh silo 39 terpreung Old Copper Diverse practices SWOsceola and Price lll corporate unit larger than the nuclear family probably a lineage lVIore egalitarian ascribed status Repeated use of burial a reasmacrobands Eastern OcontoReigh personal and family status that was emphasizedindividual burials Probably achieved status suggested by differential distribution of personal grave goods among bu rials most have none some have many grave goods Only sites with rare or exotic quothigh status goods Such as feather headdress of c0pper NCIJ halgitation sites identified but sites with Raddatz points probably re ate Tren f r haic e ri Aatatin to chanin envt an resources Regionalization particularly in point types Subs istencevaries by region Settlementmile but often in rckshelters at least for pa rt year lenthening stays in one place Small bans but prbably ith peridic macran gatherings Textiles nettin clothing basketry present though rarely preserved efficient use availa resources Kinds of Archaic sites Base Camps Special Purpose sites Quarry sites Mortuary sites rettl ment Patterns Mi rchic Less use of uplands shift to major river valleys Populatin gro huntergatherer population control and infanticide Trend to more sedentary accumulation of roperty less portale kinds of artifacts such as grinding stones more children 139 regular visits t same locatin maybe development of facilities for shelter storage food preparation Shift from entirely residential mobility entire group moves from location to location to more of quotlogistical mobility work parties spread out from sedentary base camp to eXploit outlying resources more ermanent cam ptrash removed middens outlying areas Shift to wider range of resumesare favored foods being over exploited oulation increases Rise of sedentismhova does it emerge from moile populations The Beginnings of North American Prehistory Dr Jessi Hall an Two major issues When did people get here Where did people come from Outline Very quick summary of Clovis When what where is Clovis Traditional colonization model The three main colonization models Atlantic Solutrean Coastal Pacific Beringia the traditional model revamped Clovis First vs preClovis What are the major preClovis contenders What do these mean for the traditional model 34 36 38 40 6160 per mille 42 44 Greenland Ice Cores Oxygen Isotope Data 46 ColderMore Ice 4390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 Antarctica Ice Cores 480 Hydrogen Isotope Data 490 62 H per mille Terminal Holocene Pleistocene 4 Relative Sea Level meters Sea Level History 120 of the Gulf of Mexico 24 20 16 12 8 4 Thousand Years Before Present cal BP Chronology Terminal Pleistocene after the Last Glacial Maximum LGM to Holocene III Ca 2100011500 calendar years ago ca 18000 10000 radiocarbon years ago III Paleoindian Earliest Cultures in America Terminal Pleistocene III Ca 1500011500 calendar years ago Page Ladson 0 50m Dalton Kirk 2quot xiii Sg QVc s a sad l Jlllod ousou alq Early Paleoindian no dates 13250128OO Late PaleoindianEarly Archaic 1260010700 108009500 Late Paleoindian 1260011500 Middle Paleoindian no dates pouad Immlnz Traditional Model Clovis FirstIce Free Corridor 19503oa 2005 Clovis people crossed the Bering Land Bridge ca 15000 years ago following fauna through Ice Free Corridor and spread from north to south and east across oon nent Challenged on 1 Chronology of Clovis and IceFree Corridor 2 PreClovis Sites What is Clovis 39 Cu ltu re Clovis is an assemblage of distinct tools that were made in a very prescribed way geographic and temporal limits What is Clovis Clovis Technology Blade Cores Blades Fluted Points Osseous Points and Tools LL 39 I I I I I I l 39 K t 39t I39 l a l 7 W 39 39 Overshot Flakingj When and Where is Clovis First wellknown culture 11050 to 10800 radiocarbon yrs BP 13250 to 12800 calendar yr BP only 450 calendar years Truly continentwide Even a few in SA Bradley and Stanford the Solutrean iquot 5 33 I H t w q I 5 a y quot Glaciers 39 Reconstruction of North Atlantic Sea Ice Cover W Perennial Sea Ice During the Last Glacial Maximum Sea Ice 612 months of the year v J Based rm do Vernal l fllillfMdlit P000 Dyku 8 Pros 7987 Sea Ice 39 6 months Of the year LOInbuCk 1993 Prcecc 7995 and Pflaunmmi c 32003 9 Possible Migration Route Courtesy of Stanford Technology Solutrean Route Solutrean Clovis Bradley and Stanford Both have Large bifaces Overshot flaking Blade production d n a S r e p a r C S r b m S B O O t 6 mm mb tr eb di mm bamp m B B h t 9 PM 00 m h t O N 0 la no n n e B r O a k S Va A Goebel 2004 T unI bi Overshot flaki Adaptat Solutrean cave art Technology No Clovis stemmed or shouldered points No Solutrean flut What about art lOn Coastal mari g game Ime gap ti Solutrean ends before oldest Cl ng i approximately 4000 years que or frequent Ing me to I OVIS snot W E U p A W E A mamwmm m m p13 4 Eu Solutrean Route Flaws Option 3 Coastal Route I West Coasl 13000 12er 14 yr 8P 2 Cordillerian 12500 12000 14c yr 39 I 3 East has 12000 11500 14tyrB P D 4 Inlenor 11500 11000 Me yr up 5 High Antietam4000 Ntyr By C 533 39 Dixon 20011293 quotIcefree corridor not liveable immediately before Clovis Alaskan sites not old enough One of earliest more or less accepted sites in Americas is southern tip of South America aa 571755ifiggglx M o nte Ve r d e Why this route is not very testable Geologic complications px Approaches tog 500 m I Moresby Isostatic Matheson Inlet Island Eustatic Tectonic Aka Site preservation I To 391 I 39 l39 a I U l l l a i i 39 n Mquot 391 6A r r c Site visibility Depth ml 3 Myquot 308 r Evidence Against Route v V L quot v quot 39 39I I r a l 4 nunv 0 K H m m H uneqva IA Izmum 39 lwb non H 57 A a Ayaa39dlwnfdxl 39 Cot H mum linonutty n mo 0 quot 39 CumM man I quot quot Pu Canto 0 can 5 2 ind m int 00 mluh c Rd man Location of earliest sites Both for and against Are they coastal or inland adapted Y39Vquot 3 Toolkit Site ages If preClovis ice free not a problem Gene csand linguistics of modern Native Americans both indicate Asian origins NO evidence for maritime Clovis Clovis vs the 3 routes Adaptation Technology Chronology Genetics Clovis bifaces with Solutrean overshot blades ivory Available after Pacuflc Coast 14500 Bifaces microblades ivory Inland big B 39 39 ermg39an game hunting Why is it hard to answer these questions MAJOR geomorphic changepoor preservation Poor organic preservation No analog environments Terminal Pleistocene Geography Northern Last Glacial 3362mm 39 HemSPhere 39 l I 39 39 Ice Coverage lVIaXImumca 21000 years ago Sea levels low when f quot39 Legend Ice volume hlgh ggygnwce 39 3313 I Beringia disappearing Bering strait appearing ca 12000 years ago iiia 39 omne er i r r 39w39 Faunal Changes Extinctions Over 30 genera of large animals Many small animals Habitat changes and local extinctions too Why extinctions Climate change Comet Disease People All of the above In summary lVlost researchers I follow the Siberian 4 origin model as although there is debate on coastal f vs inland vs both Late Upper Paleolithic in Siberia is most probable origin Chronology of Siberia DNAindicates Asian ancestry 3quot Lower Paleolithic gt130kya no accepted sites H erectus Chronology of Siberia Middle Paleolithic 130 y 40kya Starting to see sites in southern boundary H neanderthalensis H sapiens Denisovans something else Chronology of Siberia Upper Paleolithic 4010kya Major expansion of humans First H sapiens Divisions based on tech not ages Why slow expansion Terminal Pleistocene Environment Windy Middle Upper Paleolithic Early Upper Paleolithic 4342 4443 4544 4845 4745 llllllllllllllllll 20191817161514131211109876543210 Kya 35 38 40 42 36 33 4o 42 Number of RadiocarbonDated Gmpssogsea G39spz Upper Paleolithic Occupations in Siberia cnmatic Events Climatic Events dates shown in calender years BP 5013 501 s Middle Paleolithic Levallois technology NotchesDenticul ates quotBeakShaped tools Mousterian MP to UP toe EUHFME Hitt FINSHED TUUL Upper Paleolithic Bu rins Retouched Blades Persistence of MP forms Increase of UP through time Bonetoob Bone art Early Upper Paleolithic ca 4230kya Emergence of modern humans in Siberia Middle Upper Paleolithic ca 26 18kya May not even be in Siberia or Beringiaall are south of 60 degrees rth Spans LGIVI R Sites in Baikal area I o IA lVIal ta culture l n D 4 V quotWm O O 39 v 1quot 3 l Iquot I r I V t quot 4 I 4 l 39 II quot 39 39u u quot P 2 L fo39 a 7 391 39 IL I I 1 y A I D I I 4 r39 39 l I 39 39 Q l II I 391 n ax f u 2 3 139 I zquot 39 I 0 K4 Z quot 39 quot 39 39 a The LUP Beringian Toolkit Regional Cultures Date to 1811000 radiocarbon BP Microblades Blade cores Unifacially flaked and burin tools Some portable art c 20c Eurnpa Yuma was Image C 2007 NASA39 Imaqv zoor mummgs Stunnan M 13 Alaskan Sites Oldest are 14000 years ago Spread of shrub tundra across Beringia at 15 14000 years ago rendered the region habitable for humans broadbased diet hunting large and small postglacial mammals similar to that seen in Siberia o 2w l I 1 l l 1 1 x l First Definite Sites Clovis First wellknown culture 11050 to 10800 radiocarbon yrs BP 13250 to 12800 calendar yr BP only 450 calendar years Truly continentwide Even a few in SA Alaskan Fluted Point Sites O 755 753 01 f 7 39I fquot iii quot 39 x 1 39 I 4 39 to 39 it nes 2 l 39 x l 1 r F f a x 39 5 i 1 A quot395 l r a u rv l v 1 1 u t x x o m d o r CloVIs IS only 450 years long CI North and South America were both occupied at the time of Clovis a CI IceFree Corridor was not a he CI Alaskan fluted points 1000 years 39 later than Clovis Clovis I 13250 to 12800 39 cal yr BP 11100 1070014c yr BP 1 get I Quebrada Jaguay ca 13000 cal yr BP ca 1100014C yr BP Quebrada Santa Julia 13000 cal yr BP 11025 i 4514c yr BP Fell s Cave 13000 cal yr BP 10720 i 300 to V 39 10960 i 45 14C yr BP 11 000i17014cyr B39P39 39 39 Cerro Tres Tatas 12900 cal yr BP 10935i35 140 yr BP 395 Cuevo Casa del Minero 12900 cal yr BP 10985 i 4014C yr BP 0 39 Paisley Caves OR Manis WA 14100 cal yr BP 13800 cal yr BP Debra L Friedkin Site TX 39 15500 cal yr BP 39 Schaefer amp Hebior WI 14200 amp 14800 cal yr BP Meadowcroft I 0 39 I Rockshelter PA 39 39 w b 1 i 13400 to 15200 cal yr 39 0 BP Biface Blade Bladelet and Osseous Technology PageLadson FL 14400 cal yr BP 39 Were there people in the Americas before Clovis Elephant kill sites Ta1e 39 To p p e r quot M o n t e Ve rd e if 39 Meadowcroft Tfp 39 Cactus Hill 39 PageLadson Debra L Friedkin 39 Paisley Cave lVIanis Monte Verde Elephant Kill Sites La Sena Nebraska 18500 Shaefer Hebior Wisconsin12500 Few or no associated lithics Geofacts Preclovis ages Gaining acceptance for Wisconsin sites llquot 4 rquot h V r l II n 39 mg quot 6 I I O u r39 V l 39 I N M a P I f I quot 2 39 I I h IVIanis Mastodon WA 12000 Vanc Elephant skeleton with bone point embedded in rib No lithics Topper SC 2000050000 Huge Clovis quarry Modified chert occurring deeper Geofacts or culture not changing for 50000 years Neandertals Monte Verde Chile 12300 Oldest mostly accepted site Human footprint Wooden stakes Chewed seaweed Stone tools Critique of 739 Monte Verde J low 2 TOM DILLEH AY39 TOM DILLEHAY u 39 4 Q E o v Meadowcroft Rockshelter PA 1130012800 4f g 1m Rockshelter WIth extenSIve occupation 7 throughout PleistoceneHolocene 3496quot Paleomdlan remains Miller complex 3 2 coalcontamination 3323 3 21 quot 39 mixing fv fauna doesn t match xiv 1 Eaquotri g I 2quot C D crib 39 a a i V WC r E w I g v 439 H gt V V8 H a J F H E F f 39v J l 4 74E 391 Cactus Hill NC Older than Clovis Clovis and potential preClovis in sandy deposit PreClovis point very like Miller point IVIixing no clear stratigraphy No dates at allartifacts found below Clovis 3 4 quot w y x j q o 021 a 22 a ne 1 a 272 29 42 314 w Debra L Friedkin 1550013200 calibrated f r i e Ee H s quot w W Eam mg mtehc mpg tarnishe 55 1 ad a z Equot39 633 I he ad 7 lie quot 239 39 It Jigr39l39i l 55 Jar E 7 FFI iw El 14 53 ii lg 1 39 i 39 H Q t In l r quotr m a we I i q a I a quot quot39 391 39 quot a n 399 I 39 39 9 a 39 39 H it i39quot i i r F FI 1 n I Egoailquot T a 39quot 39 39 quotquot jar V t quotf 7 i quotquot 1 1 I I I V V o 1 25 em v gt excavate 3 I V I r v 39 A I I V V a v f u Quarry site in central Texas excavated by TAIVIU Thousands of lithic artifact below Clovis component Dating is all OSL no radiocarbon Vertisolsediments crack so artifacts could fall Paisley Cave OR 12300 99 A Pro le Mulmum extent of Ice sheets 24 ka 39 Rockshelter site Dates coprolites with human DNA as 533339 significantly pre f x Clovis a a Complex stratigraphy contamination of DNA in past or present PageLadson Mastodon bone with cutmarks and lithics mm Ice sheets Points found out of as mm context nearby Context underwater site Cutmarks actually human Averaged Radiocarbon Age of Part of the Stratigraphic Column in the Test CF Area of the PageLadson Site uquot 9953 l 40 n3 Bolen Level n106 ms 10200 1 84 n2 Late Paleolndlan n21 10721 I 57 n2 Mlddle Paleolndlan n1 11270 1 64 n2 Early Paleoindian Clovisage Unit 4U n1 11523 139 91 n239 No Artifacts 11735 1 41 n3 No Artifacts 12107 1 37 n3 N0 Artifacts mm 12289 i 30 n3 Early Paleoindian n n1 12351 139 39 n3 No Artifacts 12425 1 32 n7 Early Paleoindian I n11 14275 1 81 n2 No Artifacts 14580 1 83 n2 No Artifacts 39 Set of averaged radiocarbon dates not statlstically related omething Earlier The Aucilla River Ward Island Preservation suction pump 39 quot cou Ie39et screendeck H r 7 J I elevation 7 laser J R i C I O O Q PageLadson Geoarchaeological PreClovis In situ or reworked Archaeological How were Paleoindians living llnit 9weir 9Om When did they arrive PAGELADSON 2013 SOUTH WALL PROFILE Q g CL I 4 4 quot 95m I o o UnH4B l00m Unn3m 105 m Sediment Classifications v av mixed digesta and colluvium orgamc sand and limestone gravels and cobbles 1 10 m clay with little or no shell unexcavatedunknown Current Model 4 saunas 39 quot1391399 quot2 J I 1H LLRD quot as quotW39 Paisley Caves OF 11 330 yams ourquot 0 Cactus um VA Mo39c than 15030 years age Aucllla mm rs 11SOC wry ago Santa Rosa saw CA 39 quot SOD130710 986 s 30 J O O Q I Q 0 I I 39 I O I 39 7 I I 39 391 Monte Verde Chm f 4 BCO years ago 39 a httpwwwsmthsonlanmagcommultlmediaphotos J L Summary New model is needed None sufficiently explain all of the data thus far There are several older than Clovis sites that are hard to explain away QUESTIONS Earlv Historic Midwest Interaction and technology in a colonial context Remember everything from contact and colonialism class 1 Background a Waterways are very important to trade b Not much arc going on in the forests of N WI because they need water etc c Present day native WI communities i Lots of groups look at map we think the Oneota are linked to the Winnebago but don t really have any proof to support it yet have tribal stories which link them but not data d What happened when Europeans met Indigenous people of the Upper Great Lakes i Acculturation how much Euro stuff is at a site to understand time periods etc but bad didn t give much credit to ideas of Indigenous populations views of the European things ii Accommodation The Middle Ground by Richard White e Chronology of the Western Great Lakes Quimby 1966 i Early Historic Period 16101670 1 Explorers and early traders 2 French missionaries 3 At a disadvantage about getting info and materials from the indigenous people here ii Middle Historic Period 16701760 1 French fur trade 2 Widespread conflict iii Late Historic Period 17601820 1 British and American trade 2 Colonialism and removal f Aftermath of Iroquois Wars Huron diaspora 1 Map from class today a Lots of straight lines not true but not clear how they are actually moving 2 Huron people fled homelands to avoid conflict g Disease Epidemics depopulation i Article about La Crosse smaller pots over time so smaller populations Probably not but that could be one way to explain them ii Map h European Contact in WI C 1634 i Viewsideas of Nicolet ii Nicolet Corrigenda i Contact vs Colonialism Which is true of this area i Probably colonialism ii Remember everything that we have talked about in CampC class j Culture Contact amp Colonialism i Economic social technological etc changes going on as well ii Not just because of Nicolet k Key Points i Documentary record maps Jesuit relations 1 Western bias extreme ii French Fur traders and missionaries 1 Marquette and Joliet 1622 iii Infections euro disease iv Native population movement v Conflict and warfare Glass Beads i Chronological markers ii Trade and exchange networks iii Representative of social identity iv Blue very rare show status etc m Trade Kettles i Not used as vessels or to carry or store things in but as a new raw material source 1 Tinkling cones 2 Pic of a Late Archaic tinkling cone n Beads and metals 1 Used together in clothing accessories objects etc but found separately 2 Can t just focus on one over the other that s not how people used them 0 Social Networks of 17th and 18th C in the Upper Great Lakes i Identity and material culture p Why is this so complicated i Witgen 2012 quote q Mapped Social Groups i Problematic Doesn t tell us about movement and social interactions ii Bell type pottery of the Meskwaki in Oshkosh r iii People have found sites and connected them to historically documented groups iv Leads to her hypothesis 1 Are reworked metal ornament styles and glass beads recipes obtained by the Meskwaki distinctive from nonMeskwaki sties The Bell Site i Meskwaki occupied the site from 16801730 ii Near Lake Winnebago iii Archaeologists and ceramics testing ceramic theories against other material data 2 Technology study Reworked metals a anrhrbsl Hypothesis will have technological style will be different at other nonMeskwaki sites Technological style particular way a group goes from material acquisition to production to use to reuse to discard Bell Site Copperbase metal artifacts i 1959 Wittry excavations ii 1970 s Petersen metal detector finds iii UWO controlled excavations Reworking methods studied Artifact categories Patching and secondary reworking Graph showing data set usedcompared of Wittry and Petersen objects Then graph of UWO data with Wittry and Petersen data Then compare these finds to another site the iniwek Village site where Marquette and Joliet probably ran into the Illinois Data is very different Possible causes of differences i Time of occupation ii Social identity of site occupants many are similar but when compared to iniwek there is much more variation seems like a stylistic choice not because of technological advances etc Doty Island Site Some Butte des Mortes ware ceramics Meskwaki presence but also other 18th C site above it i All of it was water screened problem ii But shows that Bell and Doty look similar iii s identity a cause of these differences 1 Maybe 3 Technology study Blue Glass beads a Different recipes make different kinds of beads b Also had variation within styles c Results i Timing 1 MgO earlier vs P205 later 2 Why Not sure 3 Something changes everywhere to change the recipe for making glasswould call for European studies 4 Arrowsmith site is different because here they are on the run from the French and don t have time to trade 5 nsite spatial patterning of glass bead subgroups ii Interaction networks 1 High Zn brass included in coloring recipes iii Shared practices of technology 1 rock island on site production wasteevidence ARC 310 Midwest Archaeology Your Name Alyssa Spiering Cultural Tradition MississippianOneota Timeframe MS ON AD 12001625 Region MS Central US centered on the Cahokia site ON Environment available resources MS Mississippi River Valleys and other river valleys in the ON Diagnostic artifacts or attributes MS pottery ramey knives trinotched points Cahokiamounds ON shelltempered pottery artdecoration styles effigies ridged field agriculture Subsistence Hunting and gatheringwhat foods how acquired MS Still hunted and fished but lots of farming herding as well ON still hunting deer bison also fishing still Agriculture What foods how grown MS Extensive farming ON ridged field system corn beans and squash still consuming wild plants rice fruits and berries storage pits used to store squash corn and other grains also still depending on riverine resources like fish mussels and crawfish Seasonality amp Settlements settlement patterns MS villages different sized communitieslarger village with the leaders while smaller communities produced food and redistributed it ON villagesterritories with chiefs mobile or sedentary MS sedentary but still hunting and foraging ON sedentary for most of the time but do move seasonally Where are they during each season MS warmer areas in winter cooler areas in summer ON move to plains in winter to hunt bison rockshelter Structurestypes materials used size MS public architecture small houseshuts for a family of 45 people to live in ON long houses for entire lineages to live in 1520 people Technology Lithics MS scrappers trinotched points ramey knives ON similarjust using more localized materials especially when it is good kinds of chert in LAX area Pottery MS red slip ramey incised with sharp shoulder black burnished surface incised decoration of interlocking scrolls ON huge 1012 gallon pots used to cook for 2030 people have chevron designs with dots bellow thunderbird images possibly shell tempered Creativedecorative crafts MS designs on pottery birdman tabletthunderbird imagery ON pottery has designs on it thunderbird design effigies pipes similarities in imagery to Cahokia stuff cave art long nosed god masks Social organization Chiefdoms during MS ranked but later more regionalized smaller communities during ON lineage groups help in the ranking of societies the leader or chief may inherit the position and pass it on through his lineage group they also may control much of the economy and religious practiced in that area ON still have linages Gender roles MS probably woman doing more clothing making caring for children while men hunt but women can also partake in agriculture ON same as MS Political organization or social stratification MS yes Lots of power for person in charge ON yes Evidence of Conflict MS yes burials in Mound 72 show signs of warfare or surprise attack ON yes Trade and interactionevidence MS tons exotic materials from all over continent obsidian beads chert etc ON tons trade chert with other groups in plains go out there to hunt buffalo Ideology rituals MS mounds public places of business and worship ON thunderbird water spiritother spirits use effigies Burial practices MS mounds ON ground Leisure activities MS sport large scale arena in Cahokia ON art maybe At least two major sites with brief description 1 Cahokia is a Middle Mississippian culture site found East St Louis Illinois and is the largest city in North America precontact with Europeans and has the largest earthworks in North America The time of occupation dates from 900 AD to 1300 AD The center of the site Monks Mound shows obvious status differentiation with multiple tiers Cahokia is a center for trade networks in exotic materials and long distance trading The maximum population has been debated between 8000 and 20000 people It is a complex chiefdom with craft specialists agricultural base storage of surplus and some evidence of human sacrifice There is evidence of religion religious leaders and mythology playing a very important role in Cahokian society The Cahokians also had astronomical knowledge 2 Aztalan is a stockaded village and an outpost of Cahokia in S Central WI ARC 310 Midwest Archaeology Your Name Alyssa Spiering Cultural Tradition Woodland includes Adena and Hopewell Timeframe 3500ca BP to 12001300AD times do overlap in some areas with Mississippian cultures Region Across US Early Adena in Middle Hopewell in Ohio and Illinois River valleys Late Environment available resources first domesticated plants in N America Diagnostic artifacts or attributes Pottery mounds and 1st evidence of domesticated plants all start independently but come together in Woodland also population increase like never before Subsistence Hunting and gatheringwhat foods how acquired Still hunting and gathering but do start to use agriculture hunt deer and collect nut in the winters have a riverine focus during the summers lots of fish and mussels being used still collecting fruits and berries as well as period goes on more reliance on agriculture Agriculture What foods how grown Beginnings of agriculture and domesticated plants in North America 4 main ones from the East coast are squash sunflower marshelder and chenopod Seasonality yes still seasonally mobile settlement patterns mobile or sedentary Seasonally Mobile have base camps move seasonally possible logistical mobility while at base camp but also probably staying longer in one place than Archaic populations Become more sedentary over time Where are they during each season Still moving seasonally with a riverine focus during the summers later move towards rivers so they are always important Structurestypes materials used size longhouses Technology Lithics Early WoodlandKramer points found with Marion pottery and Waubesa Contracting Stem points found with the prairie phase pottery Snyders points and knive river flint Pottery Yes First pottery in N America is from near Augusta GA but first in Midwest is Marion pottery Marion Thick dates to 500 BC and the interior and exterior have cord roughening The pots often have no decoration and are made with crushed rock They also have thick straight walls and flat bottoms Another type of pottery is Indian se Punched It is a related type to the Marion Thick but it has fingernail or punctate decorations over cordroughened exterior no interior cord roughening One more type is the Prairie Phase during the Early Woodland period Other Mounds Creativedecorative crafts Effigy pipes stuff like that found with burials in caches Social organization Kinship patterns lineages Gender roles probably woman with kidsless heavy labor while men hunting Political organization or social stratification Probably making mounds so someone is probably in charge Evidence of Conflict yes Trade and interactionevidence Yes long distance trade in Hopewell with exotic and prestige items What type of trade goods large caches of obsidian pottery designs copper mica shell panpipes and other stonemetal resources Obsidian comes from the West and Rocky Mountain region while copper comes from the Upper Great Lakes region of Wisconsin and Minnesota Some exotic flint that was desired by the Hopewell is Knife River Flint form North Dakota area Mica quarries can be found in the Southeastern US and shell was imported from Florida Panpipes and pottery designs were quottradedquot in closer zones than the obsidian and shell and spread along the river valleys due to occupation in these area Ideology rituals shamanism and mounds but not all mounds are used for burials Burial practices mounds and in ground and cremations Leisure activities EarlyAdena MiddleHopewellLate artspecialties like craftsman possibly At least two major sites with brief description 1 Hopewell Mound Group on the North Fork of Paint Creek Ross County Ohio is one of finest sets of Hopewell cultural remains Excavations took place in 1891 by Warren Moorhead on the land of Capt Mordecai Hopewell which is why they named the culture Hopewell The mounds were surrounded by 6 ft high roughly rectangular earthen enclosure that is 2800 feet long 1800 feet wide and also known as the Great Enclosure There is also a perfectly square enclosure of 16 acres attached to the eastern wall and there are other smaller geometric earthworks and more than 30 mounds of various sizes and shapes within the great enclosure The largest is a series of three conjoined mounds also known as Mound 25 This mound was originally 500 feet long 180 feet wide and 33 ft high At Mound 25 they found quotboulder mosaics but these couldn t be interpreted and were never fully exposed also no plan was drawn It is possible that the mound was in the shape of a large animal and because they took cross sections out of it they could not fully interpret it Mound 25 was used as a burial mound in which the excavators found many elaborate grave goods Another significant aspect of the Hopewell Mound Group includes Mound 11 where the quotsingle largest archaeological cache of obsidian ever found in the eastern US This cache was associated with other grave goods of a cremated individual including pearl beads mica and copper This was possibly the burial of a quotMaster Artisan Excavations of Mound 2 revealed 8185 chert disks Toolesboro Mound Group mouth of Iowa river Iowa no village found nearbyriver might have taken it Copper sea shells mica obsidian indicate participation in quotHopewell Interaction Sphere ARC 310 Midwest Archaeology Your Name Alyssa Spiering Cultural Tradition Archaic Timeframe vary regionally Southern WI most of Midwest Early A 800060003C to 40003C Middle A 600040003C to 1500 12003C Late A 1500 123C to 5001003C Northern WI Late PaleoEarly Archaic transition delayed 55003C end of Late A delayed till 1003C or later Middle Archaic generally corresponds to Altithermal roughly 650030003C driest 5000 BC Region entire continent Environment available resources changing environments regionalization riversriver resources Diagnostic artifacts or attributes regionalization Subsistence Hunting and gatheringwhat foods how acquired Varies with regions Agriculture What foods how grown Started using agriculture Seasonality settlement patterns mobile or sedentary Where are they during each season Mobile but often in rockshelters for at least part of the year lengthening stays in one place shift to major river valleys less use of uplands tend to be more sedentary accumulation of property less portable artifacts more children Small bands but probably with periodic macroband gatherings Structurestypes materials used size Technology Lithics many different forms copper comes into play Pottery NA Other Creativedecorative crafts textiles netting clothing basketry all present but rarely preserves Social organization Kinship patterns shown more through burials and ties to quotancestor s bones with cemeteries Gender roles again possibly like Paleoindian Political organization or social stratification Possible status differentiation major earthworks are constructed probably not possible without social stratification also cemetery burials suggest both strong social entities lineages etc and also ties to specific placestied by ancestor s bones Evidence of Conflict NA but probably individual conflict like in Paleoindian Trade and interactionevidence Lots of regionalization but still have lots of exotic items What type of trade goods copper Poverty Point site very distinct artifacts and nonlocal materials found here which includes imported rocks and minerals similar to Paleoindian sites like the movement of cherts and orthoquarzites long distances Ideology rituals burials Burial practices still burying dead and sometimes dogs Koster site have cemeteries Leisure activities NA At least two major sites with brief description 1 Koster Site Northwestern University excavations 19691978 Lower Illinois river valley One of largest deepest most complete sequences in Midwest Specialized reports only Sequence from 8700 BP to 800 BP Includes Early Archaic cemetery Early Archaic site 8500 BC Paleoindian brief visit Early Archaic 6500 BCHorizon 11seasonal camp with temporary dwellings St Albans points link to St Albans site in West Virginia Notched points are similar to those found at Graham Cave in Missouri Family probably 25 people repeatedly visited seasonal Exploit hickory and pecan nuts deer small mammals fish freshwater mussels Tools grinders and hand tools near hearths 4 adults and 3 infants tightly contracted in oval graves some covered with limestone or logs Also 3 dogs buried in shallow pits Variety of projectile points found here still have regional connections but smaller regions rocks and logs covered some burials Middle Archaic site More permanent occupation Horizon 8 5600 5000 BC 4 occupations based on distribution of artifacts Some occupied for long period of time maybe 100 years or 50 Houses 2035 x 1215 feet long walls with wooden posts up to 10 inches in diameter in trenches 810 feet apart Branches and clay filled in gaps No end walls hides Possibly for yearround use Fish scales suggest late spring through summer Nuts and mussels in fall Maybe abandoned for winter Focused adaption on optimal resources 2 Poverty Point This site is the best known Late Archaic earthworks construction in the lower Mississippi valley Radiocarbon dating places the site at 1500 BC The site does not seem to have any connections to earlier Middle Archaic earthworks from around the area like Watson Brake It is the largest most elaborate earthworks in the western hemisphere for its time and is now one of three world heritage sites in the US Poverty Point is located on a blufftop overlooking the Mississippi River swamplands in NE Louisiana The site consists of a group of mounds and embankments and construction dates to 1350 and 1730 radiocarbon years BC The site is seen as a huge trade center with many distinctive artifacts and nonlocal materials The site is also characterized by the Poverty Point earth oven this is the first appearance of pottery in the Lower Mississippi Valley This site is like Watson Brake in that the earthworks were not used for burial what the mounds were used for is still unknown but most likely a habitation area or a ceremony or trade fair place The site is also the center of a regional patter across the Lower Mississippi River Valley Social and political organization of the site shows kinship ties and status was determined by personal abilities but construction of earthworks required more organization Exotic items come to the site but Poverty point objects are not found at far distances supporting the idea that the site is a ceremonial or trade fair place There are also many symbolic objects for ritualreligion these include stone beads pendants in zoomorphic and geometric shapes and replicas of open clam shells There are also small figurines of women who often appear to be pregnant with their heads missing This could be seen as important to some ritual or ceremony Also engravings with zoomorphic aspects could be significant and show animism as important to religion or ceremonies ARC 310 Midwest Archaeology Your Name Alyssa Spiering Cultural Tradition Paleoindian Timeframe 6800 years long 13000cal BP 12200ca BP Region all over continent North America Environment available resources cold tundra wetter on margins mammoth mastodon bison some fruits Diagnostic artifacts or attributes Clovis Folsom Scottsbluffregiona varrietis Subsistence Hunting and gatheringwhat foods how acquired Evidence of big and small game hunting and gathering assume it was a balanced diet Agriculture What foods how grown NA not occurring yet Seasonality seasonal movements warmer places in the winter and cooler places in the summer but limited data settlement patterns macrobands and microbands mobile or sedentary Mobile microbands of 2025 people and macrobands of 250500 people Where are they during each season Really don t know but do have seasonal movement Structurestypes materials used size NA not really occurring yet Technology Lithics points knives scrappers etc Pottery NA not really occurring yet Other bone and antler tools Creativedecorative crafts Gault site etching Social organization Kinship patterns NA Gender roles NA not really but assume Political organization or social stratification No evidence of a stratifies society so assume it wasn t probably egalitarian Evidence of Conflict Kennewick man and point no warfare but probably still individual conflict also with large animals and carnivores Trade and interactionevidence Exotic lithic distribution and possible trade between microbands when they gather in macrobands also sudden and wide emergence of Clovis points What type of trade goods lithics Ideology rituals have burials sometimes burned and smashed stone tools red ocher Burial practices pits with red ocher cremations primary burial Leisure activities unknown At least two major sites with brief description 1 Blackwater Draw NM First Clovis site discovered 1929 extinct megafauna mammoth camel horse bison sabertooth cat and dire wolf bones found in clear association with evidence of humans the site has a series of stratified levels a Clovis dates to 11700109003P with mammoth bones b Folsom dates to 1100010000BP with bison bones c A series of later archaic occupations 2 Manis Site Washington Manis Mastodon was found here with a bone point embedded in its bone However no lithics were found It dates to 13800 cal BP 10 CM Figure 31 Adams Site Chunky Stones George Holley s observations a Red Wing is an independent entity and not a client of Cahokia I Aggregation Center that incorporates mounds into villages ie Mlssissippian mode but in a unique manner I Not like other circum Mississippian world cultures cg St Johns II in Florida Are they wannabequot s or pirates Sin lthey late and far away they able to survive and ourish for a w I e Figure 23 Adams Site Triangular Projectile Points Figure 25 Adams Site End Scrapers Figure 29 Adams Site Net Sinkers Figure 35 Utilized River Mussel Shell with Edge Abrasion THE inFAMOUS BOULDER OUTLINE Is it a bird Is it a plane Is ita gasp BOW and Arrow BOULDER Ulquotl LlNl IllES J HlllQlH Surwymi hy W W Hill 1903 IMS39I Am39Izs In ii quotlull Imw 1H5 PM iquot in 1 15 i vvl E H iquot 18 vet H In H 539 fHl This unique llnllliil39l39 uuflino is sillmtwl nn llu Hlulw nt a bluff nmnr Hng chYis i39ullslll Serumquot rm vanship 25 iinugv 1K Sum ui llw stnlu s rvmwmlng tlw lunvulring39 m39v displuvml 39J lw ilm nliun t t lllh tn have been In represent H lmw uml aII39Iuw partly Iruwu tn slum tuwm al Lukv i vpiu Many ni tlw linustunes ui whirl tlw nullin in Hindu weigh alum luu pulmle 39l39lw cnlirv form nf this lmllillt l39 nullinmml lw ulmqI39wd by tho mmlciml vyv l39rum Hann lllufl m the Mimwsntu siclv uf ttlu Mississippi clm39iug39 vimn wvullnr i39l39ul Edward W Nlnniall was zlsml39inlml with Mr Hill Winn llu x lifll39lliillll were cnmluvlml u a 1 0 t 391 r n A J J a h l A v 5V i vis JI a I w 0 w 155 V l a u a 51 t Ajayn n 30 4lt J5 1 7 so Jxer 0 br D LI 1 THE ENERGY PARK SITE ENE GY PARK SUMMARY Mound group mapped by Tll Lewis on Sept 10 l885 Lewis identifies 64 mounds Mound 6 is a flattopped pyramidal mound 4 high and 48 x 60 in size Archaeologists discover village site enclosed by mound group in 1984 n Testing of village in 1984 1985 reveals it has been plowed but is otherwise intact and a previously village the Locality u Controlled surface collection 1986 1988 1 Soil resistivity survey of 60 of site 1986 1988 Complete soil resistivity and magetic survey 1 995 m Excavation 1987 1988 1990 a Village portion purchased and preserved thanks to community efforts in late 1980s Portion of 39 mound by State for MAC in 1980s Portion of mound group containing attopped mound donated to Goodhue County by landowners fly 2005 MOUND GROUP AT ENERGY PARK SITE IS MAPPED BY LEWIS Winchell 1911 on O 8 3 v I quotI II a 69 k G MOUND 21GD52 AND VILLAGE SITE 21GD158 216052 MOUND GROUP 2150 oumunou SHE mama AS cum 0 190 mu Sunvu IAI39I IV IIIOWII CIII Illl I Itno ov us Muno 49 In 50 100 I DI39I I Illk IOVIUOCI quotI SCALE m fEE39I AERIAL VIEW OF ENERGY PARK SITE 1988 Ri lquot a I a c 3 z z Controlled surface collection revealed distinct patterning in distribution of artifacts across site Distinct differences in debris profiles of speci c areas noted including area of exceptionally dense debitage in the west Five artifacts per contour 13i248238228218208 198 188 178168158 148 138 128 118 108 98 88 78 88 58 48 138 133 128 123 118 113 108 103 98 93 88 83 78 73 68 63 58 53 48 43 a quot as 248238228218 208198188 178168 158 148 138 12811810898 88 78 68 58 48 WEST meters 0 L a up a E I s a o 2 Figure 10 Composite of 1986 and 1988 surface collections L Q 39 1 I Issnweyer 1 quotT 4 LOCATION OF ALL RESISTIVITY SURVEY BLOCKS AT THE ENERGY PARK SITE 21GD158 I 248 238 228218 208 198188 178168 158 148138128 118 10898 88 3978 68 58 48 138 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 138 133 133 128 I A 128 123 SIte IImIts 39 123 118 118 113 113 108 108 103 quot39 103 98 gawk5 31315 35 a 5 98 93 339 5 5 93 r z i2 78 78 va r39Ef ij A 3 rdquot 2 73 a g hd9 a 73 o 63 i3 68 I a 63 g 0 g 1 63 I 10 HQ 1 g A 58 3 0 58 g 53 g g 53 quotquot 1 3 3 w bbbbbbbbbbbbbb MI 3 43 43 38 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 38 248 238 228 218 208 198 188 178 168 158 148 138 128 118 108 98 88 78 68 58 48 WEST meters Probable pit feature locations from soil resistivity and surface artifact density 24b 238 228218 208 198 188178168 158148138128 118 108 08 88 78 68 58 48 IIIII111Illt llllllll rllifIIIIIIIIIIII DHHHHHHHH ZIIILJJ kill 05 llllJl o o39l 39 ltr J 39 lLlllllll Ill IIIIILI IIJIIIIIL 248230 228 218208 198185178168158148138128118 108 98 88 78 68 58 O O D u 1llllllllITII11l1 Six excavation blocks dug across site Blocks were placed based on information from soil resisitivity and controlled surface collection Fenceline Ninetyeight features were identified and 38 were excavated N0 extensive midden deposits like those at Adams 0r Burnside School were identified Figure 18 Horizontal planvicw of Excavation Block 1 an lalna hl llrugmgpna EELIII QE Illaname IIIIIIIIEK IllIllin Illnulllm MWIIWIEEIE L Ill l 3 irc f jr39 gyg1231gg H3 h 1 339 39 0 ft V quotyr 3 39l I V vla lquot1quot quottiquot 1quot quotl I 39ltrx39I A 1 a 39u v I quot 39 39 t J 39 i I Lr GM 39 quot I I p r v t r ui 39 JL39L v I v lt I l I 39uiu V 39 I quotIi v h 1 I I a r r I V v I fa a 39A k39 4 I 7 u i u w 39 w a v 39 f I lt v Iv 39 m39r t f I l 39 quot I I y I r V quot V r I 139 a 39 i I I V 39 3 v r V 39 I t I f I l I 39 A l A r A 39 J 5 V t I I A I J v I f 39 I 11 7 39i I u a 123 v 1 r 395 394 1 39 39 397 r u p I I p W 39 u I gt n3939 I Jrz1Lh39 V mfg I 4 I A PM r 1 u I 39 1 39 I I uquot w 2 Jr A L I I l I I I J r 1 u v I I 39 439 gt v ik fquot 39 39 39c g I I quot39 r quot 039quot 39 Y 3911quot uh 39 quot 393 7 i l l I 54quot V1 4 A 3 4 4 yquot L M 39 V 39 n quot39 39 4 Tc39 Vr w I 1 w r 3 I l 4 I I 5 p 4 nyy g 1f 39A 1 0 J V V 39 39 1 I r y g t 39 4t t Daily 39 39 I l 39 l 39 g g 139 390 A u 39 w 39 P 1 h 39 I l I quot A I V U 397 quot k4 vh vt aquot 1 5 A 4quot I V n n W r I IV I quotq M i r 39 ain39t 1 1quot 391 l 39 39 u gt 1 l quot g I v A llz lmg 39 t 1 A 39939 X h Feature types included shallow basin shaped pitS39 medium sized refuse pits and very large complex refuse pits In several cases these large pits contained numerous agricultural implements FEATURE 85 EAST WALLPROFILE 95quot N9363 wusam w9255 SANDY LOAM IOYR33 DARK BROWN SAN I GRAVEL l0YR22 VERY DARK BROWN GRAVELLY LOAM IOYR34 DARK YELLOWISH BROWN GRAVELLY LOAM IO 20 30 cm DEER JAW BISON SCAPULA DEER JAW AR r ACI39 ASSM LAG Ceramic assemblage generally modest 267 rim sherds found but most were small and fragmentary Chipped stone tools common and the dominant forms wornout endscrapers and triangular projectile points Both 1 types predominantly made of local Prairie du Chien Cedar Valley chert and Hixton Silici ed sandstone Smaller numbers of bifaces retouched flakes blades utilized flakes and cores were also present Other stone tools included 25 abraders 4 choppers 30 pieces of ground stone and 939 hammerstones The bone tool industry was particularly well represented with 6 elk 2 antler tools 2 beads l awl l scraper and 8339 l bison scapula hoes The only exotic quot artifacts were multiple pieces of galena and one Cahokiastyle 2 multinotched projectile point s m3 1 One of the goals of the research at the Energy Park site was to define the internal site plan By using multiple methods including geophysics controlled surface collection historical documents and reconstruction and limited excavation we were able to accomplish this goal Site disturbance was minimized and information collection was maximized at modest cost CANNON RIVER BOTTOMS I 39 I a ti 139 po l 39 39l o s O 3 mm mmer mmm 39 quot r I I O quot4quot 9 Energy Park Site conclusion No houses structures or palisade were identi ed at this site No geophysical anomalies suggesting the presence of semisubterranean houses present Pit features ubiquitous middens absent The presence of numerous agricultural tools plentiful evidence of and fishing and other springsummer resources suggests that this site was primarily in use during these months We await Holley s learned judgement on the ceramic assemblage It does not to our eyes have a strongly Silvernale cast nor is it Blue Horizon Oneota n The pyramidal mound may represent the base of a chamel house not a temple mound Alan Ham Dickson Mounds personal communication 1 The absence of Woodland materials either at or near the site is worthy of note 1 The relatively small number of mounds the relatively site area lack of exceptional feature density and moderate artifact assemblage suggests that the period of site use was brief relative to other sites I A series of six radiocarbon dates is currently being processed and these w C 7 7 V I r 7 r 7 Hi quot m sy E E E Es gjwims l Ewelilo F11i39lrg Eur3quot sur lm mmrxgy mwi atmmlm ri rFa l l m THE BELLE CREEK SITE u I 39 0 00000000000000000 Inlcrmedmlc errata quotMW Dialoncr mm GuiQ39Hexico I O males Distancemm Itasca Lake 586ma lu Modern industrial and camomc Hindiwhims an pnnupally amallod Distances on via rmer channel C 39 00 000 O 0 0 39 39 o ooo oao 0 0quot I g 0 o o O o 39 9 A t g to I Belle Creek Mounds as mapped by TH Lewis 4 a 3 J39 x 9392 THE STONE CAIRNS OF RED WING Durance mm Guiy exico I60 mm Distance mm Itasca Lake J86mim Madam indualrwl and economic RIMcations cm pmnpa y omnlhd Distanch m m rmrclmnnrl M Earthworm mmncd JJOO 10 Sw lJ 1241 3939r1 Iltlllll 11gt1n 1r lgultl 1 1 In n1g1 l39lt lll1b T iug 1 412 11112 391 39 21139 391X J H 39L SGIXXIIY Schirmers amazing recent discovery cairn photo taken 45 or 50 years ago Isit still there ALBERT G JOHNSON Attorney at Law 113 Northgatc Circle CANNON FALLS MN 55009 5072632524 memoletter N mer 7 DATE 570 OJquot SUBJECT or 39 I N I a 7 4714 ii I JI LLLLaa gCng i w 6139 390 9 7292 J z mw Ali 15415 Petroglyphs along Spring Creek I r 39 quot l gar 111quot L l39J39JL39II 39quotC IL11qu In 3939 39 39 1quotquot l p 39 t 139 139 ifTJIJI JUNquot t n 4quot quot J39r r quot v I39 I I quotlluay Juquot39 l39uquot 13939 39 T E SPRING CREEK PETROGLYPHS September 4 1885 LlI Lewis recorded a series of mounds overlooking Springka and cemented that 1 About 160 feet above Spring at the foot of the ledge or escarpment there are a number of ssures on the sides of which can be traced carvings of animals snakes birds rnen other pictographs In l990 G Christiansen a survey of sites along Spring Creek for Dobbs observed this entry in the Lewis Notebooks With the help of Harold Grabitsld of Red Wing the eld crew relocated the site Many of the petroglyphs still present although the site has been I two distinct fissures in the and both of these contain petroglyphs The glyphs carved into soft sandstone and fragile I We believe this is the only recorded petroglyph site in Minnesota along the Mississippi between Daytons Blu St Paul and La Moille Cave Winona LAwREMC E CARLSOU ERODED SURFACE FIGURE Z I DECORATED SURFACES ON THE EAST WALL OF CAVE B CEHJNG INNER WALL OUTER HMLL FIGUREZBDECORATED SURFACES ON THE WEST WALL OF CAVE A INNER WALL OUTER WALL FIGURE 29DECORATED SURFACES ON THE WEST WALL OF CAVEB Cr A 5 FIGURE 30 PETROGLYPHS ON THE WEST WALL OF CAVE A mmgtlto m0 ltgt Hmltw MIL ZO mInnwOmlmau m meoE FIGURE 32 PETROGLYPHS ON THE WEST WALL OF CAVE B Link Pot Courtesy of Ed Fleming Science Museum of Minnesota Rosetta Pot Connection thunderbirds Folklore and Myths Thunderbird Thunderbird motifs found on Ojibwa a historic quillwork pouches adapted from Feest 1986 Plate 8b b dream symbol blanket Densmore 19292Plate 32b Folklore and Myths Thunderers I arved Conch Sell Spiro om Phillips and Brown 1978 Pg Link Pot Courtesy of Ed Fleming Science Museum of Minnesota FMer fiazmd H a W 5 quot3 w s V v 39 A I a 1 39 v V J 5 1 I Q 399 39 39uo q o I 39139 V 0 t 7 v I quotV I 39 I 7 V 39 I J 39m 39 x Grabitski Pot Courtesy of Ed Fleming Science Museum of Minnesota I G If Keyser 2004 Writingon Stone Alberta Ornaments Art and Unusual Assemblages presentation by Ed Fleming Science Museum of Minnesota SNotch Points Animal Effigy Handle Adams Site I 3quot 39 3939 39 1 39 I y 39 quot t N 39 i t Aa quot39v a Iquot u a i quot I39 39 39 0 IF39Cquot 39 4 l rquot I u 39 quot I 39 F O m t quot39n fl I v39 39 39 quot39 39 i b n o 39 l 39 391 39 39 3 J quot 39 O I39 n V nimal Effigy Handle Silvernale Site m gwa quot Ra 4 w i Fi in Bryan Site w x In a a m c R m a amp w I f 1xquot A Boe Pendants quot A390 39 no 39 quotQs 39 dzgmaew g 3555 I 3 Any Ideas Assemblages of Note Feature 85 at Energy Park A11 agricultural toolkit g 4 bison scapula hoes 3 elk antler picksrakes 5i deer mandible sickles 1 mano l Red ocher Chunkey Sto e R 1 Wing Mero Bryan RES 0 t nkey Chu Site S Adam More Atlam Site Chunkey Stones Ornaments A 1 ml Unu ma Assembla es FOUR CRITICAL POINTS Village sites in Red Wing were formed by multiple and repeated occupations over a period of several centuries These sites have generally been analyzed as single assemblages leading to con nsion and inappropriate hypotheses Sites mumcomponent and must be analyzed pit by pit a Population density grew through time but was relatively low Social organization initially extended family or band probably evolving to tribal level Red Wing was not Cahokia with a chiefdom and thousands of people I Red Wing was a central place for several centuries where groups different came together for multiple reasons a While Red Wing must be as a whole it is increasingly clear that there distinct between the Wisconsin and Minnesota sides of the George Holiey s observations Very signi cant cultural traits do not cross a southern Wisconsin divide these things found at Cahokia do not show up at Red Wing n Falcon motif Forkedeye motif Real Cahokia Pots slipping etc a Walltrench houses Signi cant incorporation of platform mound into the center But these traits from Cahokia are found in REd Win g 1 Chunky Stones n Package of Rolled rims hachured scroll angled shoulders in pottery Arrow point styles Longnose god Earrings First People in the Americas and the Paleoindian Tradition in the Midwest Outline Technology Lithicsfunction Pottery Creativecrafts Diet Hunting and gathering practices Agriculture animal husbandry Environment available resources Ecological impact Social organization Ideology celebrations evidence of rituals Timeframe Trade and interaction trade goods Which tribes or clans were living then Living habits settlement patterns mobile or sedentary Structures Seasonality Burial practices Kinship Gender roles Conflict Leisure activities BIG question When and how did people arrive on this continent First wellestablished occupations Llano culture or Paleolndian 11800 BP radiocarbon or 13500 calibrated BP Were there people here before that Pleistocene Ice sheets cover large areas of N and S America At Wisconsin Glacial Maximumunbroken sheet of ice across Northern North America at 18000 BP Two main ice masses Cordillerancentered on British Columbia down the spine of the western mountain ranges Laurentide ice sheet Atlantic to Ohio Valley and over most of Canada to western arctic Pluvial lakes in western N America where now semi arid or aridthen lush grass swamp lakes Laurentide ice sheetat glacial maximum 39 39 2 x tnnuitian Xp quot 3909 Com39ex Greenlan 7quot J Ice Sheet Climatic changes Younger Dryas 13000 12000 BP Clovis period 5 degrees Centigrade 9 degrees F cooler Abrupt end mass extinctions PostYounger Dryas 10000 BP Warmer moist sea levels rise 35 meters Glacial Lake Agassiz drains 7000 4000 BP Altithermal climatic optimum Warmer and drier glaciers in Canada retreat Continentwide envt Mosaic of vegetation Range extensions Midwest amp Southern High Plains much moister than today lakes and bogs plentiful water and megafauna Pollen fauna gastropods can reconstruct past temp and moisture Pleistocene glacial advance and retreat The cyclical nature of glacial era seen in Two Creeks Forest bed 130 north of Milwaukee 12000 years ago shore of Lake Michigan During the interval between two glacial advances boreal forest grows up then Lake Michigan exit blocked floods area deposits much clay and silt later glacier advances Younger Dryas glacial cycle over woodlands buries the trees remarkable preservation in the clay httpwwwnpsgovhistorvhistorvonline bookssci ence2chap2htm IVIegafauna Woodlands IVIuskox giant beaver giant elk moose mastodonbrowser Plains Mammothgrazer In both areas also smaller animalsdeer rabbits etc Sa be rtooth Cat Smilodon fatalis Height 4ft 12m Lived 15 million years ago 10000 years ago Shortfaced Bear Arctodus simus Height 55ft 17m Lived 800000 years ago 10000 years ago Dire Wolf Canis dirus Height 5ft 15m Lived 1 million years ago 10000 years ago Giant Ground Sloth Eremotherium laurillardi Height 20ft 6m Lived 8 million years ago to 10000 years ago North American Bison Bison antiquus Height 7ft 21m Lived 40000 years ago 10000 years ago American Mastodon Mammut americanum Height 9ft 275m Lived 15 million years ago to 10000 years ago Woolly Mammoth Mammuthus primigenius Height 9ft 275m Lived 90000 years ago to 10000 years ago Mammoths and Mastodons Mong FTBEHISTRI Q AmnmL 15 LO C T EDIN CHIPMUNE a Y FISHING lF siligm liT mh W eig h i g Fm Plunda With amazing Surfam ix If th Lung and verTum ITIETE JEE quot WFiE Is E maa rimbl Digitmm mi E mEr Heir13quot 1 Mammothadapted to eating MaStOdon39adapted t0 eating grasses browseshrubs etc Mammoth Hot Springs South Dakota Siberian mummified baby mammoth How do we find these ancient megafauna People find them and bring them into the lab to show us So keep your eyes out Elephant humerus in Central Wisconsin What happened to the megafauna About half of the large mammal species became extinct at the end of the ice age Also many small mammals Did overhunting by humans cause this Or climatic changethe end of the ice age Or was it a combination of many factors Extinct megafauna r39 xi 3 M Camelops ll 394 f z Euceratherium Ooocoiteus Navahoceros Equus r Some Pleistocene and early Holocene 3311 L 3393 animals of North America now ex c T5quot t Pw tinct The391mger extinct species A 1 are related to elephants camels 4 horses and other creatures that for quot quot merlv roamed the continenL Equus asinus Mammuthus Stockoceros Antllocaprd Cwr How did people fit into this Late 18005 into early 19005 still searching for Neanderthals hereor any signs of primitive man No absolute dating so hard to know how long people here But they recognized that extinct megafauna dated the end of the Pleistocene So needed to tie people to that First recognition of early man in North America Flood 1909 headwaters of Dry Cimarron Crowfoot Range New Mexico 39 Foreman George lVchunkin born 1851 a slave died 1922 Flood 1909Bison bones Frank Figginspaleontologist with Colorado Museum 1926 spearpoints with bison Ales Hrdlicka Smithsonian wanted confirmation 1927 four points found one still in situ A V Kidder and Frank HH Robert and others come to see 1928 third season of excavationsanother point found in situ Now called Folsom point first pt found in association with extinct bison ibsFolsom site ISOn r Spear point with b 39 in w a y3939y39 1 mm quotJ Y quotquot 39 195 I r ANCIENT 5n s quot 39 D O 039 39 39 quotk 7 3 W R 3 mwuwuur V gt 50 o M quot i t 3941 quot Early Man in America is popular for the tourist trade too Let s find and map the Folsom site First discovery vs oldest points Folsom was the first point type recognized to be associated with Pleistocene megafauna and therefore ancient But Clovis points are older and represent the oldest points that are well documented Clovis Oldest complex Clovisnamed for Clovis NM where Blackwater Draw Locality 1 and first Clovis p found 19361938 In situ find of 4 pts two bone pts stone blades cores knives Used to be called Llano or Llano culture from Llano Estacados Texas and New Mexico Staked Plains where Blackwater Draw located Blackwater Draw NM Clovis typesite Located within Blackwater Draw near Portales NM Southern High Plains Springfed lake or marsh that formed as the climate dried out at end of Pleistocene Late Pleistocene First site discovered belonging to Clovis culture Discovered 1929 by 14 year old James Ridley Whiteman AW Anderson reported Folsom point in 1932 E B Howard visited in 1932 1932 quarrying for gravel for road construction unearthed many animal Blackwater Draw Locality 1 Animal bones identified as extinct megafaunaColumbian mammoth camel horse bison sabertooth cat dire wolf shortfaced bear giant beaver peccary giant turtle clear evidence of people associated with extinct fauna fullscale excavation in 1932 till present Often just ahead of gravel mining operations Blackwater Draw Handdug wells Clovis period and later Stratified Clovis 11700109OO hp with mammoth Folsom 1000011000 with Bison Also series of Archaic occupations EH Sellars one of the excavators worked for over 2 decades till past 80 yrs old Museum there now opened in 1969 run by Eastern New Mexico University geological research by Smithsonian Dennis Stanford and Vance Haynes U Arizona National Historic Landmark s m we ouum Bank The four small ones were om the 1996 excavatiom 3K Ugether The bottom two sherds Were on the surface found in 1990 B 39 cc eexw I ene Created by Hal Stay the famous artist that 139 nustrated Dr E H Sel39lards b ka Early Man 39m mg e or d 195 di scenes and animal draWings from the Paleoindian me penod39 The photograph W een scenes b 1quot Glen Vans in 1950 Texas Memorial Museum MlSt3926a 2839 around for along 39 his was a typical scene at Bison and p 1533 ralne dogs 3 many Paleoindian sites 11 l4i1 l lljlllil lnlxlrlui I 53 A InnIvlk 5quot II lrlri Stratum D fnr alniv L Hugt meet 391 L 1 52quot HFNUDHS Eamw U m crxh lunw arb ael tu xwmu saw mua MSUUCK Tint U UT TH 39ng m gnu um u W m isfmm39rs mama xzzm umrxiw Huiufatu m a much NJva wan wj39x39 hEiYVS are HCh AL x rw rr mmpxc Dunc 8 5rt weum sinmmnmem han max pi must of the F0som age n xa xerxab a he Gems 32 s are m me D as Wer swarm 0 We 300 home be ts A l 7w 7 1 Blackwater Draw w yielded the rst v39 3 39 H direct evidence of l 39 3 Ice Age hunting xx I r 1373quot u such as this bone spear point lodged in a mammoth s 3 a o 139 2 3 forelimb m RESULTS IF RESEAAYTH r 39u r 39 I Colorado39 Nebraska y I T quotquotquot i x rd39039 393 s I z E 01 J r 6 c 1 quot Tquot 75 oDenver j Kansas 4 sb Ly Oklahoma w if 0 Fort Worth 1 a v39 rJ x Texas 3quot 2010 INEGI l gn Image USDA Farm Service Agencyquot 2010 Emopa Technologies A 2010 Googlc 0 Austin 14353395695 m E 407610915 m N clcv 427 m t K quotJ 39 I 39 Iquot vz f VIYV J N i j lllinous l 9 s x I a 1 Tennesse rst quot H quot p Momphls39 Arkansas IP quotx t g I J 2 IHE 39 w J A Alabam MiSSiSSIppi 2 I l a 39 Lowsnana W Hquot a f bequot 139quot Wu 9 O J J 51 F 39 3quotQE39yeaIt 190273 km O 11 V 4 in im WW 1L1l 1 thLng y W L V Clovis points Clovis projectile points lnvis Puln ndim39 prarpltrnt from northeastern Wisconsin The reconstructed haft and mount ing of a Paleoindian point Note how the shaft fits neatly into the flute on the spearpoint Hunting Spear One of the most distinctive tools was the Clovis projectile point This fluted point was hafted or tied to a wood harpoonlike lance which were thrown in close proximity to the animal Once the point was imbedded in the animal it would come loose from the spear shaft allowing the point to be reused gt3 w uh m a hJ4l v I 93 Lindenmeier Colorado Larger campsitepossibly for a season wider range of tools than Folsom kill site Vertebra with Folsom point stuck in bone indisputable evidence of humans contemporary with Pleistocene bison Needle beads Scrapers graver awls MAP THE SITE Lindenmeier siteFolsom points numbered 19341940 NE Colorado Vertebra of the extinct Bison antiquus with a broken Folsom point embedded found at the Lindenmeier Archaeological Site by Loren Eiselely during the 1935 eld season Photos Smithsonian Institution Lindenmeier beads and disc Beads evidence of ritual anamentation Hematite uninm 2 Inscribed bone disc Photo Denver Museum of Nature amp Science PaleoIndian First good clear and continentwide evidence for human population of the New World Clovis spear points first point style recognizable continentwide Fluted points Associations with extinct megafauna Mastodon and mammoth here in Wisconsin Widespread culture About 12000 years ago Hunting 11200109OO bp Early PaleoIndian Clovis Folsom and Goshen Complexes Plains Clovis sites with evidence of bison hunting or butchering Murray Springs Arizona Blackwater Draw New Mexico Aubrey Texas ClovisMammoth sometimes with bison Also camel horse mastodon sloth and large turtles Antelope and deer from at least Folsom times on Plainslow envt diversityhunted mostly large gamebison mammoth Woodland more diverse envt more diversity of fauna mastodons deer canids Early Holocenesmall game made greater contribution Study of western and Plains Paleo sites 99 of fauna Bison harerabbit pronghorn sheep mammoth turtle bighorn sheep deer prairie dog Mastodon and Mammoth Most visible species associated with humans Meat hide tusk bones for food and shelter fat for cooking and for oil lampsas used in Eurasia earlier Hunted as individual animals or in herds Most Clovis mammoth kills in low ground near watering holes probably culled single animals Many sites have multiple killsrepeat visit One mammoth from Naco Arizona had 8 Clovis points in it more than any other find Not all of each mammoth eatendisarticulated choice elements may have winter meat caches Bison more completely consumed 22 80 Amlt mm m Paleolndian artist s reconstruction of a mastodon kill site Think about everything that isn t preserved Tool Kit Paleolndians used a distinctive tool kit that was well adapted for the hunting and processing of big game animals Tool kits included a variety of stone bone and antler implements The kit was probably carried around in a small purselike pouch Paleolndian Tools Antler awl used to make hide clothing Bone needle used to sew hide for shoes and clothing Hammerstone used to make stone tools Chert knives used to process meat Scrapers used to clean hides Fluted projectile points used to vis tool kit w 1 a r 4 quot quot h 39f mlc F Wr y Bone and stone points Other Paleo sites Gault Central Texas large site stratified through Paleo and later Small stones engraved with fine linesas found in Eurasia Gault siteStratified Paleo Archaic Location at head of small stream valley with permanent spring and source of excellent chert 1 Compared to dry rocky soil andIH e vegetation on uplands r K I 39 L i WW H 7777777 77 in quot1 i 3 W 1 If 5 5 l I CIOVIS i a f f L W H J E 39 and w Folsom 1 r39m Clovis toolkit Clovis chipped stone tools at Gault include choppers a adzes b bifacial knives c end scrapers on blades d gravers on blades e and serrated blades f photo Gault AroheoogCa Project imestone ite engraved Gauhs Other distinctive Paleo artifacts Spurred scrapers A sawagar Rt Lateral Edge Gravers Woodworking tools Paleo adzes are distinctly larger than later picture 12Kz67 Associated with Dalton pts and later Archaic Some trihedral 3 sided adzes Dent 1932 Dent Colorado Fluted point found with articulated mammoth Murray Springs Az Discovered 1966 b C Vance Haynes and Peter Mehringer 0 U Arizona l9571and Nat Geo funded excavations 1969 Clovis climatecooler and wetter Fossils of Mastodons mammoth giant ground sloth sabertooth cats 11 bison and 1 mammoth food for several months for small band Some bone tools preservedeg arrowshaft straightener Head Smashed In Buffalo Jump Alberta Canada Foothills of Rockies httpmapsgoogleco mmapsfqamphlenamp q49706221 113653586ampieUTF8 amp49667628 113115234ampspn205 629955898438ampth ampz4 Middle Archaic possibly Paleo Site complex r39lI w 39391 7 39 quot39I quot 7 39394IFlln r quotquotIIi 7 IerL Gathenng 7h 7 7 771Fu7m7777n FWEL 7 33539quot Head5 I aim 1mm aw nue Lanes LI 1 F Ij In 13 IIEI 7 I I i Ll L 7 I jII 7 J II 1 1 1 4 i I iI D H I I 39 J IL Elli m i lr V 39 E4 139 7 L Erir lit55th 1jL 5 r m MI EIEHL j a WHE 3 r runLia39s 7 7 qi39 llm quotI J39 7 7 39 39 al7 39I Fiqu 7 w 7 I r IWLIII I I J1 L I L I i I 7 7 T U i au iI nTIimn 1P quot39 39quotJquot liga 133915 39 3939 L3939I39ilf7 39 J I 7 IF I art51L F E f F 7L rLl U QIIEE n L Li H r r 1 139 viae aquot 7 1 I E393 39i 7 Hquota39Eglln L 1 7Q 39 J 1 quot3 J quot quot39quotquotquotquot7quotJquotquot L39U39 7 quot 39m quotquot quot 39 a r H H 5 l 1 jgtl39 FlakEIuyIinr uL 739 h 39 ri lin m39hu39 7 7n397 uh EH ITIiEI I1 39 39I39 1 E39quot7739r w 1 I IJ I I j gmI an1 39 g quot13quot L rquot n E L39Ia r3939 I u I i I I I D E7 7 Id5 JlI39EETL39 J EI rri39 JJnIIL39K 7 39 1i 7 395 Lu 39 7 39 39 i I Tji II I 1 3 7 J u u I I 39IFL 1 E39 EH I I I I j IILEFih EiHquot 5 Eff3 W I tEfllrEtl39lul39E lquot w j lIj I H L quot Jug i I39 IE39H 39i39I 39 L 7 ICEnth I11 rm LIL I j L ii39j L I I H L jLF 7 I r J l Ll imLIZIZ Lubbock Lake Site Texas Stratified Clovis to present Located in meander of Yellow House Draw tributary of Brazos river near ancient springs Clovismammoth horses camel bison shortfaced bear pampathere armadillolike Secondary butchering mammoth bones broken to make tools First radiocarbon date on Paleo material 9800 BP Folsom bison kills and butchering sites located around ponds and marshes Discovered 1939 while dredging a meander Now no water at site and no lake Ongoing digs Paleoindian in Midwest Clovis points in Michiganconfined to southern part of lower peninsula also many finds of mastodons and mammoths MasonQuimby line northern limit of Pleistocene fauna and and limit of human points all should date before 1000010500 BP Is the line just the end of the ecological stable region Ohio 1500 fluted points recorded in 1963 by Prufer and Baby Thousands of fluted points in Indiana and Illinois More common in east than WGSt Direction of colonization Or function of discovery The distribution of Clovis points in the United States show ing a majority east of the Mississippi The distribution probably re ects modern pOpulation density as well as a prehistoric pattern More points are usually found where more people live 39 Fluted points Upper Midwest Few intact Paleoindian sites Boaz mastodon Silver Mound Hixton Silicified Sandstone Hixton points traded widely Cochrane chert Gail Stone site Gainey pts Paleoindian sites Wisconsin sites Silver mound in Black River Falls Wisconsin people came there from hundreds of miles away to get the high quality lithic material r39quot quot quot39 g i r 39Ia39 Silver Mound National Historic Landmark Statement of Significance as of designation February 17 ZOOGk This site is nationally significant for its role in the initial settlement of North America The first Americans explored an expansive stretch of land with no prior knowledge of the landscape Because of the need to locate resources within this unfamiliar landscape Silver Mound quickly became a critical resource for a population reliant upon stone tools for their survival Archeological evidence at Silver Mound demonstrates Paleoindian practice to locate and use easily accessible high quality stone tools O a I U 0 r9 0 I 4 f z I I 39 v I l 939 fquot 9 W I r gm I I I urn squot A t39l I a lulff39 ii g 5 I O I U 3 39139 f 39 wequot 3393 M ldquot l e 239quot Mia3949 W 7 41 I u J39r l 39 fquot 7 1 A quotn v y l J quot quot 39fquot 1tf t l kiwi k quot J I I v l i fquot I 1 V r39 v 39 4 039 gt t a 0 7 39 j v I v 39 39 39 439 E o o I 39 quot39v u I Q I Rad oumePJ 1 HM 739 We a a Trend39ICJ l39Warh5 hm p13 i u I I 1 I Thrincl39i Rum Int H a ppm mg llih Quaquot B In 1 R5 quot7 J Many blanks found EstaHaj lanki Date SBpt101Q32 Reported by Chap 68 E Brown FIGURE 1 Map of Silver Mound prepared by Charles E Brewn during his rst visit t0 the site Figure 4 Proposed NHL Boundary l gt 939 m g 3 Alma Center 75 USGS Quadrangle A NHL Boundary I N 400m E nr fg Em AHA I 139 V F 7 7 HII39EEEMEH 15312le H1 inc 3m ml 4W 5W 5W L Map Ehmrmg the Inmuian if sher M m amt HEW E E Ed V 7 f Fiure 10 D er Rockshelter Localit 12 Exfolioted Figure 11Computer enhanced red pigment from Panel 1 of the Geske Glyphys Locality 7 Upper figures may represent Paleoindian era bison h v C i a f f NW SCOTTSBLUFF W i HELL GAP EDEN EFHGY STONES leg at GRAVERS SNUBNOSE SCRAPER 4 SCOTTSBLUFF MIDLAND SI CHARLES COPPER AXE SNUBNOSE SCRAPER GD ANGOSTURA NEBO WLL I r p 47 me I pi Hints 3 w74Fr3J f x x I w a 7 X rKr f39ll ll l Kimmswick Clovis and Mastodon in eastern Missouri About 32 km south of St Louis Ponded basins with extinct megafauna and artifacts PilSmmoh unWAa WWWIWMNH 205527bmdc mmmdoovhpmioc cpoimmom39SZHromQJd Bifachltoolhwt MCcUtilizcd nkc omCfandgObmuandmmeofluhupcnodClovis mmmmu 205mNouiImu ncuneutipin hmdi0twcncmd macawmecuhmxmmconmorsmmmkmu MID wnamdnmmmdnvemof W Norm from C with rem heartmumwmudw mfomduxim c nmeeuw M39opreamnbtyinnuociniaawithnntodoubom However specimen FNNH 205527 bDWMWmhF NHFmemomemmC mol Boaz mastodonin UWlVIadison Geology museum Folsom in Midwest Smaller flute nearly to the tip lVlore restricted distributionmostly on Great Plainswith Bison Buffalo Co WI but not with Folsom pts Other postClovis fluted point types in east Gainey in Great Lakes Cumberland in southeast Becoming more regional Bison remains at Lake Itasca Reinterpreting Intersta39 Park Nonhuman biso site with later artifact 39 1 Bison bone near front center exposed at the time of the excavations Wooden boards were laid on the floor of the site to keep the workmen above the muck and from crushing the fragile bones Photograph by AW Pond from the Alonzo W and Dorothy L Pond papers WlIS Archives image WHi41922 image use courtesy of Chomingwen and Arthur Pond 7 WWquot a 39 u The excavations at Interstate Park c 1936 Note the water in the excavation pit Seepage made it necessary to pump out the pit on a daily basis Photograph by AW Pond from the Alonzo W Detai39frommeendc39fnikeshowingpeatmsidueand and Dorothy L Pond papers WllS Archives image WHi41921 the shiny copper surface 303 workers discovered in October The peat onthis section measures approx3i 8inch in diam image use courtesy 0f Chomingwen and Artth Pond quot 5 x m 2 1 w a Bison occr rzfentaiis skeleton on exhibition in the Ice Age Gallery of the Milwaukee Public Museum This skeleton is a reconstruction made from bones from several different bison found at Interstate Park as well as a few plaster casts Image courtesy of Matt 3 Hill V v gt U y g A Q Mammoth tooth and tusks both graze on prairies chumann Cache on exhibit Olmsted History Center ewe i Wisconsin fluted points Cochrane chertGail Stone site Gainey points Caves and Rockshelters in winter Late Paleo points Plano Unfluted lanceolates collateral flaking flakes meet in the middle Agate Basin For example Kreisel cacheJackson county WI blank 12K picture pg 65 Plainview Cody Complex stemmed lanceolate points Eden Scottsbluff Wisconsin has eared varieties Dalton Angostora Tanged knife AllenFrederick diagonal ripple flaking flakes extend to other edge Browns Valley Points have ground margins often basal thinning Colorado SE of Denver On Gt Plains 8500 BP Scottsbluff and Eden pts I 98 325 Umgm Regional point variants Midwest Gainey points very similar to Clovis but Stoltman UWlVIadison argues for distinctive form Gainey have somewhat longer flute than Clovis shorter than Folsom Probably the type of point found with the Boaz mastodon East wide range of different names slight differences but sequence of fluted nonfluted lanceolate notched stemmed points BL I39H E ES LEGEND D Sim HARDIN EA F1 550 39Ilt39 g l gm gum mg 8139 a Ski416 i 39 TL a Twig 151 m TWA WM swa39 5 Hum 5W 5 Swa39t r MH P Mwmwn WW im w Local Paleo varieties PriceChesrow See 12Kz6465 Price points have been described as Archaic or Woodland but recent evidence argues for Late Paleo Others argue for an early or even preClovis date But context along Mississippi River terraces indicates they could not predate 9000 years ago Paleoindian weaponry diagnostics illustrations from the Plains There are slight regional variants see handout Frison G C PNAS 1998951457614583 I z t I e E i 1998 by The National Academy of Sciences Browns Valley Traverse Co MN Human remains in a gravel pit in 1933 9000 years ago Burial pit about 45 feet deep buried by topsoil and lined with red ocher Three Browns valley points 1 Yuma point two knives two sandstone abraders University of MinnesotaAlbert Jenks and Lloyd Wilford excavated 3539 year old male Lost then rediscovered now reburied Browns Valley 1 D I I As Bj D Browns Valley burile artifacts Nos 4 6 C Sandsmne abrasiontools burial alr39ti39Fac13j Nos and 8 E Minnesota Folsunla like int cnncave and convex faces F Minnesota Yuma Folsom artifact both faces from near Forest Lake Amalia County A X Ban x1 Renier site WI On fossil beach inland from shore of Green Bay near foot of Door Peninsula Found when testing highest point of fossil beach ridge no surface indications Excavated by Ronald and Carol Mason Neville quotff quot Public Museum 1959 39 Found feature with many firecracked rocks a b c d o cremated human bone and burned artifacts Fla 2 Reconstructed Eden and Scottsblu point Remains scattered 14 feet below surface from the Renier m a b Eden points H swab over area 250 square feetscattered by wmd points and animals Cremation burial adolescent with set of Paleo artifacts badly fractured from heat One of oldest cremations known from Western Hemisphere h 12 points 8 large Scottsbluff points also 2 Eden points 1 sidenotched unfinished toolsblanks or preforms Tools made of Hixton Silicified Sandstone Based on dates for points at other sites 7500 5000 BC l TWO RIVER 39 4 l J x l L LAKE i lWINNEBAGj La Crosse has both mammoth and mastodon mixed vegetation in this area But probably most of the food came from smaller animalselk moose deer etc Western US Mammoth kill sites Bison kill sites Mostly lithic debris and tools Very few other kinds of remains have survived Mammoths and Mastodons Mong FTBEHISTRI Q AmnmL 15 LO C T EDIN CHIPMUNE a Y FISHING lF siligm liT mh W eig h i g Fm Plunda With amazing Surfam ix If th Lung and verTum ITIETE JEE quot WFiE Is E maa rimbl Digitmm mi E mEr Heir13quot 1 Mammothadapted to eating MaStOdon39adapted t0 eating grasses browseshrubs etc Kennewick man Late Paleolndian 8400 years ago Washington state point in right hip Discovered eroding from the banks of Columbia river in 1996 Has some characteristics of both Caucasian or Asian and Native American facial structure Major court casewho has the right to decide what happens to him His descendants Scientists quotI 39 1 11 44 J faces of an 830 yearold Nevada skeleton left and 9200yearold Wizards Beach Man center Spirit Cave Man39s t rclrrower face right suggests a different ancestry o we A Vail site IVIaine Paleoindian in Maine 11120 date on charcoal from hearth Tools fluted points drills etc Summer encampment for caribou So dates for fluted points in NE US are similar to those in SW Us Other eastern U S sites Debert Nova Scotia 13 dates cluster 10650 BP ShawneeIVIinisink PAstratified with Clovis beneath Archaic 87008500 BC Some of only flotation from period hackbery wild plum grape blackberry groundcherry goosefoot tiny fish boneslate summerearly fall Thunderbird site complex Virginia in situ Clovis workshop associated with high quality Flint run jasper source 9500 BC Possible paleo structures from posthole patterns also kill site by bog but almost no bone preservation central based wandering Peopling of the Americas Clovis Dates Uncalibrated Clovis dates 1120010900 Calibrated Clovis radiocarbon dates roughly 13500 years ago to 12900 depending on calibration Perhaps only 2300 years for true Clovis component Extrapolations with steady movement of a small band of people can populate a continent in that period of time Or does this reflect spread of a technology among a preexisting population Clovis Dates Clovis dates uncalibrated all on Mammoth kill sites Dent Colorado 11200 BP Blackwater Draw 11310 BP Naco Arizona 11 290 BP Domebo OK 11160 BP Murray Springs AZ 11230 BP Union Pacific WY 11280 BP Pleistocene big game hunters But also hunted smaller game and whatever plants available Bandlevel Westpluvial lakeslush compared to present Clovis era but large mammals become extinct quickly and Folsom era follows mostly bison Clovis Debate over exactly how long Clovis lastedmaybe only a few hundred years but the points are very common and cover North America with similar style Suggests rapid expansion Fishtail points at southern tip of South America by 12900 CalYBP Largescale interaction and trade Movement of cherts and orthoquartzites long distancessearch for high quality resources Getting familiar with new landscape And possibly easy hunting because animals had never seen humans before But had to adapt to new environmentno traditional knowledge for new region Endmay have been quick some Greenland ice cores suggest transition between Pleistocene and Holocene 20 yearsrapid climatic shift vegetation and fauna take a while to adapt or go extinct TaliIlls 1L Harlinan and Elihlll t d ME in H1 1 Hmmher Eit e 3 1 yr Errm 1 a tarihr 1 I39IIEiEIL 1 113le 35 12343 E rlingtnn Swings 1D m 12311115 3 Big Edd 1 15312 53 15115 31 mmmille 114m 1232115 5 r 111 SD 11 WE E3 ill39th 1 f It 135515 I mart 1 5 5D HERE 3 EH1 1 9 15 1231 Di 9 umElba 1 3n 1395 1 E351 W td39l 111325 13H 11 25 1 1 Heddam 1 U 55 3 RAISES 1E Himuq k 1 H195 33 i l 13 ln ian Emeh 1 19 1W 11325 HE Jake Elw WEE15 2E5 13115 1E5 aimma 1H5 ll l l 1 E Mmge Fargmun 1 1 I 12391 I ILEJhMH W351 M 12inquot IE ILulzilnindk LEIILE 11111 51 11am 13 Hmra r Springs 1 5 5D 133515 l FEED Era55mg 1 WEI 1395 1231115 11 EhawnEEM n imk 1amp915 1 5 12353 1 2 El 39l Hula 1111 ED 123 3 Hail 1 j 11113 12355 Migrations Initial migration Clovis or possibly preClovis dates tend to be slightly older in northern part of the Plains as compared to far south into lVIesoamerica So dates may support early colonization from north probably into empty or nearempty territory Second migration NaDene c 8000 BC into far north into central continent about 4000 BCancestors of Navajo and Apache Third migration EskimoAleut c 4000 BC into Arctic coastal areas not previously occupied by Athabaskan reindeer hunters Asian origin clear similar on both sides of Bering Strait and along coast of NE Asia Evidence Dental shovelshaped incisors more common in East Asian populations and typical of Native Americans Blood groups 0 and A much more common DNA tracing connections B virtually absent North America Most Common Europewest Asia Percentof popum on thathaatha Hanam ns 1s2u a 51 Ell25 x a 1n15 2530 O and A more com mon CI leleed type ee ee m ee EEIT III eeee ee1ee Pereentef pepuletien thetheethe Aellele ee 1e 1e eeee 3eee e 1e 1e 2e 25 3e 3e 4e Disease cold trap many diseases did not come over with initial Native American population Small pox measles absent So initial contact with European diseases will be devastating North and South America Possible Routes of entry From Siberia across the Bering Land Bridge Then into the continent in Alaska Icefree corridor into what is now US was open between 40000 and 21000 and again after 14000 years ago when people could move south into what is now the US and Canada Or Down the Pacific shoreline Or along the edge of the ice to Iceland Greenland and the east coast When Perhaps 12000 to 15000 years ago possibly much earlier So far no good evidence Icefree corridor Peopling North and South America a by 12 000 BP 18000 BP Ukraine site One possible migration strategy Tamm et al 2007 based on mDNA several waves of migration First entered Beringia and paused there changing somewhat till moved into lower 48 states Some later backandforth movement between north arctic and Siberia thousands of years ago Possible Early Sites M W mn ARCTIC OCEAN BERINGIA Kennewic actuys Hill 39 19quot quot 1quot59 PACIFIC OCEAN Monte Verd I Monte Verde Chile C14 dates 11790 200 to 13565 250 average 12500 BP uncalibrated Living structures and tools Becoming accepted although some archaeologists still doubt the radiocarbon dates Still some questions about some context Timbers of a structure about 23 x 33 meters Hut floor is dark and greasy from organics decaying in place Artifacts left on floor o quotl J A a a 4 l A A v J g a Excavation trench in middle of photo onte Verdeair photo Tule Springs SE Nevada An example of how a site is proposed and then disproved Artifacts Pleistocene megafauna discovered in 1933 examined and dated in 1962 radiocarbon date of 28000 BUT C Vance Haynes and others visited the site in 1963 and discovered The quothearthsquot were only organic mats deposited by slowmoving streams lVIegafauna bones that had been quotbrokenquot had been found in a spring vent probably broken by animals stampeding over them to escape The only real artifacts were only about 11000 years but erosion had caused them to be redeposited in deeper levels Calico Hills CA Louis Leakey 1963 investigated Mojave Desert California Out of millions of broken rocks 25 different and humanmade The deposit should date to several hundred thousand years ago National Geographic funded excavations with the proviso that Vance Haynes visit and evaluate the site Conclusion they re all natural deep colluvial fans Tests of angle of platform etc had been applied only to select artifacts not the whole assemblage None of the different stones is a true artifact they re geofacts made by nature Calico Hills Disproved as a preClovis site But there is a real Paleoindian occupation about 10000 years old Cactus Hills Virginia Stratified Archaic and Clovis layers Several inches of sand separate those from a quotpre Clovis deposit with points blades cores charcoal and calcined bone fragments C14 dating 15070 16670 16940 BP Toolsmost are blades that might have been hafted But no report on the archaeology so hard to evaluate and no pics of the blades except in a video from the Archaeology Channel Topper site South Carolina Typical Clovis layer but initial excavation didn t go beneath it Albert Goodyear U of South Carolina decided to dig deeper going through 40 cm of barren deposits before finding microflakes and microtools preClovis 28 square meters of the deepest deposit now exposed with 1000 flakes and 15 microtoolsmostly microblades the types of tools and raw materials don t match between upper and lower layers so Goodyear doesn t think they filtered down Dating depends on stratigraphy no C14 dates no organics Time Team America project 2009mostly in Clovis layers Meadowcroft Rockshelter 50 km west of Pittsburgh PA on steep slope above Cross Creek a tributary of Ohio River Good sequence of Paleo through Historic occupations is there something older Odest C14 dates 16000 to 12000 year ago Genuine artifacts some in nonlocal lithics Adovasio conservatively estimates human occupation 14250 BP Meadowcroft Rockshelter Problem Laurentide ice sheet would have been 150 km awaylate glacial environment but only temperate Holocene fauna and flora were founddeer oak hickory southern flying squirrel 1 million animal bones found in rockshelter but only 278 from deepest depositsso might just be poor sample Are the dates bad Coal contamination Haynes requests AIVIS dates of nuts from deepest levels Adovasio refuses So far no comprehensive report on the site has ever been doneso it s hard to evaluate Paisley Cave Oregon Coprolites found in a dry cave May be human IVIay date to 12 300 Radiocarbon years BP uncalibrated Still controversy on both identification and da ng Eastern Wisconsin mastodon Excavations at the HebiorSchaefer bog sites in southeastern Wisconsin uncovered the remains of mastod on kills In this photograph a stone tool can be seen lying directly beside one of the large mastodon bones Hebior Wisconsin Near Kenosha 25 m2 excavated in 1994 Hebior mammothadult male with signs of butchering though those are debated Several flakes a chopper and two bifaces found among the bones AIVIS dates on mammoth bone collagen 12480 and 12520 BP Therefore suggested to be hunting or scavenging mammoths by 12500 BP Schaefer Wisconsin 1992 excavation at pile of disarticulated wooly mammoth bones with cut marks fractures and striations suggesting they had been butchered and piled at edge of a lake then covered with 14 meters of peat 1993 excavation found several chipped stone implements with the bones C14 date on bone collagen 10960 BPmaybe with Chesrow complex Paleo in Wisconsin But two dates on wood OVER the mammoth date to 12200 and 12480so maybe bone date was too recent Rerun bone date at 12310 BP Schaefer and Hebior Both Schaefer and Hebior are in lowenergy environments so don t have the problem of materials being reworked Carefully excavated and recorded and C14 dates so MAYBE they are evidence of humans and mammoths prior to earliest Clovis dates at 11500 BP Early arrivals Monte Verde might be an early site about 13000 years ago in Chile Schaefer and Hebior might be good mammoth butchering sites in Wisconsin But none has any of the special tools that we find with later Paleolndian occupations If the dates on the sites are correctwhat happened to the people Did they adapt or die out Protohistoric and contact era Valley View site 1St day 1978 n 39M A u x WWKL 23 o m irt I Historic glass bead l Traces of an apparent palisade Re search topics for 1979 l Subsistence activities detailed analysis I Dating was a postcontact Oneota site I Settlement plan distribution of featuxes and stmctures relationship to appament palisade Unafw 1 n u I n 39t I i x a L L Why r A m mar1x 2 Z Ante l07 5 alt 4 ahalao miwoxo Em on 3 lt2 2 2 at kn 33 on 0 m 3550mm EVN 3550mm mm 7 vr 39 39 1 nn METRIC 1 13m 32me 36qu Northern pali sade after bulld 02mg Hmma 3 5 I i q lf 3 ud A f 4 V o u J t 4 c t u Reconstructed vessel Ar 39 3 quot 1979 excavation map 936 31011 If Ai 39A39 39 J I39VJ C 39x u t 39 u t W xv I l 3903 0 x caz gt I 39ll 39 I V 1z ll 391 3939 I 39 aquot 3939 39 manna qt 1 3 I 39 I I lHZl 39V I quot3975 T H Lewis map of site Map of 1979 excavation superimposed on redrafted Lewis map W 39 quot3933 37 Z z 4 Z 63 If f 4 2 Hv lt39 W W 1 n Involved most of the community ll Ptoduced predictable storable foods I Floodlplain foraging ll Rivetine and wetland re source 3 including fish of all size s turtles watetfowl ll Lowtisk activity f0 all membets of the community I LargeWe hunting I Riskier but high return I Intensive shortterm occupation primarily SP ng Summer I Chose a naturally defensible location 15th a Palisade ll Feature s amp artifacts rno stly the palisade ll But no signs of deprivation or violence 1 Perceived need for defensive capabilities rather than active defense I Ring of bage lled pits along palisade 1 Probably borrow pits for heaping dirt along palisade I Precontact site I Five historic artifacts found in 1 979 lead ball gun int 2 beads kaolin clay pipe stem I None came from undismrlbed contexts gnflint and glass seed bead typica y later historic l Type site for the Valley View phase 1500 1625 I Historic artifacts represent much later reuse I At end of Oneota occupation of Crosse I Palisaded site in a naturally defensible setting I ext Oneota sites are across the river in Minnesota and they have trade goods I Could Valley View represent a population m that hadn t yet experienced contact with Europeans 1 but was feeling the effects of European contact in other regions w I and moved out of the area shortly afterward I Contact was very chaotic I Impacts could be felt well ahead of direct contact I Disease 1 Killed large r1umbers of 39 people I Caused loss of knowledge I Disrupted or destroyed social structure and way of life I MUPS f I i V I S I Remnant groups joining with others I Capture of individuals e g fOr slavery I Con ict 1 Between Native groups and European explorers and settlers ll Between various Native groups as pressures increased and allegiances were tested or changed 1 New materials I Workable metals brass iron I Glass beads bottles I Firearms I Cloth I Ornaments Ii Quickly incorporated into Native cultures I Some used as they were axes brass kettles I Some adapted brass turned into tinklers or other ornaments iron turned into arrowheads glass beads used in beadworking 1 The trade I Beaver and other furbearing animals I Bison for bison hick robes 1 Cxeated incentive to hunt animals for a diffexent Purpose 1 Changed c com resource to commodity I Radically altex hunting pattems Awning if V 747 1 A 7 r A I Popular image of Plains Indians on horseback only happened after Europeans arrived I Gradual process as horses escaped or were captured and were taken traded and bred throughout the Plains and the West 1 Changed mobility hunting warfare l Extent of impact varied became especially important for some Plains and western groups I Immediately precede history in area I European trade goods were arriving I Other in uences of European contact felt I But Europeans were not yet writing about the area I Archaeological study can shed light on poorly known era Upper Mississippi Valley I S Ea q a Lake Ea SamE arie AMADA in the 16008 eg l Jean Nicollet explored the at quotquot39 3939 u l Marquette and Joliet exited the Wisconsin River and entered the I an Mississippi below Prairie u L n Route Juliet and Marquette Travelad in 1ETquotIE du Currant F39itia EunIarie I 01 phase Oneota sites found in the Upper Iowa and Root rivet valleys in northeast Iowa and southeast Minnesota I Oneota artifacts dominate including pottery similar to Valley View in La Crosse I BUT there are also some trade goods I On phase lasts until about 1700 From Mildred Mott Wedel s 1959 report on Orr phase Oneota sites along the Upper Iowa River Figure 17 Iron Brasscopper urfifacfs and glass beads a b Iron 1314612469 814619936 f Ediquot0171411187115 13A 5 99 d Roied iMd tube 15 1519351 639 K0e mede 1291111 1311491021 f AIe z a 04517 131913 3183 g Mem r1120 1316191 074 7 Metal car 0171 13196 10 5 1 77515 km 461 464 j 14 1116112 58131761223 131465 982 1516191078 Mela bizm 1 1316191070 m 131112194074 Glass beads Farley Village site Links to historicera tribes l Wedel linked Orr phase Oneota to Ioway Otoe Missouri I Careful study of earliest European accounts I Comparison to archaeological sites Shunqc Kanm Vim ne Haws Wosy Kent39s rrzo 7L39r395 m 39 r lahoma Hutoriul Sociczy I Based on the French maps alone Ioway cannot be simply linked oneto one to Orr phase Oneota sites I Ethnic identity of Ioway at historic contact may re ect composite culture of many different tribes affected by contact situation I But Ioway histories and other documents do connect Ioway and related groups to Oneota I Came south from Red Wing ca AD 1300 I Settled in to La Crosse locality relying on a combination of agriculture oodplain foraging and largewe hunting I Had links to the west and bison hunting l Last precontact occupants of the area I Moved west in the early 16008 and adopted a more Plains oriented lifeway 13quot sf o x 39 339 H i l iquot r u to I I A I I M I I Q A I I I w 39 i i i i 1 v v M I tk39zyn39rim 1 y 39 n i 39l v 39d39 w 39i 3 f 39i l r ii 9 V NIquot 3 l 39 n 39 l f V 39 v t I l h a n 39 m is I Big Sioux River I Prior to 1700 Ioway Oto Omaha Ponca occupants I Blue glass beads iron knives brass kettles I Illiniwek Village State Historic Site I Near mouth Des Moines River in Missouri I Jolliet and Marquette visited 1673 reported summer village with 300 lodges laid out with SthEtS I Tracing a legend I Gumbecom watchPV7O9OZfO A the Miwest Eastern 1 cu1tm31 Complex I How have subsistence systems changed through time Ii In particular how have people tried to control and increase their food production I What plants were cultivated when I What plants were domesticated I How has it changed lifeways I Lengthy debate on the agriculture of the Eastern United States ll Did the idea of cultivation and the plants come from Mexico 1 Or did the local populations independently start domestication and work with local plants I Some crops are clearly Mexican corn and beans I But others appear to be entirely local developments o Ir 2 Hhwr a Jo d d r a ET ii 1 a if I 1 0 a 6 1 U t 397 if 1539 EE m IO fr 1 fl Q If I E u Kl MIDLATITUDE FORESY Conifmus Fem Broadluf fomt Mind Coalfmus an o a 7 Bundles font Woogluang and MIDLATITUDE snassuuo 3 an 39 3 Short 8m Steppe m39m39m39mquot 1 hlleHPnlrlo I SWAMP 3 TROPICAL nssm Anu WNW quot 0 39 muronm E nssm sunua PM i7 quot 1 3338ng Pinwggw yucussmm a C m 7 mm mm Iain I l Pepo Squash 5000 BP d Sun ower 4 800 B p Broomcorn Millet 39 39 39 39 39 Foxtail Millet P990 Squasquot 10000 3P Marshelder 4400 BP 8 000 B P Malze 39 Chenopod 39 39 Commpn Bean 4000 BP Sb 39k 39 39 quot 7 S39Ceagc oii39 p 39 39 39 quot oxnut Arrowroot 8000 BP r 39 Yam 0 tn39 da 6000 BP m Emmer wheat 10000 BP go on 5000 3200 B P 1 Einkorn wheat 10000 BP weet potato 4 2 r 3 African rice 2000 BP Bar39ey 1039000 B P39 l A H 39 Pearl millet 3000 BP 1 4r Sorghum 4000 BP Potato 7000 BP 0 Guinea 5000 BP Peanut Manioc 8000 BR Yam 0 alata 7000 BP j Chile Peppers 6000 BP Banana 7300 8P Taro 7000 BP Smith B D PNAS 20061031222312228 2006 by National Academy of Sciences Food production is a continuum OOH PHUULM ZT ION fOHAUINU CULTIVATION OMLSTICATION tvnqu 5wn 1u I39mq plant breeding geneHc changes INCHNENT GARDENHMB HELD AGRKHMIURE AGRKHMJURE trans ld nting l guulJiiu39MugrxundlanunhdHunlhnulpnuhulhnL Ford 1985 7000 FOOD PRODUCTION PROCUREMENT LOWLEVEL FOOD PRODUCTDON AGRICULTURE HUNTING WITHOUT wrm Gz g mga DOMESTICATES oomasncnes Z 39 4 NORTH 7 COAST G O OWENS 3 39xuuemw39 3 6 39t 39 Qr th 39t f i u NUAULU u 9quot GUILANAOU39TZ 10000 88 V vMEXICO 9 Smith Bruce I 7 A congenialMW 1 2001 of the m39ddle ground between hunting Mug agiamure I Cultigens Plants might be cultivated without changing their gnetic structure and without affecting how the wild plant reproduce a ll For example wild rice I Domesticated plants have had changes in their genetic structure ll Usually they can no longer viale reproduce in the wild but are dependent upon people for their reproduction n For example corn Loss of natural dispersal mechanisms I Increased size of edible I More uniform appearance I Found beyond natural although have to beware of trade items I Methods to detect I Pollen phytoliths starch microfossils from sites artifacts agricultural elds coprolites I evidence of eld clearing and preparation eg pollen in lake cores I Context and dating I Direct dating of remains with MS I Microfossils from artifacts used for crop processing cooking or consumption I Dating of tightly associated charcoal or other orgnics I Stratigrath diagnostic artifacts etc I Identify ancestor it s natural can use DNA and molecular studies of different wild plants and domesticated varieties Early archaeological specimens might occur in place of origin of wild plants or might not be detected until move into new areas I Changes in diet re ected in skeletal remains I Stable carbon and nitrogn isotope analysis I Trace element analysis I Analysis of other indicators such as dental caries Archaic I Hunting gathering l Nuts hickory walnut butternut acorn hazel I Also fruits and berries I But you can t control production and there s competition quot 31 92 7 f quot h vt t r 5 1 39 v H v 39 quot 4 39 v A t a b o T r 39 V s quot o x39 O 4 u Human settlements may be creating the conditions in which these plants can thrive and multiply I Plants that thrive in disturbed habitats such as oodplains I Beginning to collect Wild plants that would later be domesticated v39 quot 39 J I z f Wag 939 39 i WnA quot iquot r t i A k 9 xw39 lacsma quot3939 39 a nu 3939 quotw8gtC 39 a a 8 EM L a 0 J 39quot o 4 V I r u 1 39 l lt c I Shift in human activities through time ll Toletadng these disturbance species It Weeding out competition It Ultimately actively encouraging growth through planting seeds By about 3000 BC 5000 BP 1 Evidence of the beginnings of domestication of plants Sites with Native Eastern US Cl tigens Murphy 39Newark 139 39 i 2 39 t H nounWI Cave West Central Illinois American Bolton Rwerton Cow Ford 0 New Kash iv Bowles Cloudspli tter 39xva oPhilIips Spring Carlston Ann39s Montgomery Farm 2 Salts Cave 5 Gypsydoim I am so He as Novmandy White Bluff u REngcave n I i998 Tollico 39 Edens Bluff West Central Alabama 1 I Windover 54 1 I r p z ax 1 l u a N Ammw mw 068829 x 1 I axMMx XVxVA 2 U M Zm HmeW a a 4 MUWWwWWMWMHM lt z r z wax mxzn m wm x gh b x l ilxl I I xM Mxz Wx 4 l thl x I x bym xm a n 3W0 x I z r 22 d I I I r W v n 4 ll I39ll 95 w u ltmm w gt uzgtm noomuomummmd mmmm moom S zmzosm gtomqm3lt o moasomm 391 I Series of indigenous seedabearing plants domesticated independently of any other region 1 Definite archaeological evidence of increase in seed size and decrease in seed coat thickness ll Process took place between about 5000 and 3800 BB Middle to Late Archaic I Oak Savannah and Oak Hickory fOrest hiornes 1 Later Eastern North America adopted Mesoamerican cultigens maize and beans but maize arrived no earlier than 200 BC into Eastern North America beans were much later 1700 BC I 5 domesticated Plants forming coherent complex 1 Bottle gourd siceraria I Squash Cucurbita pepo esp ovifera m Marshelder Iva annua var macrooarpa Iw Sun ower Helianthus annuus var macrocarpus I Chenopod 2 varieties Chenopodium berland eri A Also pxobably cultivated though not domesticated Little Bailey Hordeum pusil um Knotweed Polygonum erecmm v ss Phalaris caroliniana 7717 5v r d ng g wgwgyg r quotquotvquot N 39A w lgg 39 Eastern North America Earliest evidence of domesticates Pepo squash 5025 4440 i75 3025 BC Phillips Spring Unit C Pepo ssp 5290 4870 K2 Ovifera Sun ower 4840 4265 i 60 2840 BC Hayes level 14 H annuus 4860 4830 Marshelder 4400 3920 i40 2400 BC Napoleon Hollow Iva annua 4420 4290 Feature 20 Chenopod 3700 3450i150 1700 BC Cloudsplitter ES Ch berlandieri 3900 3460 1361 I 3400i150 1400 BC Newt Kash El 1114 Oak savanna and Oakhickory orest 5000 BP amp Riverton site National Academy of Scienc e s H gquot 39 39 0 J amp C x VAR Iquot k H x I x K x 39 ltlt E SSE C Qudsph ei 39 x I gt xvi Q Wt gt ampgtampxlt 39 391 quot3 39 Iewka h v R xx qqmmbm x Q a f A quot jr MW gt3 I Late Archaic shell midan sites along Wabash River SE Illinois 1 1963 excavations exposed series of clay oors and dense midden deposits orgnics Dated 3700 BP Flotation dome sticatcd sun ower bottle gourd marsheldcr chenopod 2 varieties Cultivated squash little barley Also Wild elderlberry butternut walnut hickory hazelnut Nut production and nut meats I Not just one cultigen but 5 contemporaneous seed crops I But the site sugests the individual group remains small no internal status differentiation stable re source areas permanent to semigpermanent settlements tied to re source rich river valleys I N9 evidence of competition or scarce resources landscapepacking etc I No major changes in culture or developmentadded onto preexisting hunting and gathering adaptation Unit X block excavation at the Riverton site showing the location of house floors hearths and features many plant remains associated 393 69 1 0 13A 0 9 D House floor I Hearth 0 Feature I 5f99t I N Smith B D Yarnell R A PNAS 20091066561 6566 2009 by National Academy of Sciences I Riverton site at 3800 BP has seed complex in archaeological context It Smith and Yarnell su st rather than a major break or a response to increased population or restricted re sources I The coalescence of an initial crop complex in ENA appears to re ect an integrated expansion and enhancement of preexisting hunting ano gathering economies that took place Within a context of stable long term adaptation to resource rich river valley settings Smith and Yarnell 20096561 Squash First domesticate Oldest Wild squash rind dates Koster 7100 BP Napoleon Hollow 7000 BP I Domesticated Salts Cave 2500 BP l Cloudsplitter 2800 2300 BP CumM2221 11961290 ssp owfem includes cultivated crooknecks acorn and scallop squashes I First containers or net oats l Wild cucurbita had bitter seeds and rind but could be made edible with boiling esp when crushed rst and boiled with wood ashes Hart 2004 l edible rind increased in thickness with domesticati Probable Wild ancestor ozark Wild gourd l Cami5215111961290 ssp ovifera var Ozar am Smith bases i39 connections between Wild and domesticated I Ozark melon I Wild distribution plantsusda gov java pro lesymbol CUPEOZ Location of archaeological sites and the presentday geographical range of the three wild Cucurbita gourds identified as potential progenitors of pepo squash Cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera F quotIquot 39r gt 39 I NAPOLEON r 39 3 HOLLOW RCLEVSE GTE 39 39 wryquot ATLANTIC wad7 OCEAN 39 s s Jquot i PHILLIPS l SPRING ssp fraterna 9 a OCAMPO Mm 0qu 39 M 14 4 57 SAN ANDRES Y 39 i quoton Caribbean Sea r 2 Vrquotwr quotj v 39 l A Smith B D PNAS 20061031222312228 2006 by National Academy of Sciences Distinctive features of C pepo a leaf b bushy plant c long Vine plant d mottled leaves e seeds f and g variability in fruits and h detail of the fruit peduncle x A i n wwwcomavupves taxonomy in trohtml Morphotypes of C pepo C pepo ssp pepoz a Pumpkin 3 b Vegetable Mar 1 f c c Zucchini quot d Cocozelle C pepo ssp ow39fem e Acorn f Scallop g Crookneck h Straightneck http WWW comavupv es taxonomyintrohtml Water saturated deposits 125 whole seeds and fragments from Unit Squash and gourd zone I Seed measurements for 12 exceeded the wild range gt11 seed lengh Direct AMS date 4440 75 BP calibration intercept 5025 BP I rind fragments and four fruitgend eduncle scars from squash and gourd zone show no sign 0 morphological changes from wild I Therefore squash at Phillips Spring at early stage of domestication I For next 4000 years gradual increase in seed size larger 1 So people are using wild squashes and gourds for along time before genetic changes occur and then gnotic changes occur slowly L a i i p l l a Oak savanna and Oakhickory orest 5000 BP amp Riverton site National Academy of Scienc e s H gquot 39 39 0 J amp C x VAR Iquot k H x I x K x 39 ltlt E SSE C Qudsph ei 39 x I gt xvi Q Wt gt ampgtampxlt 39 391 quot3 39 Iewka h v R xx qqmmbm x Q a f A quot jr MW gt3 Sun ower I HeZomz lym ommzm I Increase in seed size I Wild 40 55 mm l Domesticated 7 to 12mm or more I Earliest seeds with increased size I De nitely domesticated at 2840 BC I Some domesticated specimes suggested from Mexico but identity disputed probably not domesticated separately in Mexico Smith 2006 2008 i Mn 1 1quot vi 1u 14 4 4 1 i l i ll c u o A m zw ab a as p 4 r WU 5na 04 0 39 I pan 4 Qt 1x p ME 39irl39 i o 39 Iiil 39 u U Ish tlwl pnikr Kvtaml 2163 J x hni l 12 r 140 AVWIII IIOIlt4 O l I o J r u quotg n i ill a igtuwc w convur ur in u h 11quot v 2006 by National Academy of Sciences J 4 A u 453bn3 a l 139 o 21 9 koamp mu mruunw VW nf of 6 m 3 l 1a o t a l palc I 0 4 lu lr a i 35133ew aorw3 5 O fan 10 u n nu I I u IH x 6 u ntAarn tNIA v AIMlu L 5 a 4ltLm lt ul r Q F 1 o y i o A IIal y N p J f OAv co0 4 lat AX 7 1 3 nuf 1u 2 u a 2 t I v 1 PI t 4 l w 51 51 33 4 I l 3 I i Smith B D PNAS 2006 L 0 8 F 3 Z 3 mo L 3 Z Z 8 S a a p 0 O Du 1 S 1 J by U D S O I Hquot q 3 J S O U from Cloudsplitter Rockshe er Kentucky Note distinct parallel longi Archaeological sunflower achene ive tudi eastern nal Marshelder or Sumpweed Im mmng Same family as sun ower Composites The domesticated version no longer exists only the wild form Size increase I Provides a selective advantage for the plant by providing increased endosperm food reserves allowing more rapid early growth I Wild seeds about 25 to 32 mm l Domesticated forms found at 42 mm Earliest reports 2400 BC I Napoleon Hollow Goosefoot I Produces many small seeds per plant I Grows in disturbed areas such as around campsites l Common garden weed today Goosefoot Lambsquarters quotX 1quot J iquot39 u quot A A E A 4 Flower headwith Whole plant thousands of seeds 439 1 J n F Riverton Site Unit X pale C berlandieri specimens exhibiting diagnostic domesticate characters golden color truncated seed margin and very prominent beak A Fruit from Fig 2 Feature 13A 05 mm Smith B D Yarnell R A PNAS 20091066561 6566 2009 by National Academy of Sciences Goosefoot seeds I Trend for thinner seed coat in the domesticated species I This is in response to selective pressure the thinner seed coats will sprout earlier and are more likely to mature and reproduce I Fitst evidence for thinner seed coats about 1700 BC ftom Eastem Kentucky rocksheltets I Also found in Central Illinois and other Ozark caves after about 500 BC I Changes in seed coat thickness I Also direct evidence that people were collecting the goosefoot l A carbonized clump of thinseeded goosefoot fruits were f0und in three woven bags placed in a rear wall crevice at Marble Bluff Shelter in Arkansas 1 Mas s of over 5000 charred seeds from a Middle Woodland site in Prairie du Chien I Knotweed Maygras s and Little Barley ll Show no signs of changes in the seeds themselves ll But they are found outside normal range A J sting human intervention in their growth and reproduction ll They are also fOund in larger quantities than other plants su sting a strategy of deliberate collection Maygrass and Little Barley l Grasses with seeds that mature in spring I Spring is a time of limited resources for hunter gatherers 0 i p g 393 A t I 39 1 s I l D I I g L I 39 Q quot39 s 39 quot quot E I s c 3 39 y l I t 39 I I t it I t k H l 1 l Little Barley Maygrass Maygrass I Bundles of maygrass from an Ozark rockshelter Erect Knotweed l Matur s 1n the fall t a a V its A i I Good source of carbohydrates y H 1 V O in I a O 39 I Coprolites paleofeces from Salts Cave have direct evidence of the consumption of these seeds ll Seeds were cracked but then the seed and shell were both consumed 1 Seeds of goosefoot sun ower sumpweed squashes all found in the coprolites I Evidence of simple land clearing and food storage facilities at Hopewell sites though not as extensive as at later Mis sis sippian sites I Grow readily in disturbed gxouhd I Provide good nutrition I The rst plant cultivated squashprovides vitamin C that could be stored in the Winter I The next two dome stic specie s sumpweed and sun ower are high in fat highly desired by precontact people I The last four cropsgoosefoot otweed maygrass and little barley are good sources of 39 carbohydrates 1 GoosefOot and knotweed mature in the fall 1 Maygrass and little barley mature in the spring to early summera time of food shortage Protein Fat Carbs Fiber Goosefoot 191 1 476 280 Knotweed 169 24 652 133 Maygrass 237 64 543 30 Sun ower 240 473 161 38 Sumpweed 323 445 1 10 1 5 Maize 702 20 I Cultivating and domesticating native plants prior to the introduction of any Me soamerican domesticates I These might be considered than true farmers though that region I In the Driftless Area there is evidence of squash goosefoot knotweed sumpweed and sun ower in Middle Woodland contexts from Prairie du Chien but they do not appear to play a major role in the culture 7000 FOOD PRODUCTION PROCUREMENT LOWLEVEL FOOD PRODUCTDON AGRICULTURE HUNTING WITHOUT wrm Gz g mga DOMESTICATES oomasncnes Z 39 4 NORTH 7 COAST G O OWENS 3 39xuuemw39 3 6 39t 39 Qr th 39t f i u NUAULU u 9quot GUILANAOU39TZ 10000 88 V vMEXICO 9 Smith Bruce I 7 A congenialMW 1 2001 of the m39ddle ground between hunting Mug agiamure I During the Middle to Late Woodland period several trends are apparent 1 Increase in population I More intensive use of all available resources I Continued use of native cultigens It Population increase might have been facilitated by the cultivated starchy seeds I Cooked in pots the starchy seeds produce a soft digestible weaning food to be cooked I this may have allowed more frequent childbirths and population growth Different subspecies C ssp related to pumpkins and marrows was independently domesticated in southcentral Mexico highlands perhaps 10000 years ago by 8500 BP largr than the Eastern US variety at that time Also Tamaulipas NE Mexico by 6000313 near Wild of Cumr ta atema so squash was not introduced from Mexico but independently domesticated in eastern US Mexico showing the presentday range of wild progenitor of domesticated mmmm p reg MZ 7 7 T I i 7 77 7m x 7 37 rquot if C A 7 A x V I l I w I x f1 71 x LJ PACIFIC 39 aquot Campecze OCEAN quot quot4 f I I I I IV MM g 4 1 7 3 Smith B D PNAS 2001 9813241326 2001 bx The National Academx of Sciences E A S One scheme for the evolution of maize from teosinte O 39 v Pollen Of ofher Plants and fabme mixed w h poi com to nmhc l tgqcv and blqu Pan 0 LOHL Ll 7 quot 7 5quotquot f I aquot39quot 7lii e ragga D r l g tum g I 7 39 I Route probably came through the southwestern US ll Ear est evidence of corn is about 200 from sites in Tennessee and Ohio I Both dates are AMS dates on corn kernels themselves ll However corn does not appear to have made a major impact when it rst appeared A Native cultigens continue in importance there are no major changes in settlement or social systems the first introduction of maize Upper Midwest Late Woodland I Archaeological evidence for the use of corn by about 1000 AD in otherwise typical Late Woodland sites I gardening vs intensive farming I Two examples I Prairie du Chien l Northern Wisconsin headwaters of Wisconsin River Prairie du Chien l Late Woodland sites are more common more intensively occupied but still seasonal l Corn is present m I ll Starting with late Middle Archaic populations in the Eastern US independently cultivated and domesticated a variety of fleshy starchy and oily seeded plants that provided important supplement to hunting and gathering way of life The process started simply and probably unintentionally with Middle Archaic collectors but led to domestication Mesoamerican cultigens corn and beans became an important part of the diet much later leading to the first true farming communities Even with these late farming communities in the Upper Midwest the economy remained diversi edamany Wild resources were still used The three sisters corn beans and squash were the foundations fOr agricultural populations at the time of European contact US Midwest Region sdew aumno 39paluasai sm p quotV 39AuedLuog uumw uo1q6noH 1q6gMd03 I 3 M p M 9 B a 21 A I T U m 2 NORTH CA N A DA DAKOTA Bismarck MINNESOTA SOUTH St Paul DAKOTA Minneapolis WISCONSIN Pierre ansing Milwaukee 2 5 Madison DetrOIt IOWA Chicago Cleveland Omaha Des Moines OHIO NEBRASKA o INDIANA a Lincoln ILLINOIS Columbus N w Indianapolis Springfield E Topeka W OSt Louis KANSAS Kansas Clty Jefferson City S MISSOURI km o 150 300 L A l l l l l mi 6 I 150 I 350 mo Lu0339832dnpa39MMM I 979 eweN emu Red Wing Symposium 2008 Papers by g Ron Schermer 1 Clark Dobbs George Holley Ed Fleming 1 Connie I g A gian and Kathy Stevenson l ARC 310 students There is a lot of detail here Do not worry about absorbing eve quot A 2 LlulNl 4 quot H IVkloD1alnomiBluff If Q HUMMHWN 9 0100101010013 Ba 1139 mn Extent of me lands Adams Silx cmalc Luke Pcpm Belle Crock BIYE IH Energy Park w Oh sew M 0101 s 0 2000 4000 Strategic geographic location antl complex landforms I Strategic geographic location At head of Lake Pepin Northern margin of Driftless At mouth of Cannon River a and safe route west to prairies and CambriaBlue Easy access south along Mississippi north to lakeswild rice zones and east and northeast to forested interior of Wisconsin m Complex land llms Terraces formed by glacial ontwasli discharged clown Mississippi Terraces on Minnesota side fonnecl also by glacial outwash clown Cannon River and ponding eg Bryan Presence of Lake Pepin dominant and signi cant Landscape and available resources change Tributary stream valleys and landforms different on Minnesota and Wisconsin sides of Mississippi FOUR CRITICAL POINTS I Village sites in Red Wing were formed by multiple and repeated occupations over a period of several centuries These sites have generally been analyzed as single assemblages leading to confusion and inappropriate hypotheses Sites are multieornponent and must be analyzed pit by pit I Population density grew through time but was relatively low Social organization initially extended family or band probably evolving to tribal level Red Wing was not Cahokia with a chiefdorn and thousands of people a Red Wing was a central placequot for several centuries where groups from different came together for multiple reasons m While Red Wing must be as a whole it is increasingly clear that there are distinct differences between the Wisconsin and sides of the Shaded relief map of topography and Villages at Red Wing Locality WIN o M was e Iquot on 39 HEEE FLA JOE ONTIN I Minnesota Early Settlement Vegetation Scale 1 4000000 Miles 0 30 60 90 120 Legend Aspen birch eventually succeed to hardwoods Aspenbirch eventually succeed to conifers Aspenoak land Big woods oaks elm basswood ash maple etc Brush prairie Conifer and bog swamps f Jack pine barrens Lakes Prairie Mixed hardwood and pine Mixed white pine and Norway pine Oak opening and barrens Open muskeg Pine ats hemlock spruce r cedar amp white pine River bottom forest Wet prairie D White pine Vegetative cover map was derived from notes and maps from General Land Of ce surveys conducted in Minnesota 18471907 Map was digitized by the Minnesota DNR RED WING ON CLIMATIC FRONTIER 1 Three major air masses come together over Minnesota and control climate 1 Dry cold northerlies moist air dry warm westerlies 1 Even small changes in positions of air masses can create significant iocal changes in precip storm frequency and severity etc I At higher iatitudes like Red Wing even changes in these factors results in reiatively stronger responses than to the south RED WING ON CULTURAL FRONTIER w Red Wing at extreme margins of major continental cultural traditons Eastern WOOdland Multiple expressions Archaic on Pulses quot northward Illinois 2 Early Woodland La Moille Middle Woodland Havanalike and Mississippian Plains cultures Northern cultures of lakefete3t zone mixed deciduousconiferous region cg Black Duck Sandy Lake others m Distinctive praiIiefOrest border adaptation Initially by Elden Johnson in the forest but the prairie Moving back and between two zones May have time depth g Late Archaic Continues into historic e archaeolog of frontiers and boundaries eg and 19 1 Frontier studies their attention to the peripheries or edges of particular societies and the characteristics of 39 the groups occupying that space Frontier research addresses questions about the causes of political and economic expansion into new habitats and its effects on indigenous societies and ecological systems 1 Social systems on frontiers tend to be open uid and dynamic fact should be re ected in the material culture of societies quoton the frontier 1 The concept of social systems as open systems is not original in theory However its incorporation into an archaeological of reference is dif cult because it requires one to break away clomd models of human behavior Pattern oriented studies focus on standardizing behavior and material culture into phases traditions and types Processoriented studies facus on the ways in which behavior and material cultural vary over and through As such process study forces one to deal with the fact that human behavior is not always bounded time and space and that it is not always packageable into quot6 LlIlND 39 V 39s I H Mom Dlanmnd Bluff 1 43 Q HMmn We 3 g t 0 Mound iruup txlcm of me lands Iquot I Ba 1 r0 0 Adams Sih39crnalc Luke mpm 3W3 Energy Park M clc 1 s 0 2000 4000 i whim11 r39lRffolE ll r39lC flA H 39l39 quot11439 quot139n39 L39 391 3911 quot3 l H ll 11239 18 139quotl 7 44quot111391939 PEPN l 39 mm 1411 11 n r x39 r 11 dis1351551144 121171111 1 n1 391 from Isd quotairy ii 1 l39 n39t39l and Iquot ltf 39l f tf39 1103 71531 Anonn Ullaqr as V 1039 36 0 f h zw 35 lfmuut39 7 r m C II IJ3939quot quot1391 Jrd l39lJIllM39UfAA39 Lodyu ru39lr va nutus 39 39 1 5 A 1 fryz LIN3 I LK quJqu a hl A J r 39 JIU IHJJ 39II39I 01 quotmlann39 rum It3939IquotV Ilu 5 39JU 393939 Itsfuru39rjnxrrz l 1 11 u 3 quoturr 39 lndn1rnuquotrn t39 m vmmrm mm 3954 1 4 rr yunuvah W39th d I r y 39 39 h139u quotr39 h rn39u39 39Nu39 39u39n P Orquot7AC FG fzuw39w n39 v I39fUU 3911 1 mm w WW I M f mn mm u IAZL hM Jab Iyn39rnyrL and Iblpcjru pAv or QgtlrsxquotJ r39 cratezed 1quot ZS 39IL39I I dc niu czrurco 34 cm Chart xrull Iv rm v1 Bryan Site Complex I Village 21GD04 Mounds 21 GIMS Glacial outwash terrace ca 120 above Cannon River upstream of mouth Mountls 173 mapped in 18 85 Village discovered in 1951 Village ca 18 acres Excavations in 1951 p 195 4 1955 1957 1970 197l 1982 l9841985 1999 1 Extensive private collections amp looting Bryan Site Complex II Village 21GD04 Mounds 21 GIMS Silvemale and Upper Mississippian components 1 Archeological features Palisade Houses I Round posttype above I Square posttype above ground 1 Square semisubterranean Pit discard Almost completely lestroyed Multicomponent Site Phase apogee ethnic setting I V Barth I cro jia mond Bluff 4 39 I 21 V r II39UI VIJ Ilutu nm Sm O almudtizwzp Hum hf I wanna I 2 13 Siivctluql 3 Lo gur J Y quot J I39 39 quot P Bcl39c ml quotVJ nyJI39L Fncrgy Park J I39 r 439quot 39a 39s gt quot 39 I C 39 1xr39 7 y quotLI 439 ML m r 39 r39 5 i g 1 3030 42th 39 5 Wil ord 1951 WM1954 0 1511131950 l sam1999 Wil ocrd 1952 3 WHEN 1955 C Dobbs 1934 Wilford l 954 North Structure Location g Nordiwestem area Type Above ground circular Post and thatch g Associations Trophy S Rolled rim pottery Dates n 825 550 uncorrected 1 AD 1045 1171 1220 1270 1286 Dobbs Features 109 amp 202 Types Undercut pits Associations Pottery orossfits I Black smudged rolled r1ms I Grant Cord Impressed fVL 7 Emmet Beveled rolled rims Feature 1135 Feasting levels Note Complex postdates palisade Features 1 09 aml 202 Dates 109 920150313 w AD 1022 1039 1061 10361123 1138 1156 11601 1215 858i13 3 I1 AD 1153 1131 1193 1198 1209 1217 1225 820i16 BP 1 AD 1185 1212 1220 1259 1276 g 202 740i50 BP 1 AD 1196 1223 1280 1296 1387 I 875115 BP AD 1153 1159 1165 1169 1185 1215 1222 I1 333i15 BP 1 AD 1175 1207 1217 1251 1262 Dobbs 1984 Structure 4 Area Fuutur c 45D lmcmm 4 Emu Fmtm 435 I Iquot r 1 I FIgL IIquot I LL Lunlml gnmmr r mum b lll gsc Lircu t gaiurua a39 Ha 39Fita39lu n H prim F ua luru H Iii ff EEHIILE IM quot 39Fmiu Fl 15 15 N E s Dobbs 1984 Structure 1 Area Fcaiuru all N Funmn39c 3H Fuamm 2E Fmium H93 gmlmlm 3 gm ll I V Fuguru U Hurthum E39ull gu u f quot Fraihlru 504 S t I39L39I39C39lL39l ru H far FELTHLFU 5H5 7 rquot Fra luru 491339 5 quot Fmiuru 50 r in Fmiuru 5W Fra luru 4 Fuili 1m 4m 39Frga39lurn 2455 39F Lta39lurl 345 Fiaiurl cl Fu mm 4H5 fE ullEhE 111le 351 2003 Burial Authentication Activities at 21GD45 by MVAC Evaluated 24 mound loci Where no surface ev1dence remained Locations projected from Lewis map plow zone removed 2 loci produced fragmentary human remains 3rd locus contamed feature 39 39 Wlth fragmentary human remams and art1facts Bartron Site Complex Village 21mm Mounds 21GD01 21ED58I61 Low glacial outwash terrace between Vermillion and Mississippi Rivers Mounds in several nearlycontiguous groups total ca 100 Village ca 8 acres Excavations in l94 8 196869 In Most mouncls no longer visible village largely unimpacted but for cultivation Y I I lulNl JP 0 IIUquot139I Il th 3 mumva l m Ml OMJMM 11 quot f j I 39 Silvcmglc C reel II Belle chum 20 4M Bartron Site Complex Village norm Mounds 21 21301 moose61 Relatively little own a Two houses g Square semisubterranean Reported Wall trench isn t correct amp no palisacle Almost exclusively Upper Mississippian First otation samples in state still not analyzed but starting g Pit discarcl Still there waiting V Bartron 19681969 BASE LINE H 9915 Trench 4D Currale 9900 quot QBZU quotJ ad39 BARTRON SITE 24 G 02 96869 Excavations quotquot Scmped area 0 Pi Feature P051 mold D meters A N Silvernale Site Complex Village 21 1303 Mounds 21GD17 amp 21GD22 LOW and middle glaCial outwash terraces at mouth of Cannon River Mounds in two groups separated by slope total over 30039 1 Village discovered by 1903 first excavation in l947 a Village is ca 24 acres a Excavations in 1947 l950 197477 2002current n Almost all of moundls and southern of village a largely destroyecl but some remain northern V2 of village preserved 1 II ll quotJ eraT amond Bluff quotMinume 4 2 Hair ramp Imurdlm1am P If 39 g I 32m 4000 mademHm mam ltEmmm BHOOSV Eogmm 003 aa Booms Mounds Approximate village limits ox Ii Nonh 500 meters approx IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII Silvernale in Context II I 1938 Mounds Approximate village limits North 500 meters approx I I 39 1 lg Mounds Approximate village limits North 500 meters approx Mounds Approximate village limits No h 500 meters approx Illlllllllllllllllllll M o o m 1m Moo039s Em 11 0 u l A 2 w m u a m a n 5 a u 0 o n I s w w 5233 Ground Tru hing Geophysics Flam 1 W k 1 l I HIVLL 2 ummn Valle I I39uil Excavation Block 1 At point of feature shovel test Multiple geophysical anomalies Layer of midden on top of pit feature Pit feature is rubbish lled earth oven Vessel 1 from overlying midden Excavation Block 2 What s under the berm Inverted soil column railroad construction capped virtually intact site in 1882 Occupation soil on top of pits superimposed on top of other pits Numerous postmolds associated with soil Deep basin pits maize concentrations At least 3 occupations Lobed vessel composite design vessel Getting date Excavation Block 3 Q What 3 the resistance low n A deep compressed layer with associated pit features Mitchell Modi ed Lip pottery Pits superimposed at least 2 occupations Excavation Block 4 1 Lower part of terrace on east 1 Pits overlain by deien underneath plow zone Conclusions amp Further Work Site is far more intact than anyone believed more than 15 houses and at least a hundred pits At least some struc I s exist semisubterranean post type Around l 500 square meters almost completely undisturbed Site is multicomponent but the relationship is undetermined yet THE MERO COM LEXJ AND 47 P102 1 The Mero Terrace is one of the most complex Within the Red Wing Locality and contains hundreds of mounds large village sites and multiple Late 391 Woodland sites Also only unequivical Mississippian artifacts found in Red Wing Locality Cannot possibly do it justice here of complexity and because analysis of 1992l 993 materials underway and earlier analysis requires additional work n Investigations by u Lewis May 1887 Maps mound group n Moreau Maxwell 1948 Mound excavations Tests 1 Robert Alex 1974 Excavation in village portion of 47PIO2 Dan Wendt 19805 surface survey and collection Clark Dobbs Christianscn Meyer Excavation in portion of 47P102 7 4 7 6 1ttM a I l ss J 65 J 1cmsDmmopd Bluff 1 Q Whitimun gm quot36 Ba rt r011 Mound imup Silvcrnalc txlcnl of Lou lands da m 5 Lake Pepin EV ClL I S 2 i 7 0 4001 Lewis maps 396 mounds and notes there are 125 150 small mounds have been destroyed w o m m U o u 0 R n until I 039 LI H a whimu m 3955 5 150 m EEESEEEI 495 ft 0 0 o o I o 39 I 0 C 39 O Hero 3 513520 39 3939 6 239 I O I 390 0 I Q 390 a l I O 0 Q 0 4791132 30 i igge9 lse Figure 324 Habitation sites identified by the IMA surveys Site limits derived from Wendt and Dobbs 1989 and Dobbs and Meyer 1992 L Maxwells 1948 Mound Excavation Investigates siX mounds effigy 26 conicals 4 8 ovals 6 15 38 iii of 7 7 MOUNDS of I778 39 DIAMOND BLUFF 039 5039 00 5039 200 l llJ Summary 0 mound excavation Maxwell 1950 MOUND 6 Low conical No skeletal remains Two grittempered Woodland sherds 2 shell tempered sherds cube of galena no sub mound pit MOUND 4 Large conical 50 in diameter 7quot high Skeletal fragments of at least 4 adults and one child in mound ll above surface No artifacts placed with bodies Mound fill derived from village area 200 potsherds 2 projectile points broken cclt or axe Two of sherds Woodland one shell tempered Fragments of one vessel recovered black polished slightly less than 5 in diameter outward rolled lip incurving sloping rim angular shoulder two loop handles MOUND 8 Small low conical Devoid of cultural material MOUND l5 Small oval Devoid of cultural material Small mound pit dug through this into subsoil then second mound built above pit n MOUND 38 Large oval rising 8 above surface Skeletal fragments of at least three and possibly four individuals found in upper portions of mound No tools or pottery associated with burials n MOUND 26 Effigy mound Panther Several shelltempered of angularshouldered jar found at about original land surface level In region of panthers head well up in mound ll found a small shell tempered jar tiny loop handles In shoulder region of mound large piece of charcoal which covered a few skull fragments and teeth of a 12 year old boy Overlapping the slightly was a shelltempered loophandled jar design elements characteristic of Middle Mississippi In the area of the hear discovered an oval pit dug mound construction extending 2quot below original ground surface A large agment of a shelltempered bowl with the lip of the rolled back when the clay was soft angular shoulder and nearly horizontal Except for the fact that it was tempered with shell rather than grit very similar to one of 39 the bowls feund in Mound 4 The pit itself contained the nearly disintegrated skeleton of an elderly female placed in a exed position and near her lay the skeleton of a old child mm f39 m umimmIllmmm Hmu 39 4 39 1855 L733 lHH 1 85 L70 tempered 58 soazone Dar 3311111143 Siltx clay Sand 103m 155 L1n 5 Lobed ShEll gtempered jar Charred bonem Cremation E excmrvatiznu of kanmd 26 tnz ther AS VILLAGE EXCAVATION S Village excavations conducted in 1948 1974 and 1992 l 993 w n l948 and 1974 excavations in close and on edge of bluff right near 1950s gravel mine a 19921993 excavations a few tens of meters to the north and east in middle of eld Scattered human remains found in refuse deposits showing cut marks etc Some have suggested scalping and cannibalism Equally more correct is that these represent elements discarded after body processing prior to interment andor ancestor wo p cf Bryan crania a Results remarkably similar No large midden deposits encountered pit features of various size but generally Standard nonceramic artifact assemblage Ceramic assemblage variable Small number of elassio Middle Mississippiam artifacts found Semisubterranean houses with multiple occupation zones discovered in both 1974 and 1992 AERIAL VIEW OF 47P102 1984 4 pi m 394 le quotV H L osH39 quot WW ucW N quotquot 9 A 1 quot 39 f k 214 139 I v 0 U v E V I quot I39r 39 1 xquot V l o 4 i 39 a I t l f V w39rl J 39 J t Cquot t o w D K O my 4 h n u quotu 39 M a J pg v t I I 0 I 39 39H 39I39I l i quot 3 39 39 quot H 39II y 1 VL 39 k tb t Nf u a v 39 5 Illm I 39 4 I grit I n M A s 2 39 39 39 1974 Excavation overall View 39 I 39 r n x39 39 39 39 quot 3 393 I A VJ 39I 39 1r 39139 39 39 a 39 airquot I 39 39 4 39 l 39 H 0 I I 39 o rr 1 up 5 vo39 I V39 39 339Jquot lw 39 3 393939 4 7 2422 v turkey 5 my 39 9 391 19 39 39 quot Kgw 3r 39 391 v 139 mw 39 394 w J 39 v I quotrquot quot 3939 39 39 y l I 6 quot quot 39 n39 quot391 0 39 39 gt quot t 39 quot Vquot L 39 5 39 39 39 quot v 3 V 39 quot y r o 39 0 f o q ff J 0 u a 1974 Pit feature with dog skeleton I o 139 9 n1 3 agirc 1 A V V o r i t O A N J g 1i t c quN Hm E 9 1 j ww wnq H AJHQQm a 7L 39 n m 1 L Esta m L Leg NC 1 974 Semisubterranean house postmoid 93 excavated Oval or semirectangular Length 465 In width 3 75 no De ned ca 45 cm bs and extended to ca 85 cm bs Floor 1 initial occupation three features and a hearth Floor 2 ap be a of abandonment Ashen hearth and Feature 36 Upper zone 3539 cm thick A second house maybe present 4 m northwest consisting of postmoids and features 199293 Excavations Analysis only partly complete but currently underway All pits and house fill processed using 100 otation 39 quot3 I J quot v 73391quot 3quot law rawquotW 4quot w M d I gt F 39 N p 1 3 v I I A 39 I 4 1 quot n 39 v m O haw h w w u Omw gt QNm I 1391 w 1 4 x Jam 4 I 4 5 k t 41 1 w J r l L 19921993 Posts associated with semi subterranean house I Only one quarter of house excavated Ca 75 rn ns and 65 rn ew Two occupation zones Silvernale and later Oneota fill zone with human skeletal elements Lower occupation zone 80 90 cm bs Upper occupation zone 50 60 cm bs 1992 1993 Field drawing of vertical profile of semisubterranean house ua39 00gtud 3quotquot 39v l I I aoootlo 39 I y y39 I 60 0 I cot 39 quot l V q tr I ul oa so quot 39 I 014 I I l I L ll o l 39 quot39 I I Jv r il39 Q 0011 o 39 II t 39 I quotquot39 i 0 On 39 39 t quotu u a o o 0 9 cuquot 1 CERAMICS 1974 Excavation HAJgtALH JI4u1quotdw4 gtMh h h 39 O O o 39 O 0 Q o 0 9 o o O Y r o 9 00 000quotquot I 39 9 O o I 0 0 O O 0 quot 39 39 o X 0 4 39 o 39 o 9 lo M Y W N o r Iquotvvoooo 0Oovovvvvv vvvv vv v vvv v vv v VVV vv aquot Blue Earth Vessel from 1992 Excavation F40 Blue Earth vessels from 1992 excavation F33 DESI N I u 4 o I 1 I III A xamp 1 ww m w WMV my Amwde MUS 6 A O N J O l l W A Bryan Bcllc frock Ba rt mn LthND lluhimlion Sim Mound imup hxlcnl nl Lltm lands d a m s Lake Pepin M lL 139 3000 4007 r E s D MS SITE The Adams site consists of about 97 mounds surrounding a village area The site is situated on the very sandy Trenton terrace overlooking the Mississippi MO dates are available from the site but radiocarbon dates from lake sediments nearby indicate Lake Pepin was in front of the site until at least l285 AD Adams is different from the other major villages in the Red Wing Locality n It follows the usual pattern of having a village area surrounded by a mound group I But are almost no pits Principal features are relatively large shallow midden deposits associated specific m Ceramics thus exclusively Oneota No Mississippian cult objects are present However galena is present and chunky stones ubiquitous I Small amounts of corn are present Hewever primary resources appear to have freshwater mussels and game fishing etc No compelling evidence for maize cultivation has been found History of investigations TH Lewis maps mound group in October 1885 Subsequent visits by local antiquarians including J Brower Lawshe visits the site in the l 940s A few archaeological surveys visit the site e g Great River Road but no real archaeological work conducted until the 1980s Dan Wendt begins work at and around the site in 1983 In 1984 Wendt notes that the site had ploughed more deeply than usual and that intact artifacts and staining everywhere Wendt voiunteers and Dobbs conduct controiied surface colicction of site map concentrations and collect amazing sample of intact materials In 1985 Dobbs Wendt and other conduct excavations at the site The concentrations noted on aerial photography and mapped in 1984 appear to be well de ned middens andor activity 199039 1994 Wendt continues detailed survey of the Trenton temce and identi es many small work sites in the immediate vicinity A brief report on the work appears in l9 86 and Wendt prepares analysis of 39 the controlled surface collation in 2001 not Ifquot Adams Mounds as recorded by TH Lewis October 1885 er Q i I39 A 39 Cullibuth 39 E 39 39 39J Hfzg hufflquot tl39w39 r39r I HUII r 539 m f Iquot L ariasIL c F ADAMS SITE SURFACE CONCENTRATIONS Figure 9 Adams Site Surface Features 25 major surface concentrations and 9 smaller ones mapped collected Debris profiles of concentrations show distinct differences 13 of 18 major concentrations have an abundance of mussel shell 235 8 11 15 2122 3 were dark soil stains with smaller amounts of shell but much FCR etc 1 9 10 24 and 25 are indistinct stains with concentrations of debitage 13 other concentrations are soil stains with minor concentrations of artifacts May be hearths or the tops of subsurface pits m I 3 o E r 139 2 DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR ARTIFACTS gure 10 Adams Site Major Artifact Distribution East Motors 0 Other D Bid A Tri x Knife There is differential distribution of major artifact classes Area B has a concentration of stone tools particularly end scrapers Triangular points are most prevalent in Area A Most of the stone knives found in or very close to Area E at northern edge of village Artifact density drops off dramatically north of Areas G and H Thus procurement processing and manufacturing activities are highly patterned with specialized areas of the site involved Limit of TH63 57 Roadcut 000 0 Trenton Cemetery Backwater Lake Improved Reader Hwy 4 A Tree or Brush Pile 2 Fence E Grovel Road Q Mound B Building Field Road Artifact ConcentratiOn 1 Marsh 77 Bluff Edge Jr Shoreline 1985 Excavation at Adams underway mg s x my an in w h d quot A N v 2wnm rw I 0quot 4 w i 3 39 3quotquot 39 Vquot quot Kr W L aquot 39fr l 5 0 k a 39 Detail of midden EJ39EVE QLLECTION EDAD SL39E Figure 15 Adams Site Ceramic Vessel O 10 C M MIDWEST ARCHAEOLOGY Archaeology 310 3 credits Spring 2014 Instructor Dr Connie Arzigian OFFICE HOURS Tuesday 24 pm in 336C Wimberly Thursdays 24 pm in Room 110 Archaeology Lab Other times by appointment call email or make arrangements after class Email anytime Phone and voice mail 6087858452 Email carzigianuwlaxedu CLASS MEETINGS attendance required Time Tuesday 530 8 15 pm Room 312 Carl Wimberly Hall COURSE DESCRIPTION This course will focus on the human occupation in the Midwest and Great Lakes region over the past 13000 years Emphasis will be given to the dynamic quality of cultural adaptation and social organization The cultural developments leading to the major climaxes in the region including Middle Woodland and Mississippian will be stressed TEXTBOOKS required Twelve M illennia Archaeology of the Upper Mississippi River Valley by James Theler and Robert Boszhardt 12K Indian Mounds of Wisconsin by Robert Birmingham and Leslie Eisenberg Wis Mds The Moundbuilders Ancient Peoples of Eastern North America by George Milner Moundbuilders The Mound 72 Area Dedicated and Sacred Space in Early Cahokia by Melvin Fowler et al Mound 72 Additional required and optional readings will be posted on D2L EXPECTED OUTCOMES At the end of the course students should know the basic environment and resources of the Midwestern United States and how people have adapted through time They should know the four major cultural periods and be able to explain how each differs They should be able to identify major subsistence settlement artifactual and cultural aspects of each period and understand some of the major cultural processes involved in their emergence COURSE REQUIREMENTS Synthesis paper and annotated bibliography 100 points Prepare a synthesis paper with an annotated bibliography of research on the topic of your choice This can be either a detailed study of a particular question e g Hopewell trade in obsidian or a broader look at a cultural period or region e g Late Archaic in Illinois The annotated bibliography must include at least 10 sources that are also used in your paper and should brie y characterize the major topics and conclusions of each paper Resources available on the web e g J STOR are fine but must be professional sources and websites Wikipedia or other encyclopedias can be used as an initial source of basic information and references but you must confirm all conclusions and interpretations from the original sources and cannot use Wikipedia as a final reference The papers should be about 15 pages of text doublespaced plus the bibliography and illustrations The paper must follow American Antiquity style format except for the addition of annotations with the bibliography The paper must use proper grammar and spelling The American Antiquity style guide for citations is available here httpwwwsaaorgAbouttheSocietvPublicationsStvleGuidetabid984Defaultaspx Cultural Tradition Summaries 100 points4 summaries 25 points each For each major cultural tradition you will prepare a summary of important characteristics and how they differ from other traditions You can use your textbooks notes and other resources Map Quiz 25 points Identify the major geographic features in the Midwest Midterm exam 75 points Final exam 100 points ASSESSMENT Your final grade will be based on the total number of points you have earned out of a maximum of 400 points All grades will be posted in D2L when available so you can check your current status A 93 or better AB 8892 B 8387 BC 7882 C 7077 D 6069 F 59 or less D2L Course has a component offered through Desire2Leam D2L online course format available through httpwwwuwlaxedud21 Student login is their UWL NET ID name and password D2L can be accessed from any campus computer lab or from offcampus Absence In the event that you have a medical emergency or serious personal or family problem you must make every effort to notify me of your absence in writing email is appropriate If a valid emergency or medical situation prevents attendance during a class or prevents ontime submission of an assignment an alternative deadline may be negotiated Otherwise late submissions will be accepted for a maximum of half credit only Sociology and Archaeological Studies as WritingintheMajor Programs The Sociology and Archaeological Studies majors in the Department of Sociology and Archaeology are both writinginthemaj or programs WIMP The purpose behind the program is to insure that any undergraduate who completes a major in Archaeology or Sociology has experienced sufficient informal and formal writing experiences so that graduates are proficient at communicating through a variety of formats In all your anthropology archaeology and sociology courses you will be writing and in each class you may be asked to do a wide variety of types of writing The department sees writing as an extremely important skill and as a mechanism to enhance student learning In addition you will learn the referencing and citation style used by archaeologists or sociologists By completing the archaeology or sociology major you will be completing the writing emphasis component of your general education requirements Disability Statement Any student with a documented disability e g physical sensory psychological learning disability ADIID or are a current or prior military service member with wounded warrior status who needs to arrange reasonable academic accommodations must contact Disability Resource Services 165 Murphy Library 608 7856900 at the beginning of the semester In addition to registering with Disability Resource Services it is the student s responsibility to discuss their needs with the instructor in a timely manner Academic Misconduct Academic misconduct is a violation of the UWL student honor code httpwwwuwlaxedurecordsUGCatTitlesTitle 8htmlNote Title 1 27 Academic misconduct is unacceptable All work handed in for this class must be the students own individual work Plagiarism or cheating in any form may result in failure of the assignment or exam failure of the course and may include harsher sanctions Refer to httpwwwuwlaxeduStudentLifeacademic misconducthtml403 for a detailed definition of academic misconduct For helpful information on how to avoid plagiarism go to httplibguidesuwlaxeducontentphppid36367l You may also visit the Office of Student Life if you have questions about plagiarism or cheating incidents We encourage you to discuss any concerns regarding plagiarism or cheating with any of us directly and well before any assignments are handed in Failure to understand what constitutes plagiarism or cheating is not a valid excuse for engaging in academic misconduct Communication about Class Interruptions In the event of a campus incident that impacts the availability of teaching spaces any changes or cancellations will be communicated to you via your university email Depending on the incident some or all of the information might be posted on the UWL home page Eagle Alert This class will be participating in the Eagle Alert system through WINGS The Early Alert system is designed to promote student success If I notice that you are experiencing difficulties early in the semester e g low assignment scores or poor attendance I may enter feedback into the program and you will receive an email indicating that feedback has been left I may also enter positive feedback encouraging you to think about additional opportunities The link in the email will take you to WINGS where you will login to see the feedback I encourage you to meet with me and use one or more of several helpful campus resources listed here httpwwwuwlaxedustudentsuccess Midwest ArchaeologyARC 310 Spring 2014 Date Topic Readings Due on date below Additional readings on D2L posted required readings Jan 28 Intro to course Basic archaeological concepts Midwest environment and resources Feb 4 The peopling of the Americas 12K chapters 1 2 3 4 Moundbuilders chapter 1 Feb 11 Map quiz PaleoIndian 12K chap 5 Wis Mds chap 3 February Early amp Middle Archaic 12K chap 6 18 Moundbuilders chap 2 amp 3 Feb 25 Late Archaic 12K chap 7 March 4 The Eastern Agricultural complex Midterm March 11 Early Woodland and Adena 12K chap 8 Moundbuilders chap 4 Wis Mds chap 1 2 4 Spring Break March 25 Middle Woodland Hopewell April 1 Mounds and nonHopewell Middle Woodland 12K chap 9 April 8 Late Woodland Moundbuilders chap 5 Wis Mds chap 5 April 13 MississippianCahokia amp periphery 12K chap 10 Mound 72 Moundbuilders chap 6 Wis Mds chap 6 April 22 Oneota 12K chap 11 Moundbuilders chap 7 Wis Mds chap 7 April 29 Oneota regional manifestations Plains Village and Late Prehistoric May 6 Protohistoric and Early Historic 12K chap 12 Synthesis Moundbuilders chap 8 Wis Mds chap 8 May 13 FINAL EXAM 7 9 pm Tuesday night regular classroom Hopewell earthworks and Middle Woodland outside Ohio Squier amp Davis 714w SillI mm l l39l ANCIENT wnnxsMA11 39rrA 011m 3 o a an H 1711quot luauInn Inquot r In v 4 A vquot39 lIavam39ln Earthworks cluster of religious nonresidential facilities Local communities share in the construction maintenance and use of an earthworks center Earthworks httpwwwohioarchaeologyorgjoomainde xphpoptioncom contentamptaskviewampid2 33ampItemid32 Earthworks as originally mapped and new technologyLiDAR to identify remaining traces Hopewell outside Ohio roughly 200 BC to 200500 AD Used to be called Hopewell Interaction Sphere Connected to the rest of Hopewell through manufacture and movement of exotic materials and special artifacts Obsidian blades marine shells copper Platform pipes Elaborate burials Outside Ohio Hopewell sites found Illinois NW Indiana sw quot Michigan Southern Wisconsin SE Minnesota NE Iowa note the focus on Miss River sites a 5quot I I I I l A l l o I I 3 l x Mmmnsb39mg Adena l39 I M 39 39 well Newark quotnew A r Qty tquot 39 I Hanna i m 1 tAlsMoimg 3 whiff F31 quot39 LEI Ziif39tiw 3 39 39 cm msmcm BOTTOM Fm Mtg 131 3 Mancun 0 I 4 s 1 ltmnMoun oCahukia 39 a Fem Rmp I39 quot I i 0 Cub v 0 mi 1 quot Outward i 39l Icy J I I f quot I n I gngx quotJ 39 f Q 4quot O 0 I Inquot 0 j is anp o quot 4 quotaquot MONK 6 fquot i o I MilJcrI i o 004 cm 0 0 brow 0 x r g I l 0 quot39 1 I ORock Eagle 0 39 0 l OMoundvillc 5 quoti IOcmngcc J i Lamar Al K 39 I 39Il orm 0 39PM l 391 3 F Ohio Hopnw 39 quot 39 o t 1 1quot Ilimcrakl Mound kOmeh I Mm pwn me It 39lMarbvillc f O C H M Mn 3 h H mwxmquot 3 0mm A1 m 39 39p am S FmAlm39mt CDWr K3 rmx drinmrmb 132523 L IgtltgtZgt 1 nr a Z 3 Ovary50 n00nmr 3 r 5m n Uth 5 navan PF 4 aDm 1010 Don N000 Havana Hopewell Central Illinois River Valley Appears roughly 300 BC Havana ware ceramics Relatively thick and coarse tempered early Becomes thinner and better made through time Dickson broadblade knives Bonetoob Trade itemsincluding platform pipes copper earspools mica and shell ornaments Havana ware ceramics Roughly 300 BC to 500 AD Plain or cord roughened exterior surfacesurface treatment Decoration with bosses use of cord on lips stamping incised punctated designs The more complicated stamping and finer wares mark Havana Hopewell ceramics Bone shell teeth and antler artifacts these are from Snyders site Engraved shellSnyders site Effigy pipesclay and stone Human effigy figurine Knight site Found with child burial in mound 25 inches high clay Plummets Important sites Snyders siteCalhoun County Illinois Between Miss and Lower Illinois River Excavated in 19SOsGreg Perino and Walter Wadlow along with many others A V n v quot 39 Cache of blanksSnyders site w w 7 7 ia svvu p 7 H v 39 II I V W 7 39 r 1L C Ross BIadeSnyders site Knife River flint almost 7 inches long Snyders Points Cores and lamellar bladesSnyders site Toolesboro Mound Group At mouth of Iowa River Iowa No village found nearbyriver might have taken it Copper sea shells mica obsidian indicate participation in quotHopewell Interaction Sphere Albany Mounds State Historic Site 96 mounds 47 remain on blufftop and on terrace adjacent to village httpalbanvmoundscom Sinnissippi Mounds httpenwikipedia0rgwikiSinnissippi lVIou nds httpwwwsvoninenetsrfhsstorv9html fquot 7 C 39 quot F I I 391 0 HOENELL INTERACTION 39 SPHERE quot 39 39 6 t I quot g ASSOCIATED K v NE CULTURE LOCAL EXPRESSIONS Q Kansas City Hopewell Furthest westmigrants or indigenous pop adopting ideas 30 sites nearjunction Kansas and Missouri Rivers Wild resources plus squash and marshelder Hopewell tradeobsidian copper sea shells Snyders blades Stone tempered jars with hopewell crosshatched incisions and rocker stamping Trowbridge site httpwwwarckueduNarccgi binhopewelltrowbridge photophplimit0 httpwwwarckueduquot a rccgi binhopewell3dimagesphplimit0 Middle Woodland Outside of the elaborate burial complex Middle Woodland culture shows extension of Early Woodland way of life Wisconsin Middle Woodland has some exotic artifacts but does not have some uniquely Ohio Hopewell artifacts such as mica sheets or marine she containers Local Woodland populations adopting some Hopewell burial rites Link to Hopewell drops off with distance Wisconsin Trempealeau phase AD 100300 in Wisconsin Excavations by early explorers Cyrus Thomas at Stoddard Will VcKern and Milwaukee Public Museum in TrempealeauNicholls Vound Nicholls Mound 12 ft high 90 ft diameter Trench excavated through center Rectangular submound pit with traces of oak posts supporting bark roof 4 adults extended primary infant two bundle burials Freshwater pearls Knife River flint blade copper breastplate 6 copper celts wooden buttons covered with silver wooden ear ornaments covered with copper traces of nettle fabric preserved with copper Later intrusive burial had obsidian knife copper disk pipestone platform pipe several large blades of exotic material httpwwwuwlaxedumvacSpecificSitesTrempealeauht m A I a 0quot aquot O 0 3 9 a 5 DARK HUMU5LADEN SOIL m ORIGuNAL39 SURFACE HUMUS I REDDISH CLAY SCALE 039 7 CT HG IZL Irons section diagram of Burial 2 Nicholln Mnund Nicholls Mound charcoal mi bumod mmquot mm blade pouch moot We moment ooppadtsk v u m mm m J mom hon Minute Pwlt Hum m 1m 0 we 5 atom a no a mm o 20 quot05h wmoc DON bonds scoppecaxosmons O 4woodsphotesmedm39 Immune 90km SCALE 0 rrcr 7 A 1134144 A u ind I 9 wra qdli A 1 I 39 O t u I n u u z 1 4a IDquot 393 0 V51 1 STCOTT Middle Woodland Continue Early Woodland lifeway Seasonally mobile huntinggathering Use of native cultigenssquash sunflower sumpweed goosefoot knotweed Wild fruits berries hickory walnut acorn Wild rice when available Fauna deer Vivie occupied during fall and winter42 deer 5 elk 95 of edible meat from site that s a lot of deer for one village Middle Woodland first time period to show real storage facilitiessubstantial pit features and use of cultigensstored resources Shift from forager strategy to collector strategy logistically organized task groups range outward from at least seasonally sedentary residential bases to exploit specific resources Millville site On terrace of Wisconsin River in Grant County Wisconsin Excavated 1962 by Wisconsin Historical Society 14 house floors 176 featuresstorage hearths refuse pits Only site in SW Wisconsin with welldefined Woodland house structures Wisconsin lVivie site plan maphouses mull Figural 1 The 51133 115115 Ilnu 1 511m civil Himmsiun l s 39 E W 15F quotHag dd mn an east EidE jm i z 1335 a El EFL E W Ema1 ma Udmensiana Hal E a L15 H E 35 d ip Pmmr 5quot diamanth 5 m 3J3quot apart Iquot EiE luLE39 5339 HELIEE l Fl m 2 Rama 1 v may qA 101 3 S 33 Lo w 3 e e w w WC d 139 4 y h 31 H a a V k i i 3 Points from Millville Figure 18 Projectile Points Expanded Stem al I39nclassilicd mo 3 Funquot 32 b F112 c F127 1 F36 e surlacc I F71 F407 h surtace i F41 339 F73 1 F29 m surface n P90 0 F109 Pottery from Millville Grittempered Decorated with a notched tool to create a dentate stamp qun 1217 IDrntalc Stamped Sherds a F I F38 d F16 r I M g F95 h F122 i F44 j Baltin House I 1 I ll l Basin House I Radiocarbon dates from IVIiIIviIIe Wig EL WiEE WigEl IEI W1Eli CWi aEl E Win212 WIEIEIE Wi ll Wl E 15 Two occupations IT i Jar 55 HT i E 13 i 39 l39i39 EI 5Ei l39T39Fi i EE 1m 5 ml IiiEli l il T Hi i P 111m ELE 311E Ei D 13 H55 111 u u55 n4 1 iu E 111m EE ELIHIJ 55 H111 55 11311 ii FE tLlEH FEE EurE Feature Feature FEEEUFE Featum gamma Feature 1m H 1 1 an 439 as 15 FE an IE 539 4 anti 154 mbinQ 333113113 Rehbein Mound Group See 12K pg 125 9 moundslinear and conical Overlooking Kickapoo river Salvaged 1977 State Historical Society of Wisconsin Barbara Mead excavator 35 individuals in 6 excavated mounds Middle and Late Woodland Middle Woodlandconical mounds Rehbein 1 Mound 1 lVIillville phase mound Conical 25ft diameter 2ft high Submound pit 10x67 ft pit placed in underlying subsoil 15 individuals Primary and secondary burials oldest 6070 years old Evidence of cradleboards Rehbein 1 Md 3 Largest conical38 ft diameter 35 ft high Premound ground preparationtopsoil stripped and replaced wit reddish brown soil Burial pit dug 1 ft into subsoil sandstone formed into pavement around burial 4 individuals 1 woman died pregnant Burials covered by birch bark and 3 oak logs Whole covering burned dirt placed over burning wood scorching the earth radiocarbon date AD 260 Primary burial of adult male and secondary burial of female placed on top of burned earth More soil added 5 more secondary burials placed At least two adults had cradleboard modifications Millville phase potteryLevsen Punctated Honey Creek Cornernotchedpossibly the first true arrow point All ages and sexes included in mound High infant mortality Some older adults Teeth with extensive wear but few cavities Cradle board cranial deformation Cranial deformation Found with some Native Ameri burials 39 Also typical of Andes a nd lVIaya people in South and Central America Cradle boardsupports baby but pressure may shape skull Flatten and force skull up brain volume remains the same May also shape skull deliberately End of Hopewell Evidence of Hopewell in upper Midwest gone by time of Millville and Rehbein mounds ZOO400 ADno more evidence of Hopewell Why did it collapse Middle Mississippian and Cahokia Chiefdoms Population Thousands can be many thousands Subsistence agriculture herding hunting gathering Settlements in villages Different size communitieslarger village with the leaders smaller communities that produce food and goods for themselves and for redistribution Public architecture often prominent may require extensive group labor to construct Social relationships Ranked society People start to inherit their position in society in lineage groups The lineage groups may themselves be ranked Leader chief may inherit the positionmay be leader of leading lineage group Chief s control usually economic may also be supported by religion Chiefdoms Economic relationships Redistribution by chiefs Sufficient surplus production to support fulltime I I speCIalists crafts traders religious leaders political leaders Archaeological evidence Larger population social hierarchy economic speCIalization Example CahokiaEast St Louis 1050 AD North American Indian populations at the time of contact were predominantly Tribes and Chiefdoms Public architecture large population secondary communities produce food surplus for central city and to support craft specialists Cahokia video httpCahokiamoundsorgIearnvideo 44vh a xm u l v A 13 r 139 v 5a 1 1 233 z 11 i 9 Viv 5 1 v 1451 i 1491 Oo poema In 3970 quotJ wt vi C 11 0 4 39 II AI ocv gt Monks Mound at Cahokia in east St Louis ILLiwois is b3 volume the fth Largest pgmmid in the wortd Archaeologa at cahoizia awd simLLar though smaLLcr sites shows an agriouttural peoch with a oomchx sooiaL sUstcm widespread trading network and remarkach abLLitU to cowsoript the Labor ofa Large workforce aLL more than 600 Hears ago 4 7 7 p rl A l u giftE l 739 M p 3939 Jquot quot 9 39 4 sir I 393 a 1 quot 33933 x a x H dun 1 1 Raw 1 F 17 t H 1 iiq 7 squQQQQQ iiliicon ps Khui u Great Pyramid of Chco Giza Plateau Egypt Height 48 it Baxc 3 aucx Circa 2500 BL FIRST TERRACE A LARGE CEREMONIAL BUI THE SOUTHWEST CORNER AROUND AD 1150 A SMALL PLAT FORM MOUND AND NEW BUILDING WERE ERECTED ABOVE THIS BY THE MISSISSIPPIANS AND REBUILT EIGHT TIMES OVER THE FOLLOWING 100 YEARS CREATING THE VISIBLE RISE FRENCH CHAPEL AD 1735 IN THE 1730s FRENCH PRIESTS BUILT A SMALL CHAPEL FOR THE CAHOKIA ILLINU INDIANS WHO MAY HAVE HAD A SMALL VILLAGE ON THIS TERRACE SEVERAL OF THE CAHOKIA WERE FOUND BURIED NEAR 39 THE CHAPEL I w I M lquot Una quot 3 5 quotbi g39v quot 7 39 t 9 6 m 23 f k I A Large mound at an other site at cahokeia this at topped earth paramid Ls dwarfed b5 Monks Mound Line the conical mound in the previous sLLde this mound aLso marks the border of the central plaza of the communita Tth Large comicat mound is out of severaL that demarcate a at open plaza dominated at on and b5 MOMQS Mouwd a 39 3quot H L N r h 233937 7 3 a V g y v N x v 39 much 39 39 39 4 39 3 39 V C v LVLM VL 3 La Sufi may 32 J39srirszc g quot 2 39 aquot I HIDA an 1 u 4 J I39II II39I IIAIInquotuh I v V A 1 v A mmmummnmu 9312quot j M II W1 T z 39gs39393953395 7 5 5 a aquot c 7 V I 39 quot WiaIquotmbmammmmnmtmmmm2 39 munWm i In a 394 i I J 5 v nquot39quot quot I r i m 3 r Jr39A 13 mg I l Z 39u E I I If Id 1 ll a A Ill its Nil4 Lt myvx P 5 L s in 5 9quot a bId Y f uquot 44 J I W339I w l o mi Mm A 1 quotno u Extensive use of maize 1 I N W A l STYLIZED NWSE quotRUSS SECHON BURML rm 39 v or quotonquot pmmv Mount m JURIAI Pm 393 a 5 a A vs quot a g a quot gt r q 39 1 I quot w 3 z 39 EELEETI AL r 4 If UHIEHTATIGMS L 5fo imam Mlth M un uff a and Manna FE was 5mm 1 m quot3 n m L mm i Fr frdHah fg quot 1 I Milli EFF aw Au w J 55 quotI j 395 1 an 5251 a j P L w u A Itquot 1 A 7 zis z v 39 Mass burials 1 Courtesy Department of Anthropology University of Chicago MISSISSIPPI TYPE OF POTTERY In contras to the Woodland wares the Mississippi has a variety of forms often in colors THE CHUNKEY GAME Chunkey stones have been found at many Mississippian SIIC Z They probably were used in a game that remained popular among historic indian groups y 1 Cam l N Chunkey Player Figurine Cast The carved bauxite original of this gurine was found at a Mississippian site in eastern Oklahoma it depicts a kneeling male preparing to roll the chunkey stone in his right hand and holding two short sticks to throw after it in his left He has a bun hair style and a bead necklace This gurine was also a pipe that was probably smoked in a ritual associated with the 11 lnlznu nan l 0 o39 u u o a r 0 39 o SHELL TEMPERED POTI39E Ceramic vessels were typically tempered with crushed mussel shell Mlnlulppun Tum TUBUIAR BEADS were made Iran the inner core or colunwcIla of whulk shuns I Hoe of ovad 70th MrsMr I 3 7 39n d um Mxll rmP were 24mmch at r ig39rvt gtodc n rwrdlo I V httpwwwmuseumstateiusexhibitsaqricultureqalIervalbumO1berqer fiqurine httpwwwmuseumstateiusmusinknat amerprehtmIsm beliefshtm Mississippian belief systems httpusersstccedumfuercahokiahtml Other Cahokia images Longnosed god mask Go to pagehttpithiocastinglaboomgaery mesZOOSOCtobergodmaskpage1 htm Legend of Red Horn Robert Hall suggests the maskettes used to identify Red Horn in adoption ceremonies related to trading partnerships Ramey knives Cahokia Red slip 0 Q W m 3 0 t Ramey Incised Note sharp shoulder black burnished surface incised decoration 39 of interlocking scrollsfertility y 391 The Woodhusc 39 0quotquot 5 c dudr H 30quot N V quotkiw w w I f 1000 AD The ongnd etch was 410 at n vime d Lai ch mr pas 9y 6quot scan 1 been ramnuhv I 39 n ur affo mm 2 Red advI 0 00410 ma ampm gm We path uquot 239 P6 The ude J a ms u I no Know EM we van or l 0 mark n sumoquotth 4 f up and mnhr L Ke 39 I 39 1 35 Woodhenge Begun during Lehman phase Used through Sterling into Moorehead phase xocSUm miocmo 95580 Cahokia overview Mississippian culture East St Louis Illinois Middle Mississippian refers to Cahokia Upper Mississippian refers to more northern and later sitesOneota Largest city in North America precontact largest earthworks 9001300 AD 9001050 Emergent Mississippianrapid growth 1050 1100 AD Lohman phase initial formation of a city and expansion into hinterlands 11001200 Sterling phase climax of city 12001275 Moorehead phasedecline 12751350 almost empty Center of site hierarchy with multiple tiers Center of trade networksexotic materials and longdistance trade Maximum popuIationdebatedbetween 8 and 20000 people Complex chiefdom Craft specialists agricultural base storage of surplus some evidence of human sacrifice stratified society Religious leaders mythology underworld upper world water spirits shamans astronomical knowledge u a a I 1 n 4 l a I AI I i b I J u a a v I o quot p 09 o LQGH c I J 4 u uu u 39nqalt11l 1 Cu a 91 J A P a A Q quot t uguz H O I t 039 it an o M h V lt I A y r1 1 h o 5503 Q 110 v a V I ll ul Jiliuhl 3i39 V 1 r I no I I 34 1 A D n a 5 5 a a C u I I I it F a V l I I n39 I ub 1 in 3 I o a 39 5 1 r 6 it it I 0 0 A a i w iiit m0 agnnzIL4 QWd o 14 39 c n 0 u l n 0 I u o I O o o I w o O I x Q i a n C t V 0 g I I o c n o w a o O I l t C 2 wt a 1 if RI I o Q q t P I v o a o A O I 0 EI t i I e Q O O 0 0 O o to a a a a a a OOZErOmm fl Vld i13 lx ljl 4 l a u 3 J t d f u 1 n 1quot V m y HVI mHOltltgtI OrOEOx 39 was an urban center with a large central and support settlements Major US cities A 1 are generally regarded as urban areas if their 39pwations exceed 250 people per square mile Some were 4000 people per square mile at Cahokia a 39 J glibiis v39dense population created what now is called Finurban stress Symptoms of urban stress at Cahokia Ti39 ffgt eluded malnutrition increased exposure to disease A lpllution from wood fuel and human and animal a ste and the depletion of natural resources Mississippian changes New ceramicslarger vessels made with shelltemper Stone and bone hoes Deep storage pits and processing facilities Larger communities More longterm settlement at each community rather than seasonal movement Maize as a staple Direct evidence of maize making a major dietary contribution Stable carbon isotope studies of bones from various populations indicate that maize was not a staple of the diet till about 1100 AD Corn and pellagra Pellagra scaly skin sores diarrhea inflamed mucous membranes and mental confusion and delusions Still common in populations that consume large quantities of corn such as India Results from deficiency of niacin Beans provide niacin and would have helped prevent pellagra in Oneota populations Niacin also from wide range of other foods particularly animal products Agricultural populations Mississippian populations in the central and southeastern US adopted maize centered agriculture after about 1100 AD In the upper Midwest intrusions of Mississippian peoples at such sites as Aztalan Fred Edwards and at Red Wing may have influenced local populations Upper Mississippian or Oneota culture appears about 1200 AD in the upper Midwest Spread of Mississippia hinterlands Green and Rodell 19942Figure 1 IL F 2 w I El El ml ruin nto no A L 39I I P A 1 g 1 1 39A 7 39 39 11 4 quotFl quot1 turn Jr 3939quot 1 7 V n EdWarde 1 r 1 A 5 r r Hiia f 15255 55 A I rthern 9 man 739 nch gr r Ea n H I I39Lr 4 IF r ma39 can em Share group articles 0 ml 100 7V7 quot 139 Map 19 39 Site With Runey Inciud andor Petal P K lain 14 Mississippian Aztalan Eastern Wisconsin Stockaded village Outpost of Cahokia Spread of Mississippian to northern hinterlands 3133quot quot r V I x 1 Tr gmrp alaau lH a r lg F Er rearm r 39 I mm it39mmgmar k nch Emerge35 r gmrl rm Ehallll p r fE 1 r N H ahukia M r r v manean El39 m 1f39 H1 Green and Rodell 19942Figure 1 Aztalan Eastern Wisconsin Stockaded village Outpost of Cahokia htthZ dmw ngavargHamdp m httpwwwmpmeducollectionsa rt ifactsa nth ropologvaztala nhistorv Cahokia direct imports httpwwwmpmed Artifacts from ucollectionsartifac Aztalan show tsanthropologyazt strong connections aanwho to Cahokia and were sometimes direct imports made in Cahokia v V 39 39 httpwwwmpmeducollectionsa rtifactsant hropologvaztaIanoutpost princess burial httpwwwmpmed uoolleotionsartifao tsanthropologyazt alanburial Woodland burial in aztalan ornate belts and burial lead to the name LANDFORMS OF WJSCQNSIN Geologncal and Natural Hustory Survey Georg Hanson Ovtoctor and Sut 600com unwuswv exuusmnn umvtnsmv os wuscousm 1 971 rquot S V g a I gt f y xr t39f a O U r I I f quot Q39 r a E 3 V ES 39 a I 1 It aria Fisher Mounds site complex Stoddard WI Stratified site with oodland mounds Also campsite with I ississippian sherds and a burial 39 Redslipped pottery made in Cahokia Lithio raw materials brought up from Cahokia AD 1000 radiocarbon date so one of earliest I I MISSISSIppIan intrusmns Into upper MlSSlSSlppl Valley 139quot 39I viL JO I39JJJI 3 I 20011215 H 2001109301 352 p 397 v V iv I 5 2001121301 7 I DW kvanau gt I 2001121401 7 lt 39 x 2001107502 2001117310 quot 2001115001 I 39 LANDFORMS OF wascowsm K I x Geological and Natural Hustory Sumv O 60mg Hanson Dunno 06 Sun Gootoovu UNIVElSITV EXYENSOON UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 1 971 1 39 f Ll 39 F V0 7W3quot 3961 397 quot PV 39 1 h v n a dhCDCA an0am Cmgmo j m umdwxw Trempealeau Platform mounds 1 H Tr m ealeau 1 a Wn J H TE PEhLJEiUI r mm5 ii b 1 k k i E a fill mmmni39 y mmuwn FJ 3m 539 L H l n a man 39 i LI a a u mm Filir 2 Hiasi iupim sitseg arr Trempeail au m li m i Figural 3 Dinmma repnesanmtiinn allquot the Link p i h r mn nm mmplex Drawn I Elmenn w m an quotF H Law s IE 5nth mmm 5quot n n 0 Q v39vlf quot gt 39 I Figure 5 The Little Blu Mornmound complex View to the north showing middle and north platforms with the ramp in the foreground Photograph taken by Squier sometime between 1904 and 191 Courtesy State Historical Sudan of Wisconsin Madison I 39 LANDFORMS OF wascowsm K I x Geological and Natural Hustory Sumv O 60mg Hanson Dunno 06 Sun Gootoovu UNIVElSITV EXYENSOON UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 1 971 1 39 f Ll 39 F V0 7W3quot 3961 397 quot PV 39 1 h v n a dhCDCA an0am Cmgmo j m umdwxw Fred Edwards Southwest Wisconsin Small village of Mississippians mixed with Woodland People Permanent semi 39 If r quot i quot1 39quot gt 3quot33quot3939Xa l subterranean 39 houses and 39 quot storage pits Mississippian pottery Woodland pottery and mixtures of both q 4 5392quot quot 7 g 1521quot A K 4 5 y 39 l r L In I 39 I mquot quot m V y 1 391 A V 39 9 393 f V v I lg 91 1 xvf xr i 39 7 V I Vtx quot 3 1quot 39 31 f W M m Fred EdwardHouses and storage facm es 47Gt377 FRED EDWARDS SITE BLOCK 2 232 Bi W39ESL39 quot 233 23 N m 221 5530 LIMIT OF EXCAVATION Fred Edwards Extensive use of maize Charred masses of corncobs and kernels N610 E590 site e132 quot 39 D A H I r R 39 L130 f quot393 j 39 J a 39153 Aquot I W m Br 2 8 O Lm 039 XCAVATM l ts o 9 1 rim 0 um 039 EXCAVAYDI um 07 IXCAVATDN 39 I LJ 47Gt377 FEAYURE OIaYRIIU non IA OF PLO 200 r I E o m Transformation of culture emergence of agricultural populations Mississippian populations in the central and southeastern US adopted maize centered agriculture after about 1100 AD In the upper Midwest intrusions of Mississippian peoples at such sites as Aztalan Fred Edwards and at Red Wing may have influenced local populations Upper Mississippian or Oneota culture appears about 1200 AD in the upper Midwest Beans Beans are first used by Oneota cultures Introduced from Mexico First appear between 1200 and 1400 AD Not present at Cahokia or other Mississippian sites Add significant protein to diet and complement corn Mississippian Adena to Hopewell Changes within Adena Emerged from cultures such as Red Ocher Early Adena more egalitarian utilitarian burial goods smaller earthen mounds Late Adena after 1 AD mortuary centers more elaborate special burials exotic and finely made grave goods larger mounds often with circular enclosures sacred circles for gathering places Hopewell Middle Woodland Developed from Adena but greatly expanded the quality and quantity of artwork and geographic extent of trade network and influence 100 BC to AD 300500 Dates vary by region Your textbook by Milner suggests that Adena may overlap Hopewell but others dispute that and see no overlap no Adena site has any of the later characteristic Hopewell artifacts particularly bladelets Large earthen mounds and enclosures Magnificent artwork Often using exotic raw materials brought from great distances Shells from Gulf of Mexico Copper from Great Lakes Mica from the Carolinas Obsidian from Rocky Mountains Distinctive styles of stone tools and pottery Explosion of art ritual and ceremonial architecture N omi GreberOhio archaeologist What was it Trading system to move exotic materials and food supplies among growing populations Religious cult that spread among different groups Hopewell Scioto or Ohio Hopewell centered along Ohio River and tributaries central and southern Ohio northern Kentucky western West Virginia southern Indiana Scioto river valley Columbus to Portsmouth Ohio and tributary Paint Creek centered on Chillicothe S b Ohio Cloto rIver aSIn Ohiomost prominent earthworks and mounds Havana Hopewell in the lower Illinois River Valley Extensions oca variants of Hopewell throughout the Midwest but few earthworks outside of Ohio Squier amp Davis o r 4 M 0 I d 57 ulh nun 0 0 i 1 T tJ I 0 5 C15 39 v 2139 r 00 alnmau o 0 u g o L x I a 00 C H 0 4 0 IOO 00394 V I OIO 0 a ANCIENT wonxs MARIETTA cum 0 7 41339 S39llI39It olll Ir quote I 1 in HA Ifuhn lmwluny 0A4 InnHum p 4 314 4quot Jluzah ln Ohio Hopewell HopewellLower Illinois River valley and throughout Midwest 370 mounds and 49 enclosures in Ross County Ohio alone G aI I39rcmpcalau 5 O c I I I I I 0 I I 393 I O I Ol avana quot in 393939it39 39 39 GREAT39AMBJIgCAN BOTTOM Fm my a gap Wm I G e39 quot 39 t39 I 39 I 15 H iml MW quot39 mm r 3939 ICahukna I owp Mound PC I I Crab 39 5 Orchard l I 39l 2quot J I O quotquot P IL ngs quota39 If g J39 x i O I I 9 O f j OTownCrock 359 KMP1 o I e I 3 39 quot I I Milka l I 0 end I 0 Wait 0 r x A g I I 0 quot 39 I l 39 ORock Bagc IL 39 i drill I quot4 quot onquot c OOCMUJgCC J U l Lamar A I I I 39 IPmtcr 0 I 399mg 1 I Obie Hopml 39 quot 39 39 o a a iquot IEmcrakl Mound 39 Labm I Mmppaan ma 3 39lMarbvillc 39 h w W i c C H M Mn 393 mmquot a 0mm Aim 39 39pp m 39 39 s FmAncimt Some major Hopewell sites River drainages Ohio River Great and Little Miami Scioto and Muskingum Rivers Chiicothe concentration around Mound City has ore earthworks per square mile than any other part of the country ihmomll 8 Fori Ancient 2 Sesp 9 Stubbs 3 High Bank 10 Purdo39n 4 Mow vd City 11 Newark 5 Liberty 12 iumer 6 Hop8100 13 Gather and Shade Mounds 7 Fon Hui 14 Manet la Map From Pederson Weinberger 2006 Figure 6 Ohio Hopewell earthworks with nonmound research Pederson Weinberger 2006239 I 393 1 I I x f39 a L we 6 15910 ngm J P H l quot I 39 J 6 39 39 39 i 1 i 39 quot 39 A L 14 J LV39 m V Q 1 5 gt was 39 39439quot g 7 pr llkLPl lNquot i 39 L 1 fquot 1 393 VL L u L39 o T i 7 in quot9 2 l 3 quot39 5 o u yaquot 4 unsacmtn H I Climb I 343qu CUM lut n Figure 1 Spatial distn39bution of eanhworlcs in southern Ohio adapted from Dancey 1996b The location of the Hopewell site circled Junction Groupsaved on the auction block httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvHUhSdZA eGKU Hopewell Culture National Historic Park also known as Mound City Group 39 in Paint Creek Valley Ross County Ohio Park encompasses 5 separate sites Mound City Seip earthworks and Dill mound district and Seip Vound Hopewell Vound Group Hopeton High Banks works Story Vound Seip Earthworks Paint Creek valley Ross county Ohio 17 miles west of Chillicothe Ohio O I 0 Arcn 3 l 8 Q 39 0 sump rimww m 5 c A l l U l 4 I lllllll l Ho Inch Walls originally 50 feet wide at the base and at least 10 feet high 0 Borrow pits beyond one wall Three connected mounds within circle From 120 feet across and 20 feet high to 40 feet across and 6 feet high The oval mound in the center of the complex is one of the largest Hopewell mounds known It is 250 feet long 150 feet wide and 30 feet high Seip mound 1908 excavations by William C Mills Ohio Historical Society w Selp earthworks a The three connected mounds were excavated between 1906 and 1908 The large oval one was investigated between 1925 and 1928 and then was rebuilt to its original dimensions Not quite in right spot but close All four mounds covered burials and charnel houses Most burials were cremations remains were placed in individual tombs on the charnel house floors and covered with low mounds of earth After the charnel houses served their function they were taken apart and more earth was mounded over the tombs and the house floors Archaeologists do not know if all four houses were used at the same time or if they were built one after another http66195173140gallerv2mainphpg2 itemd560 Artifacts from large Seip mound Human head of clay ttpohswebohiohistorvor gohiopixsearchcfmsearchf quotsquatting ieldLCSubiectampsearchtermS owlquot effigy eip20Mound20Ross20C pipe ountv2C200hio Effigy pipe of dog eating a human head From Seip Mound OHIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY Spheresize of a marble of SW3 n Ef gy from black steatite incised with two tortoise shel I sets of concentric circles connecting to a teardrop shape on the sides of each circle is a long triangle Ohio Historical Society A 0957000065 Ohio Historical Hopewell Shamanism httpwwwohiohistorvcentraorgimagephprec3145ampimg1939 httpwwwvoutubecomwatchv8gbm2H6AG60ampfeatureplaver emb edded video of Wray figurine with man morphing into bearshaman from Newark Earthworks Knife Ohio Historical Society Pottery from Seilo CM 39Ohio Historical Society A 0957000161001 E m 0 5 Hopewell vessel with cross OhIO Historical Socnety hatched InCIsed lines body With zigzag linesdentate rocker Incised crosshatched lines and row stamping of triangular puncates crushed rock temper Seip mound pipeVR file httpohswebohiohistorvorgpacessw15in dexshtm The Hopewell Mound group Figure 4 The Hopewell site as mapped by Wanen K Moorehead 1922 showing two village sitesquot Hopewell Mound Group On North Fork of Paint Creek Ross County Ohio One of finest set of Hopewell cultural remains 1891 excavation by Warren Moorhead on the land of Capt Mordecai Hopewell names culture after landowner Surrounded by 6 ft high roughly rectangular earthen enclosure 2800 feet long 1800 feet wideThe Great Enclosure Perfectly square enclosure of 16 acres attached to the eastern wall Within the great enclosure other smaller geometric earthworks and more than 30 mounds of various sizes and shapes Largest is a series of three conjoined mounds lVound 25 Originally 500 feet long 180 feet wide 33 ft high 3 story building 2 city blocks long Hopewell Mound Group Squier and Davis investigated first Warren lVIoorehead collected artifacts for the 1893 World s Columbian Exposition most collection now at Field Museum Shetrone excavated surviving portions of site between 1922 and 1925 artifacts at Ohio Historical Society httppublicationsohiohistorvorgohstemplate cfmactiontocampvol35 Shetrone s report online Hopewell Mound 25 Largest mound built by the Hopewell Within Dshaped enclosure at Hopewell site In 18405 mound was more than 490 feet long 180 feet wide and 29 feet high Initially thought by the archaeologists and geologists to be too large to have been made by humans 1891 Excavated in trenches Left about 13 unexcavated quotboulder mosaics found but couldn t be interpreted and were never fully exposed and no plan drawn Hopewell site Mound 25 Used horsedrawn scrapers for much of mound Scattered burials in fill no good records Descriptions of basket loading Partially hollow pits with domed roofswhere structures had collapsed One horse broke through into a dome and was trapped up to his neck for a while Mosaic of varicolored earths red yellow purplishin shapes Possible no drawings Three burials on raised bench of hard baked clay surrounded by postholes for a small structure Pile of pearl and other beads ball and spoonshaped copper ornaments spoolshaped copper ornaments large copper plates Semicircles of stones Other burials found with a number of elaborate burial goods eg plate XLIX and L and Fig 11Hopewell report including copper headdress and plates Headdress burial in Md 25 Burial 5 11 large platform pipe agate spearhead copper plate on breast and abdomen third under hips These plates quot when lifted were found to have preserved not only cloth and sinews but portions of the muscles of the individual Cut sawed and split bears teeth covered chest and abdomen spoolshaped ornaments and buttons of copper among the ribs Body dressed in cloth garment extending from neck to knees upon which had been sewn several thousand beads of pearl and shell Head dress of wood and copper antlers shaped of wood encased in sheets of copper Hopewell mound 25 cont Another pit had 120 pieces of carved or shaped sheet copper a laid flat with layers of bark in between Also other copper objects shell pearls carved bones effigies Two burials at base of deposit Hopewell site Mound 11 Behind crematory basin is ring of boulders with r to l cremated bones sheet mica obsidian cache figure from Shetrone 19302Fig125 Obsidian cache excavated by Shetrone 1926 quotsingle largest archaeological cache of obsidian ever found in the eastern United States Associated with pearl beads mica copper in grave of cremated individual in what might have been a charnel house floor Weigh 136 kg Burial of quotMaster Artisan Flake blades cores and small tools so an independent activity from the production of all of the 150 obsidian spears elsewhere at the site Hopewell site Mound 2 lhlS photograph shoxvu sonxo of tho thousands of flint dist cxcav the Hopvwc dlt d lrom ll Mound Group in lRLH1892 ologist Warren K N1oorc thoI World39s Colurnbi L 8185 chert disks quotfound piled a halfdozen more or less in each pile or handful and were arranged after the fashion of herringbone masonry Effigy of a hawk claw cut from sheet mica Excavated from Hopewell Mound Group Ross County Ohio ca 19221925 mica from western North Carolina String of 26 flat beads of pearl Obsidian from yellowstone if I 4 7 M I quot4 c v quot OhI Ohio Historical Society Knife River Flint North Dakota Ohio Historical Society Transparent quartz Ohio Historical Society Carved hawk effigy with inset pearl beads for eyes made of pipestone Boatstone Copper Copper bracelet made from rectangular sheet of copper Exterior surface flat interior surface curved Ohio Historical Society Celt and cone WWW I u t x L U 53 39J 1 Ohio Historical Society Ohio Historical Society Hemispherical coneflat on bottom tapered on top made of chlorite Panpipe cover and replica r 9 a i I 39 n 39 r I x V a n 9 WNWH h Q MI 39 n 39 My 39 f t l V n a 39M39 hqm n 39 x O o W 39 39 Ohio Historical Societ39 Discussion Turner mound summary Choose one mound from the Turner site photocopy and prepare a summary Identify the mound where it s located within the site When and how was it was excavated trench pit through the middle what and by who What did they find synthesize the results from the mound number of burials variety of burial positions and contexts represented kinds of burial goods found What interpretations if any were provided for the mound What did you think was most distinctive or significant about this particular mound What else would you like the Turner site report to have induded Mound City 4 miles north of Chillicothe along Scioto River 24 mounds framed by earthen enclosure shaped like a square with rounded corners enclosure is 2050 feet across walls about 3 ft high each covered a charnel house artifacts include copper figures mica points shells pipes mound of pipes excavated by Squier and Davis collection now at British Museum 1mm r u quot No h n o I I 1 l I 3 0 quot quot3 I 4 a Squot c sl qunnl Scaleen x L I 7Id enlhnu quot v 2 am blind Doctor Pb 39 quot f39 t la lmc a yumd K STbcCulnihhnnl 3 a a 2 E Z O c 3 Q IDaIknmg hnxuuc 39 i 4hhuudl quot t dKPQu a u quot o39 No x 39 WM 30303anndcrm nhe Mound City First mapped 1840s WW1 army base Camp Sherman constructed on site destroying much of it After war base razed excavations in 192022 and mound reconstruction William Mills and Henry Shetrone 1963 into 19705 Ohio Historical Society and Northwestern archaeologist James Brown further workclarifying locations of mounds earthworks borrow pits getting radiocarbon datessuggest Mound City one of the earliest major centers most recent work modifies some of the earlier reconstructions 1923 mound city group declared national monument Mica Grave Mound excavated in 1921 Wooden building with a shallow clay basin almost 6 feet square and lined with sheets of mica Inside were the cremated remains of at least four individuals as well as obsidian tools raven and toad effigy pipes and a copper headpiece of human shape Nearby were elk and bear teeth large obsidian points a cache of 5000 shell beads and two copper headdresses one with antlers the other possibly representing a bear Newark earthworks Licking River drainage east central Ohio tributary or lVIuskingum river 225 mounds 36 earthworks in Licking County Adena and Hopewell Newark at the geographic center of this cluster Eagle mound Excavation photosvarious Hopewell sites v 0 My 1 v p Han y llhs O l r v 1 1 a I o Jquot O O Ouhquot Tremper Mound Great Depository for cremations I m 7 3 ln Ermt lhpncimry fur 11w 39rmnutml Howl From the Field Museum in Chicago Hopewell scuttle at mau39rml frum wired many rare acrm I unh Ame 11001110 mun gn ricm Imported s Hwy included at dhldn Ulwdmn md grmh39 he lwlh from lhv I39m l imlntmm 0 uppm md winI tram around Ldkl hupcriur L J Hu lwnmnh 1mm tlw Appalnrhian I IIY39HI m in xml lurk luvlh mm the quotl 39 HH hhh 39 I an m1 hum maltrink 11 vquot zuplv l 4 Anna and mshu39amr pends Wm Wm H 11 1 IV in lehll nl39d ceremonial win mamburied in mounds din rich ng copper ast plates called people hold high d green with age salts pr survml gemnants of fabric wrapped around thgm when they were burial Squot suggesting those tatus Most have tu mu 39m 3311 incredibly copper Marine shellslightning whelk Fossil sharks teeth May have been obtained from fossil beds in the Carolinas where other raw materials derived breastplates Detail of copper platefabric remnants quotquotquot 39 t u q I I Wquot llrquot 1239 v i gave Ear spools Pristine wearing these in your ears Both Hopewell men and women wore ear spools a type of pierced earring To insert them people cut slits in their ear lobes Found in astonishing numbers at the Hopewell site archaeologists believe ear spools were more than fashion and perhaps 39 Cl t part of symbolic rituals Some have a quotquarteredquot design which may represent east west north and souththe principal directions Tremper Mound Cache of effigy and platform pipesincluding the following 45 31 55 L a 72425 59 Pipe in the 11111510 u 1 51121111 1i11g T111110 gnaw a 3 x 121 I wt Vlral 52wa an 1 x r Imael A 2 xn y j 1 JVU I1 x J P n o m 1 7 n y Small part of biface cache m E 3 n 4 O n 1 S Bifaces from quartz crystals from Arkansas Ozarks Hopewell Blades True Hopewell blades made of Flint Ridge flint Distinctive cores and shapes I if quotI quot 7 ll r l V 39l i l 39 139 if if 1 r w e l H l 5 n I I 39 l 3 Iquot It39ll Kitx x 5 quotx lloucwsll mix i win fmv These objects illuslralv llu39 range ul ways in u hirh lln llopuwvll dcpiclcd pcuplc 39l39lw mrwd ligurinus show human lurcsll1ur nleucla such us llu tm39w md thumb arc mnru Ilwalmcl and show only parts ul llw bud 2 57 I 39we 4 l I Illnlltv 7 rxlm39 H I burrIla um m vi 1 b i 193359 inlrlcatc designsh I meanings wmxxmn m l lulu ax vll AH mppvr llluub Huh m llu I39lunl Inwm llUlII39 ul a39mrl lk lm m llllmtlln numlmlx H llH ll 539Ill lnl Inlmmnhx rm Il l t r mlw llnn lm x l lun39l lullllh lum hm n lln 4 HM l m an lml lh lll lll quothum llul mall l llll Ill pm mpg lmg39 llLIl llwv quotMy lm lnr 139 ml I l39ml nlunnm nlw Copper cutout of bird with pearl eyes quot391 WIN 39 39 39nt varu Hurv lvmis Hf dun n I m 39 n cd wa tc d raptors such as quotH quot quot I u I r birCIs Immms nmmunh UM I39HWH spUUl lbll an m 71mzLmmd I quot mi lmu ks nu lu39ir HubDds H H mm lIIL hmds 39r 13 Col Par I Unv vvu Alf hm 5 2quot quotF ft quotHIuh 14 4quot or 0 bo H llquot quot9 b39l v v mil1 Wigwam It a 4 d mvmu eN M V Ar Copper bear claws remember the Adena stylize images ttouts suc 1 35 cutting these r raw art copper CL m k Before ad to hamme 0w how they But many ve been HUPL WCH 2 1 1 1L 39 hours of W y 2 1 l H13 the 1 topeweH h ts We don t kn designs mean at they may ha used thin bhk k hat the ly39Kiri K MW UCLg 1 turtle 1H PJH F UgE CSUng H E wlu DLI Hlx L N39L 0 omments MI I t up gleumellic dv I I t u v l I i I MU I W uI H u r H r t l vUIh uix dew tu3939gtm1 Drilled bear canines H 7 nki l dt xp II a 39 mm Copper bear claw IWE AD 100400 llnpcwull IM M 5w H Ohio UNquot 315 Copper headdressdeer i mull lmm longlasting mate axil fools shell beads rials including and bear teeth provide ll clothed themselves lm depicliom illustr l v l v lil ml H limw llle l lopewu 391 uwl n1 ale how people fragments from allowing archaeologists lemnrkablv some lll3939l ml quot Ul k ll doll Panpipe cover and replica pipes Alter figurine Excavated from Alter 1 Turner Mound oewell trade networksources III HCh INN lHI HHI39INII Uhquot l L H39 quotI Il H I JIHFE Ewen 1 HHHPE EDIHIE u EQULHEEHEE mt k e H DFPAH39HFEE it B IWHJIHH SHEEP K x J a titanium mm a E T J if J39 Figure 1 A Seemceu e perspective on the Hopewelll emmema Panpipe detrihu ltin l upon Grimm etal 19THf9 31 1511 quotmung if il MEL Remitquot i1 9 Markman II 1 QSEL Ever 199 and Seem ii T r i 1995 Deboer 2004 different distribution of goods from closein panpipe zone vs wider zonewith obsidian etc Distribution of exotic materials in Hopewelltwo different distributions comparing downtheIine vs amassing exotics PMNFEI DIESIDANI IKNI39FE HWEH FLENIT Figure 3 ceurrenee of panpigaeai batman and Knife River Flint within the Setuto Heartlatt inner iEiI39EESL the Fanpipe mugsme middle timers and the ErrHE of Travels l2i1iltEil39 cir esii Initiate1 I39lll ilh l a indicate timer SIiI l l number5 mcurrence by quadrant5 centered upon the SitPinto di lll and nite River Fiat based on mums given in Fig urea l and 1 ailinde m Eima 39mimnca r 1 a 1 1 m n r i a 113 am 4m 5 i I 5 15 15 A 25 E quot Hopewell i E L u 5F F E er 3quot i 3 335 ii Md 11 l i i obsidian Ennemmnt w a Erinan l r depOSIt n a ee an u takes most i EleirinHarnass obsidian out i of circulation after that murmur the blfaces mamm are much smaller H mrl Hum earlier M r hoarding 1H L and minimal 3 lid25 NW1 redistributio Vi IlliIisiaumd t E n Ealip HIM i Tra iipam ehaidim ailment DEEum m L iw g mmn m rm h Mime iriirl Hindi im liana Him Emu Greh milii Huh ilil llill Kramer 1951 Milill ll39 923 Sheilmm and Greemm lil I 931311 Tun13k 199411 and willllmlgghhy W921 Eat llmarlxm when rm gure lili nigh ear I dama tf39ilr MIME i mull M u l W39smm l a Use of nonmound space at Hopewell earthworks A test case Dissertation by Jennifer Pederson Weinberger looked at the Hopewell site 200 BCAD 400 Seven possible uses of the nonmound space considered ceremonial centers burial sites communal meeting places trading centers for defense settlement Horticulture Two general hypotheses Ceremonial Center hypothesis limits earthwork use to ritual and mortuary activity thus nonmound space is similarly restricted in terms of its archaeological record Corporate Center hypothesis posits a variety of political economic ceremonial and social activities varying in terms of nature sacred vs secular and extent shortterm vs longterm and smallscale vs largescale Figure 3 Proposed plan View of the Big House of Mound 25 at the Hopewell sine Grebe and Rnhl 2000 Pederson Weinberger 20062241 The Hopewell site Mus I aquot g quot5 v u 393 K 4 n Q quot quot 3975 new 539 2 quot139lt ih 339quot quot a 5 39l l quot 39Iu 39 WII A Figure 4 The Hopewell site as mapped by Wanen K Moorehead 1922 showing two quotvillage sitesquot Pederson Weinberger 20062242 I u I N v r a a l I n 39 a r 1 J h l a a 0 2 5 J 2 b 39 7M 5 I Iv i jf 39 N Figure ILAuialphotographofthe Hopewell site om 1976 Anowspointtovisible anhankmentwalls Pederson Weinberger 20062249 Results of investigation of nonmound activities at Hopewell site A random sample of nonmound space at the Hopewell site studied using geophysical and traditional archaeological techniques that identified several activity areas Evidence supports use for ceremonies communal meetings and possibly settlement but these activities were limited in nature and extent There is no evidence to suggest longterm or largescale settlement Thus the Ceremonial Center hypothesis is rejected Corporate Center hypothesis is not rejected quotFurthermore the finding that nonmound space at the Hopewell site was used only for limited activities associated with earthwork construction maintenance and use supports the Vacant Ceremonial Center and Dispersed Sedentary Community models Hopewell villages Small villages or hamlets Very few known Scattered along river valleys Fertile soil for native cropssunflower squash goosefoot maygrass other starchy seeds Also abundant wild resourcesfish deer wild plants Also logistical sites for specialized activitieseg quarry sites and workshops Sites have redundant artifact distributionssuggesting each represented a separate family No mortuary camps near earthworks Hopewell house 0 39 usquot O C C q F21 0 no 5 0 O t 39 39 I 39 y 539 r 393 n 7quot 3945 39 9 1quot x F54 F57 F40 IVIcGraw Village Olaf Prufer 1963 Singlecomponent midden on a low rise in bottomlands of Scioto River Site 140 x 95 feet lVIidden up to 7 inches in thickness that s a lot Prufer suggested small farmstead with 3545 people occupied for multiple years Semipermanent shifting agricultural farmsteads Interpretations vary todaymay not have been permanent but seasonal mobile population Other villages Patton site Hocking valley 3 consecutive episodes each span 23 years on average Wattle and daub house interpreted as relatively sedentary population Brown s Bottom 1 Scioto valley floodplain Postmold houses with rockfilled postmolds 137 m x 137 m structure All villages small variable type of structure Earth ovens hearths may or may not have been reoccupied Vacant Ceremonial Centers Earthworks and mound sites for periodic gatherings and rituals Rituals reflect exchange and display among competing lineages Probably don t reflect strong social stratification lVIust live near earthworks when constructing but otherwise no resident population there Exotic artifacts and artwork Beautiful work but not uniformly distributed across sites Clusters of many objects at single or only a few sites Eg clusters of several hundred effigy pipes in only a few mounds Almost all obsidian in one mass Huge collections of worked mica copper etc Do the exotic materials represent special expeditions by different men in display competitions lVIale initiation rites Burial in the mound removes the objects from circulationkeeps the value up So what is Hopewell Ritual and burial and ceremonial activities Integrating many local populations of otherwise dispersed houses and hamlets Local lineages probably responsible for maintaining and organizing feastsrituals Task leaders many mortuary rites Tribal level of organization for Ohio Hopewell unlike the chiefdom we ll see with Cahokia But more complex than the Archaic bands Other Middle Woodland populations in Midwest share only a part of the whole packagemay still be band or simple tribes La Crosse area Oneota EmergentOneota Jim AD11501250 39 Red Vlfmg 5 D I l Minnesota 39 39 Iowa 39 39 quotJ 0 4 39 w x O 4 N of uH R A d L he I L quotl Wisconsin I lllinols N N 1 Diamond Bluff 2 Trempealeau m 39 3 Hartley Fort 4 Fred Edwm ds 39 p Ie Silvemale Oneota B Apple River Rlver 0 30 miles Bennett Phase Oneota O 30 miles S I Late Woodland Lewis Phase 5 Late Woodland Eastman Phase Extensrve agncultural Villages Figure i010 Transitional settlement shift from numerous interior Late Woodland sites throughout the Drifttess Area to nucleated Oneota complexes at Red Wing and Apple River on either end of the Drittless Area Mississippian In the central US centered on the site of Cahokia in East St Louis Large urban area at Cahokia 10501200 AD IVIany subsidiary communities Evidence of extensive farming Widespread trade including into the Upper Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes Major change in settlement systems pottery lifestyle Red Wing Minnesotaintegration of Mississippian and local Woodland populations Red Wing Oneota develops post lVIississippianAD 12001300 Around 1300 AD people may have moved from Red Wing to La Crosse La Crosse Oneota starts about then 5 39 7 9 T 7 f 5 I A i 39 g Ix 39 a 1 l y l x 39k LEON 3 39 r x Q 1 M I v SWAN 39 uo moumh I WMWY 39 muuoas n musicians 39 J haulsmoth I lOVIINONMDwOOD 5 WWW 1 La Crosse Wisconsin EARLY VEGEIAIION OF WISCONSIN Vitamin ded omd Himw v fs 1 itquot 39 1quot 01 quot j 39 39 39 1 v on 5 8 x 4 1 l VA m i mi39w h i In 392 Y J I ii a z I 7 139quot z I 39 VV Is quotquot11 3 r JI39 guhv LLI AI CCV Humanquot QVKW mm 7mm m HMS coma 39 39 mt I awn quot quot quot 39 mm Inquot any out I noun snout I am no Lu tmv emu manna III m nanu cam I onuqu nun can can u Ilium 13mm 1450Aometewereon ost9 accountants LOCtosse aeo Inducing trims Maespteodanocrossthe Artifacts w r i 4 i i 1 MlSSlSSleDIAN 39 POTTERY J x f SON SHOULDER BLADE SCAPULA MADE INTO A HOE GRINDlNG CORN u l M9 anaDanlg E Oneota phases See article on Oneota group continuity in La Crosseon DZL Brice Prairie AD 13001400 Occupations closer to Mississippi River Pammel Creek AD 14001500 Occupations near river and moving further away on terraces Valley View AD 15001625 Occupations closer to bluff base and near bluffbase depressions defensive areas Use of resources from prairie edgeeg lithics After 1625population moves to Minnesota and Iowa Root River sites Bri ce Prairi e phase Pammel Creek phase 5 anmel Creek Phase AD 1400 1500 Allamakee Trailed v Bold Parnmcl Creek sun 17LCGI Ln Cram Wisconsin Hunmnzee mmcc n V Row K p mmEL cam q39ncm gq 37 I 1 4 QODJb anmol Creek Phnw ILD 1 400 1 500 Perrot Punctale v BoId Sand Lake Complnx 47LCM La Crosse Jisconnln Valley View phase v ir 393 l y m 39 o QC 50 I 310 39 39 i 39 Intensive agriculture Ridged field systems extend over hundreds of acres Ri ged fields Served for Drainage Frost control Required extensive labor Corn planted in hills on top of the rows Beans grew up the corn plants Squash plants covered the exposed ground to prevent water loss from evaporation Ridged fields repeatedly rebuilt after erosion buried fields Up to 10 episodes of erosion and rebuilding at the Sand Lake Site a 1 Experimental Bone and shell tools n39ag mm 2 whit quot v n H 39u f i uhh vbw L 39eMJ39 N hr 9 Left these First Larger villages burials In one place found TylelrS l l39ea l V x x x K K Emgh mg x x x xx x x xx KG 3 g R X x xxx v we 7 y H xxxxxx xx a aw x x x I lESaIUnalaal A eaa H V I A l I L Fr 39 n 2 a If 3 Key n Paslmalas 0 Fea lal39es a Burials HlSl Ol lCQll Dlsrl albed Ol l39lsla l Excagal aa Burials La f l la Place D Deslgnalea Repal llallaa Area Plajleelea Paslmala Laeallal ls lagl lg lllua g g 1 9 up 4 3 1 gt 39 quot39Lr v Q i 39 r v 39y39vrquot a y 0 J P39 39I 7 a39 39 p t J 399quot zr t v 52W 3 4 K 43 u uns 4 1 HpVM if v3 rulu 39 39 quot V413 quotWKquot H v i q I 39539 v j39 43 A 39 39 39 1quot 4 39 quot439 quotV I f g 5 O 4 quot u h 390 p v I o L I l 39 f fl rd 39 95quotJie39 Nt o yquot 39 r 4 up my q j n4 4 3 T 4ul39i 1q39zg a V3 39 34 5 k gt 3 39 39 393 10 r 39 3 1 V F l w 1 A 3quot h quot a buds Jquot 21 quot39I w w wax5 39 r quot I l39 L r I HQ 1 I 39V s Y39Y fh a do 39 19 r q pa tquot fvfx lt m mu My j 39439 y I V piyr nlo 39 525 2quotquot G u quotj ww t 9 1 I39m 0 l O 39 39 39 t r quotP a Many storage refuse its 7 I M n W v 1 A k 39 39 J quot s Model of storage pit From quotBuffalo Bird Woman s Garden Some archaeological evidence of large bundles of grasses and bark lining pits Experimental studies demonstrate that this model works in Wisconsin 1 I dl ll hill l ll oo 5 l i mMmBBmQOD Om BE mc mm 39 3 m 89 my Feature 190 Pammel Creek Site PAMMEL CREEK SITE FEATURE 190 CORN BEANS NUTSHELL AND WILD RICE DENSITY av FEATURE ZONE 39 CORN KERNELB omLI CORN OUPULEB amI I quot39 NUTsHELL oml WILD mosmmmL I 39 7 A f a B E I c l o I E 9 a i ECWITH POT l n39 F V I a I 393 i L I I i I I o 015 01 005 o o 10 15 co u so can VoIm 41 um 009quot amp NUTSHElI WILD RICE wn anggg Efa 245K W5 139 quot FEBBEE inches Agricultural tools Hoes from bison scapulae deer jaws sickles or hide scrapers Diversified economy Even with corn and bean agriculture still consuming many wild plants Wild rice Fruits and berries 27 1 3 0 I k I Diversity of plant resources UBIQUITY SELECTED PLANT FOODS OOHquot KERNELO m NIGHTOHADE CHERRYPLUM h sauna 0 20 40 00 80 PERCENT OF PROVENIENGEB PRESSquot 47Lc61diversity of wild and cultivated species Extensive use of faunal resources from the Mississippi Crawfish Mussels Many species of fish Missing resources Only a few La Crosse Oneota sites and features have extensive evidence of deer exploitation and bone grease manufacture Were the people still in La Crosse 6 J 9 57 k C 3333 ii VJ 1st59 3 3973 Amway 39 f quotu LOHECQU39EE I A w I l Swennes site J Nb 52 Iquot 15 If39arw Iunzd cam 1 Swennes site excavations 2m 4 39 9 quot K anT V 1131 t v 0 quott0 I d l v t 39 I u l 39 I a T 37 r 39 1 i a I V39 1 A h 39 My 1 11 3 I quot 445L444 V 44 4 h 36895 435 355 M a 529 N 838 r vzyvry Iquot Altl quotr 39 rt 2 3 w Se I 2 5 4quot 139 W p mi 3 quot Z elu 4 4 A 4 LA r 1quot 77 39 mmmso LEE Winter hunts into the Plains Current Research Pits and food storage Food for winter What is really needed for a food storage pit How well do they work What do we find in the archaeological record Lines of Evidence Ethnographic Experimental Archaeological Evidence IC Ethnograph lnrskha cover punchcons 1 cktu y g 152 ni 39 K 3 5 InHEPC unudarsk cover Buffalo Bird Storage pits Woman Experimental Dain lVIartinek1998 student with Archaeological Studies Program at University of WisconsinLa Crosse Constructed and documented four experimental storage pits l3 E GAGE mam 39h39I h39h39 39 u39IM h quota quota quot1 quota IJ r 11 1 A a Equot 9 539 39I 1 La 1 39h E J u a a 35 aquot r 399 9 rI I quotL 39I 39R 39I h 39I JJFJHE39J ELF IEquot u39kr a 3994quot quotu 939 PI ni39 El El 39 a IEIHTJ Ll lmj EmuJUL E H Em TUEIVE IIEGIFI39LHM 1 IEEPEHIMEHTJELIL ETDFIEEIE PIT Temperature mmmromo Uquot o mu 4 TEHPERAIURCS 2 3 g 1 a i fg 39 3 i J i l L R I i r a I 4 1 i 3 2 i i 1 i 5 x I I I 012 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314151617 macs dt tom Ind tome Humidity PIT 4 HUMIDITY 98w 96 v 39 1944 l 92 39 gt quot 90 g 1 L H g i 86 r 0 i I 395 humoduyJ quotM 82 4 L 80 t y 76 74 2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0111213t4 539617 m Gasses 1 i P1 homoroe mm mumvvvvo V 1 v Q m vv n mmmma A v39v39 A Vvvv v VVVV v39v PIT 4 GASSES 39 390 quot0quotva quot j CARBON DIOXIDE oxveen 234567 I I I I a 9 1011121314151617 WEEKS Other results Germination tests 7794 Insectsno infestation after one season Molds In unlined pit Fusarium species present may be toxic All pits Pennicilium species mostly nontoxic Archaeological evidence Bundles of grasses lining pit bottoms 4 Archaeological evidence Bark possible pit lining mmm c m 35832 racism 3 1mm mo Molds and Toxins Experimental evidence of two molds Fusarium Pennicilium species Processing with lye or lime reduces or eliminates many mycotoxins including the Fusarium species found in experimental pits Extensive documented ethnographic use of lye or wood ashes for making hominytype corn products Future research What other sources of lye or lime might also eliminate mycotoxins Are mycotoxins affected by the leaching out of shell from shelltempered pots Were people aware of any of this


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