Cultural Construction of Gender & Sexuality: Homosexuality
Cultural Construction of Gender & Sexuality: Homosexuality
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M 134 Notes 42914 713 PM What is sexuality Is a modern invention before this idea of modern sexuality we have discreet terms and ideas Implies that there39s a specific sexual dimension to the human personality Constitutive part of the self place where all acts desire pleasures come from Sexuality serves to conceptualize interpret and organize human expe ence Sexuality encompasses at least some of these terms Carnaity sexual appetite Venery the drive to have sex Libertinism pleasure seeking Sexual identity Gay lesbian bisexual queer polyandrous asexual etc Very distinct from gender identity exists independently from degrees of masculinity or femininity Sex principles of femaleness and maleness To reproduce you need a principle of male and female this refers to sex Gender refers to aspects of masculinity and femininity Sexuality is NOT a human universal Anatomical sex may be a natural fact sexuality is a cultural production The Greek concept of sexuality In ancient Greece sex was seen as an action performed by one person upon another person Sex was a very deliberate act not something that was mutual Not something has with someone Deeply polarizing experience active and passive partners asymmetrical gesture phallic penetration by one partner only Domination and submission sexual superiority and control and in Greek culture is also social superiority and control Active partner benefits and passive partners yields to this pleasure Proper sexual targets were women slaves boys foreigners Sex between members of similar status were inconceivable Polarizing sex roles reaffirmed and maintained social distances Culture shapes sexuality The Greek people39s desires and practices were shaped by numerous dominations They are all complementary but what is missing Male and female Our concepts of homosexuality and heterosexuality don39t play into the Greek concept of sexuality How should we think about Sexuality Sexuality is about the social articulation of desire Halperin it is not You can see how contingents are shaping how we interact with sexuality What is Homosexuality Homosexual behavior is distinct from homosexual identity Homosexuaities in the Plural Aqe reatedpeer reated homosexuality people of the same group Transqenerational homosexuality meaning one partner is older than the other Situationalcontextual occurs in prisons or anywhere where you find one gender concentrated Rituaisticinitiation based refers to rights of passage initiation to manhood Transqendercross qender where one partner presents as the opposite genden Naturally these categories can overlap Homosexuality in History Where did it come from Historical evidence in artifacts or graphic art same sex sexuality in Middle East and Europe 10000 bc Roman empire was imitating the Greeks They tolerated mae mae relationships 1970 1 Gay Pride Parade in LA 1973 American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from the DSM they proved they were not suffering from mental disorder Throughout the 70 s increasing equal rights or legal protection for LBBTs Today Male homosexuality still illegal and punishable in a few AfricanMiddle Eastern countries Homosexuality in Antiquity The Greeks Paederasty the sexual and mentoring relationship between an adult male and an adolescent boy between 11 and 17 Youth is no longer considered a youth when he has facial hair Paedophilia differentiated from paederasty by age of the youth being pre pubescent This is a big difference These two are different 600 bc pederasty legitimized to educate boys and curb population growth The Greeks the idealized sexual act between adult male and boy intercrura or interfemora intercourse When Greek men go to battle as long as the context was observed this seemed to not be a problem to have relationships with same sex cyclic nature of sexuality The Greeks in the images you see the older man is marked by the beard is bigger and he is the one doing it There is an agency given to the older partner The active one the penetrator To do something to the younger smaller ones Showing that people of lower status have less things Greek men have to follow proper phallocentric protocols Halperin 23 It was considered feminine behavior the problem with this aspect was more about gender deviance and not same sex desire in it of itself The Greeks didn39t recognize individuals who only practiced or desired same sex relationships or encounters Where does Paederasty come from Some people say not enough women but rather the sexual ethos of phallic penetration and domination determines gendering of sexual partners who could be penetratedcould penetrate Women sexuality more of a somatic need reproduction not pleasure and that it was a reactive nature pleasure felt when pleasure given by male stimuus no specific desiredrive on their own We can presume the sexual encounter may be highly pleasurable to young males and not just adult males Also possible that Paederastic relationship endured beyond adolescence of the boy Sexuality is very difficult to study What have the Greeks and Subsequent civilizations taught us about sexuality Only in the middle ages did certain sexual acts start to get identified with certain sexual types of persons The Lesson for Anthropology The common consensus amongst historians is that sexuality homosexuality and heterosexuality are recent and highly culture specific forms of erotic life Culturally shaped and conditioned ways of experiencing sexual desire 4814 Why do we define homosexuality as referring to same sex andor same gender attraction Why is referring to it as same gender important Lesbian can be a biological female attracted to another biological female Transgender woman attracted to another transgender woman is also a lesbian Transman that attracted to a biological man is just as gay as a biological man attracted to a biological man The Original Meaning of Heterosexuality Heterosexuals experienced mae erotic attraction to females and female erotic attraction to males desiring of TWO sexes This refers to gender deviance and not so much to sexual deviance Richard von Krafft Ebing s Psychopathia Sexuais We see a differentiation of sexual lustpleasure from conscious desire to procreate His type of heterosexual desire is only of the opposite sex The Greeks thought that only adult males had a distinct sexual feeling They did NOT differentiate between sexual partners based on anatomical features They didn39t worry so much about procreation since they didn39t worry about people only being attracted to one sex Evolving Views on Sexuality in the 20 century Freud argues that erotic instinct is not about reproduction or intercourse is only about fulfillment pleasure Society shapes this sexual drive and desire throughout the person39s life Havelock Ellis sexuality is inborn fixed Foucault he is the fountain of constructionism Kinsey proposes sexuality lies on a scale from 06 One side of scale 100 heterosexuality and the other side 100 o homosexuality Everybody more or less clusters somewhere in the middle Things can change over time you could have a realization of something that attracts you of same sex or heterosex He concluded that homo and heterosexuality are no more referring to 2 distinct populations Before slavery there was no concept of race there was a purpose for the construction of race This distinction between black and white was a white persons intention to distinguish themselves 0 Deeply trapped within language and evolving in cultural change The Increasing Focus on Sexual Pleasure 20 century hetero and homosexuality are equally pleasure producinq There still seems to be a question of what distinguishes heterosexual or homosexual acts of pleasure If a lesbian fists a gay man is that gay sex or straight sex and why Fisting is considered an act of domination A fist is gender neutral It is a very queer endeavor If a woman penetrates a man with a strap on is that gay sex Can a woman get a blowjob It39s the way that we describe how she would conceptualize getting a blowjob Weston LesbianGay Studies in the House of Anthropology Ethnocartography looking for gayslesbians cross culturally Like a mapping of the gay world In the 6039s you see studies on homosexuality In the 7039s you see Feminist Anthropology emerging Including women more in anthropological analysis In the 8039s homosexuality not universal A lot of studies were trying to salvage anthropology Transgenderal forms of sexuality still appear in high numbers Who counts as Gay Making gay people visible they already exist and just have to be discovered There were scientific terms that shape anthropological discourse at the time Terminology can obscure more than illuminate Weston 347 How to solve this problem We solve it by moving from these sexological terms to emic terms emic terms not imposing your own understanding of sexuality onto other cultures You will have to use emic terms to why some cultures don39t think of certain acts as acts of sex Institutionalized Homosexuality Anthropological concentration Melanesia and Native America Can be accommodated socially This means that homosexuality is regulated and understood to have a specific meaning of purpose process by which young males do or do not grow up to be men Weston In Melanesia they rely on semen as a substance of healing and strengthening Anthropologists have always struggled in researching sexuality in other cultures Sometimes they will not share information Blackwood Male and Female Homosexuality Differentiated Women39s role structured differently than men39s roles Women39s cultural and social kinship economic roles are structured differently from men39s Different ideas about physical anatomy submission yielding and more shape expression Female homosexual roles and expressions are less insitionalized seen as less important to study and are much less visible or scrutinized John D Emiio Capitalism and Gay Identity Identities are historical products not fixed essences While homosexual behavior has always existed gay and lesbian identities have emerged from a particular socio economic context D Emiio is NOT saying that capitalism caused sexuality only that it enabled the social conditions for people to express homosexuality as an identity 1 Effects of the wage labor system 17 century America househod economic unit of independence 41014 Harlem Renaissance massive migration into urban centers by blacksformer slaves Dialectal nature ended up enforcing people39s ideas about themselves Intersections of Sexuality Ethnicity and Class More males are drawn into the workforce gay men were more visible Lesbians of color were more dependent on family support More difficult for immigrants to come out D Emiio is not arguing capitalism rather the social conditions within capitalism that fuels issue 4 factors that substantiate social conditions which is what D Emiio emphasizes urbanization migration to major cities enables sexual subiectivity orqanization community organization around a shared sexual identity Tied to other social movements women39s rights human rights AIDS etc wage abor tipping point where this transition from family dependence to economic sovereignty You are selling your labor therefore have legal structure Presumably most of the people featured in the film worked for wages in the industrialized world modernization this is going to make a point because when we think about modernization we think about the internet Especially globally The internet as a crucial tool of global community building Film Dangerous Living Coming out in the developing world Try to look for examples that emphasis D Emiio s four key points Cairo used to be an open minded city the gay scene was very obvious Thursday night was known as gay night went out on the Nile Their daily lives are probably filled with secrecy In Egypt sex is a taboo Coming out of the closet has always been hazardous Coming out and getting caught would have major repercussions Documentary about the issues experienced by gay lesbian and transgender people in developing countries Was the first documentary film to explore these issues in nonWestern countries Readings for Week 2 Weston Reading LesbianGay Studies in the House of Anthropology Anthropological texts in lesbiangay studies were published during late 1960s Ethnocartography looking for evidence of same sex sexuality and gendered ambiguity in other societies Researchers used the Human Relations Area Files HRAF to portray societies as coherent monoliths that do or do not tolerate homosexual behavior Greenberg s sorting of homosexualities Transgenerational transgenderal and egalitarian Bolton39s discussions of AIDS research in anthropology preventing transmission of HIV Lesbiangay studies in Anthro is currently going through transition reminiscent of the shift from Anthro of women 9 Anthro of gender This broadened the enterprise Umbrella terms such as homosexuality heterosexuality or cross dressing can obscure more than it illuminates Queer defines itself by its difference from hegemonia ideologies of gender and sexuality Anthropologists focused on the process by which young males do or do not grow up to become men Some Melanesian groups have considered semen practices an essential step toward manhood Berdache another term that ethnographers used to describe males who take on at least some of the garments occupations and or sexual partners for what Ango Europeans might call the opposite sex cross genders move from one to the other of 2 fixed positions to engage in transgendering opens up as many possibilities as there are gender categories sexual activity provides one means of transmission of HIV quarter century after the Stonewall Rebeion beginning or the gay movement lesbians and gay men continue to wrestle with the limitations of a political strategy coming out that takes sexualized categories of personhood lesbian gay bisexual D39Emiio Reading Capitalism and Gay Identity 1970 s years or significant achievement Hundreds of thousands of gay women and men came out and affirmed same sex eroticism Under capitalism we have the freedom to look for a job Expansion of capital has a transformation in the structure of the nuclear family and meaning of heterosexual relations These changes in family most directly linked to appearance of a collective gay life Homosexual behavior is different from homosexual identity In early 20 century large cities contained male homosexual bars Doctors developed theories about homosexuality describing it as a condition something inherent in a person a part of his or her nature The war freed millions of men and women from the settings where heterosexuality was normally imposed The war years were critical in the formation of a gay male community in the city Gay life in 1950s and 1960s become a nationwide phenomenon Stonewall riots in NYC 1969 ignited gay liberation movement Capitalism has created the material conditions for homosexual desire to express itself as a central component of some individua s lives Blackwood Reading Feminist and Gay Rights movements of the 1970s In the essay the terms homosexuality and lesbianism refer to sexual behavior between individuals of the same sex Essentiaism the argument for a common transhistorical substrate of behavior or desire in all cultures Cultural factors shaped the homosexual response Historica cutura construction of sexuality cultural factors that shape sexual behavior Construction of homosexual behavior ideology regarding male and female roles kinship and marriage regulations and sexual division of labor Anthropological data contain little or no data on women and lesbianism In some non cass societies lesbian relations occurred in sex segregated childhood and adolescent groups Dahomeyan women forced to conceal their lesbian activities Australian women acknowledged part of their sexual behavior and were included in ritual activities In class societies women were confined to heterosexual marriage and their sexual activities restricted by law or custom to their marital partner If lesbian behavior did occur it was informal and private Barriers to female power and sexuality in modern society reside in the mae dominant ideologies of gender and sexuality 41514 The Conflation of Gender and Sexual Deviance Most cultures evince instances of both gender and sexual variance Gender deviance and sexual deviance somehow go together gay as white cultural phenomenon identify as white culture for reasons that we have already discussed When people ask do you have gays and lesbian in your culture people will often make references to the more culturally specific people Most people Now we have generally separated gender and sexual deviance into two distinct categories masculine identified people male sexual orientation toward women feminine identified peope female sexual orientation toward men there is a kind of personhood or subjectivity that you find in many cultures that embodies the conflation of gender and sexual deviance The Native American Berdache Berdache general term to describe Native American gender transgression The word is French but it comes from Arabic and it can mean slave or sexual slave 1990s replaced with twospirits Ojibwa in origin Possible that early explorers that had contact with Native Americans had projected their own ideas onto the situation Every Native American that had Berdache own terminology for male and female Sometimes they are called man women any combination that emphasizes this doubleness Berdache phenomenon thought of as Socially approved niche in which to practice homosexuality before anthropologists took a closer look Were Berdaches socially accepted This is a complicated question The social construction of acceptance is important to look at there is some kind of manipulation of this person in this society and there are guidelines How did they move from supposed slavery Some people reported having a really high status and some reported the opposite Do Berdaches still exist Yes but you have to see the evolution of what gay men look like today to answer this question Are these the same gay men or are they completely different Some Native American gays and lesbians see themselves in the tradition of the Berdache but others do not They are often conceptualized as both man woman neither or a third gender Devereux Institutionaized Homosexuality Mohave little or no ob39ection to homosexualit but no avowed J homosexuals living on the reservation This is interesting because it gives you a great example of Ethnocartography He went to live with the Mohave and went looking for homosexuals He knew what they looked like in his culture so went to see if he could find some in their culture Homosexual couping one partner resembling the role of the woman He uses term transvestite but it probably not the right term to use Homosexuality displayed in children among boarding schools but no one takes adolescence sexuality as seriously Transgenderal homosexuality He describes Alyha and hwamyes as 2 different types Homosexuality as inborn expressed pre puberty by an explicit rejection of gender roles and occupations of the same sex How does one become an Alyha They claimed that they had dreams or visions of becoming one Listening to Alyha songs also helped kids to become a Berdache Once parentsrelatives become fully supportive of what they are then they have accepted they are becoming a Berdache There used to be a ceremonycelebration but Devereux claims this hasn39t occurred in decades Are they likely to wear the particular clothes the Berdache used to wear Some tribes did and some didn39t In the singing ceremony the boy can either accept it or reject it If he accepts then he39s an initiated homosexual it seals the deal Characteristics of the Alyha Name change but kinship and lineage rules still trump gender Sex lighthearted matter ineage taken very seriously Gifted lucky gamblers healers Marriage special courting practices Ayhas very industrious wives but not stable partnerships Fake menstruation fake pregnancy fake stillbirth Specific to the Mohave even though this was known as performance to the other members of the tribe the Mohave could not tease the Alyha because it39s a person who could get violent and seriously hurt you but they could always tease the partner Husbands of Alyhas had to observe all the taboos when can you touch themwhen can you not touch them However they were not courted like younger women like courting older women Everyone would benefit to have an Alyha in the family because they were very hard working with particular skill but they did not really establish good relationships She didn39t have primary status or responsibility to bear children like a primary wife Alyhas were noted as very loyal Devereux thought since Mohave had a lot of oral sex anyways that the sex of the partner didn39t matter anyways Homosexuals were generally not teased but to call them a homosexual in public unless your joking was quite taboo Benefits of having an Alyha Wife Economic benefits Sexual pleasure Could divorce and marry real woman later Always 2quot or 3rd wife no interference with children Alyhas and Hwame were always considered less than normal spouses The publicity and openness of ones sexual status prevents people from having to be in the closet There was a way in this culture to accommodate it The Female Berdache Male and female Berdache roles not complementary to each other The main common dominator is that they occupy an alternative gender role Native cultures several female identities which transgress heteronormative behavior The female Berdache is a social status involving mix gender economic and social behavior Will occasionally engage in sexual relationships with men although they never marry them Devereux Hwa mes Not all hwame s dress as men and marry women Official ceremonies were necessary to adopt men39s attired Hwame s would claim paternity Predestination dreams or visions of becoming a Berdache They thought it was more difficult for Hwame s to find wives Women who went with Hwame s were sometimes shunned afterwards if they tried to get with other men Male and Female Berdache Compared Wherever there were female Berdaches there were male Berdaches but the other way around A tribe could easily have male Berdaches but no females No female Berdache possibility for women warriors women chiefs manly hearted women They had other powerful positions for women to occupy Hypothesis A the more gender mobility or flexibility the less likely female Berdaches There was no need to become a Berdache could easily move in and out of these roles Hypothesis B the more gender mobility or flexibly the more likely female Berdaches Female Berdaches were less noticed didn39t always wear male garments Becoming a Female Berdache If a family only had girls one girl would be raised as a boy Marriage resistance Insistence on cross dressing in childhood and a preference for boy39s activities Gender equality allows women to have powerful positions Supernatural experience Predestination you have to have a particular type of dream They are important and because people have such a strong investment in predestination Think why do people practice particular ways We are accommodating something that is more beneficial for them to accommodate rather than to not accommodate Dreams are culturally shaped There are only so many things we dream about and are patterned Once they have these dreams then they just come out It was the indicator that you don39t have to explain yourself Transformation ceremony There were other female subjectivities outside of the custom that explain why it wasn39t so distinctly outlines Other Gender transgressive Roles for Native Women The Manly Hearted Woman Only married women only wealthy women were also mostly older women almost always menopausal The Amazon Queen Better known cultural imaginary Powerfully independent and seductive women The Warrior Woman Person characterized by bravery fearlessness and battle The Woman Chief Political organization making tribal decisions menstruation determined who could be seen as a women and who could not This is why older women who were post menopausa were more likely to achieve positions of power Native Women and Sexuality What about a women39s sexual status Women chief39s wives no special lesbian status as long as they had chHdren Motherhood reinforced gender identity not sexual orientation Women chiefs have wives as well and they didn39t occupy specific lesbian status as long as they at some point had children Egalitarian relationships between women identified women not uncommon but private Not man identified women No illegitimate children paternity not important Biological fatherhood is not that important Female homosexuality expressed less formally Although kin relations conditioned who could have sex with whom Sexual object choice was not a defining characteristic choice for female Berdaches If you talk to a particular and you say how many words can you tell to me that describe intercourse There is the jargon that if the richness of the language offsets some kind of political or cultural intentional shielding or representation then it tells you something In native American culture it has these words so we can conclude that these were not something just talked about but practiced Because native American women spend so much time together and away from men they created homosexual environments where same sex sexuality was common There is still a strong connection to spirituality in a women39s sexuality Summary Male gender crossing status was more fully instituted for males than females Women39s excursions into male domains not as culturally organized into a distinct status Partially be explained in hypothesis A and B Males downward mobility more easily achieved than upward mobility Females gender crossing more episodic and sometimes economically necessary or practical Women39s biology anchored them more firmly in gendered status Mainly menstruation Homoerotic expression alone insufficient to assign a Berdache status institutionalizing homosexuality Native Americans are more open to sexual fluidity Individual non conformity determined by supernatural destiny Falls outside of social norms Was somehow tied to socioeconomic role in attained prestige Strong association of gender with occupational speciaization social prestige gain When you replace sex with occupational specialization then that is a bizarre thought but in this culture this a functional explanation Explains why desire or stigma or taboo exists Has the female Berdache disappeared or has it gone under modifications Is this an example of Native American connectivity with ancestors How to reconcile this ethnic spiritual Indian identity with modern western Indian identity Same Sex Relationships among Contemporary Native Women Marimacha coupes butchfemme dyads but woman identified partners usually married at some point had children lived together there is a little more freedom in assuming this couple Machismo without cross dressingcross gendering Native American lesbians struggle with intersectionality of racism sexism and homophobia Some try to fit themselves into the lesbian feminist ethnic of independence from men and building communities 0 For native Americans family faith and cultural heritance Retaining Native Cultural Values Off Reservation more identification with white LGBT culture On the Reservation inclusivity not isolation from social structures Homosexuality not necessarily disconnected from family motherhood Gays and lesbian to do isolate themselves from others socially Communal events consist of gay and straight people Two spirits and people identified as third gender gays and lesbians stay included in their families Sexual orientation alone does not suffice to exclude lesbians from kinship ties family How individual desire channels into the culturally shaped pathways of how to embody personhood of same sex interactions What is distinguishable and different enough to where we can recognize or express certain cultural traits habits and attitudes to let other people know that someone identifies as homosexual or gay How does one become a gay man in LA Is it random or is there a particular cascade of events that you would recognize that this exists There must be some kind of mechanism that reproduces cultures 41714 Retaining Native Cultural Values How do you fit desire into these stereotypes Always an interaction between the individual and the cultures There is a time and place for agency where people don39t have to be completely shaped by some structure When people think about homosexuality they don39t think of this entity of all engulfing and all defining Some Native Americans will come out and then go back into the closet There are people with homophobia those who may think you are backwards People will often simply adopt whichever identity allows them the most gender freedom In the past the emphasis on interpreting same sex identities was on gender whereas now it focuses on sexuality Some people may completely reject the cultural history past and traditions and fully identify as gaylesbian because that is more comfortable for them Claiming a kinship with that subjectivity inevitably angers you people are either sick and tired or don39t want to put this idea into people39s head so they take refuge in the WhiteMiddle Class idea of gayness Native cutures people are often more judgmental of other personal traits which they feel are shortcomings Much more important that you adhere to your social obligations that you have respect for kinship lineage tribe clans etc Even if people would adopt this master status of I identify as gay then your clan family extended family will be holding you to moralsocial obligations Differentiates native attitudes to non native attitudes D Emiio refers to gaylesbian mythology the construction of a history that would be favorable to explaining why you39re not the only one Gaylesbian identities are cultural products They are modern inventions This is because capitalism has created social conditions for gaylesbians to emerge Homosexuality in Thailand 2 types of male homosexuals in Thailand Kathoys male sex workers bar boys Bangkok as supposedly open mecca for homosexuaity myth People come to look for exotic gay encounters Many people mistake Thailand and very liberal and accepting but this is not true This idea of opennessacceptance caters mostly to content which foreigners Homosexuality is not illegal but disturbs cultural norms of appropriate and inappropriate feminine and masculine behavior Maintaining face more important than what one actually does sexually in private You can do whatever you want but you can39t talk about it 3 Sexes and 4 sexualities Morris Article Phet refers to gender sex amp sexuality Thai gender system breaks out of the binary or duality more fluid Kathoey s gender identity essential identity emphasis on presentation and aesthetics There is a term that means composing or making the body This performance of identity has a particular name Kathoey s don39t imitate or mimic to achieve the look or ways of Thai women But rather they try to achieve a specific aesthetic of a Kathoey important distinction they are NOT trying to emulate women they are trying to emulate Kathoey s Their identity is naturalized as fixed and essential But there are many contradictions that we might see Body and personhood as two distinct entities Femaleness can be embodied by a man This is usually also the case in other cultures 4 sexualities male and female normative vs male and female transg ressive homosexuality in Thailand is not against the law but the psychologist society is like that of the West What39s important is whether someone can fulfill their social obligation Kathoey s perform in public quite frequently they will do beauty contests and these are popular family events They are very mainstream as entertainers The culture is channeling people who are on that developmental path of becoming a Kathoey Kathoey is emulating masculinity or femininity but NOT womanhood or manhood midterm We should not think of them as gay but they will sometimes describe themselves as gay They realize they are talking to a foreigner and if they are educated they want to make sure they communicate something that you39re able to understand That is using an emic term that is the same emic term that we use You have to look at the context that you39re studying this in Thai Lesbians Typical Thai concept of lesbians butchfemme dynamic of Tom and Deell Lesbian sex friendship denial of sexuality Is not thought of breaking virginity because only phallic penetration is considered sex Thai cultures don39t think of marriage as an ego centric they think of it as socio centric Lesbian relationships often seen as a substitute that is preferable to having sex with a man There is an incentive for families to accept Toms they contribute to the girl39s family financially and in terms of labor They take care of the girls which also lessens the burden of the family Lesbians never really acknowledged as fully outside of heterosexual obligations and essentially reproductive sexuality Notion of friendships allow many lesbians to fly under the radar there is not so much revolt against this terminology people have more freedom Toms outside external markers of identity not politicized subjectification These roles are highly structured in terms of Thai culture You can look a certain way and let people make assumptions of you but inappropriate to express yourself as different from your personhood Toms do not like the term lesbian They are more proper and conservative The gender subjectivity of the Tom is masculine This is an emulation of heterosexuality Maintaining face avoiding disclosure of impropriety This means that people are not expected to connect their public selves and their private selves Gaylesbians can escape public scrutiny as long as they maintain their social factors Thai Gay Communities No real gay communities just local networks separated by geography class occupation Class in particular divides homosexuality into 3 distinct scenes kathoys younger middle class gays and poor rural or urban working class men who have sex with men Kids are exposed to kathoys at very young ages since they make appearances at public events Is a common notion that only male tourists pay for gay sex but there is a lot of money exchange white tourism sex industry vs local gay scenes visible flashy advertised gay bars in Bangkok Chiang Mai flashy neon loud It39s advertised in these bigger tourist places Non Visibe inconspicuous houses workof mouth advertising no public attention If you don39t know what39s going on there you wouldn39t just walk by it It is a huge under the radar scene A lot of European gay men who visit expect a western gay scene but they end up disappointed Any relationship between a European and Thai people will have this idea of patronage Thai Societal Views on Homosexuality Within academia and science homosexuality considered abnormal Public largely accepts homosexuality under the radar Public outing most negative consequence of being gay Negative stereotypes about kathoys male sex workers keep people from coming out Fear of losing masculinity Thai attitudes mixture of tolerance ignorance and evasion This contradiction between acceptance and avoidance suggest that tolerance isn39t always based on acceptance They are not necessarily the same Family loyalty and responsibility is important Week 3 Readings Devereux Reading Little object to homosexuality among the Mohave but there is no avowed homosexual living on the reservation Masturbating and urinating competitions were frequent Bethrothal of young girls to old men or seduction of very young boys by adult women was not rare The Mohave recognize only 2 definite types of homosexuals Male transvestites taking the role of the woman in sexual intercourse known as a3 Female homosexuals assuming the role of the male are known as hwame In ancient times the hwame wore male garments In English all Mohave refer to an alyha as she and to a hwame as he Any person who dreamt about becoming a transvestite while in the maternal womb may turn into one Ceremony considered both an initiation and ultimate tests of a boy39s true inclinations If he submitted to it he was considered a genuine homosexual If the boy is unwilling to become a homosexual officially he would refuse to dance After the fourth song he is proclaimed a homosexual The Alyha have imagined babies and imagine their own childbirth They would scratch themselves until they bled and pretended to menstruate They alyha were said to be cowards To call a person a homosexual when he is not is a bad insult The hwame were more devoted spouses than were the alyha To track down the seduce of a wife they will pain their face black and befits a warrior on the warpath Lang Reading Native American lesbians and gays refer to themselves as two spirit people A Berdache a native American male who partially or completely adopts the culturally defined role of a woman The opportunity for individuals to change gender roles and identities over the course of their lifetimes gender variance In some cultures women men were healers or shamans because of their special gender status and because of the gender role they have chosen While a homosexual relationship in Western culture is basically defined as a relationship between individuals of the same sex and same gender the Navajo definition of homosexuality is more subtle and based on gender rather than on characteristics of biological sex and anatomy In the Navajo reservation you never see a lot of touching of lovers Two sprit can be characterized as a largely pan Indian gaylesbian identity that emphasizes ethnicity and spirituality McLeand Reading Not until the early 1990s were there representations of gay men appearing in wide variety of popular media Homosexual men okama are usually represented as cross dressed and effeminate This term is very loose and can describe any man who displays transgender attributes Japanese homosexual women onabe They are the opposite of okama being masculine in both dress and demeanour Existence of gay media displays them as a necessary component in their construction Summerhawk claims that gay Japanese men who get married to so to hide their true identity One man simply wants his same sex attraction to be acknowledged by the wider society Fact that orgnaizations like OCCUR have developed in Japan and are encouraged and supported by foreign lesbian and gay reserachers and organisations is a clear example of globalization at work Japanese names occur in Japanese order surname first Morris A kathoey is a category that includes male transsexual and transvestite identities in Thailand The ideological work of sexgender systems is the naturalization of social order Gender is always naturalized as sexual identity but sexual identity is not always a matter of sexual practice and perhaps only rarely a matter of object choice In Thailand the dominant representations of sex and gender are focused in and through fetishistic notions of ideal feminine beauty as constructed for a heterosexual male gaze The system of three Phuuchai male Phuuying female Kathoey transvestitetranssexuaIhermaphrodite This is a division in which sexual and gender identity is conceived as a repertoire of public appearances and behaviors From the four eements earth fire wind and water they conjure three sexes female hermaphrodite and male Everyone regardless of gender makes their body up on a daily basis and in accordance with cultural defined norms of masculine and feminine appearance In the contemporary world a kathoey is a man who appropriates female form without becoming a woman and without ceasing to be a man Homosexuality is now widely available and widely deployed concept in ThaHand Men who have exclusive sexual relations with other men and whose demeanor is classically masculine are called gay Women who like women are referred to by the therms thom and dii For the first time in Thai history dress became a means of signifying a binarized genital identity and cross dressing became illegal Foucault says of Western society that the monarchical body was replaced by the fantasy of a social body in a moment of rupture Individuals actually inhabit and negotiate different complexes of personal identity different arrangements and understanding of the relationships between sex gender and sexuality 42214 For the exam if the Author has emphasized something know the thesis She works very closely with the readings if she also emphasized it in lecture and is on the slide then you need to know this is important Differentiate Authors dates are not so important but understand the lineage of who came before who Freud Ellis Foucault Kinsey Japan Interesting about Japan comparison of Western models of homosexuality Conflation between sexuality and gender Japan gives very clear example of that Idea that same sex attraction involves transgenderism or desire Constantly reinforced by Japanese media The word may sound the same and come from English language What is specific about homosexuality in Japan Gay Japanese men have a unique understanding of the pious understanding of happiness Same sex orientation doesn39t figure as the main barrier to heterosexual marriage Japanese men are resisting ideas of Westernized meanings but homosexuality is considered very private and personal There is a freedom of keeping this out of the public eye Ritualistic symbolic coming out model and how this doesn39t work Japan gives a foreshadowing of why this doesn39t work Homosexuality in Japan is interpreted as an opposition to traditional family and marriage Marriage and gay desire in this formulation and not incompatible or exclusive Even if Western identities take hold of non Western identities the path of creating a gay identity is not the same good example of localization of global patterns May end up in the same place but how you get there is different Gilbert Herdt Guardians of the Flute Boy Inseminating Practices ActivePassive sexual diets Stratification by age intergenerational transmission from older to younger males Process ends in full manhood Must never be reversed Pervasive in Melanesia Lessened with missionarycolonial contact Changes a lot of practices like head hunting cannibalism Initiation amp ritual very secretive hidden from outsiders women amp children These practices are very secretive Making Masculinity Why should a secret society on manly warriors insist on a boy to become inseminated to become a man Strong symbolic and actual polarization of masculinity and femininity Special myth of male parthenogenesis Reproduction of men by men 710 year old boys being initiation perform fellatio on older boys fellatio dangerous and enticing powerful and cruel semen absolutely vital substance woman avoidance contaminating blood this is a transitional homoeroticism that produces men and the status quo all at once men are by birth biological unfinished compared to women but if mean feel superior to women then why must they do this ritual to assure them Sexual polarity male biological incompleteness and ritual secrecy All masculinity cults have this Masculinity occurs by the splendid warrior and weakling Stages of Masculinity The initiation of the boy does not just center on homosexuality what turns receivers into givers Violence Young initiates are regularly beaten to the point of nose bleeds so they become highly frustrated This is what elders think makes them strong and then redirects it to the future initiates who they will then beat up Violence is a key practice This is what keeps the cycle going and keeps the social structure in place They think that semen is renewable yet it39s a finite resource this seems like a contradiction The trees from which sap comes are female Ritualized Homosexuality as Social Reproduction and Control Ritualized homosexuality as socially proscribed institution mechanism for social control Some anthropologists question if homosexuality would cease if the practices changed Perpetuation of system of age related and gender related inequality Hypothesis 1 connection between sister exchange and ritualized homosexuality Hypothesis 2 few material goods as commodities semen become commodity Boys can only become dominant males by first becoming submissive males Wherever very few material goods exist semen become a commodity especially to control females It is something people sign value to Sister exchange if two people such as hunters exchange sisters and can sometimes connect families tribes There are many variables that explain behaviors Homosexuality is never an independent phenomenon o More important is the variable of cultural change Other circumstances under which ritualized homosexuality may appear or disappear 0 Labor migration homosocial environment Colonial interference with native customs Missionary sanctions on homosexual conduct Modern ideas about being gay The Latin Model of Homosexuality Active and Passive Dynamics Typically masculine man embodying Machismo overrides classification as gay because of same sex partners Only receiver of anal sex is considered to be a true homosexual 0 Oral sex similarly follows only designating the giver as homosexual Enhancement of machismo men39s social status measured by sexual conquests and sexual domination Same sex relationships with homosexuals do not threaten or enhance male honor 0 They enhance Machismo male status is measured by sexual dominance Constructing and Maintaining Masculinity Penetration central part of constructing masculinity Being with a homosexua penetrating him being with a man being penetrated 0 Being with a homosexual someone who is NOT a homosexual is penetrating a homosexual Erotogenic Zones are gendered o If you have 2 biological males having sex when you become submissive sexually and when someone stays dominant you are gendering the parts then you feminize the ass of the person who39s penetrating but you masculinize the genitalia of the penetrator Contagion model one can become a homosexual if one likes being penetrated Penetration by man doubly degrading o If a masculine Machismo man let himself be penetrated by a homosexual that39s bad 0 A man being penetrated by another man Homosexuals are passive If men allow themselves to be penetrated most likely by a homosexual and not another man Do you think liking anal penetration more gay 0 A person who wants to be penetrated What if the penetrator was a masculine man or a homosexual which is more diminishing to a man39s masculinity Why do Latin men have sex with men 3 common explanation AvailabilityRational model 0 Not enough available women young men have no sexual outlets Greater pleasureLittle risk model 0 Men may enjoy the sexual variety that they explore they are interested in sexual gratification This takes the idealized notion of women for granted NeedRelief model o men need sex to release sexual frustration o prison sex is more about power feminizing weaker men but presumed homosexuality is strictly locational Bodies must be gendered differently even if they are sexed the same o Acting as if the bodies are actually fundamentally different Machismo and Latin Culture Upbringing love and respect mothers but must sef identify against motherswomen to become men o Ideal of manliness because women figuratively thought of to be opened by men Machismo cult of virility no soft men never crack open Male social interaction in homosocial environments machismo omnipresent Feminizing the weaker other penetration metaphor for unspecified violence o Releases this malemale tension but can also escalate to an insult Feminizing Men Social flexibility in feminizing other men perpetuated the Latin model o Heterosexual men demark fags from men o Retain abeing power while remaining free of stigma 0 Remain normal invisible manly against homosexual Institutionalized and Ritualized Homosexuality compared important for the midterm Difference In institutionalized homosexuality the subject is feminized Transformation from one gender to another no longer being a boy or a man In ritualized homosexuality the subject is masculinized Transformation from boy to man not being a man to being a man Similarity Highly structured and context dependent o Both institutionalized and ritualized homosexuality are context dependent because certain other social conditions or types of social organizations are usually copresent Eg Native American cultures usually institutionalize homosexuality when there is a vision complex present amp Melanesian cultures implement ritualized homosexuality when material resources are scare when there is secrecy or secret knowledge about male initiation and when sister exchange is practiced Greek Model is where exclusive homosexuality was unimaginable 42414 The Latin Model vs Modern Gay identities Exchange with Europeans or Americans notion that both active and passive partners are gay 0 Moving towards a more Western understanding Internationaes both roles active and passive attributed to foreigners or tourists New the passive masculine man the active homosexua challenges Latin model Class and social mobility shape identifications of who counts as gay and who does not Masculinity and femininity are tied to sexual behaviors Both Melanesian and Latin model are quite different from western notion Cruising Public Same Sex Encounters Quite opposite of the secrecy aspect in ritualized homosexual interactions Taylor39s work focuses on a public nature where people can be seen or unseen He applies ethnographic data into a theoretical game theory Public setting shapes homosexual setting different then gay bars Something specific to Mexico they have a strong disdain to homosexualities 0 Strong motivation to build exclusive homosexual identities 0 They flow in and out of homosexual interactions avoiding the centralizing aspect of a fixed identity o Politicized subjectification is quite specific to western homosexuality o How does this compare to American culture Do we have codes or signals to indicate same sex encounters Yes The Hanky code Signaling system that eliminates sexual incompatibility Works in public anywhere you can find men that don39t necessarily identify as gay Public Sex No overt signifiers in public settings bathrooms cars parks known cruising scenes Humphrey39s Tearoom Trade dispelled stereotypes of men who seek sexual encounters in public 0 They come from very diverse backgrounds spread across the social scale Body language and non verbal signals Anonymity greatest appeal of public sex 0 A key aspect Glory hole 0 someone will stick their penis through a hole and whatever happens on the other side happens Is there a difference between straight cruising and gay cruising 0 Difference between how gay guys signal vs straight guys Brazil WorkingLower Class Model of Homosexuality Folk categories Men eat comer and homosexuals and women give dar consumption penetration being consumed being penetrated o visually consuming men Metaphorical offering of the self hypercognition of malefemale masculinefeminine as total opposites o maleness doesn39t automatically make you masculine Males who take the feminine role do so sexually and socially Bichas symbolic equivalent to women but not equal to females 0 all cultures that can entertain a third gender or alternate gender no culture differentiates at the biological level of male and female 0 Only the passive partner is the true homosexual in this context Brazil MiddleUpper Class Model of Homosexuality Western interpretations of who counts as gay Entiendo homosexual person defined by sexual object choice not sexual role sexual hierarchy shift from masculinefeminine to heterohomo classification of sexuality prostitution retains activepassive dyads 0 people who hold strong onto these rules don39t quite adopt these concepts 0 you can have masculine prostitutes or feminine prostitutes who cater to different sexual goal taking desires but a few clients may ask to be penetrated rather than to penetrate Nicaragua Honor and Shame similar to Brazil they also have fok category Cochon preference for receptive anal sex defining characteristic de emphasis on oral sex contamination stigma only affects passive partner passive practice masculinity not dependent on heterosexuality but active penetrative sexuality Cochones are seen as both objects of desire and approach Social Roles Engender Sexual Roles To feminize men to use them Exchange economytransaction character of sex sexual acts transform one s social status Cochones and hombres construct hyper masculinity together Cochones are a vital component about Nicaragua Machismo Miguel not excluded from peer group but excluded from claiming masculinity he gets in trouble when he39s trying to assert his equality to other boys so boys subdue boys who have already decided be cochones social capital of masculinity subduing cochones sexuality early on is used to put down on boy in the group who is made out to be the lesser one the girlie one etc Cochones are passive participants Dis Identification AS Identification Masculinity achieved not by identifying with being masculine but identifying against being feminine Halloween people who use this if they wanted to express femininity In sports you have a hyper masculine environment yet sometimes they will pat their butts after the game The presentation of yourself matters in how homosexual conduct unfolds The Lesson for Anthropology Classic Latin Model activepassive dyad masculinity and femininity constructed through sexual role taking Model is challenged by North American or European ideas of same sex sexuality new sexual subjectives Sexual roles behaviors practices are CONDITIONED mostly by class social contexts and cultural diffusion The higher the participation and wage participation the higher it is that an Activo or Machismo hombre is transformed into a gay man D Emiio BUT clear sexual preference for active or passive roles CANNOT be explained away by social conditioning mi Human sexual desires also independent from social roles and or gender roles fluidity diversity and malleability Culturally constructed models and patterns Week 4 Readings Herdt Article Sambia ethnographic study of a masculine subculture 710 year old Sambia boys taken from their mothers when first initiated into male cult amp experience most powerful seductive homosexual fellatio activies Elders believe that semen is absolutely vital Females were considered to be contaminating and their menstrual blood lethal Heterosexual relationships intrigues and casual conversations among boys and girls were forbidden Mascuinity ritualized homosexuality 9 manhood Research shows that almost all men conform to this erotic pattern Sambia boys will undergo profound social conditioning through exciting homosexual experiences that continue for years but they emerge as competent exclusively heterosexual adults not homosexuals Contrary to western belief transitional homoeroticism is the royal road to Sambia manliness Durkein shaped modern socioogy teaching us how individual action results from social constraints Unlike biologists anthropologists possess no experimental laboratories under controlled conditions We like those we study are human beings our data represent the communications that arise from intersubjectivity He lived in Sambia to observe the rituals and associated beliefs and practices Ritual symbolism the mind subjective processes and behavioral development Idioms of Masculinity Cultural context of ritual ecological setting and social traditions of the people whose ritual symbolism is the focus of observation Close conjuction to this is the culture of Sambia the cognivitbe systems of values norms and rules influencing perception and behavior Ritual Behavior Social organization of ritual organizing social principles relationships alliances that integrate indiviudals as people into inclusive male associations Rituals are the bedrock of this social contract among Sambia Ritualized Gender Identity Gender identity the influence of traditional rites and subsequent homosexual associations on the developing boy39s sense of himself and his maleness Manhood and Heterosexuality Sambia mascucline beliefs based on rampant sexual polarity and secret ritual Creation of a phallic masculine subjectivity identity and behavior Men are by birth biologically unfinished compared to women and only ritual can correct that imbalance Sambia preoccupied with warriors concept of masculinity Real test of Sambia masculinity existed in almost constant war War had been chronic pervasive and destructive War belonged to men Sambia men hold that is it a matter of utmost urgency that a boy be initiated and masculinized to make him a warrior Taylor Reading Between 19601984 In Mexico city one of the largest cities in the world 9 abundant homosexual social life but never more than 6 or 7 exclusively homosexual establishments in operation at one time NY and LA had hundreds of homosexual establishments Mexicans treat homosexuality as deviant Homosexual activities contain strong element of play ove games Males within the Mexican urban homosexual world divide players into 2 categories those who engage in homosexual activities and those who do not There are many players who take a homosexual role p 119 Four game types p 120 Mexican homosexuals distinguish between anonymous encounters fichas and romantic encounters ligas Participants feel that the inserter should be more masculine than the insertee Homosexual games take place throughout Mexico in movie theaters when familes have gone home Mexican homosexual interaction takes place successfully in heterogenous locles Differences between public homosexual interaction in Ambiente and in the US gaylife are attributable to the social forces that repress homosexuality in mexico The law states that overt behavior most conform to the prevailing norms values folkways and more They point out that in the US homosexual activity is cut off from the rest of society Mexican system keeps homosexuals centered in their identity as humans and prevents them from becoming isolated from mainstream of life They engage in homosexual interaction in public places to provide factual knowledge about what type of people are in reality homosexual and what types of sexual activities these men like to perform Parker Reading Afro Brazilian religious groups are highly active throughout urban Brazil The sexual world in Brazil was divided not into the categories of homosexuality and heterosexuality but into hierarchically related categories of those who comen and those who dao those who metaphorically consume their partners by taking active role of penetration as opposed to those who passively offer themselves to be penetrated in either vaginal or anal intercourse Distinction between masculine atividade activity and feminine passivade passivity Those who comen are defined as homens men and can enter relationships not only with muheres women but also with other males Males who take the passive roles are bichas biologically male yet socially female Landcaster Reading Nicargua the cochon typically refers to a male This term is loosely translated as queer or faggot Mouth is seen as primary route of contamination Anal intercourse produces an unequal relationship Nicaraguans exhibit no true horror of homosexuality to give dar is to be masculine to receive recibir aceptar tomar is to be feminine Cochones are feminine men The North American rule a man gains sexual status and honor among other men only through his sexual transations with women The cochon is described as having effeminancy and flamboyance Nicargua s cochones are stigmatized in different ways then Anglo American homosexuals 42914 Butch Femme Identity Constructs Last week we talked more about sexual role taking Now we will look at more perspectives of gender Products of Lesbian subcultures that formed in the 192039s Only in the 1950s is when they became recognizable Associated with 195039s working class bar culture Enabled social interaction Important not to loose analytical focus on the roles of Femme s ButchFemme identities are mutually constitutive Butch are unmarked category Femme s are distinctly attracted to Butch women and not simply masculinity Some Femme s appear less committed to lesbian lifestyle community but that39s not very true Butch Femme structured early lesbian communities Some women radical lesbians in the 70s have had the greatest influence on trying to undo this principle Feminist Opposition to Butch Femme Models Butch femme models are reproducing heteronormative and therefore oppressive relationship models Both butch and femme have suffered from false consciousness They are oblivious to oppression Butch femme models set homo normative regulations which alienate more fluid or queer identities We know that they have always been individuals who do not fit it39s always been more ideal than real Everything we discuss is a model it39s a pattern A trend that you can identify Heteronormativity man woman proper gender roles Homonormative remember the question of how you become a gay man in LA You can see there39s a cultural pathway that reproduces a recognizable form of a gaylesbian purpose Talking about a particular look particular look that people emulate to produce that particular culture Some people may fall in the middle Sooner or later someone would issue some criticism or remark Butch femme models stifle progressive political agendas of gender and sexual equality This ignores that butch femme models were the most visible movements for feminists It shames individuals who have little interest in adopting an obligatory position of support Idea that it stifles politics Butch and lesbians were so visible and recognizable A femalebutch idea is about displaying MASCULINITY but not MANHOOD Wanting to be masculine doesn39t mean wanting to be a man Butch subjectivity is no less natural than any other subjectivity Femme identities are neither accidentally or subjective and they are NOT identical to feminine identities Although butch femme is a cross cultural process they have experience the revitalization of the significance of lesbian communities Today butch femme identities co exist with more modern western concepts because we now live in a post queer world There39s generally less privileges of one identity construct over another Both readings explicate the distinctions in very interesting ways that are complimentary Embodiment discourse and social interaction are very important Luzatto amp Gvion Feminine but not Femme Author39s claim there is a lesbian body that can be taken as an analytic approach The vary specific socio economic content of the study are important too Young Israei you see a class difference of how they present themselves to the social world Israeli lesbians distinctly combine male and female markers as well as gender markers They notice they use the body as a narrative of distinguishing themselves from other lesbians Unifying principle of lesbian bodies to offset heteronormativity but seems more complicated than that You see a distinct rejection of the natural body movement Natural not being considered with hair or clothing not being fitness conscious What kind of cultural influences shape this new lesbian culture They see no taboo in wanting to appear attractive to female gaze however the aim is not to be attracted to malesexualizing gays but only female sexualizing gays Politics increasingly divorced from the new lesbian chic distinct disassociation or disidentification from older generations of lesbians When an organism can no longer reproduce If the body is no longer necessary to make a political statement as a lesbian now making a personal statement Women set themselves from lower class women dark skin lower educa on Authors mention that increasing sexual freedom and iberation producing more heterogeneity in communities move away from distinct subculture status into mainstream Do you think the same is happening in communities here The force of the mainstream accepting and tolerating In the material is seems that more LGBT distinction between gaylesbian are disappearing Why do individualism and sef expression seem to win out in our modern age Younger generation of lesbians blame older generations of lesbians for giving them a bad name The New Lesbian Aesthetic Ideal Israeli lesbian women muscular but thin arms big breasts below the waist they wear loose clothing Demphasis in shielding away from mae gays New construct of lesbian body has much to do with growing up in culture The Only Dykey One Author uses sociolinguistics as a main analytical tool to show how people construct their identities through linguistic interaction Identities are known pre historica or outside forces Importance of language in identity structure Community of practice gain shared or common orientation towards the world enabling relational identification to and with each other which becomes a practice Outsiders have to be socialized into it Identities emerge through discourse adopting a specific linguistic way of interacting with other alignment stance Once you have adopted a particular style of speech you are a member of a community of practice Identities are frequently evoked reproduced and sometimes challenged in specific contexts All identities are RELATIONAL Members of the hiking group lesbians of similar age similar economic background a lot of clustering that goes together They don39t directly evoke sexuality but each member had a clear idea of what is an authentic Lesbian Women come from particular activist background Real lesbian drink whole pints of beer know a lot of nature most interesting is where the author introduces the tv show the L word What39s wrong with the L word Show about a group of lesbians that were connected Within this group you see a consensus that the characters were too attractive too feminine and meant to appeal to a heterosexual male audience Shane the problem with Shane is that although objectively speaking she is androgynous the actress is too pretty to appear as butch Has feminine face muscular arms The hiking group say that butch characters should NOT have an appear to heterosexual males Men would be attracted to the actresses feminine features Consensus Shane cannot be a dyke because Dyke39s cannot appeal to men at all Only non feminine not attractive women can be real dykes Biology confirm link between testosterone and dykeness Dyke is linked with masculinity unattractiveness to men makes a real lesbian Imagine a dialogue between the two authors participants What you do think they would think of each other Opposite social groups One embodies the thing the other group talks about what they aren39t about Look at how people construct through embodiment or discourse and how it forms a perfect complimentary connection Mobility embodiment of fluidity They are both enforcing their own norms but they are coming at through from different angles For weeks we39ve talked about forming identities and communities and is a unifier however now we are going more deep into the material but you have to understand the idea of how we share commonality can now splinter and make salient these differences like class ethnicity color educa on What you see exemplifies the idea of the more mainstream absorbs lesbiangay culture the more you form communitiesidentities You all constitute this community of practice The Lesson For Anthro Not only cross cutura but also intra cutura variation within lesbian communities No unifying embodiment or linguistic practice of lesbianism that ignores socio economic ethnic or educational backgrounds Identity construction is ALWAYS relational it can never be decontextualized away from other social markers When we look at a lesbian person as someone who shares an overriding identity we have seen a building of communities that solidify around that particular mark Reintroducing concept of ethnicity age difference cultural difference religious difference Always relational to other identities how would you know what a gaystraight person is without there being another idea Speciated from a common ancestry Always informed by your race ethnicity age kinship Identities always evolve All identities are specific historical and cultural products
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