Ancient Greek Mythology
Ancient Greek Mythology Classics 30
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Classics 30 Study Guide Mythology narrative thinking a way of articulating arguments with a story line or a story to explain a narrative of events that happen over time Mythological stories talk about time explicitly Stories bring together human beings and supernatural beings from ancient polytheism gods live intermixed with humans The gods are anthropomorphized and stories are about their lives Mythology was theology for ancient people Discourse about divine and our relations to them Mythology is also literature began western folk tale literature Greek mythology particularly emphasizes differences between men and women Mythology is not just short stories but also drama political theory and thosophy Mythological Tradition Many play writes and poets go to Athens to compete in a theatrical completion This causes a constant production of plays and incentive for creativity Topics often were sex violence union or synthesis destruction competition morality death all written with TIME in mind Comedic plays found irony in gods goddesses society life is a Myth Mythos Greek word meaning quotwordquot or quottalequot Narrative drama imagery allegory can be many representations Can be long or short Allegory appears often object or person referencing or representing some other story The study of mythology is often comparative making sense of humans relationship to nature and ritual The Theogony by Hesiod Narrative of copulations generations new lives violence rivalry murder deathsex o Polytheism gods ght and have emotions many sacred gods but no sacred book theologians like Hesiod and Homer write these religious stories 0 Theo Gods Gony Generation generations of the gods Chaos not just confusion and disorder but also emptiness poem about the O 0 Something not being there beginning of the world absence of cities and life Sometimes meaning quotnot yetquot not yet full of differentiated things and people Earth physical earth but also a woman 0 O O 0 Stable supports us all quotWidebosomedquot maternal nurturing goddess Can bear children without sex but often needs Eros She gives birth to heavensky and then those two create nearly everything else HeavenSky O O Paternal gure Very sexual creature Eros love and sexuality cupid O O O 0 New generations occur because Eros exists and is at work Eros is pictured as a winded young man holding a mirror and a fan sometimes seen as a child mirror often meaning marriage or seduction scene He is winged because desire is unstable and uid and constantly moving Eros is responsible for lives of gods and humans he lls the empty chaos Birth of Monsters 0 After earth creates sky all he wants to do is make more children with her but she becomes fatigued because of birth and because more people are walking on her Earth asks her children to help her stop sky from having sex with her Cronos her mischievous son representing time agrees to hide in a bush hides inside of earth with a sickle then jumps out and castrates sky Blood from the penis of sky falls onto earth and creates Erinyes ghosts that hut murderers Giants aggressive and strong Nymphs mean sneaky and conniving all super human creatures all thought to be evil sneaky creatures made from blood 0 Birth of Aphrodite O O O Sky s seamen then falls to the sea mixing with the foam of the ocean to create Aphrodite the goddess of love sexuality generations and eroticism Aphros means foam Birth of Aphrodite is pictured as this woman oating on a shell often seen with a child a version of Eros her son cupid The world has come to be as it is because of unions sex separation and violence 00000 The world is made of opposites and time separates everything Time separated the earth and the sky Castration of the sky created evil monsters and beautiful creatures Everything is brought together by love and separated by strife Muses are born from Zeus and the goddess of memory this is why poets praise muses before they begin writing it is a way of requesting access to all the memories of the gods with which to write collective culture of gods comes from a collective memory of gods and myths of the past 0 Why write the Theogony O O O O O Theogony begins with muses and then to undifferentiated chaos Desire for a Theogony because it is a creation story Aetiological the reason things are the way they are desire to explain the world Mythology takes form of an epic poem because it has many aspects of storytelling and poems are a form of religious worship One is honoring gods when they write about them 0 How Hesiod sees the world 0 Chaos differentiates into monsters like Cyclopes gorgons then those differentiate into contemporary people chaos becomes mix up of people and animals then things settle to our known form that is reality He praises muses asking them to teach him to sing they speak the truth Hesiod writes with divine inspiration and philosophical explanations of the world rather than scienti c He uses sex and violence as his main themes because they are the Greek people s every day reality using something Greek people relate to and something that will hold an audience s attention 0 This is a narrative way of understanding the world using vivid dramatic concepts to create these mythological stories 0 Creation of Mt Olympus Gods O O O Rhea and Cronos birth Demeter Hera Hades Zeus and Poseidon Cronos nds out one of his children would overcome him so he eats them Rhea tricks Cronos into eating a big rock which Zeus then uses to overcome him from inside 0 Creation of Sacri ce and Women 0 Prometheus is given the job of dividing up ox meat between mortals and gods o Prometheus give Zeus ox bones covered with fat and gives the mortals the nice meat becomes ritual of burning bones and fat to feed the gods Zeus gets angered and says he will not give mortals the gift of re 0 Prometheus steals the re from Zeus and gives it to the mortals which angers Zeus even further 0 Zeus commands Hephaestus to create something evil to punish mortals so he creates a beautiful maiden the mother of all women to punish humanity 0 Women are the source of all evil and cause destruction but are beautiful and you cannot resist very similar to re Prometheus has given them 0 Women are supplements to humans nonhuman ornamental aspects of society also the rst thing that was ever arti cially created 0 These stories are intended to show hostile but loving relationship between gods and humans as well as a pattern of trickery and dece O Hymn to Hermes by Homer Hermes is the messenger of the immortals 0 He protects you when you travel Wears winged shoes a robe and holds a bold scepter Born in a cave to a nymph and Zeus 0 He was a mortal child but immediately walking and talking 0 He steals Apollo s cattle and hides them 0 Creates a lyre from a turtle shell which he then trades with Apollo for his staff 0 He is said to have invented re and re sticks along with sacri ce Hermes and Apollo become the best of friends even after they strife over the cattle Hermes is a demigod The Iliad by Homer Overview of Plot 0 Dramatic narration of the Trojan war 0 A PanHellenic eet alliance of the entire Greek world sails to Asia minor Troy in Turkey in order to recover Helen named the most beautiful woman by Aphrodite 0 Helen has left her Greek husband Menelaus in order to follow a Trojan prince Paris 0 Menelaus and Agamemnon brothers organize an expedition to retrieve her O Narration begins not with the battles or the war at all but with an internal con ict between Agamemnon the king in command and Achilles the nest warrior 0 Con ict between Agamemnon and Achilles O O O O O O This con ict between friends is the formula for tragedy as de ned by Aristotle The Iliad begins a pattern of tragic theater that deals with suffering Because of the quarrel Achilles stops ghting for the Greeks which puts them in danger of losing the war Achilles best friend Patroclos borrows his armor to ght in his place but is killed by hector the best Trojan prince Achilles then goes back into war and kills hector meaning his gives up his anger at Agamemnon to avenge his friend Poem ends with nal restitution of Hector s body to his father Priam o Divine and Human Interaction O O O O O The whole Trojan war is Zeus s design he decides what happens not because of divine predestination not because human beings are passive not because gods do everything and mortals do nothing but because in this world there is both human agency and divine intervention Zeus is the real play write Human beings are hyperactive This is a society where power is based on manliness and action Mortal heroes are thought of as half gods Achilles mother Thetis was a god and she intervenes by asking Zeus to vindicate her son Gods place thoughts and feelings in the chest of human beings in uencing their desires Individuals are full of divine intentions o Athena s Intervention O O 0 During the quarrel Achilles is so furious that he is on the brink of killing Agamemnon but as he thinks of killing him Athena comes down from heaven to intervene Achilles and Agamemnon are ghting over a woman sexuality is so closely related to honor women are won in war as prizes Agamemnon has won a woman but she is the daughter of a priest of Apollo who comes and begs for his daughter back but he wont return her Apollo takes revenge by killing animals and humans Agamemnon is willing to take another woman in place of this one but she is the prize of Achilles which begins the quarrel Athena s mission is to subside Achilles anger Athena was sent by Hera showing that the gods are not indifferent to mortals they care about their lives their well being the whole mortal world Achilles goes to the beach and cries after he decides to not kill Agamemnon he prays to his mother Thetis who appears from the sea to comfort him o Thetis asks Zeus to punish the Greeks for offending Achilles humans pay for the crime they didn39t commit 0 Society of the gods is shown at the end to the readers we get to see hoe why drink and laugh and live at the end very domestic View 0 Hephaestus is the limping god and the butt of all the jokes aughing disrespect How Homer Sees his World 0 In the Homeric world gods and men are very intertwined 0 When praying to a god one must remind them of all your sacri ces and devotion to them gods are carnivorous and like red fatty meat in homers world 0 Apollo o Apollo s anger is what initially starts the quarrel and starts the poem 0 Apollo is the Archer always seen with a bow o In Homeric world the more heroic men are The more vulnerable and sensitive and prone to crying they are 0 Contradicting information about whether or not gods are all knowing The Odyssey by Homer 0 Plot overview o Begins with a similar domestic scene 0 Odysseus wants to go home to his family 0 Gods are speaking about Aegisthus who slept with Agamemnon s wife while he was at the Trojan war and then killed him when he returned 0 Gods agree to make sure the same thing doesn39t happen to Odysseus o Odysseus is trapped on an island by Calypso who wants to marry him and Poseidon is angry at him for blinding his son 0 Penelope his wife is surrounded by suitors back in Ithaca o It is a homecoming story Pervading Themes 0 Binary Opposites 0 Sex and violence earth and slq 0 Union and separation many births and deaths 0 Love and strife ghting between parents and children friends 0 Punishing innocent people 0 Zeus punishes mortals because of Prometheus Zeus punishes Greeks for offending Achilles o Anger as a motivating force o Zeus about meat and re Achilles about woman Apollo about priests daughter 0 Sac ce Honor Classics 30 Study Guide 2 Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite Sexual union plays a big role in mythology o The way the world came to be is from sex Aphrodite and Eros Aphrodite is seen standing modestly in the nude 0 Even though she is the goddess of eroticism she is covering herself She is incredibly powerful 0 Makes every being feel erotic desire and love ie animals people gods 0 Only Athena Artemis and Hestia can resist her only 3 virgin gods 0 She is responsible for all birth and development of nature 0 Artemis is an antifeminist hunts with other women very muscular can be friendly but ruthless to followers who get pregnant 0 Hestia is goddess of the hearth replace center of the house seen as pure Must explore virginity in an ethnographic context 0 Virginity was not medical but more of a social status 0 Greek word for virgin means unmarried female 0 Unlearned in the ways of Aphroditevirgin parthenos Zeus can control Aphrodite s sexual desires 0 Makes her fall in love with Anchises a mortal man 0 She takes action says she is a virgin and was abducted by Hermes to fulfill a godly desire to be Anchises wife she asks him to marry her 0 He makes her fall in love because she was boasting about her powers now she cannot boast because she was impregnated by a mortal The reason gods can do things outside of their own domain is because the qualities and emotions they represent are not singular in human experience 0 Cant have love without anger and vice versa not mutually exclusive Marriage was always an exchange of a woman between two men 0 Images of marriage often have a mirror women holding boxes of valuables o Eros is in these images to show desires prevalence in marriage 0 Often seen as a man taking a woman s hand and leading her away consensuaHy Erotic desire can go both ways 0 Mythology displays this reciprocity with calypso and Odysseus o Desire takes you you do not control desire can be put inside you by a god Often goddesses appear infront of mortals and deny divinity o Aphrodite in this hymn 0 Athena in odyssey o Demeter in her hymn o Humans can hardly bear the strength and total beauty of what goddesses look like Female delity is good female in delity is catastrophic o Clytemnestra has an affair and leads to killing Agamemnon and many others 0 Helen elopes from husband and causes war 0 Penelope is a good wife doesn39t take a suitor for 17 years 0 Being divine doesn39t change marriage expectations 0 Male in delity is not frowned upon Aphrodite seduces Anchises 0 She oils herself shiny good smelling skin is attractive o Smells of incense wraps herself in gold robes and jewelry 0 Pretends to be mortal virgin shy modestattractive in the ancient world 0 Uses attery of looks and family lineage 0 Tells story of being abducted by Hermeswill of the gods 0 Offers large extravagant wedding and feast 0 She could easily have him but makes up stories instead because she is overwhelmed with desire and needs to throw everything at him to ensure success 0 She cannot think straight because she is so overwhelmed with desire 0 She portrays it as everyone s idea that they have sex besides her own because she is not supposed to make the rst move Homeric Hymn to Demeter Begins with Persephone out picking owers and the ground opening up 0 She l seized by hades with no previous desire shown 0 Zeus agrees to her marriage without consulting Demeter marriage being an exchange between two men 0 Showing Persephone s innocence o Demeter nds out from Helios that Hades has taken her 0 She hides away from other gods plans to not let any plants grow kill of humans 0 Zeus requests to see her she says fuck off he starts to send her presents 0 She refuses to see any gods until she can see her child Hermes is sent to Hades who gives Persephone a pomegranate seed 0 He lets her leave the underworld 0 Eating pomegranate seeds means she must return Zeus agrees that Persephone can live with Demeter 23 of the year and hades 13 0 This is the Greek explanation of winter 0 She becomes a nursemaid for a family 0 Attempts to turn the child immortal by placing him in the re 0 The mother sees her gets angry and Demeter lets out her wrath Many gods do not understand why Persephone is unhappy o Hades promises to punish mortals if they do not honor her enough 0 Says he has lots of wealth so she should be happy with the king of underworld o Helios says Demeter shouldn39t be so upset because hades is Zeus s brother This story is primarily a mother daughter relationship exploration 0 This is the strongest love stronger than man and wife Transition from Epic Poem to Dramatic Theater Theater is an institution in ancient Greece Vibrant larger than life spectacles large presence in public perspective Theater and productions are in honor of Dionysus People rule Athens culture is about what people want Has a beautiful aesthetic enjoyment they like old stories 0 Plays take into account the stage audience everything is visible ln tragedy nothing is black and white 0 Cannot have all good or all bad Ambiguity split sympathy Drama means action opposite of storytelling you have to look at it to feel emotion Theater is not just miming but is body language drama costumes props tone Audience is present in different ways in comedy and tragedy 0 Actors constantly address the audience in comedy people speci cally or as a group 0 Tragedy keeps the 4th wall intact Chorus in the theater express emotion 0 Audience can trust the chorus s interpretation of actions and emotions Pity is the pervading emotion of the theater OOOO Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus Prometheus is nailed to a rock because zeus commands Hephaestus to put him there 0 He has offended Zeus not mocked or humiliated him by giving humans re Prometheus is seen as the defender of humans 0 He put the wellbeing of humans infront of his own honor as a god 0 Zeus is the evil one he has unjust power 0 Hephaestus pities Prometheus Prometheus is seen with an eagle eating his liver o It regenerates then the bird eats it again 0 He will suffer eternally for giving re to humans 0 Shows Prometheus as the hero point of view of humanity Zeus has recently taken power 0 New power creates the temptation to use it poorly o Monarchy always leads to potential tyranny o Prometheus says he helped a tyrant take over and now he is paying for it 0 He doesn39t care about humans sees them as expendable Prometheus is visited by Power Hephaestus Oceanus lo and Hermes 0 Power wants vengeance for Zeus o Hephaestus carries out Zeus s orders almost unwillingly but still obediently o Oceanus does not pity Prometheus but offers to try and persuade zeus to let him go o lo fears for her own suffering and tries to get Prometheus to reveal his secret o Hermes is rude to Prometheus and comes requesting the secret Aristotle s Tragic Hero Tragedy is when someone is unjustly penalized or endures suffering or humiliation 0 Audience pities them meant to evoke pity and fear o It was undeserved so it could happen to you Tragic hero is formed by a person who was great 0 They had importance and power and are virtuous but awed 0 They suffer from a reversal of fortune that comes from an error split sympathy Catharsis is needed for tragedy 0 Puri cation of emotions or release of emotions mainly pity and fear Pervading Themes Binary Oppositionlnversions o Virginmarried justiceinjustice actionobservation respectdisrespect pitymockery o Zeus does what Aphrodite usually does female sees male body and is taken by desire Classics 30 Study Guide Oedipus Rex by Sophocles Oedipus is a successful king who cares about his subjects 0 Thebes is suffering from a plague and he goes to consult an oracle Oedipus is alive by mistake 0 His parents Laius and Jocasta king and queen of Thebes couldn39t have children so Laius went to an oracle to ask why 0 Priest speaks on behalf of Apollo says he should not have child because he will end up killing his father and marrying his mother 0 Laius was drunk and they conceived Oedipus Parents tried to expose him 0 Leave outside so that nature can kill him or choose to let him live 0 They would not be responsible for his death 0 Found by a shepherd and is given to the king of Corinth Gossip as Oedipus grows up that he is not his parents real child 0 He goes to consult an oracle who tells him to be careful because he is going to kill his father and marry his mother 0 He forgets ambiguity of his origins and ees Corinth As he ees Corinth to avoid the prophecy he meets a man at a crossroad o Intersection of road from Delphi to Thebes other man going to oracle 0 Has an altercation with an older man about who will go rst 0 They ght bc of arrogance Oedipus kills him Laius Sphinx has overtaken Thebes and is harassing citizens when Oedipus arrives o Oedipus solves the riddle and is awarded with kingship o Oedipus is clever smart witty important for tragic reversal Play begins years later with Jocasta and Oedipus married with children 0 Find out murderer is in Thebes and says the murderer must be found 0 To stop the plague he pledges to banish whoever it was 0 Oedipus ful lls his own prophecy by trying to avoid ittragedy Oedipus is constructed by Sophocles as a character who is innocent but responsible 0 Responsibility does not necessarily imply intention 0 When he gures out what he has done he nds himself in a tragic situation and he assumes responsibility for his actions Oedipus blinds himself and then exiles himself 0 Eyes failed to see recognize his parents and his own identity 0 Oedipus looked like his father but didn39t know or realize 0 Shepherd pierced baby s feet Oedipus has them still Action and Responsibility 0 Voluntary willing full understanding and intention of outcome 0 Nonvoluntary person acts out of ignorance and does something wrong ignorance of their actions who where acting on tools used or nature of the act 0 Involuntary ignorance pain or remorse after the fact regret subset or nonvoluntary moral emotional distress Hard for audience to sympathize with evil or voluntary actions 0 Can have sympathy for evil nonvoluntary actions until audience is aware of his lack of remorse 0 Full sympathy for involuntary action 0 All of these types still have moral responsibility 0 Moral pollution killing someone stains you permanently o Oedipus pollutes his city must remove stain through banishment o Oedipus is pitiable 0 He tried to not kill father and marry mother 0 Some points we don39t want to pity him like when he doesn39t want people to help him takes a long time to recognize his situation 0 Agnoia not recognizing failure to recognize own identity is Oedipus s fundamental mistake o Aristotle also said this is the mistake in all tragedies o Anagnorisis moment of recognition 0 Aristotle likes when there is a probable sequence of events in the plot 0 Natural proceedings to realization that coincide with reversals 0 Someone is trying to accomplish something but the reverse occurs 0 Oedipus fails to recognize himself and everyone in his life but in this Anagnorisis everyone is put into perspective 0 Dramatic lrony player saying things and misunderstanding what audience already knows o Oedipus calls himself stranger to the deed and that he will ght for him like he was his father 0 Tiresias taunts Oedipus with the idea that he should know better but Oedipus ignores his warnings that the audience sees all along 0 Message comes to tell Oedipus good news that his father died 0 Corinth people want him to be king 0 Oedipus says no im still afraid of my mom but messenger says no they weren39t your real parents which makes him more scared o Herdsman shows up to say who killed Laius 0 Doesn39t ever actually say who killed Laius but says Oedipus is the baby he took from Jocasta but she has already killed herself o Oedipus stabs his eyes out with pins from her dress because of shame o Shame comes from what happens when you fail the standards of your community who share your values 0 Jocasta didn39t feel full shame until everyone she cared about knew that39s wen she killed herself Oedipus leaves his children with Creon o Oedipus s character 0 Pro immediately exiles himself when he learns he has done wrong saves city from sphinx very adamantly tries to avoid ful lling prophecy tries to clear the city s pollution 0 Con denies he is the root of the problem lack of recognition and chosen ignorance ignores people trying to help him when they give him incriminating evidence got power by being clever but does not use it to solve other problems and ignores information actually kills stranger without acknowledgement or remorse Antigone by Sophocles o Hegel analyzes it and says it is the best tragedy 0 He says competing and incompatible ideals come to a synthesis 0 Brothers kill each other one remains outside the city unburied o Creon and Antigone clash of morals religious vs city 0 Creon s authority as king relies on kinship 0 His brother gave him the power but is then disregarding sibling respect after death 0 Creon kills Antigone another loss of family 0 No side is correct ethical collision 0 Neither can see interdependence on each other 0 Antigone says brother must be buried out of loyalty to the family 0 Acts out of moral obligation to her brother and gods 0 Creon feels moral obligation to the laws of the city 0 Antigone buries her brother anyway 0 Both are morally rigid hot tempered o Yell at each other the whole time 0 Both so stubborn that neither realizes tragedy can be prevented by compromise o Creon has Antigone buried alive and she kis herself o Creon realizes he has been too rigid 0 Neither recognizes themselves in the other one 0 Neither recognizes their ideas could have never been realized 0 In a tragedy a new sense of principles emerge 0 Audience should put together the dialectic dynamic o Tragic heroes transgress when if they were true to their own nature they would be honored Medea by Euripides 0 Jason and Medea meet in Colchis 0 Jason is sent to nd the golden eece o Medea is the daughter ofJason and helps him get it and run away back to Greece while killing anyone in her way 0 She is the brains behind all of his plots 0 Play begins with her being abandoned byJason and she is devastated 0 He leaves her for the daughter of Creon who is a princess Glauce o Medea wants to take hold of herself and move on 0 Uses retaliation to move on has been offended and wants to do something in response 0 She rst wants to kill Jason in his new home 0 After agon climax disagreement that explores tragic clash makes her change her mind 0 Decides to etJason live but kill all the people who are close to him 0 She claims she did everything for him 0 He was all she had and he says Aphrodite is the reason she did those things 0 She is successful 0 Flees to Athens triumphantly on a ying chariot piloted by dragons o Kills children and wife with a poisoned gown and crown ofjewels 0 She is a witch with the ability to rejuvenate people 0 Kills people forJason because she loves him 0 He doesn39t appreciate it because Aphrodite made her do it 0 She says without me you wouldn39t be a hero 0 Euripides places Medea in a position of power 0 This is a reversal Jason the hero is portrayed as a fool o Switches gender expectations 0 quotJustice of the bedquot expectation of reciprocity 0 Keeping that relationship special and respecting what marriage is about 0 Jason says im not marrying another woman because of Eros o Says he is doing it for the sake of the children and their social status 0 Shows that he cares about the well being of the children where she can hurt him the most Jason accuses Medea of being too much of a woman 0 She gets in his way 0 Says women only think about sex and their happiness is reliant on what happens there Hippolytus by Euripides 0 Young man who is chaste disrespects Aphrodite 0 Does not like sexuality does not respect Aphrodite s power 0 He chooses to worship Artemis and reject love sex and marriage 0 Logic of polytheism says you need to acknowledge all gods and their domain over human life 0 Do not expect chastity from this young man 0 By rejecting one god he creates his own pseudo monotheism o Aphrodite seeks revenge and makes his step mother fall in love with him 0 Phaedra falls in love because Aphrodite intervenes o Supposed to be a scandalous relationship 0 Adultery on the disband and incest with the son 0 Woman is being the aggressor and man is the chaste passive one 0 Play magni es passion 0 Large exhibition of passion o Phaedra is so ill with her lust for him and resisting 0 She tries to resist with silence self control but then settles on death 0 Overcome by desire she will not eat 0 So much shame she cannot bear to be alive 0 Nurse pressures her into telling 0 Nurse then tells Hippolytus and he leaves 0 Hangs herself and leaves a tablet saying Hippolytus raped her 0 Theseus comes back and sees it then curses his son and banishes him 0 Hippolytus gets dragged around by his horses and fatally wounded 0 Artemis comes down and says letter wasn39t true 0 Reassures Hippolytus while he is dying that she will kill Aphrodite s favorite human and that Theseus does not need to feel responsible for his sons death 0 She is the voice of reason chastity and no sex is the loudest opinion we hear 0 H39s downfall is due to his strong worship of one god 0 Servant argues polytheism needs to be equal worship of all the gods 0 Phaedra thinks love is painful butt can also make you happy 0 Nurse has love potions says you are in love is that so strange o Takes POV of shit happens to mortals and love is not so shameful Bacchae by Euripides o Focuses on the dynamic of recognition 0 Dionysus a bene cial divinity fees sighted 0 His own family denies he is a god failure to recognize He takes revenge by making the women of the city run into the mountain in ecstasy 0 He is the god of theater and has the power to cure us of troubles o Gives human the gift of alcohol to produce a euphoric sensation medication for pain aid any human troubles o Dionysus goes to Thebes in disguise 0 Cannot recognize him literay o Comes to trick the king 0 Pentheus is particularly stubborn in his refusal to pay resect to Dionysus 0 Gets convinced to go into the mountains to spy on the Bacchae o Bacchae women obsessed with Dionysus 0 King s own mother Agave sees him but fails to recognize him 0 Sees him as lion and with help of other Bacchae kills him and tears him apart Pervading themes Sightawarenessrecognition o Literal Jocasta fails to recognize Oedipus Agave to Pentheus o Figurative Oedipus fails to recognize Tiresias as a very important pro t Oedipus cannot recognize Creon is trying to help him Antigone and Creon fail to recognize how similar they really are 0 Passionate Women 0 Medea is the passion of a woman prepared to kill for love 0 Hippoytus is the passion of a woman prepared to kill herself bc son spurns her love 0 Autonomy Divine inspiration vs human decisiveness 0 Who makes you fall in love 0 Who controls your actions 0 Gender expectations 0 Women expected to be chaste but Hippoytus is chaste 0 Women expected to be passive but Medea is strong and powerful 0 Women are sex obsessed in Hippoytus and Medea o Gratitude vs lngratitude o Inability to feel gratitude is a reason for anger in Antigone and Medea o Polyvocality audience must interpret and evaluate arguments in tragedy not one source of correctness no straightforward truth like in myth OOOOOO Split sympathy not one person is entirely correct Antigone and Creon are both right Oedipus is sometimes pitiable sometimes a tyrant Both Medea and Jason do evil things Phaedra and Hippolytus do not both deserve to die Tragedy gives us many points of view on love justice morality and lets us decide each side having a strength or a weakness Classics 30 Study Guide 4 Birds by Aristophanes Aristophanes has 11 full plays surviving 0 Career was during the Peloponnesian war and the time after 0 Often makes fun of Euripides 0 His comedy is historically based addresses current politicians and other poets Comedy is a spectacle 0 Visual part of performance is given preference 0 Lots of sound jokes based on sight Birds costumes are ridiculous Very colorful play 0 Makes fun of contemporary politicians in the audience 0 This breaks the fourth wall Parabasis when the chorus speaks directly to the audience 0 Romantic irony characters acknowledging they re part of a play 0 Some ancient political gures are only known because they are mentioned in comedies Play is about a utopia in the sky 0 The birds kick out professions that annoy them in Athens like poets Sacri ce is a central idea o If the birds stop smoke from sacri ce they could starve out the gods Gods are anthropomorphic in the way that they need to eat Prometheus appears once again to spite the gods 0 Helps the birds win out by starving them 0 Aristophanes gives new view of gods and their power 0 Here we see immortals as mortals lris says she is deathless when she tries to pass through cloudcuckooia but Prometheus says no you can die Death is a legitimate threat to Zeus s life They are dependent on food and sexual habits o Is questioning the gods well received by the audience The theater takes great liberties with the image of the gods They appear hungry greedy hedonistic need to be dependent on humans or the plot doesn39t make sense 0 The birds is sometimes seen as escapist fantasy 0 Explores politics during a time when democracy was falling apart People were being put to death so it was dif cult to outright make fun of politicians 0 City in the sky was a way to escape the hardships of Athens at the time Gives audience a chance to think about other things Women at the Thesmophoria by Aristophanes Thesmophoria was a festival to Demeter goddess of grain 0 Women convene without men and this meeting is shrouded in mystery Alcibiades was a famous student of Socrates and was known to be a party animal o Is thought to have castrated statues of Hermes with his friends 0 Held a private party in his house making fun of Eleusis the temple to Demeter This play was a parody of the cult of Demeter Aristophanes mocks this festival 0 Play is focused on gender roles o Agathon is gender uid poet and Kinsman Mnesilochos challenges him Does not understand how he cannot be one gender 0 Kinsman to Euripides takes on a female disguise to go into the Thesmophoria Considers sexuality very straightforward but has to cross dress 0 Agathon says that gender is not black and white Mimesis 0 He is a poet with a very masculine side and feminine side Is a character and can switch back and forth depending on what he needs to write about be it masculine or feminine 0 He has male anatomy but can be a woman if he needs to Gender is uid Mnesilochos wants the binary opposition The Frogs by Aristophanes Dionysus is a character here and in the Bacchae 0 Plays with his identity as a god Appropriate in theater because he is the god of the theater 0 His connection to wine is exaggerated o Opens with immediate character recognition that they are in a play 0 This awareness of the theater is Metatheater o In comedy pain is funny in tragedy pain is tragic 0 Pain is seen as bearing weight on the body Tragedy speaks of pain through emotions and states of mind whereas comedy speaks about the body through the body Many jokes about picking heavy things up Heracles is typically a Greek hero but in this play he is an internal audience 0 He cannot stop laughing and wants the audience to laugh at him 0 Heracles wears saphron robes and lions head Dionysus dresses up as him He wants to be Heracles until he realizes the underworld does not welcome Heracles Gives the robes to Xanthias his servant but then a cute maid recognizes him and invites him inside so Dionysus wants the robes back 0 When they get inside they both claim to be the god 0 Each gets ogged to prove he is immortal and cannot feel anything The body in pain is funny Aeschylus and Euripides ght in a word battle 0 Aeschylus is very word heavy talks about death violence suffering Literally speaks heavier words that weigh on the scale used to measure who wins 0 Euripides is subtle and lighthearted Sophisticated analytic philosopher concrete Interested in simple people like women children and poor people Metamorphoses by Ovid 0 Famous for writing Amores Ars Amattoria Metamorphoses Fasti Tristia o All books about love sexuality lust adultery 0 Stories are told for the pleasure of the teller not the listener Metamorphoses creates a world where you must always question whether or not something has human character 0 Daphne is turned into a tree 0 lo is turned into a cow 0 Depicts the beginning of time but in a different way than Hesiod o More philosophical perspective uncertainty and skepticism 0 Could have been a god but also could have been nature 0 Animals literally come out of the earth 0 Wheeler addresses Ovid s ambivalence and ambiguous nature 0 He says Ovid is too ambivalent to be a philosopher o All mythology is based on a false premise that the gods care about human beings Gods have perfect happiness so they cannot care or worry about humans Lucretius says gods must be indifferent carefree and carless but also say that instead of thinking about gods we should be thinking about physics Ovid brings back mythology with metamorphoses o Tells reincarnation stories as if he were a part of them 0 Everything is in ux in Ovid s works Pythagoras thinks this is why you should not eat meat 0 When something is behind you or something is on your back it actually means it is in your future you cannot see it 0 First book begins with another creation story but it is different from the Theogony o Refers to just one god but is also ambiguous Says maybe it was just nature that made everything 0 Everything is formed out of chaos like before but it is a different chaos Theogony says splitting of things comes from strife Metamorphoses says splitting of things comes from the ending of strife and creates peace and order 0 The four ages are golden silver bronze and iron 0 The golden age was beautiful and perfect Everything was peaceful and fruitful no laws because none were needed beautiful food spawns itself from earth fertility idea of pastoral innocence Saturn was in charge 0 Silver age was less good Had to plow things to grow food appearance of seasons jupiterJoveZeus was in charge 0 Bronze age created cruel people 0 Iron Age was ruthless and hard Age where everything is terrible wars greed mining piety was slain could be Ovid complaining about civil war 0 Council of the gods decides to destroy humanity o Jove tells the story of why he decided to decimate them all Goes down to earth and told people he was zeus Most people believed him except for Lycaon who tries to test him Attempts to kill him in his sleep then attempts to feed him human Turns Lycaon into a wolf Zeus Poseidon the river and the sea create a massive ood o Kills all of the animals and all but two of the humans Ducelion lives because he is the most just man Pyrrha lives because she is the most god fearing woman 0 Oracle says throw the bones of your mother behind you They throw rocks and spawn the rest of the human population 0 Earth is all wet and animals start growing out of it Python grows and challenges Apollo Tells story of how young Apollo defeats python to get control of temple 0 Becomes the temple at Delphi 0 Apollo the god of light falls in love with Daphne because of cupid o Daphne is the daughter of a river god and very beautiful follower of artemis Despises sexuality and wants to remain a virgin even though her father wants grandchildren 0 Apollo challenges and insults cupid Says we both have a bow and arrows but yours are small and it is a great responsibility only a real god can handle Cupid shoots him with his golden arrows Makes him loopy with love he is the god of light truth bringing but cannot make sense of anything he is so lovestruck o Cupid hits Daphne with his lead arrows that makes her shun his love Daphne is a close follower of DianaPhoebeArtemis Love is represented trough ames or re or heat 0 Erotic scenes are often in the wild countryside forest wooden 0 Can be welcoming and charming but also disarming Ovid speaks about type through Apollo 0 He doesn39t like just one kind of woman He sees beauty in everything 0 Speaks through conditionals She would look good if she were dressed up or hair arranged Zeus sees lo and decides he wants to have sex with her 0 She runs away but he sets a cloud over the earth to distract her Hera sees this cloud and goes down expecting to catch him 0 Just before she arrives zeus turns lo into a cow Gives the cow to Hera as a gift The cow is watched over by a monster 0 Zeus pities lo so he releases her He still puts his baby inside of her Hera gets jealous and sens a fury after lo A lover must adjust to the woman he approaches to seduce her 0 Proteus shapeshifeter takes many different forms for self defense 9130 BCE Rome was constantly at war 0 Civil war Marian and sullen proscriptions award for murder more civil war dictators for life more civil war 0 Ovid was born during civil war between Octavian and Antony He was a teenager during Augustus s triple triumph o Augustus becomes the bringer of peace and prosperity to Rome Augustus makes the julian laws which are a morality campaign 0 No adultery rewards for more children in wedlock o Antiadultery laws in uence Ovid Writes books on his affairs with married women and writes a book on how to have affairs with married women Because of Carmen et error a song and a mistake Ovid is exiled o Ovid comes into a world that was incredibly scary and in a constant state of war which in uences his writing Sees full transformation of Rome from warring to peaceful Main subject matter is love Pervading Themes Sacri ce reappears in the birds 0 Gods need it to survive Mocking or questioning the gods 0 The birds paints the gods as very human like needy for food and sex 0 Reliant on humans they are the ones with real power Gender roles and their inversion or uidity 0 Gender is not binary opposition to Agathon it is uid Very progressive view of gender Play makes fun of gender roles and stereotypes of women and men Laurel is a representation of triumph and military prowess o Daphne is turned into a laurel Comment on military accomplishments Are they rapey Even generals are controlled by cupid o Daphne is conquered and gives up her individuality to become a tree What kind of sacri ces is military forcing on the people Mythology as a lter for immediate world 0 Ovid transforms how mythology is thought about Not necessarily always to get a cosmic understanding of the world Uses it as a way to think about the people he s in love with his government personal narrative not just theology anymore
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