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Tm Vici m s a a m za 39m39 3 m gm g y Antisocial Behavior M J 444 39 I 4 he mam W aci mzaiimav 4 339 39 I The SocialEcology ofViCtimization 4 4 4 4 4 j a C i 39eVictim39s Househoid 4 ifctim Characteristics Describe the victim39s role inquot the Crime process g r laltesif brobl g nf d cili igivictims 7 4 4 is by the tterm cycle Of Violence Some aspiring Y d ng r odel though a1 ingfreti niejf39 4 w 4 Eimz vzcnmsi fiv 4B j4fam P fWh the e993909v 9f V39ct39m39za t39onquot8k i4 4 VestimsandIheirc riminms5 3745 theyWere g tting th e chantgepfi 39 Wm hm em twy mmmwmam ama am i Whentheysdeedt39up important theories of vgctamlzatlon4 39 Victim Pr cipitation f 4 1 ill audition fora man I 4 Eif 39swle Theories D viantP1aCeTheoryilfquot r 4 44 4 4 4 utine Activities Th e f j druggedsand raped on cam Iegitimat tzaka ri t 4 u l v t rh39 resuiting video s Werejsfoldji n In 2012 the tw b i 4 af611 1efbdl S 5 WW arid 94th iquot Se39ffd s 39lb dr ri m quot I 5 Pl iotbshotSuherstock A I xxx5 4 4 4 I 4 50 vw Q f 4 4 39 4 g 4 4 4 4 4 a 4 4 4 mp ris h usg d x 4 a v Maze t gi y a 2 39 b 1 s m fg39 39 quotquot quot quot quot 3 f 33 V W I 4 a 3 1 tl g i lquot A ames 34 4 V 55 km W033 f p o a 935 L 35 J 7 8r i gt hi ifd39atg rap drag that 394 Who are simply in the Wrong 1 bmplifa fand O h l jem 44piace at the wrong time 39 i with qm mories bf what hadh apgenedzi tb th39eimfwhen they were dr gg d 1 ll 39r3 VICTIMS ANDVICTIMIZATIUN Why do people become targets of predatory criminals Do som become victims because of their lifestyle and environment Did these young women put themselves at risk by answering a bogus ad for models Should they have done more to protect themselves especially when they were told to come alone to a meeting in a 4 distant city Or does asking these questions smack of unfairly quotblaming the victim for risky behavior Can someone deflect or avoid criminal behavior or is it a matter of fate and chance What can be done to protect victims alth care costs borne by society security costs and so on When the tangible and angible costs are added together the total loss due to crime can be 11139 the hun ads of billions of dollars Considering that 15000 murders are committed each r the cost of this crime alone is almost 150 billion annually taming the Victim e suffering endured by crime victims does not end when their attacker leaves the ne of the crime They may suffer innuendos or insinuations from friends and iam Iyquotmernbers who suggest that they are to blame for what happened or that the crime I as somehow their fault Being blamed for what others perceive to be a result of risky behavior is espe ially painful for rape victims who may be made to feel they were somehow respon ible for the attack because they used poor judgment or took risks6 Research by Ezourtney Ahrens found that rape survivors are often the target of negative reactions il orn people who are supposed to give them support Speci cally 1 negative reac ons from professionals led survivors to question whether future disclosures would is effective 2 negative reactions from friends and family reinforced feelings of self lame and 3 negative reactions from either source reinforced uncertainty about whether their experiences quali ed as rape A trauma such as the one experienced by the rape survivors whom Ahrens in erviewcd can have serious repercussions Some rape victims report that the treat ment they received from legal medical and mental health services was so destructive hat they couldn t help feeling quotreraped 3 But when the victim nds that people are ympathetic and responsive she develops con dence and becomes more Willing to turn to them and report victimizations9 The Vet For many years crime victims were viewed by criminologists as merely the passive targets of a criminal s anger greed or frustration they were considered to have been in the wrong place at the wrong time More than 50 years ago a number of pioneer3 ing studies found that contrary to popular belief the victim s own behavior is impor tant in the crime process2 Victims influence criminal behavior by playing an active role in a criminal incidentu for example by provoking the assault that ended in their death Victims were also found to play an indirect role in a criminal incident such as I II I I I when a woman adopts a lifestyle that continually brings her into highcrime areas The discovery that victims play an important role in the crime process has prompted the scienti c study of victims or victimology Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims refer to themselves as victimologists In this chapter we examine victims and their relationship to the criminal process First using available victim data we analyze the nature and extent of victimization We then discuss the relationship between victims and criminal offenders in this con text we look at various theories of victimization that attempt to explain the victim s role in the crime problem Finally we examine how society has reSponded to the needs of victims and consider what Special problems they still face 5 e ole victimology The study of the victim39s role in Criminal events 39 Mong erm Stress victimoleglsts Criminologists who focus on the victims of crime Victims may suffer stress and anxiety long after the incident is over and the justice hquot process has run its course Posttraumatic stress disorder P l Sl l the symptoms of which include depression anxiety and selfdestructive behavior is a common problem especially when the victim does not receive adequate support from family and friends Rape victims are particularly susceptible to PTSD and its effects are felt whether the victim acknowledges the attack or remains in denial about what hap pened In other words there is no escaping the longterm effects of sexual assault even if the victim refuses to acknowledge having been raped11 Vietmiaetion e Sent to goeety The National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS indicates that more than 22 mil lion people and homes are victimized each year3 Being the target or victim of a rape robbery or assault is a terrible burden that can have considerable longterm conse quences Table 31 shows estimates of the cost of an individual crime devised by re searcher l aul Heaton using a variety of statistical methods4 Why are these costs so high ranging from about 2000 per larceny to almost 9 million fOr each homicide it s because there are a myriad of associated costs as sociated with each crime some directly related to the victim and others that are indirect and involve costs to society Some of the direct tangible costs of crime include the cost of damaged and lost property pain and suffering costs of medical care lost wages reduced quality of life imposed by debilitating injuries and or fear of being victimized again and the cost of psychological counsel ing Some victims are physically disabled including a growing number who suffer paralyzing spinal cord injuries and need long term medical care And if victims have no insurance the long term effects of the crime may have devastating financial as well as emotional and physical consequences5 The multimilliondollar cost of homicide is calculated in the same manner an insurance company values the life of someone killed in an accident when paying VICTIMS AND VICTIMIZATION Part1 CONCEPTS OF CRIME LAW AND CRIMINOEO intimidation as they are to use physical force Such psychology equot nature of victimization policies can thenbe created in an effort to reduce abuse can lead to depression and other longterm disabilities quot tiniization rate Who are victims Where does victimization take place What relationship between victims and criminals The following sections discuss Fear of39the most important victimization patterns and trends Some victims especially the elderly the poor and members0 minority groups develop a persistent and paralyzing fear th39a they will be victimized again22 Victims of violent crime are most deeply affected fearing a repeat of their attack There ma be a Spillover effect in which victims become fearful of othe forms of crime they have not yet experienced for example people who have been assaulted may develop fears that thei house will be burglarized23 In a moving book called Aftermath Violence and the Remaking of a Self rape victim Susan Brison re counts the dif cult time she had recovering from her ordeal The trauma of rape disrupted her memory cut off events tha happened befOre the rape from those that occurred afterward Social Estron otllietrmrzation surveys show that violent crimes are slightly more likely to take place in an public area such as a street a park or a eld or at a commercral establishment a tavern and in daytime or early evening hours than in a private home during timing or late evening hours 39 3quot e more serious violent crimes such as rape and aggravated assault typically place after 6 PM Approximately twothirds of rapes and sexual assaults occur 1ght 6 PM to 6 AM Less serious forms of violence such as unarmed robberies In39personal larcenies such as purse snatching are more likely to occur during the time I I 39 I Neighborhood characteristics affect the chances of Victimization Those livm g in entral city experience signi cantly higher rates of theft and Violence than subur ites people living in rural areas have a victimization rate less than half that of city wellers The risk of murder for both men and women is Signi cantly higher in dis rganized innercity areas where gangs ourish and drug traf cking is commonplace 39 en if people are not personally victimized city dwellers especrally those living in reas with large disadvantaged populations are more likely to observe or be exposed to violence than those living in more advantaged neighborhoods And observrng vio can contribute to stress fear and flight35 tive future Although sympathizers encouraged her to forget the past she found that confronting it can have healing power24 Even those who have escaped attack themselves may develop fears and become timid after hearing about another s victimiza tion25 Not only are people likely to move out of their neigh borhood if they become crime victims but they are also likely j 39 to relocate if they hear that a friend or neighbor has suffered a i breakin or burglary26 Their fear is exacerbated by lurid news ac counts of crime and violence27 News stories about serial killers on39 a rampage or mass killers shooting peeple in a movie theater can cause a chill felt throughout the city Fear of these violent crimes 39 39 prompts people to protect themselves and their family by imple menting some sort of protective measure such as carrying mace or pepper Spray or installing a security device in their home28 0 Brian Shumwayr edux People who suffer relatiOnship stress may tradesmen victims Dot 61 displays the last of her39teeth that have been recently pulled She used math for a39period bi time r and says that meth caused her to lose her teeth Her395 husband Dutch also used meth as a way to enhance his 3 CRIIEVIE EN SCHOOLS Schools unfortunately are the scene of a great deal of victim Sex life The two have a history 0f domestic violence ization because they are populated by one of the most dangerous segments of ety teenage males The latest data from the National Center for Educational Statistics lound about 80000 crimes are committed at schools each year Among students ages 12 to 18 there were about 470000 thefts and 350000 acts of violence more than 13930 students are now being killed on school grounds each year36 One reason is that adult supervision is minimal before during and after school activities School hallways and locker rooms are typically left unattended Kids who participate in school sports may leave their valuables in locker rooms others congre gate in unguarded places making them attractive targets for predators who come on school grounds37 antisoeia shaver Peeple who are crime victims may be more likely to commit crime themselves The process may begin early in life because being abused or neglected as a child in creases the odds of being arrested both as a juvenile and as an adult People who were physically or sexually abused especially young males are much more likely to smoke drink and take drugs than nonabused youth Incarcerated offenders report signi cant amounts of posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of prior victimiza tion which may in part explain their violent and criminal behaviors30 Some may run away increasing their risk of becoming a crime victim31 Others may seek revenge against the people who harmed them and sometimes these feelings are generalized to others who exhibit the same characteristics as their attackers32 The abuseacrime phenomenon is referred to as the cycle of triplertoe33 As adults there is evidence that crime victims themselves are more likely than nonvictims to commit crimes Fearing revictimization they may take drastic measures and arm themselves for selfprotection34 Such measures may amplify victimization risk quotThe Victim s Household The NCVS tells us that within the United States homes located in urban areas in the South and West are the ones most vulnerable tocrime especially those occu pied by African American families In contrast European American homes in rural areas in the Northeast and Midwest are the least likely to become the target of crimes such as burglary and larceny People who own their homes are less vulner able than renters Population movement and changes may account for recent decreases in crime victimization US residents have become extremely mobile moving from urban areas to suburban and rural areas In addition family size has been reduced more people 39 than ever before are living in singleperson homes which now account for about 25 percent of households The fact that smaller households in less populated areas have a lovver victimization risk is a possible explanation for the decline in household victimizationrates during the past 15 years cycle oi violence Victims of crime especially victims of childhood abuse are 39 more likely to commit crimes I themselves The Nature mt Voti anemia How many crime victims are there in the United States and what are the trends and patterns in victimization Patterns in the victimization survey ndings are stable and repetitive suggesting that victimization is not random but is a function of personal and ecological factors The stability of these patterns allows judgments to be made Victim Characteristics Social and demographic characteristics also distinguish victims and nonvictims The most important of these factors are gender age social status and race As we saw in 1 Chapter 2 the NCVS is currently the Part1 ViCTliVIS AND VICTIMIZATEDN CONCEPTS OF CRIME LAW AND CRlMINO 39 y mgm m GENBER Gender affects victimization risk Except for the crimes of rape and sex a assault males are somewhat more likely than females to be the victims of violen crime Men are almost twice as likely as women to experience robbery Women 39Vlctimiled by Strangers however are 10 mes more hde than men to be Victims Of rape or sexual 615351 aquot Security and savings that make them attractive nancial targets Because W0men by someone they Although males are more likely to be victimized than females the gender differ 61 daily live by themselves and are lonely they remain more susceptible to tele know ences in the Victimization have narrowed conSiderably during the past decade a mail fraud Unfortunately once victimized the elderly have more limited is now approaching equality 157 versus 142 violent victimizations per 1000 n39 39 39 her to recover their lost mone or to earn enough to replace What These trends are particularly striking for youth Although victimization ratesi39l39fd Hing ltm addition the elderly are alsoiubjCCl t0 thSiCal and sexual abuse young men were nearly tWice as large as they were for young women in 1994 aquot f 39 fam members This topic is explored in the accompanying POIiCies by 2010 male and female youth were equally likely to experience serious violen n mm 39 1y f ture crime The rate of serious violent crime against male youth ages 12 to 17 declinequot SSEes m crlmmo ogy ea by 82 percent from 1994 to 2010 while the rate against female youth declined39bquot 69 percent during the same period38 One signi cant gender difference is that women are much more likely to b victimized by someone they know or with whom they live Of those offenders timizing females about twothirds were described as someone the victim knew was related to In contrast less then half of male victims were attacked by a friend relative or acquaintance However intimate partner violence seems to be declining One reason may be an increasing amount of economic and political opportuniti e39z fOr women research shows that economic inequality is signi cantly related to fe male victimization rates As more laws supportive of women are passed and mor39 economic opportunities become available to them the rates of their violent victim ization decline39 om the mail and crimes committed in longterm care settings claim more llyounger victims The elderly are especially susceptible to fraud because Ve insurance pension plans proceeds from the sale of homes and money aremore likely to be assess Women are much more likely than men to be victimized by someone they know or someone with whom they live GIAL STATUS The poorest Americans are the most likely to be victims of vio and property crime This association occurs across all gender age and racial p The homeless who are among the poorest individuals in America suffer high rates of assault42 In contrast the wealthy are more likely to be targets of quotrial theft crimes such as pocket picking and purse snatching Perhaps the at 39 who sport more expensive attire and drive better cars attract the attention RACE AM ETHNECETY African Americans are signi cantly more likely than Euro Americans to be victims of violent crime However there has been a signi cant line in the victimization risk of both racial groups and the decline in violent victim on among African Americans exceeds that experienced by European Americans y do these discrepancies exist Because of income inequality racial and minority up members are often forced to live in lower income communities a status that ces them in the most quotatrisk population group The association between age and victimization is undoubtedly tied to lifestyle adolescents often stay out late at night go to public places and hang out with other young people who have a high risk of criminal involvement Go back to Chapter 2 and review the association between age and crime AGE Although violent crime rates declined in recent years for most age groups vic tim data reveal that young people face a much greater victimization risk than older persons Teens and young adults experience the highest rates of violent crime but even i the youngest kids are not immune David Pinkelhor and his colleagues found thatquot pompared to older siblings younger children were just as likely to be hit with an object that could cause injury were just as likely to be victimized on multiple occasions and suffered similar injuries40 Victim risk diminishes rapidly after age 25 people 21 to 24 suffer 33 violent crimes per 1000 whereas people over 65 experience only 2 such incidents per 1000 Although the elderly are less likely to become crime victims than the young they are most often the victims of a narrow band of criminal activities from which the young are more immune Frauds and scams purse snatching pocket picking stealing MARITAL STATUS Victimization risk is also in uenced by marital status Never iriarried males and females are victimized more often than married people Widows and widowers have the lowest victimization risk This association between marital status and victimization is probably in uenced by age gender and lifestyle Many young people who have the highest victim risk are actually too young to have been married Young single people also go out in public more often and sometimes interact with highrisk peers increasing their exposure to victimization Widovvs and widowers suffer much lower victimization rates because they are older interact with older people and are more likely to stay home at night and to avoid public places 75 the elderly39areiesoecialiv vulnerable teatime even fromlth lriivvn j39f liat39ii i d thild r ni HireCharleneMarshall helds mightiest hustiandi nthony Marshall5 iasj ctuardom iri Newark 39 quot 39 exploiting hisquotphi Ilahthir39dpist39 1 tiringquotwastailing andhitting39h39i his lijtdii heist2190 Elder iihanaaiquot ls39 tn73rllt iiriti75 dquotItit i iib t 39 am 39039 it ll35quot 39 quot REPEAT VICTIMIZATION Does prior victimization enhance or reduce the chances of future victimization individuals who have been crime victims have a signi cantly higher chance of future victimization than people who have remained nonvictims 3 Households that have experienced victimization in the past are the ones most likely to experience it again inthe future44 What factors predict chronic victimization Most repeat victimizations occur soon after a previous crime has occurred suggesting that repeat victims share some per sonal characteristic that makes them a magnet for predators 3 For example children who are shy physically weak or socially isolated may be prone to being bullied in the schoolyard 46 David Firikelhor and Nancy Asigian have found that three speci c types of characteristics increase the potential for victimization 39 0 Target vulnerability The victims physical weakness or psychological distress renders them incapable of resisting or deterring crime and makes them easy targets Targetgratz abiiiht Some victims have some quality possession skill or attribute that an offender wants to obtain use have access to orlmanipulate Having attractive possessions such as a leather coat may make one vulnerable to predatory crime 5 AP watertight hStevetIhirschl CONCEPTS 0F CWE LAW AND CR39M39N llCTlMS AND vrcrrrrrrzarron 39e a agonism Some characteristics increase ause they arouse anger jealousy or de lv39ei39impulses in potential offenders Being on e39ffeminate for example may provoke ate kggnarhe street being argumentative and alco 3 may provoke barroom assaults47 peat39victimization may occur when the victim take defensive action If an abusive husband that his battered wife will not call police he y victimizes her or if a hate crime is com nd the police do not respond to reported of t e perpetrators learn they have little to iear 48 jctim data also tell us something about the rev nship between victims and criminals As stated ier males are more likely to be violently victim by a stranger and females are more likely to ictimized by a friend an acquaintance or an ictims report that most crimes were commit by a single offender over age 20 Crime tends to quot b i39ntraracial African American offenders victimize acks and European Americans victimize whites 1ctirns report that substance abuse was involved in out onethird of violent crime incidents 49 Although many violent crimes are committed q 39 y strangers a surprising number of violent crimes 39 z i 39 39i 7 are committed by relatives or acquaintances o Of all nonfatal personal crimes are committe 4 are more likely to be stranger for all violent crimes except robber robbed by a friend or acquaintance victims stated the offender was an intim iheoriee of Votimaeton For many years criminological t fender the role of the victim was vir began to realize that t one whose behavior can in uence his or h of victimization Victim Precipitationiheory According to victim precipitation theory tation that eventually leads to their inqu active or passive 39 ing words or even attack rst known to the victim Women are especially vulnerable to victimized by someone they know a nonstranger than by a y Women are more likely than men to be More than 70 percent of rape or sexual assault ate a relative a friend or an acquaintance heory focused on the actions of the criminal of tually ignored More than 60 years ago scholars he victim was not simply a passive target in crime but some er own fate who shapes and molds the criminal 50 These early works helped focus attention on the role of the victim in the crime problem and led to further research efforts that39have sharpened the image of the crime victim Today a number of different theories attempt to explain the causes some people actually initiate the confron y ordeath Victim precipitation can be either atively use threats or ght Aetive precipitation occurs when victims act provoc 51 In 1971 Menachem Arnir suggested that female gre39jer menijrerrms knevv39or39vvere acquainted with their attacker bed from a home where 57year Dbner39s39nrii39the mother of Oscar winner Jennifer Huds nl39iivasiioilnd shot tcj39deatherr the living room floor Hudson s brotherrwas39alsti round detainquot a bedroom of the home in 2012 Willifilm Balioitfgtheiftirmer husband of Hudson s sister Julia was Convrcf tl tiithe39inllrders 39 39 f the victims In fact more than half d by people who are described as being 5 people they know Females 4 s mr lc victim precipitation theory The View that victims may initiate either actively or passively the confrontation that leads to their victimization active precipitation Aggressive or provocative behavior of victims that results in their victimization gnminologists believe that people may become crime victims because their 13 1ncreases their exposure to criminal offenders Victimization risk is in such behaviors as associating with young men going out in public places ight and living in an urban area Conversely one s chances of victimiza be reduced by staying home at night moving to a rural area staying out of H laces earning more money and getting married The basis of such iiiestyie has is that crime is not a random occurrence rather it is a function of the x s39 lifestyle 1 quotquotquotquot 39HE39 quot quot RESK LlFEST r LES People who have highrisk lifestyles d1inking taking drugs i it If u out at night being away from home living on the streets have a much greater nee of victimization59 One reason is that offenders have similar lifestyles and being lose proximity with dangerous people increases chances of victimization eenage males have an extremely high victimization risk because their lifestyle them at risk both at school and once they leave the school grounds61 They a great deal of time hanging out with their friends and pursuing recreational 211 Their friends may give them a false ll so they can drink in the neighborhood They may hang out in taverns at night which places them at risk because many quothis and assaults occur in places that serve liquor Research conducted in a vari f nations shows boys who have an active nightlife any time after 6 PM who quent public places and who consume alcohol signi cantly increase their victim 63 Ization risk 2 Exposure to violence and associating with violent peers enmeshes young men in violent lifestyle that increases their own risk of violent offending One way for young les to avoid victimization is to limit their male friends and hang out with girls The greater the number of girls in their peer group the lower their chances of victimization64 Those who have a history of engaging in serious delinquency getting involved in gangs carrying guns and selling drugs have an increased chance of being shot and killed Kids who have done time and have a history of family violence are the es most at risk for becoming homicide victimsf39S Lifestyle risks continue into young rape victims often contribute to their attack by dressing provocatively or pursuing relationship with the rapist52 Although Arnir s ndings are considered highly contro 39 velrsial and there has been a great deal of change in the way rape victims are treated 1t IS not unusual for courts to nd the defendants in rape cases not guilty if actions of 39 the victim can in any way be construed as consent to sexual intimacy53 In contrast passive precipitation occurs when the victim exhibits some personal characteristic that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker Gender may play a role in the decisionmaking process criminals may target female victims because they perceive them to be easier less threatening targets54 Thus it is possible that a fearful or anxious demeanor may make a39woman more vulnerable to attack The crime can occur because of personal con ict such as when two people com pete over a job promotion love interest or some other scarce and coveted commod ity A woman may become the target of intimate violence when she improves her job status and her success results in hostility from a jealous spouse or partner55 In other situations although the victim may never have met the attacker or even known of his or her existence the attacker feels menaced and acts accordingly56 passive precipitation Personal or social characteristics of victims that make them attractive targets for criminals such victims may unknowingly either threaten or encourage their attackers VICTIM lMPULSIVlTY Perhaps there is something about victims that provokes an attack A number of research efforts have found that both male and female victims score high on impulsivity scales indicating that they have an impulsive personality that may render them abrasive and obnoxious characteristics that might incite victim ization People who are impulsive and lack selfcontrol are less likely to have a high tolerance for frustration tend to have a physical rather than a mental orientation and are less likely to practice risk avoidance It is possible that impulsive people are antago nistic and more likely to become targets but they are also risk takers who get involved in dangerous situations and fail to take precautions Some research results suggest a strong association between victimization risk and impulsive personality even among kids who do not have a risky lifestyle that is even among those who don t hang with delinquent friends or stay out late at night58 quotI savers rede ne iii lifestyle theories Views on how people become crime victims because of lifestyles that increase their exposure to criminal offenders serena ransom use trime victimskeg 39 pebble who are simply xiiizthe39vvrong place at the time 39 F k m Criminologists believe that victims often engage in behaviors that increase the likelihood of E 39 their being targeted for orimeVictims are more liker to engage in risky behavior than nonvictims 39 graspsspreseesaw I tul39ri 39rable ta Crime because 39 first Ii fe s ty39l39e39n39ona mare than the 39 stagest These posters show 39 thei39r39nagii39slct four homeless men allegedly killed by Etzcoatl Ocampo a lf39convicted of felony circumstances 39thequottle39ath39penalty I I 39 c Vagimvmxx equot a m Lugem war v The view that victimization is 39 primarily a function of where people Jive deviant place theory CONCEPTS OF CRIME lAW AND CRIMINULOG VICTIMS AND VICTIMIZATION adulthood As adults those who commit crimes increase their chances of becomi the victims of homicide66 The association between victimization and criminal lifestyle is probably one risk rather than of propensity peeple who are involved simply get close to viole dangerous people and are therefom exposed to victimization themselves 39 called deviant places are poor densely populated highly transient neighbor in which commercial and residential preperties exist side by side75 The com 1 establishments provide criminals with easy targets for theft crimes such as pltfting and larceny Successful people stay out of these stigmatized areas They clue to quotdemoralized people who are easy targets for crime the homeless the ted the mentally ill and the elderly poor76 COLLEGE LIFESTYLE Some college students maintain a lifestyle partying tak recreational drugs that makes them vulnerable to victimization Women in colle39g face the risk of sexual assault at a higher rate than women in the general popula tion68 About 90 percent of college women who have been sexually assaulted wet acquainted with their attacker who was most often a boyfriend errboyfriend classquot mate friend acquaintance or coworker The vast majority of sexual victimizations oc cur in students39 living quarters where a great deal of drinking occurs About 1 0 percentquot of campus crimes occur in fraternity houses I Oil CODES Deviant places also may house informal quothonor codes that pro victimization According to the code people who become crime victims are bound to retaliate against their attacker Failure to do so may damage their tion and make them vulnerable to future attacks Honor codes are often bound m gang cultures so if violence occurs against one member there is a signi cant lihood that retaliation of some sort will occur77 This call to honor helps promote a hate where crime leads to victimization and vice versa In quotless deviant neighborhoods without a street honor culture there is more of emphasis on nonviolent methods of conflict resolution a condition that minimizes possibility of retaliation In these communities victims are less likely to strike k more likely to repress their anger and more likely to call the police to satisfy geir need for justice Victims within these settings may nd it unnecessary to engage counterattack against their adversaries because it will have little bearing on their eet rep and on their likelihood of future victimirrzation78 CRIMENAL LEFESTYLE One element of lifestyle that may place some people at risk for victimization is an ongoing involvement in a criminal career Both convicted and selflg39 reported criminals are much more likely than noncriminals to suffer victimizationquot9 The association between criminal lifestyle and victimization risk can be assessed with data from the Rochester and Pittsburgh Youth Studies two ongoing surveys tracking thousands of atrisk youths Researchers discovered that kids who get ini volved in gangs and carry a weapon are up to four times more likely than kids who are not gang members to become victims of serious crime About 40 percent of males involved in ganggroup ghts had been seriously injured themselves among females 27 percent of those involved in gangfgroup ghts had been seriously injured Carry3 ing a weapon was another sure re way to become a crime victim Males who carried weapons were approximately three times more likely to be victimized than those who did not 33 percent of the weapons carriers became victims compared to 10 per cent of those who did not carry weapons70 What happens when a criminal experiences victimization Does it encourage fur ther criminal activities or conversely might the experience help convince a career criminal to choose another career While becoming a criminal may increase chances of victimization it is also pos sible that becoming victims themselves may convince some criminals that crime does not pay and they might be better off going straight Scott Jacques and Richard Wright found that for at least one set of criminal offenders drug dealers becoming a crime victim sets the stage for their breaking away from crime and transitioning into a new life course According to these investigators serious victimizations that drug dealers de ne as being caused by their own law breaking increase the probability of their transitioning out of crime Terminating their drug dealing is an adaptation that en ables them to gain control over their lives and to reduce the probability of future victimization71 Considering these contradictory ndings there is a need for further research on the personality traits of victims Routine Actvites Theory A series of papers by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson rst articulated routine quot39c39tivities tl aetziry79 Cohen and Felson assume that both the motivation to commit i rime and the supply of offenders are constant80 Every society will always have some people willing to break the law for revenge greed or some other motive Therefore he volume and distribution of predatory crime violent crimes against a person and frimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly are closely related lo the interaction of three variables that re ect the routine activities of the typical American lifestyle The availability of suitable targets such as homes containing goods that are easily sold The absence of capable guardians such as police homeowners neighbors friends and relatives The presence of motivated offenders such as a large number of teenagers The presence of these components increases the likelihood that a predatory crime will take place and increases the likelihood of victimization Targets are more likely to be victimized if they are poorly guarded and exposed to a large group of motivated offenders such as teenage boys81 Increasing the number of motivated offenders and placing them in close proximity to valuable goods will increase property victimiza tions Even afterschool programs which are designed to reduce criminal activity may produce higher crime rates because they lump together motivated offenders such as teenage boys with vulnerable victims such as teenage boys82 Figure 31 illustrates eviant Place Theor y the interacting components of routine activities theory According to deviant place theory the greater their exposure to dangerous places the more likely people are to become victims of crime and violence72 Some communi ties encourage both crime and victimization If criminals and victims are one and the same it s because of where they live and not who they are Victims are vulnerable be cause they reside in socially disorganized highcrime areas where they have the great est risk of coming into contact with criminal offenders73 Neighborhood crime levels may be more signi cant than individual characteristics or lifestyle for determining the chances of victimization CRIMEAND EVERYDAY LIFE Routine activities theory helps explain why US citizens suffer such high rates of victimization According to Felson crime began to increase in the United States as the country changed from a nation of small villages and to VICTIMS AND VlCTIMIZATlON Part1 CONCEPTS OFCHIME LAW AND CHIMINOLO quotwouneaa Rou ne Activities Theory ng39 appearance who notices people placing items in a car in a shopping 39g39zlot Also shoppers can be attacked in parking lots as they walk in isola lffrom their cars As car ownership increases teens have greater access to atibn outside parental control Thus even though victimization rates in urban higher the routine activities in the suburbs may also produce the risk of 6 I 1 a i f r quot r w Me If 4 EARCH SUPPQRT Research supports many facets of routine activities theory and Felson themselves found that crime rates increased between 1960 and 5 cause the number of adult caretakers at home during the day guardians quotsad as a result of increased female participation in the workforce While moth r work and children in day care homes are left unguarded Similarly with rowth of suburbia and the decline of the traditional neighborhood the num of rich familiar guardians as family neighbors and friends diminished85 Steven y a sner and his associates found that as adult unemployment rates increase juvenile ix 39 I w 3 cide arrest rates decrease One possible reason for this phenomenon it is possible juvenile arrests decreased because unemployed adults were at home to super t eir children and make sure they did not get into trouble or join gangs86 The gig quotilability and cost of easily transportable goods have also been shown to 1nfluence 3 timization rates as the cost of goods such as smartphones and 1Pads declines so quotas i 0 will burglary rates87 OUTWE ACTlVlTlES AND LIFESTYLE Routine activities theory and the life lj39 approach have a number of similarities They both assume that a person s living angements can affect victim risk and that people who live in unguarded areas are at e mercy of motivated offenders These two theories both rely on four basic concepts 9 proximity to criminals 2 time of exposure to criminals 3 target attractiveness nd 4 guardianship88 These theories also share ve predictions people increase their victimization risk fthey 1 live in highcrime areas 2 go out late at night 3 carry valuables such s an expensive watch 4 engage in risky behavior such as drinking alcohol and 5 are without friends or family to watch or help them89 Young women who drink 0 excess in bars and fraternity houses may elevate their risk of date rape because 1 they are easy targets and 2 their attackers can rationalize raping them because they are intoxicated She s loose and immoral so I didn t think she d carequot Intoxi cation is sometimes seen as making the victim culpable for the crime90 Conversely people can reduce their chances of repeat victimization if they change their lifestyle and adopt crimesuppressing routines such as getting married having children or moving to a small town91 The various theories of victimization are summarized in Concept Summary 31 As the population became more urban the middle class fearing criminal victim3 ization fled to the suburbs Rather than being safe from crime the suburbs produced a unique set of routine activities that promotes victimization risk Both parents are likely to commute to work leaving teens unsupervised Affluent kids own or drive cars date and socialize with peers in unsupervised settings all behaviors that are re lated to both crime and victimization84 The downtown shopping district was replaced by the suburban shopping mall Here strangers converge in large numbers and youths hang out The interior is lled with people so drug deals can be concealed in the pe destrian ow Stores have attractively displayed goods encouraging shoplifting and employee pilferage Substantial numbers of cars are parked in areas that make larceny and car theft virtually undetectable Cars that carry away stolen merchandise have an 139 asisifdiig tsititliastialertness t livat dbtt hdeu will traits tfith yfihti Red Line Robber is atriathawwaterwaysAugust39s 2009 at the Batik in asstinanimate zs39he entered the CharterOrigbankjatahbiitzisdmend39tiililfai ltathe wantedto H open t lteIlefdif t djhiin39tb39a desk Kwx v13 I 239 i y 39 39Vtel qgjs 3quot a N 25 g 3 t p Vic39t39im39s 39prowk39e s activiti39s such as39going out are at night living in a higheriine quot areaand assstiati gvit highfi39risk39Pe tszi 39 viciir n39iiaiio ri39st sienna assistantsaartisans f AP PhotoChicago FBI quotA39hasI stabilisedareridersarsesadquotnastinessailjai take advantage Of39uaguarded8uitable targets53 r 39 39 I u mum avn 39Nlv uquot quot153 J a ViCTlMS AND VICTIMIZATlON 539 quot39 i l d their victim assistance programs such as rape crisis aring for the tint anon program an nd idomestic violence shelters Currently this assistance amounts to 700 a National victim surveys indicate that almost every American age 12 and over willftj day become the victim of a commonlaw crime such as larceny or burglary arid the aftermath will suffer nancial problems mental stress and physical hardship Surveys show that upward of 7 5 percent of the general public have been victimjg by crime at least once in their lives As many as 25 percent of the victims dev l postTraumatic Stress disorder with symptoms that last for more than a decade39a the crime occurred93 illD iQCATES Some programs assign counselors to victims to serve Es help them understand the operations of the justice system and gut ef 1gb the process Victims of sexual assault may be aSSigned the assastanfie I cum advocate to stand by their side as they negotiate the legal an 1111 111 that must process their case Research shows that rape survivors who a It e Helping the victim to cope is the responsibility of all of society Law enforceme 09 of an advocate were signi cantly more likely to have p01 1 C6 reportsd a e1 agendes courts and correaional and human 561mm SYStemS have come to reali is likely to be treated negatively by police of cers and reported less stress that due process and human rights exist not only for the criminal defendant but als Ir medical contact experiencesim I I I d I for the Vie m Of criminal bahavmr Hurt advocates prepare victims and witnesses by explaining court proce ures Because Of puth concern ova yielem personal crime39 Presmem Ronald Reagan to be a witness how bail works and what to do if the defendant makes a threat victimquotWitness assistance created a Task Force on Victims of Crime in 198294 This group suggested that a bail quot 39 fsuch knowledge can cause confusion and fear making some victims reluctant programs 811Cquot be aChiEVed between rec Og iZing lChe victim s rights and providing the deferquot stify in court proceedings Many victim programs also provide transportation to 39 Government programs that help dant with due process Recommendations included providing witnesses and victim is 39 rorn court as well as counselors who remain in the courtroom during hearings crime victims and witnesses with protection from intimidation requiring restitution in criminal cases develOpin lain procedures and provide support Court escorts are partlcularly Impo am may include compensation exp court services andor crisis guidelines for fair treatment of crime victims and witnesses and expanding program lde y and disabled VictimSI Victims of Child abuse and assault and Victims who intervention Of Vietim compensation ave been intimidated by friends or relatives of the defendant These types of services be having a positive effect recent research shows that victims may now he ess I 0 I a aurnatiZed by a court hearing than they previously were As a result Congress passed the omnibus Victim and Witness Protection Act requiring the use of victim impact statements at sentencing in federal criminal cases greater protection for witnesses more stringent hail laws and the use of restitution in victims to repay them for their criminal cases In 1984 the Comprehensive Crime Control Act and the Victims of Crime 39 39 39 110w victims to make an impact 39 39 39 m 39 ET STATEMENTS Most Jurisdictions a Ioisdg mgn is Oi gf Act authorized federal funding for state victim compensation and assrstance proj HCTEM lMPA compensation Financial aid awarded to crime 39 39 39 39 39 39 ortunity to tell of his 39 re the sentencmg judge This gives the Victim an opp I I I loss of future earnings andfor ccts96 With these acts the federal government recognized the plight of the gment iIlEDCQS and describe the ordeaII In the case of a murder malI the survwmg J I er exp I 39 I I 103 counselmgi lilcf lm an made cum assmtance an even greater concern Of the IDLIth and the 3 min can recount the effect the crime has had on their lives and wellbeing Jus ice sys em I Those who favor the use of impact statements argue that because the Vict ifi is harmed by the crime she or he has a right to in uence the outcome of the caste a 1 all the public prosecutor is allowed to make sentencmg recommendatlijonsi1 ecc m the public has been harmed by the crime Logically the harm suffired y t e v1 legitimizes her or his right to make sentencing recommendations I f The effect of victim witness statements on scntencrng has been the topic 0 some debate Some research nds that victim statements result in a higher rate of incar ceration105 There is also evidence that victimwitness statements are Significant in Victim tierviee Programs An estimated 2000 victimnwitness assistance programs have been developed throughout the United States These programs are organized on a variety of government levels and serve a variety of clients We will look brie y at some prominent forms of victim assistance operating in the deciding between community and incarceration sentences ofa Yer not all research ef United States97 forts support the value of witness statements107 I VICTIM COMPENSATION A primary goal of victim advocates has PUBUC EDUCATiON More than half of all Victim programs include public educa been to lobby for legislation creating crime victim compensation pro 39 39 h their services and with other agen 1 93 tion to help familiarize the general public Wit I I I grams39 AS a r6511 0f sud legISlatlon39 the wetlm ordinarily recewes cies that help crime victims In some instances these are primary prevention pro compensation from the state to pay for damages associated with the I E 39 rams which teach methods of dealing with con ict Without resorting to Violence crime Rarer are two compensation schemes alike however and many 3 v g ff 1 b f I quot Schoolbased programs Present information on Spousal and dating abuse iOIIOWEd 2 g 39 E state programs IsuI er from a lachof Ioth adequate unding and proper I by discussions of how to reduce Olen 1nc1dgnt3 E g organization Within the criminal justice system Compensation may be 39 3 o c 5 provrded for medical bills loss of wages loss of future earnings and I Ramsto S eci c services at counseling In the case of death the victim39s survivors may receive CRISES lNTERVENTlION Most VictlrriErggr3r eu0n1y referrIed to the local E burial expenses and aid for loss of support99 Awards typically range 10 116113 them recIOVer mm their Oldea 39 en ncies that provide emergency and g3 from 100 to 15000 Occasionally programs provide emergency as network Of pUbhc and private soilatl39 sewmfdiigal care shelter food and clothing In 39 39 39 I I II I I 3 sistance to indigent victims until compensation is available Emergency quot long39term agglsm ce Wlth garlsz a 10m 5 rovidersrisis intervention for victims crisis intervention i a aSSiStance may come in the form Of fOOd VOHCherS or replacement 0f addition more than hldf Ofblll Vlcndniljirigeleadnofpimmediate services Some programs Emergency counseling for crime i i 2 ho feel isolated VU Hera Cr an 39 she tallks39abou t her son Scott Hawkins prescupuon medlcmes39 W r 39 Part1 CONCEPTS UFCRIMELAWAND catinmate VICTIMS AND VlCTlMiZATlON mobilize volunteers who can help crime victims Good Samaritan volunteers pro hen the court issues an ex Wm order it sets up apather hearing With notice to services such as r fen39dant this is usually called a quotreturnquot day If ev1dence is presented before the M 1 39 39 that authenticates the original complainpa full order may be issued This is in a mg lepmrs to a horn after buakm 5 a longer period than the ex parte order and may become permanent conducung home safe mspecmms to prevent IEVICUmlzamm l l I chan es helped protect domestic violence victims While it is al Accompanying victims to court ve these ega g V l D I I l 1 39 39 c direct causal relationshi between legal change and crimina Supplying quotVictim care kits or other support109 if cult to show 391 p I there has in fact been a signi cant decline in domestic violence cases during I l 139 a decade One national study found ViCTlllleFFENDER RECQNCILSATSON PRQGRAWES Mediators facilitate fad toface encounters between victims and their attackers in victimwofiender reconcilt ation programs VQRQS The aim is to engage in direct negotiations that leadl39to A restitution agreements and possibly reconciliation between the parties involvedlll 91d to 3396 per 13900039 1 d b m3 than 60 percent for both males and 39 Mediated face towface encounters More than 120 reconciliation programs currently in operation handle an estimated ntimate partner Violence dleltz 111 Y mt between Victims and their 16000 cases per year Originally designed to handle routine misdemeanors suc lemales from 1994 to 2010 attackers designed to produce as petty theft and vandalism such programs now commonly hammer out restitug restitutron agreements and If possible reconciliation tion agreements in more serious incidents such as residential burglary and even g dedine in domestic violence cases it iS also likely that Victim advocacy programs attemptedmurder 39 the availability of such services as emergency shelters and transitional 110115128 play a role While these trends are encouraging abont 1 m llon People are Stl VlCTlM NGTEFICATEQN There have been a number of efforts to notify victims or po 9th 0f intimate partner attaCkS caCh Year tential victims of offenders39 locations Every state has sex offender registration to keep potential victims aware of the location of convicted sex offenders in their community hi addition most state have adopted the VTNE Victim information and Noti cation Bvery4 r I I h d ates ever state now has a set of le day service through which victims of crime can use the telephone or Internet to search ecause of the in uence ofvrctims rig ts a voc39 11 dY V my Bill of Rights 113 for information regarding their offender s custody status and register to receive telephone 831 rights for crime cums m as COde 0f laWS 0mm ca C a m 1 I and email noti cation when their offender39s status changes The federal system has its These generally include the right own program the Department of Justice s Victim Noti cation System VNS This is a cooperative effort between the Federal Bureau of Investigation the US Postal Inspec f tion Service the US Attorney s Of ces the Federal Bureau of Prisons and the Criminal Division Thiscomputerbased system provides federal crime victims with information on scheduled court events as well as the outcome of those court events It also provides victims with information on the offender s custody status and release111 victimwoi fender reconciliation programs 3 VORPs crime Rights To be noti ed of proceedings and the status of the defendant To be present at criminal justice proceedings To make a statement at sentencing and to receive restitution from a conv1cted offender To be consulted before a case is dismissed or a plea agreement entered To a speedy trial To keep the victim s contact information con dential LEGAL PROTECTION FOR VICTIMS Another way that victims have been served is the more rigorous enforcement of laws designed specially to protect certain classes of 39 victims For example for many years victim advocates complained that states did not offer adequate protection for victims of domestic violence sometimes treating these crimes as a quotprivate matter Due to the impact of victim advocacy state courts are now more likely to issue orders of protection which require accused abusers to immediately stop stalking or harassing a victim and to stay away from the victim s home Typically there are two types of these protective orders The rst an ex parte order is a temporary measure quickly issued by the court that grants immediate relief while statements during sentencing hearings and during probation and Pamle revocation an investigation can be conducted For example Massachusetts General Laws MGL procedures Victim advocates can also interact with news media making sure that Chapter 209A Section 1 de nes the conditions under which a restraining order may reportng is accurate and that victims privacy is not Violat d39 Vlctlm advofja es can be issued be part of an independent agency similar to a legal aid society Topnotch victim ad vocates sometimes open private of ces similar to attorneys private investigators or jury consultants quot Ensuring victims rights may involve an eclectic mix of advocacy groups some independent others government sponsored and some selfhelp Advocates can be especially helpful when victims need to interact with the agenc1es of justice For ex ample advocates can lobby police departments to keep investigations open and can request the return of recovered stolen property They can demand that prosecutors and judges provide protection from harassment and reprisals by for example mak ing no contact a condition of bail research shows that Victims who hire lawyers have a better chance of getting these orders enforced 4 They can help Victims make The occurrence of one or more of the following acts between family or household members 3 attempting to cause or causing physical harm 39 a 39 2 placing another in fear of imminent serious physical harm 39 1 Seprrmtegt n 3 causing another to engage involuntan39ly in sexual relations by force threat or duress Not an actual or potential Victims are content with relying on Victim serwces to pro 39 vide after the fact comfort As the Trayvon Martin case see Chapter 1 aptly illus Note that the order may be issued when the complaining party is put in fear no trated concerns about community safety have prompted some people to become actual abuse needs to have occurred The accused abuser does not have to be present their own quotpolice force taking an active role in commumw protemon through cr at the hearing ation of citizen watch and crime control groups115 The more crime In an area the I39m c m swxnz an VICTIMS AND VICTIMIZATIUN Part1 CONCEPTS 0F CREME LAW AND CHIMINDLUG greater the amount of fear and the more likely residents will be to engage in selfa protective measures116 H Another method of selfprotection involves target hardening or making one s home and business crimeproof through locks bars alarms and other devices Some commonly used crime prevention techniques include a fence or barricade at the entrance a doorkeeper guard or receptionist in an apartment building an in tercom or phone to gain access to the building surveillance cameras window bars warning signs and dogs chosen for their ability to guard the house The use of these measures is inversely proportional to perception of neighborhood safety people who fear crime are more likely to use crime prevention techniques Although the true v relationship is still unclear there is mounting evidence that people who protect their homes are less likely to be victimized by property crimes118 39 OR e ect39on Janu 6 requue in New York quot jsg ofzih e risk39thiaithey will reo end i WH 121639 ahft39offe39rideif39liysclassified at seven Ioquot quotrisk m39oderatefrquotislkolglgiilhigh riskThe 39our also determine Wheth rf5hig hdershould be Ive adesf atlonzland fso Whether39th aijdeSignation oui d tie sexua predate quot exuallifvibf nfOffender or 39 quot 39 quot 39 ehdersg39a39f ffedulred to reg 39 ar33939o Cirlife toyelft39lpffenders gtste smears Level 1 I 9 W91 stalling 2 and d39eS39i39giia FlGHTlNG BACK Some people take selfprotection to its ultimate end by prepar 391 ing to ght back when criminals attack them How successful are victims when they resist Research indicates that victims who ght back often frustrate their attackers but also face increased odds of being physically harmed during the attack In some cases ghting back decreases the odds of a crime being completed but increases the 39 victim s chances of injury120 Resistance may draw the attention of bystanders and make a violent crime physically dif cult to complete but it can also cause offenders to escalate their violence z One reason for the association victims may be ready to fight back when they sense that their attacker intends to use violence no matter what they do why hold back if they have nothing to lose Essentially if the offender begins the assault using physical aggression the victim is more likely to react with physical resistance122 r 39noiifi39 dTWhen t39 z That d t e vol quot ricz39fbftalevel39 2 br quotn that cliti e ap rsongjsfliysied inquot the I quotto mariaquot quotoffenders 3 xr USING FIREARMS Not surprisingly an offender who utilizes a weapon is more likely to become violent carrying a weapon also increases the chances of offense com pletion Take sexual assault Although male perpetrators are often more physically capable than their victims who are most often women or children the victim has a better chance to escape or to make the offender doubt his chances of success if the of fender does not have a weapon123 What about the use of rearms for selfprotection Each year millions of victims use guns for defensive purposes a number that is not surprising considering that about onethird of US households contain guns124 Gary Kleck has estimated that armed victims kill more attackers than police and the risk of collateral injury is rela tively rare25 Fighting back significantly reduces the likelihood of property loss and injury and the most forceful tactics including resistance with a gun appear to have the strongest effects in reducing the risk of injury The conclusion it is better to ght than ee 12quot J39N39e39w OFFENDER REGISTRATION A nal though controversial element of the victims rights movement is the development of offender registration laws that require law enforcement agencies to post the name and sometimes the address of known sex offenders Today almost every state has adOpted seX offender laws and the federal government runs a National Sex Offender Public Registry with links to every state127 Sex offender registration is indelibly associated with the death of Megan Kanka a hor rifying event described in the Pro les in Crime feature The case of Megan Kanka illustrates both the risk children face from sexual predators and the efforts being made by the justice system to limit that risk To some civil liberty groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union registration laws go too far because they do not prevent sex offenders from committing crimes and because they victimize rehabilitated eXoffenders and their families Should the rights of possible victims take precedence over the privacy of convicted sex offenders views AND VECTIMIZATEON Part1 CONCEPTS OF CRIME LAW AND CHIMINOLOG aseribe the most dominant trim characteristics Bicept for the crimes of rape and sexual assault males are more likely than females to be the victims of violent crime Victim data reveal that young people face a much greater victimization risk than older persons The poorest Americans are the most likely to be victims of violent and preperty crime This association occurs across all gender age and racial groups African Americans are about twice as likely as European Americans to be victims of violent crime Nevermarried quotmales and females are victimized more often than married people 39lBe39 familiar with the most important theories of victimization According to victim precipitation theory some people may actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury or death Victim precipitation can be either active or passive Some criminologists believe that people may become crime victims because their lifestyle increases their exposure to criminal offenders People Who have high risk lifestyles drinking taking drugs getting involved in crime have a much greater chance of victimization According to deviant place theory the greater their exposure to dangerous places the more likely people are to become victims of crime and violence So called deviant places are poor densely populated highly transient neighborhoods in Which commercial and residentiai properties exist side by side Routine activities theory links victimization to the availability of suitable targets the absence of capable guardians and the presence of motivated offenders 39 routine activities theory 71 suitable targets 71 capable guardians 71 motivated offenders 71 victim witness assistance programs 74 compensation 74 crisis intervention 3975 victim offender recOnciliation programs VORPS 3976 irritate we quotblame the 39viCtim 39 15eli g75ei isi39If oididrow a rthmsm improve risk of being remnantsultra 39 th ch39an s Of becoming a tri39me victimThat isg i l 39 observedsomeone habitually quotptectpt iii quot 39 youadvise itiih ia tvvoi enia do tog2
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