Chapter 1 Geography 202
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Date Created: 08/30/15
VI Earth s Systems A Geosphere 1 quotSolid Earthquot internally divided into a core mantle crust lts operation is described by Plate Tectonic Theory B Hydrosphere 1 Global Ocean and Atmosphere systems Movement of water through this system is described by the Hydrologic Cycle C Biosphere 1 Consists of global biota at any given time interval 2 Fossil Succession observed in the Fossil Record records changes in Biota and Biodiversity 3 Features of Fossil Succession accounted for by organic evolution and extinctions Age of Earth System solar System vs Universe A WMAP data tell us the age of our universe with a margin of error of close to 1 1 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe WMAP 137 billion Years old Our solar system formed approximately 46 BYA We can look at meteorites and moons to date back Planets A Planets formed by bombarding with other asteroids B Earth was formed by planetoids size rocks Core A Solid 1 Middle B Liquid 1 Outer Obliquity A An asteroid caused us to tilt giving us the seasons Timeline A Formation of Earth 1 456 billion B Core Formation C Moon Formation D Jack Hills Zircon E Acasta Gneiss 1 4 billion F Late bombardment G lsua Sediment Isotopic Evidence for life H Apex Chert fossils 1 35 billion l Cells with Nucleus cow 1 2 billion years VII VIII XI 2 Wiped out animals by two known comets 3 We believe that these things increased the rate of animal diversity K Rise in Atmospheric Oxygen L Hardshelled Animals 1 Just before 5 billion 2 We see more predation which sparks more animal diversity M Dinosaurs N Humans 1 Present day Formation of Solar System A Nebula B Asddsas C As D A E S F Formation of Terrestrial planets 1 lnvolved collisions between growing protopanets Comet A 2009 Discovery of life s building block in tail of comet Wild 2 by aerogel trap on the STARDUST spacecraft Formation of Earth A Planetary Accretion 1 Protoplanet Stagecollisions of Large asteroids B Differentiation 1 Gravitational Compositional segregation of core and mantle C PostDifferentiation Earth 1 With a distinct core and inner core D Magnetic eld magnetosphere 1 Protects the atmosphere and ocean from being ablated or blown off by solar wind sun s electromagnetic radiation pressure Origin of the OceanAtmosphere A Once the core formed a Earth s magnetic eld it could retain the gases released during volcanic outgassing they began to accumulate to form a new atmosphere B Water vapor is the most common volcanic gas today but volcanoes also emit carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide carbon monoxide sulfur hydrogen chlorine and nitrogen Lunar Origin A 44 BYA B lmpact one hour C Two hours D Surface relatively stable for last 3 billion years E Accretions rings Xll Earth History A Recorded by the Earth s Crustal Rocks Geological record B Earth Materials and Processes 1 Minerals a Naturally occurring inorganic solid element or compound with a particular chemical composition or range of compositions and a characteristic internal structure 2 Rock a Natural solid material made up of interlocking or bonded mineral grains made up of one or more minerals 3 Outcrop a Natural exposures of rocks at the earth s surface that are readily accessible for study b Natural surface exposures of rocks that can be studied amp sampled by geologists directly Review A Geosphere 1 Internal divisions of planet earth 2 Crust a Igneous mostly b Magma i Molten rock under the earth s surface 3 Mantle 4 Liquid iron outer core 5 Solid iron inner core B Rock Out crop 1 Natural surface exposures of rocks that can be studied amp sampled by geologists directly C Earth History is recorded by the Earth s Crustal Rocks Geological Record A Crust 1 050km thick 2 Mostly Silicates 3 Floating on the upper region of the mantle B Mantle 1 50km 29k km 2 Silicates minerals 3 Abundant elements Silicon Oxygen lron Magnesium Potassium Calcium C Liquid iron outer core 1 29k km51k km 2 Hotter than the sun D Solid iron inner core 1 51k km6378k km 2 30 of the earth Topography A Just like blocks of wood in water oat higher the thicker they are the crust rises and sinks because it is lighter than the underlying mantle B Variations in surface elevation are due both to thickness and density The continents stand high because continental crust is thick and light The ocean basins are low because oceanic crust is thin and dense C Average depth of the ocean 1 3800 meters rhme om a Around 13k feet D Crust 1 Continental Crust a Average around 40km b Average around 70km i This is under mountain ranges 2 Oceanic Crust a Average around 5km E Lithospheric Mantle 1 Just below the continental crust and oceanic crust F sostacy 1 Equilibrium between both the continental and oceanic crust 2 Peace between the two crust Nothing is happening G Plate Tectonics 1 Plates of the Lithosphere oat on and move over the upper Mantle called the asthenosphere 2 Lithosphere is made up of the crust and solid upper mantle a Oceanic Thin and dense mafic enriched in Fe Mg Ca b Continental Thicker and less dense felsic Al H Mantle Convection 1 Geothermal energy transfer and gravity are the two fundamental riving forces resulting in movement of the Lithosphere 2 Steps a Lithosphere Forms from hot rising magma b Lithosphere cools as it spreads c Cooled lithosphere sinks L SubducUon l Lithospheric Plates 1 More than 18 plates are mud up of one or both types of lithosphere 2 Magmas are formed in Subduction zones along convergent tectonic plate boundaries 3 Mount St Helens a Pyroclastic and vertical eruption in summer of 1980 4 Spreading zones a Sea oor spreading i Plates move apart at MidOcean ridges IV Earth s Atmosphere A Permanent Gases by volume 1 Nitrogen a 78 2 Oxygen a 21 B Variable gases by volume 1 2 3 4 5 Carbon Dioxide a Greenhouse Gas Methane a Greenhouse Gas Ozone variable a Absorbs UV radiation Water vapor variable a Greenhouse Gas absorbs longwave radiation Particulates variable a Absorbs longwave or re ects short wave radiation condensation nuclei Density and are pressure increases toward surface D ldealized three cells atmospheric convection in a rotating Earth These cells are north or south of the equator 1 2 3 Hadley a Near the equator Ferrel a North and south of the Hadley cells Polar a North and south E The de ections of the winds within each cell is caused by the Coriolis Force ConUnue A Water 1 mm Oceans a 975 b Average salinity of 35 ptt Glaciers a 17 Groundwater a 75 Surface waters on continents and islands a 4 138600000 Km3 or 332112790 Mi3 Total water a Oceans 975 b Freshwater 25 i Glaciers 687 ii Groundwater 301 iii Permafrost 08 c Surface and atmospheric water 04 i Freshwater lakes 674 ii Other wetlands 85 iii Soil moisture 122 iv Rivers 16 v Atmosphere 95 vi Plants and animals 06 B Hydrologic Cycle 1 The continuous circulation of water in the hydrosphere 2 3 through its various reservoirs It s operation is driven by solar energy and gravity Source a Outsources i Gases from when the earth was forming ii Comets hitting glaciers C Fossil Record Biosphere 1 2 3 Records compositional and structural changes in the global biota 38 ga to present Producers a Autotrophs i Take up the nutrients b Heterotrophs i Consumers c Decomposers Before the GOE a Bacteria b Prokaryotes c Then came Eukaryotes d Multicellular Eukaryotes 4 GOE a Great Oxygenation Event b Began around 25 million C We made the transition to 28 million years ago D Fossils 1 Actual remains or traces of ancient organisms 2 Body Fossils Trace Fossils a Body Fossils i Actual Preserved remains or organisms ii Preserved hard or soft parts Trace folssils i Structures in sedimentary rocks created by an organism s life activities ii Such as Tracks and trails burrows and fossil s feces coprolites 3 Fossils occur in Layered Sedimentary Deposits a All fossils in the rock record make up the Fossil Record b Dinosaurs lived more Terrestrial environments ConUnue A Unconformity 1 Substantial interval of time when erosion occurred rather than deposition 2 Angular Unconformity a Where rocks dip below and faulted at an angle 3 Unconformities Erosion a Occurred after deposition and deformation of tilted rocks Unconformities cross cut edges B Disconformity 1 Horizontal layered rocks above and below the erosional surface C Crosscutting by lgneous lntrusion 1 Intrusions igneous plutons are younger than rocks intruded D Cross Cutting by faulting 1 Faults are younger than rocks cut by faults E Hutton s Principle of Inclusion 1 If a rock fragment is found within another rock type the fragment is older F Fossil Succession 1 Principle simultaneously formulated by Cuvier French naturalist and William Smith Scottish engineer 2 Fossil Assemblages succeed one another through time in a regular determinable order 3 Fossils have formed continuously as new species evolve and appear in record become extinct and disappear from record 4 Distinctive assemblages in rocks in different areas are of same relative age 5 Fossil Succession a Fossil Assemblages succeed one another through time in a regular determinable order b Fossils have formed continuously as new species evolve and appear in record become extinct and disappear from record G Geologic time scale 1 Developed using Biostratigraphy fossil succession and Dating of rocks based on Radioactive decay 2 Divided into Hadean Archean Proterozoic and Phanerozoic Eons 3 Cambrian Period a Oldest rocks with conspicuous fossils with hard parts 4 Geologic Time Scale a PCHAP i Pre Cambrian ii Hadean Eon iii Archean Eon iv Proterozoic Eon PPCOSDCP i Phanerzoic Eon ii Camberian iii Ordovician iv Silurian v Devonian vi Carbonerious Con nue A Mammals 1 Humans 2 Marsupials 3 Monotremes Diversity of Marine Organisms over the last 550 million years 1 Marine life was low due to mass extinction at the beginning of the Triassic Geological Principles 1 Actualism a Fundamental natural processes in operation today have operated in the same ways in the geological past Sediments or crustal rocks observed forming today formed under similar conditions and in similar environments as ancient rocks did in the past i James Hutton 2 Meandering StreamRiver System a Channels meander with concave cut backs erosion and convex point bars deposition Levees on sides of channels with surrounding ood basins of ood plains 3 The Stratigraphic Record tells us about changes in surface processes environments and life during the planet s history Nicoli Steno s Principles 1 Superposition a Any undisturbed succession of layered rocks the oldest layer is at the bottom with successively younger ones above i Fundamental basis fro relative ages of all strata and fossils they contain 2 Original Horizontality a Sediment particles settle from uids most bedding is originally horizontal steeply inclined strata have been disturbed after deposition 3 Original Lateral Continuity a Strata originally extended in all directions until they terminated against the edges against the edges of the original area or basin of deposition 4 Original Lateral Continuity a When originally formed strata covered immense areas i Beds on one side of Grand Canyon have counterparts on other side Hutton s Principle of crosscutting 1 GeologicStratigraphic Principle of Crosscutting a Any feature cutting through rocks must by younger than the rocks penetrated or cut by those features but older than others cut by them 2 Crosscutting features a Igneous intrusive bodies b Faults c Unconformities i Unconformities ancient erosional surfaces are younger ii Substantial interval of time when erosion occurred rather than deposition iii Popotasa
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