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# Chapter1MatterMeasurement&ProblemSolving.pdf CHM 121

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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Victoria Amirniroumand on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CHM 121 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Knecht in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Chemistry for the Biosciences 1 in Chemistry at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 08/30/15

ChopTer l MoTTer MeoIsuremehT amp Problem Solv 1 AToms amp Molecules A AToms submicroscopic porTicles ThoT consTiTuTe The funolomehTol buillt B Molecules oToms bound TogeTher in speci c geomeTricol orrongeme i ATTochmehTs ore coiled bonols come in olifferehT sTrehgThs oholf ii Boll amp Slick models visuolize These oTTochmehTs C ChemisTry The science ThoT seellts To unolersTond The behovior of moTT 2 The ClossificoTion of MoTTer A MoTTer onyThihg ThoT occupies spoce onol hos moss i Clossifieol boseol on sToTe onol composiTion B SubsTonce moTTer39s physicol form C ComposiTion The bosic componehTs ThoT mollte up moTTer Matter W 39 39 No Va iable composmon es mm l Separable into simpler Unifo39m throu hm t SUbSlalKPS Y95 NO g I YOS L xu i 0 o 39 o a o o quot v a o o o quot39 c I o 3 o Helium Pure watei Wet sand Tea with sugar ling sling blocks of ordinary meHer hTs orm 3 D shapes er by studying The behavior of moms and molecules 3 Properties of Matter A Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter that can be char i Characteristics that are directly observable B Chemical Properties are the characteristics that determine how the c other matter or the influence of energy i Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter ii Result of contact with energy or another chemical C Physical Changes in Ivlatter i State changes but the structure and composition DOES NOT CH ii Examine boiling water the water molecules separate but the str iii Dissolving freezing etc D Chemical Changes in Ivlatter i Composition and structure changes state may as well ii Examine the rusting of iron iron atoms combine with oxygen to n iii Burning dyes fading or changing colors 4 The Standard Units A Scientists have agreed on a set of international stand units for compai i S Units International System Quantity Unit Symbol length meter m mass kilogram kg time second 3 temperature kelvin K P f39 s b I Decima39 P f 10 re Ix yrn 0 Equivalent ower 0 mega M 1000000 Base x 106 kilo k 1000 Base x 103 igeol wiihoui ohonging iis oomposiiion omposiiion of moHer chonges os o resuli of ooniooi wiih ANGE 39Uciure onol composiiion remoins noke rusi o new subsionce wiih o differeni composiiion ring oII meosuremenis deci d 01 Base x 10 1 centi c 001 Base x 10 2 milli m 0001 Base x 10393 micro u or me 0000 001 Base x 10396 nano n 0000 000 001 Base x 10399 pico p 0000 000 000 001 Base x 103912 5 Moss A The meosure of The omouni of moiier oreseni in on objeci i Weighi meosures The groviioiionol pull on o objeoi which depe B SI Unii lltilogrom kg i Aboqu 2 lbs 3 oz C Commonly meosure moss in groms g or milligroms mg i 1 lltg 22046 pounds vi 1 lb 45359 ii 1 lltg 1000 g iii 1 g 1000 mg iv 1 g 0001 kg v 1 mg 0001 g 6 Temperoiure A Fohrenheii scole F i US B Celsius scole C i Used everywhere else C Kelvin Soole K i Absoluie scole 1 No negoiive numbers ii Direoily proporiionol lo overoge omouni of lltineiic energy iii 0 K obsoluie zero K C 27315 liii 371K i l Water boils nds on Ms moss lur kchins l L39gru39s deg I CCs I l l lh39l It lilirmlu39il Iclxius 3 i mm 1 73K Waterfreezes i l 47 r uK Absolute zero Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin 7 Volume A Derived unit i Combination of units mileshour or m cubed Measure of the amount of occupied spaced SI unit cubic meter Commonly measure solid volume in cubic centimeters cm cubed Commonly measure liquid or gas volume in milliliters mL i l mL 1 cm3 W90 8 Intensive and Extensive Properties A Extensive Properties properties who value depends on the quantity at i Ivlass length and volume B Intensive Properties properties who value is independent of the auan39 i Temperature and color 9 Density A Density ratio of mass to volume DENSITY MASSVOLUME i An INTENSIVE property B Solids gcm3 lint IlPlQ39 nml f moHer TiTy of mo er 3 WWW gz D Gases gL larger uniT needed because iT fills of a larger conTainer re E Volume of a solid can be deTermined by waTer displacemenT i Archimedes Principle If The weighT of The waTer displaced is less if The objecT floaTs and The weighT of The waTer displaced The I F DensiTy solids gt liquids gtgtgt gases i ExcepT ice is less dense Than liauid waTer 10 SignificanT Figures A Any digiT ThaT is noT zero is significanT i 1234 kg 4 sg B Zeroes beTween nonzero digiTs are significanT i 606 m 3 sg C Zeroes To The lefT of The firsT nonzero digiT are NOT significanT i 008L i sg D If a number is greaTer Than or equal To 1 Then all The zeroes To The rigT i 20 mg 2 sg E If a number is less Than 1 Then only The zeroes ThaT are aT The end anc i 000420 g 3 sg F AddingSubTracTing SignificanT Figures i Answer cannoT have more digiTs To The righT of The decimal poin39 89332 11 one signi cant gure after decimal point 90432 round off to 904 370 two signi cant gures after decimal point 29133 07867 round off to 079 G IvlulTiplicaTionDivision of SignificanT Figures i The number of signi canT figures in The resulT is seT by The original 461 x 36666 16536366 165 garaless of The amaunT of gas Than The weighT of The abjecT The abjecT will sink OTherwise veighT of The abjecT 1T of The decimal painT are signi canT T in The middle of The number are significanT T Than any of The original numbers number ThaT has The SMALLEST number of significanT figures 3 sig gs round to 3 sig gs 68 11204 00606926 0061 i i 2 sig figs round to 2 sig gs H Exoct Numbers i Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects ore considered Ti The average of three measured lengths 664 668 and 67039 664 668 670 3 667333 667 K Because 3 is an exact number 11 Scientific Nototion 6022 X 1023 i 99 X 103923 N is 0 positive or negotive number between i and i0 quotN X On n is 0 positive or negative integer 568762 000000772 gt have an infinite number of significant figures move decimal lefl move decimal right ngt0 nlt0 568762 568762 x 102 000000772 772 x 106 12 Dimensional Analysis Conversions 1 DeTermine which uniT conversion fdcTors are needed 2 Carry uniTs Through calcuIdTion 3 If all uniTs cancel excepT for The desired uniT s Then The problem was 13 ConcebTual Plans for UniTs Raised To Powers A ConverT cubic inches inTo cubic cenTimeTers i Find The reIdTionship equivalence 1 inch 254 cm ii WriTe concepT plan in3 39 cm3 iii Change equivalence inTo conversion fdcTors wiTh given uniTon T 254cm 3 2543 cm3 164cm3 1in 13in3 1in3 14 DensiTy as a Conversion FacTor A Can use densiTy as a conversdTion fdcTor beTween mass and volume CONVERSION FACTORS TO KNOW o 1 pound 4536 g o 1 inch 254 cm 38 L 1 gallon 1 mile 1609 km 0 i nTmnsnhere nTmi 760 mmHn 760 anr likely soled correctly he bo om VIIIIIVVIVI Ivlv VIIIIII Ivv IIIIIII Iv Ivv Ivll

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