Topic 4: Why we have Emotions Part 2—Blue Ribbon Emotions
Topic 4: Why we have Emotions Part 2—Blue Ribbon Emotions PSY 311
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Date Created: 08/30/15
Topic 4 Why we have Emotions Part 2 Blue Ribbon Emotions Blue Ribbon emotions have both an intrapersonal function and an interpersonal function 1 intra Emotions are used in making decisions a Automatic appraisal generates somatic markers which are used in decision making 2 intra We learn from negative emotions a Negative emotional responses stimulate cognition which leads to changes in behavior learning and biases in appraisal 3 intra Emotions play a key role in the control of an individual s motivational state 4 inter Emotions facilitate interpersonal communication called the socialcommunication function Function of Emotions Socialcommunication inter the facilitation of interpersonal relationships 0 the other functions used in decision making learning from negative emotions etc are intrapersonal functions 0 anger says that someone has broken a rule of a relationship such as treating others with respect sadness is a call for help from someone else disgust for moral transgressions happiness facilitates interpersonal interactions anxiety is a warning sign of group family peers disapproval 0 We learn from negative quotblue ribbonquot emotions 0000 Blue Ribbon emotion cognitive appraisal compared with automatic emotion automatic appraisal Blue ribbons are 0 always conscious always shows the subjective experiential component 0 generated by cognitive appraisal iClicker negative blue ribbon emotions stimulate cognitive processing such as re ection thought and a retrospective analysis of actions called counterfactual thinking along with increases the motivation to change behavior iclicker a negative blue ribbon emotion not only brings cognition into a person s emotional world the emotional memory developed when experiencing the negative emotion is a source of knowledge used in future decisions Automatic affect automatic emotion sometimes conscious often not 0 0 when conscious it is experienced as a quick twinge gut feeling or intuition of something feeling good or bad feeling quotrightquot a hunch based on associative emotional memories only is developed via classical conditioning when a full blown blue ribbon emotion is evoked recall case of Peter and his father shouting the activation of approachavoidance tendencies the motivational component of the emotion resulting from appraisal is re ected in a somatic marker that is sent from the body somatic component of the emotion to the central executive involving the prefrontal cortex that generates decisions is important to making decisions in the present not the future Calculus example friends had told him to drop his calc class bc the teacher is hard but it was too late to drop Got As on the rst tests but then failed the next test and ended the course with a C Emotional distress blue ribbon emotion from failing the calc exam elicited re ection learning and counterfactual thinking and the motivation to learn from the experience 0 led to the updating of an inadequate ifthen rule a type of cognitive content 0 O O O ifthen rule decisions are often based on ifthen rules if what you plan to do study night before exam then the emotional consequences of the action goodbad grade if a negative blue ribbon emotion is experienced the if then rule changes start studying a few days before exam 0 the emotional memory procrastination and quotemotional distressquot was developed during the experience 0 a situation 2 years later led to the retrieval of this emotional memory which in turn led to the generation of a somatic marker The somatic marker was used in making an important decision Two Years Later Eventemotional memoryautomatic appraisalautomatic emotion Earrant 717MB 139 Failed exam Development f negative GE39thqu prmmal Iaimoitiinal niarnrglr prarastination E 39 distrassquotl J lua ribbonquot earntin li idiaihraas Elhangra n litThen Hula New rule is to start Ernatinal quotdistressquot refers to a rqu earlier cmbination f anger anxiety an sadness Two years later Event professor s statement emotional memory association between procrastination and distress automatic appraisa automatic emotion twinge of quotdistressquot decision to start early based on somatic marker generated by automatic appraisal an automatic emotion a twinge of emotional distress was triggered when the philosophy professor said that the paper was due on a particular date 0 The automatic emotion resulted from automatic appraisal the somatic component of the automatic emotion generated a somatic marker which was sent to a central executive involving prefrontal cortex and used in making the current decision to start work earlier 0 Recall that the somatic marker re ects the person s motivational state either quotgo for itquot or quotavoid if possiblequot Blue Ribbon Emotions vs Automatic Emotions negative blue ribbon emotions 0 important to future decisions o stimulate cognition o generate high levels of motivation automatic emotions 0 current decisions 0 generate somatic markers 0 These somatic markers re ect the motivational state of the person 0 approach motivation or o avoidance motivation Negative Blue Ribbon Emotional Responses and their In uence on Decisions 0 Not good to make an important decisionhave meaningful social interaction when experiencing a negative blue ribbon emotion o Anger disgust anxiety sadness o Emotionally distressed people are primarily motivated to get rid of the negative emotion and will take desperate measures to feel better quickly 0 Motivation to feel better leads people to show extremely poor judgment 0 Expression of anger at these times can be destructive to interpersonal relationships Mood repairregulation people make poor decisions when emotionally distressed because they embrace the implicational belief that the decision will terminate or decrease the intensity of the negative emotion Friend during nancial crisis Emotions play an important role in the control of a person s motivational state 0 Motivation the desire or willingness to do something to take action to achieve causes us to act Refers to the dynamics of behavior the way or behaviors are initiated sustained directed and terminated Cruise Control Model Carver Cruise control model the relationship between an individual s emotional state and the motivation to change behavior Emphasizes the monitoring function of emotions appraised rate of progress towards incentives and away from threats 0 2 bipolar dimensions of Cruise Control 0 Approach relates to behavioral activation system manages approach to incentives o Avoidance relates to behavioral inhibition system manages avoidance and withdrawal when threatened o BAS and BIS generate emotions based on appraised rate of progress toward incentiveaway from threat 0 Both BIS and BAS can be sources of positive and negative emotions affect iClicker Refer to how well the person is doing in pursuing incentives and avoiding threats Positive affect o BAS elation excited hopeful anticipatory pleasure comes with high rate of progress toward goal or successfully avoiding punishment BIS successful performance on hard exam leads to relief serenity contentment amp calmness Positive or negative affect generated by BIS amp BAS are not the same GoalsIncentives that are Approached Examples of general goals 0 To be a kind compassionate person 0 To be loyal 0 To be a good friend 0 Speci c goals 0 Finish writing history paper 0 Cdlmom 0 Pay parking ticket Threats that People Face Rejection failure regret 0 Physical threat when walking in a bad part of town Oversleeping amp missing an exam Emotions Generated by Approach BAS and Avoidance BIS Motivational Systems 0 Approach motivational system BAS 0 Doing well Elation amp eagerness 0 Doing poory sadness and depression 0 Avoidance Motivational System BIS 0 Doing well relief and calmness 0 Doing poory fear and anxiety Carver s Model A pproac lji Avoidance pro c635 p rout5 5 DUI Hg I i lull in 11 Do i ng Rig ief life titlgtquotl39lquotIES WEII C llTll39lL f fl t tlll h mu lrull l 1r Doing Sadness Doing I iaar poor I lisp rt saint poorly arm iet Cognitive Appraisal amp Cruise Control Model 0 Cruise control model The cognitive appraisal of the rate of progress toward a goal or away from a threat leads to changes in motivation based on the emotional response generated 0 Cognitive appraisal is based on cognitive assessment of how well a person is doing in approaching incentives and avoiding threats 0 ex starting to study a week before a test vs a day before a test 0 rate of progress is good a week before a test but too slow the day before the test 0 negative affect BS anxiety BAS depressed sad BIS and BAS Can Generate Positive and Negative Emotions affect Experience of positive or negative affect can result from the activation of BIS or BAS Positive affect BAS 0 making a high rate of progress toward a goal 0 successfully avoiding punishment 0 elation excited hopeful anticipatory pleasure successful performance on exam 0 BIS relief serenity contentment calmness o BAS elation eagerness excitement Subjective experiences with BIS and BAS are different BIS lpositive affect l decrease in avoidance motivation iClicker BAS does not generate relief relief is avoidance iClicker Why does Carver call his model the Cruise Control Model Moving at a constant speed towards a goal 0 Uphill engine is fed more gas velocity has decreased 0 Downhill engine is fed less gas velocity has increased 0 Both cases cruise control tries to keep velocity constant rate of progress toward an incentive or avoiding a threat too low 0 negative affect is elicited o motivation is increased rate of progress too high 0 motivation decreases 0 rate of progress decreases until the set point is reached set point rate of progress velocity that produces no affect not same for everyone 0 no affect for most people doesn t mean zero affect it means a low level of positive affect mood o positivenegative affect are only generated when the rate of progress is above or below the set point The person s rate of progress velocity in pursuit of the goal is the most relevant to the generation of positive or negative affect iClicker Positive Affect decreases Motivational Effort and Rate of Progress example you re writing a 20 pg term paper due in a month and you nished 15 pages BASljpositive affect because you re progressing toward your incentive at a faster rate than expected positive affect leads to cruising in that the person s motivation level diminishes and less effort is dedicated to pursuing this goal the rate of progress returns to its reference level set point when positive affect is experienced your motivation level for pursuit of that goal decreases Negative Affect Increases Motivational Effort and Rate of Progress now you ve only written 15 pages and the paper is due in 2 hours BlSljnegative affect anxiety BAS after giving up produces sadness or depressed mood negative affect means that the rate is too low so the person has to exert more effort until the negative affect diminishes and the person is moving at an acceptable rate The brain automatically adjusts the level of motivation in order to regulate the rate of progress Summary Positive amp negative affect signal that the person needs to adjust his rate of progress velocity relative to his quotnatural ratequot set point 0 What does it mean to say you adjusted your rate of progress 0 How a person adjusts her rate of progress is dependent on the type of goal involved Example paper due Monday student stays in for the weekend Example increasing rate of compassion kindness or being a good friend requires person to initiate a behavior such as calling her grandmother 0 Thus adjustment in rate must often be translated into terms such as concentration or reallocation of time and e o SelfEsteem Selfesteem maintenance does not occur all of the time 0 When people are in good moods they are less likely to engage in selfesteem enhancing behaviors As long as the selfimage is above a threshold of positivity there is no effort to prop up self esteem Self esteem enhancing behaviors only occur when affect is negative not positive Back to calculusphilosophy example 0 He was told to drop class because professor rarely gives A s or B s Negative affect caused him to spend hours studying Got 3 A s which caused his motivation to decrease Therefore failed the last test due to lack of motivation Set point Natural rate 0 Natural rate refers to the rate of progress the person shows when sheisquotcoasUngquot Coasting moving toward goals and away from threats effectively 0 Low level of positive affect 0 High level of activity in BAS iClicker 0 Low level of activity in BIS iClicker 0 Can result from changes in BIS and BAS activity iClicker People whose natural rate is high are more active and exert greater effort naturally compared to their low velocity counterparts Motivational and Behavioral Changes Associated with Negative Affect Negative affect signi es that the person is not moving toward an incentiveaway from a threat effectively Accordingly the level of motivation increases until the person s negative affect diminishes 0 Approach motivationtoward incentive o Avoidance motivation away from threat signi cantly so affect can return to its set point Thus negative affect is associated with increases in motivation Some would say that the greater the depth of negative affect the greater the intensity of the motivation engendered Slide 49 NBA one game made LeBron a better player Motivational and Behavioral changes associated with Positive Affect Positive affect decrease in motivational intensity because the rate of progress is greater than required There is diminished effort until the positive affect is removed and the person either coasts or switches to another incentive or threat
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