Chapter 1-2 Notes- Social Psychology
Chapter 1-2 Notes- Social Psychology PSYC 3520
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Monday August 31, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 3520 at Clemson University taught by Alice Brawley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Social Psychology Brawley Chapter 1 I Social Psvchologv scientific study of how people think about in uence and relate to each other 0 Major Areas Of Research 0 Perceptions and attitudes O Interactions among people 0 Groups 0 Applied problems 0 Levels Of Analysis 0 Societal general patterns of social behavior society as a whole I EX Sociology economics political science crime rates in the US presidential patterns unemployment O Interpersonal focusing on a person s social situation can include other people relationships attitudes and behavior I EX Family affects votingpartyif you vote income affects criminal activity family stress resulting from unemployment 0 Individual unique characteristics and background of an individual I EX Psychology clinical psychology personality psychology 0 4 Goals Of Social Psychology Research 0 Describe careful observation of behavior I EX Roommate gets frustrated when stressed at school 0 Establish cause and effect I EX Rule out other causes observe them when not stressed about school see if something new frustrates them 0 Build theory I EX Frustration aggression hypothesis when someone is blocked from goal gets frustrated and acts aggressively 0 Application to problems apply what we know to solve problems I EX Help them with goal distract them from the frustration leave them alone Chapter 2 Person Perception 0 Defined 0 How we form perception 0 What information we use 0 How accurate we are 0 Different biases that affect perception I 6 General Principles 1 Happens quickly 2 Use salient features anything unusual ex Blue hair 3 Perceive coherent meaning in behavior Social Psychology Brawley 4 Categories groups to organize what we perceive 5 Use enduring cognitive structures 6 Own goals and needs 0 Information Used To Form Perception 1 Roles a Ex First lady responsible classy articulate b Ex Mother caring loving 2 Physical Cues appearance and behaviors a Ex Singing muscles blue hair b Salience bright colorful unusual noisy stands out c Figure ground principle pay more attention to cues that stand out against a background ex Blue hair in office setting 3 Traits personality a Ex Stubborn doesn t follow direction not peer pressured b Ex Funny never bored hurt feelings c Implicit personalitv theorv beliefs about which personality traits go together ex Funny entertaining goofy outgoing 4 Categories a Ex Gender race social class b Categorization perceiving people as members of groups or categories rather than individuals c Pro speed up perception d Con everybody is not the same make inaccurate judgement based on stereotypes e Continuum model of impression formation f Heuristic rule of thumb that reduces complex information into a simple cue i Ex Man who wears gold chain simple cue complex information sleazy thug rapper untrustworthy 5 Context Effects a Contrast difference b Assimilation similarity 0 How We Combine Information 1 Evaluation good or bad 2 Averaging principle average everything into an overall perception 3 Shift of meaning depending on the context the meaning of traits can shift 4 Halo effect once we know goodbad judge everything else about the same a Make a good first impression b What do we do with inconsistent information i Remember more ii Try to resolve inconsistent information 5 Schemas organize and structure thoughtsperceptions a Person schemas i Particular person ex Best friend Social Psychology Brawley ii Types of people ex Extrovertedoutgoing person athlete iii Role schemas ex Student professor coach iv Group schemas b Prototypes abstract ideal of a given schema c Exemplars real examples of a category I Attribution Theorv why people do what they do 0 Ex Why couple breaks up 0 Two main kinds I Dispositional attribution behavior is caused by stable person characteristics ex Lazy I Situational attribution behavior is caused by circumstantial forces 0 Biases In Attribution 1 Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to blame disposition over the situation a Circumstances where we don t make fundamental attribution error i When you know the person well ii Expect to contact person in the future iii When situation is really salientunusualnoticeable b ActorObserver Effect i We make fundamental attribution error when we explain others behavior but not our own ii Why 1 Access to more information about self 2 Self is less salient c SelfServing Attributional Bias i Positive behaviors by me dispositional attribution ii Negative behaviors by me situation attribution iii Good outcome 1 Do something negative ex Failed test 2 Make situation attribution ex Roommate was loud and you couldn t sleep 3 Still try again study for next test 2 False Consensus Effect tendency to exaggerate how common our beliefs are 3 False Uniqueness Effect tendency to overestimate how unique our positive qualities are 0 Accuracy 0 Most likely to be accurate when I External attributes I Visible attributes 0 Pragmatic accuracy knowing enough about a person to achieve relationship goals I Nonverbal Communication 0 Unaware mimic 0 Ex Liking sympathy dominance O 3 main channels of communication Social Psychology Brawley I Verbal communication hear I Nonverbal communication see I Paralanguage hear 0 Information conveyed verbally other than words 0 Nonverbal body language I Gestures I Distance I Eye contact I Facial expressions 0 Deception 0 People tend to pay attention to What they are saying verbal but less attention to What they are doing nonverbal paralanguage O Behaviors that typically characterize lies I Blink more hesitate more less uid speech more errors higher pitch pupils dilate fidget more negative voice tone negativedistancing statements less complex terms more negative emotion words 0 Detecting lying I Better at detecting lie than figuring out truth I Hard to distinguish lie from ambivalencedisinterest I Harder to detect When motives are unknown
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