ALL Psychology Semester Notes
ALL Psychology Semester Notes psych 2010
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Psychology Book Notes Chapter 1 0 Psychology is about understanding all the things we do 0 Like diet why we procrastinate fall in love with one person instead of another 0 Psychology is practical I Worth studying because it provides a powerful way of thinking 0 Psychologists are committed to investigating questions about human behavior in a scientific way I Seek to form precise questions about behavior and then test possible answers through systematic observation 0 This process results in knowledge being accurate and dependable 0 History of Psychology 0 Psyche soul and logos study of subject Greek words I Put together in the 16th century By the 18th century the term acquired literal meaning of quotthe study of the mind Parents were philosophy and physiology I By 1870s many in both fields were questioning the mind 0 Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 changed peoples view of physchology that it s a new field not part of philosophy and physiology 0 1897 psychology s quotdate of birth I The year that the first lab for scientific work was established by Wundt in a 0 German university Wundt wanted labs to be modeled after those in physics and chemistry 0 To focus on the conscious Thus psychology became study of conscious experience 0 Two psychology schools emerged o Structuralism I Leader Edward Titchener teacher at Cornell I Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is jto analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experiences 0 Like sensations feelings and images 0 Depended on the method introspection I The careful systematic selfobservation of one s own conscious experience Functionalists 0 Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure I Leader William James 18421910 0 His thinking demonstrates how psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences o Admired Charles Darwin s natural selection thus he thought that psychology should investigate the functions of consciousness Unconsciousness according to Sigmund Freud 18561939 0 quotContains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior 0 His psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior Behaviorism a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior 0 Behavior refers to any overt observable response or activity by an organism o A fundamental principle of behavior by B F Skinner is that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes but not those that lead to negative I Skinner discovered that freewill is an illusion Because apparently people are controlled by the environment not themselves Humanism 0 Theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth 0 Humanists take an optimistic view of human nature 0 Humans are different from animals I Humans are governed by sense of self quotselfconcept which animals lack Applied psychology 0 Branch of psychology concerned with every day practical problems Clinical psychology 0 Branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Cognition mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge 0 Involves thinking or conscious experiences Ethnocentrism o The tendency to view one s own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways I May have contributed to Western psychologists lack of interest in other cultures Evolutionary Psychology 0 Examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations Positive psychology 0 Uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence 0 3 areas of interest I Positive subjective experiences 0 Like happiness love gratitude hope I Positive individual traits personal strengths and virtues 0 like courage perseverance nurturance tolerance creativity integrity and kindness I positive institutions and communities 0 How societies can foster civil discourse strong families healthful work environments and supportive neighborhood communities 0 Psychology 0 The science that studies behavior and the psychological and cognitive processes that underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems 0 Figure 18 demonstrates the diverse settings of Employment of Psychologists o Largest private practices 13 28 work in colleges and 19 in hospitals 0 7 Unifying Themes 0 W o The statement quot93 of CEO s had pets as kids creates the idea that having pets makes people dependable responsible etc But what about all the people who had pets as children that AREN T CEO s Base Rate number of natural occurrences Decision Trap quotignoring the base rate FBI stats no case has ever been solved purely through quotpsychic abilities quotDo you gain weight in your belly hips and thighs quotNo I gain in my wrists Study of brainbehavior I o Harder than most not hard vs easy hard vs soft o More factual 0 Science that doesn t get much respect The way people shake hands is an awful judge of character Based on empiricism conclusions drawn and knowledge based on direct observation of things being tested or quotsomething you can see History of Psychology William Wundtr a 1879 Germany when psychology was quotbornquot b Tested conscious behavior 2 Largest growth happened in US a More independent thinkers b G Stanley Hall established America s first lab and the first psychological journal and was president of APA i APA American Psychological Association Schools 1 Analyze consciousness down to its basic elements a Introspection Systematic observations of their own conscious experiences b The quotwhatquot of psychology c No longer in use 2 Looked at the function or purpose of psychology William James Mental development sex differences etc Men are better at special relations knowing where you are The quotwhyquot No longer in use cheep Led to behaviorism and applied psychology How do you explain behavior 1 Instinct 2 Environment 3 Genes The 6 Theoretical Perspectives 1 internal causes changes a Started by about 1990 According to Freud behavior is influenced by the unconscious outside awarenesswhen you do stuff without thinking b Resistance i Public because it was a very conservative era and he was talking about sex ii Academia because he had no research to back it up c Unconscious gt conscious 2 environment causes changes a Behaviorists said that psychology was scientific Therefore it should only study observable behavior b Behavior observed response or activity of an organism have to see it c Not about thoughts or feelings i Nature vs nurture 19505 and 1960s Greenville SC founder of behaviorism i quotbehavior is governed by the environment nurture ii They were big on environment iii Used a lot of animal research because it provides more control unlike with people So you can manipulate the controls with animals like sleep food etc f Most wellknown behaviorist i He was the most known psychologist in the world for many years ii Came up with determinism the environment determines the behavior 1 The positive outcome will most likely be repeated But negative will not likely be repeated 2 He believed that free will doesn t exist 3 unique qualities of humans like freedom and personal growth goo9 People are masters of their own destiny yes free will Very optimistic more concerned about humans than animals called behaviorism irrelevant 4 cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge a Studies how people acquire store and process information b Born in the 19505 but it surpass behaviorism around 19705 when cognitive became the dominant field i Some still consider it the dominant field c Deals with the brain but not the chemistrybiology of it 5 09969 deal with physiological perspectives of processes bodily structures and chemical processes deals with the brain chemistry mindbody behavior drugs and hormones normally not illegal drugs 6 behavior is displayed in terms of adaptive value a Deals with reproductive success survival of the fittest how many of your offspring can make it to the point where they have offspring not about physical fitness Waist to hip ratio is 7 because it means fertility A lot of evolutionary psychology is untestable and also quotpostinfo get the information after the study Chapter 2 o In the early 19005 killed 100000 people a year Researchers found that if you have good plumbing then you re less likely to do They tried searching for the bacteria to find a cure Another person thought that bad plumbing meant that you didn t have a good diet after testing some samples of sores by making dough balls with the sample and ate them and his wife and grad students did also None of them got sick So they thought it wasn t like collara and plumbing had no correlation To test the theory of it dealing with their food he used two groups of prisoners One group had a high carb low protein diet South spoor s diet but the other had a very high protein diet rich people diet Within months group 1 with poor diet had been hit with pellagra i Manipulate variables under controlled conditions and observe change in the second variable b Variable IV experiment manipulates c Variable DV observed resultoutcome Group group 1 receives some kind of special treatment Not special as in quotgoodquot but special as in quotnot ordinary e Group doesn t receive special treatment so that they can be compared to the experiment group 2 a When all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to either conditiongroup for the experiment b that s why the Amish wouldn t work as an experimental group to test if vaccines cause autism Too many different environmental factors 3 i Just because a correlation exists doesn t mean that it is actually related ii Correlation doesn t equal causation b i Manipulate a variable while you hold the others constant ii Have large groups iii Random assignment c Z 9 X Y i X can cause Y ii Y can cause X iii OR Z can cause both X and Y d concrete definition to measure a variable i quotI ll know it when I see it is not scientific ii You can define it however you want but it does need to be defined Experiment is only as good as operation definition i Between subject one group that eats this kind of diet but one group that eats a different diet ii Within subject subjects serve as their own control group 1 Example taste test f You can also have more than one independent variable i Example four groups 1 High protein high exercise 2 Low protein high exercise 3 High protein low exercise 4 Low protein low exercise g You can have more than one dependent variable i Example check the likelihood of high protein vs low protein diet groups getting colds and pellagra 4 Population Sample a all members of some specified group i Isn t always all humans b subset ofthe population c Example in the disease pellagra population was everyone but the sample was prisoners 5 a President Truman actually won but back in those days they would disperse the news through newspapers The reporters would sample both The Chicago tribune released a paper that said that he didn t so that they would have a jump on the news and did a survey to see what people thought b This caused sampling bias c Survey was done by phone and not everyone has a phone Generalization occurred Monday September 2 Chapter 2 o Occurs when the researchers expectations influence the outcome 0 Can be unintentional or intentional 0 When participator s expectations leads to experience a change even with fake treatment the placebo o preferred mainly because it s cheaper o Experimenter knows what s going on but the participates do NOT 0 Doesn t mean bias because the experimenter knows o Helps support placebo effect 0 Experimenter and participates don t know which is the placebo or real thing 0 Has administrators to give instructions 0 Helps support both placebo and experimenter bias Example story told About 100 years ago there was a horse Clever Hunts that could count People were amazed then got suspicious They thought the trainer was giving him signals so they put the trainer behind a curtain he would yell out a number and the horse would stomp his hoof to count to it The horse could still count They kept investigating and discovered that the horse could read the audience s body language wasn t actually counting 0 Prediction hunch about the relationship between 2 variables 0 Interrelated set of concepts used to explain a set of observations and make predictions about future experiements I As close to fact as you can get 0 Germ Theory germs cause disease I This theory originated because germs were viewed under a microscope bacteria tests were completed to kill them successfully Another Story Benjamin Rush 0 Signed Declaration of Independence 0 Medical Doctor back then they thought that blood leading would fix yellow fever 0 States that a theory or hypothesis must be tated in a way that it can be proved false 0 Say what should happen and shouldn t 0 Set up so that it can be wrong Correlations does NOT equal causation Tell usgive us a hint that something else might be going on Exists when two variables are related to each other 0 Measured with correlation coefficient measures the strength of the relationship between two variables 00 0 Correlation Coefficient Perfect Corrleation all the points are lined up value 1 Strong Correlation most of the points are lined value 7 Zero Correlation Negative Correlation value 1 gt The sign indicates direction gt The numerical value predictsestimates the strength 0 Statistics use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret numerical date 0 Like applied mathematics 0 Two types I Descriptive organizesummarize data 0 central tendency describes middlecentral o 3 kinds mean average median middle number mode most often 0 Variability when someone says they made an 85 on an exam you think it s good But then you find out that the highest score was a 90 and the lowest was 82 Then you think it s not so great 0 Measured with standard deviation 0 Small variability 9 small standard deviation 0 Large variability 9 large standard deviation I Inferential interpret data and draw conclusions o If 500 in control and 500 in experimental group but 300 dies in the high carb diet but not in the regular diet You think that the high carb diet is related to the deaths o If 150 died in the first group and 80 in the second then it s still a slight guess that it s diet 0 But if 80 in the first group and 82 died in the second then it s basically just chance The deaths aren t related to their diet 0 StatisticalSignificance I Probability that observed findings are due to chance I Find out the statistical significance by using a formula 0 More Biases 0 Lake Woebegone a radio series years ago 0 all the children in this pretend place are above average 0 problem with these scenario everyone isn t above average 0 created the Lake Woebegone Effect I which is the overestimation of an ability I it s an overestimation because there is supposed to be 50 of people not 80 are average not everyone can be above average Because the average is 50 0 False Consensus Effect 0 Overestimate how many people share our opinions values beliefs 0 Overestimation of how many agree with yousomeone I Example NY and California residents claimed quotI don t even know anyone who voted for G W Bush How on earth did he get elected Explanation Of course they probably don t know anyone who voted for Bush because they live in a state where pretty much everyone is a democrat there They are overestimating exaggerating the votes 0 Confirmation Bias 0 Tendency for people to seek out information that supports their decisions and beliefs and reject information that disconfirms Wednesday September 4 2013 Test changed to Monday September 16 2013 Chagter 3 o Meningesenclosing sheath that protect the brain and spinal cord I System of membranes that envelope the central nervous system Nervous System Central Nervous System Functions Receive store process and interpret sensory information 1 external 2 internal Spinal Cord Peripheripheral Somatic Autonomic Can cause reflexiive actions to occur that don39t go to the brain Nervous Systemmade up of neurons and glia voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory receptors touchingseeing Sympathic output of energy Fight or Flight Afferent to CNS Pa rasympathetic Efferent fFrom CNS conserves body39s resources decrease in heart rate and increase digestion again since sympathic turns it down Dendrites Axon terminals Ce bod Node of ra nvier Schwann39s cells 0 basic unit of nervous system that receives integrates transmits information tree looking branches 0 Don t actually touch synaptic cleft of other axons o Gap is called synaptic cleft o Synapse includes 0 Axon terminal 0 Synaptic cleft o dendrite 0 Contains nodes along them 0 Myelin sheath o Transfers information faster Extending fiber quotHighway of the nervous system End is called terminal button 0 Small knob that releases neurochemicals from neurotransmitters o Glia support and nourish the neurons so that the neurons can successfullybetter perform their tasks I They also transport some information not a lot Minor duty 0 The myelin sheath made up of fatty glial cells I Have nodes the constriction in between the axons I You can get faster pulses by having the fatty cells I Multiple sclerosis the myelin sheath is attacked and destroyed I Action Potential electrical impulse that travels along the axon All or None form of travelmethod of operation 0 has to have the correct quotlock and key with dendrites and synaptic clefts Impulses travel at 200 mph o In general the more rapid the action potential is the stronger the sensation A harder hit has more action potential Thus strength I Resting Potential no inputinfo I How an Action potential works When the axon gets to another dendrite the meeting place but not really meeting they form a synaptic clef Sends message to the synaptic vesicles The synaptic vesicles have neural transmitters releases transmitters and the terminal button of the axon receives them The post synaptic is located on the dendrite Since they aren t touching they bind with receptor sites The shape of the neurotransmitters is specific to certain receptor sites quotPerfect lock and key If it doesn t fit then it doesn t affect the next neuron 0 We have a natural receptor to a plant poppy seed Makes drug tests positive gt o I Brain s natural opiate I As opposed to heroin I Like a runner s high 0 Monoamines I Dopamine Voluntary movement and pleasurable emotion o Reward pathway of abused drugs 0 So when people abuse drugs to feel better this is the common way I Norepinephrine and depressive disorders 0 Responsible for depressive and eating disorders 0 Associated with ecstasy MDMA Ecstasy used to be legal prescribed by marriage counselors and then a scare campaign came around to O lessen the usage I quotSuicide Tuesday When they take ecstasy on Saturday and they are bombarded with all these neural chemicals so the brain doesn t make any serotonin and by Tuesday your body has over adjusted and isn t making enough I You also frazzle the receptors with over use So now when your brain produces serotonin your brain can t receive it with the receptors so it s almost impossible to feel good 0 Brain Regions 3 regions 0 older part of the brain I Information contains vital functions so damage to this area of the brain can be fatal 0 Very small damage is very big I Three parts Medulla Pons Cerebellum o Responsible for unconscious functions like and o and opposite ends 0 Cerebellum 0 Fine muscle movements and balance 0 0 Such as the 0 Which is sleep and arousal 0 I Largest and most complex REGION of the brain I Contains five structures thalamus hypothalamus hippocampus amygdala cerebrum i As in directing what signals go where ii Receives information from anywhere on your body fingertips eyes etc b Appears to integrate sensory information a i Hunger thirst temperature control b Contains the quotpleasure center a Involved with b Hippo memorygame c CampusSchool 4 Amygdala a Involves emotion and aggression b Main emotion that activates amygdala is fear 5 newer part of the brain with higher levels a Largest and most complex PART of the human brain b Newer part of the brain done more evolving c Responsible for the higher level thinking ii Thinking iii Learning iv Consciousness Voluntary movement d Cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres by the corpus callosum i Bridge of thick band of nerve fibers passing information between the two cerebral hemispheres ii left and right brain people information in the book 1 Controls left side of the body a Includes spatial space relationship understanding dimensions musical and visual recognition 1 Controls right side of the body 2 Responsible for a Such as language speech reading writing 3 Two area s in the left brain a Broca s Area responsible for speech production b Wernicke s Area responsible for language comprehension v Split brain research 1 In bad cases of frequent epilepsiesseizures they cut the corpus callosum so that the right side can t communicate with the left 2 Classic experiment 0 The participate with a split brain was shown two pictures 0 A house with snow is shown to a rake shovel lawn mower and a broom was also shown 0 Other side shows a chicken foot with a chicken cow and apple 0 Tell them to match the correct item for the situation 0 Correctly matches house with snow shovel and chicken with claw 0 Couldn t explain correctly why they chose correct answers Apparently because chickens poop a lot so you need a shovel Not the right reason but it is the correct answer 0 Cerebral Cortex 0 Four lobes 0 Carl Sandburg quotThe Cauliflower is cabbage with an education o Occipital lobe I Vision 0 Parietal I Somatosensory 0 Touch pain warmth etc 0 Temporal I Auditory o Frontal I Executive and motor control I Example Phineas Gage A bar went through his eye and out the side His personality was changed and lived long after Good employee 9 bad angry temper I The part of the frontal cortex that isn t quite so forward is the quotprimary motor cortex deals with musclemotor skills I The forward most part is the prefrontal cortex is for higher order functioning like reasoning and thought processes o Hormones amp Endocrine System 0 Hormones are long distance messengers I Chemicals that are carried in the blood stream I Affect other parts of the body I put into the bloodstream pulsatile brief bursts I slower than neurotransmitters in synapses because it travels from brain to body 0 Endocrine System I Glands that secret the chemicalshormones into the bloodstream that helps control body functions 0 Nature born that way vs Nurture learned behavior 0 Tabula Rasa babies are born with a blank slate I But that s not true Genetics shape biology behavior The environment can turn genes on and off 0 People who are depressed tend to have this specific gene but sometimes it s not activated because the trigger required isn t present 0 Genetic predisposition born with this I Not like eye color 0 Genetic relatedness I Identical twins shares 100 of genes I Fraternal twins shares 50 of genes I Grandparents 25 I First cousins 125 0 Studies 0 Family Studies I Examine blood siblingsrelatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait 0 Twin Studies slightly better study than family I Look at identical vs fraternal 0 Adoption Studies compare adoptive children to both their biological and adoptive parents I Must be adopted at very young age I IQ is recorded as been fairly equal with both sets of parents I Alcoholism most similar to biology parents Extra Info Provided gt Exam 1 date changed to Sept 16 gt KNOW 0 Figure 17 Employment of Psychologists I 1 private practices 33 I 2 colleges and universities a little less than 33 0 Chart in Book Focus on research Fig 18 I Know what they are areas short sentences not percentages 0 Figure 19 1St mostly clinical then counseling I Clinical does diseases like schizophrenia I Counseling does like daytoday problems gt DON T NEED TO KNOW 0 Chapter 2 personal app on journal articles gt BUT you do need to read about journal articles in the main article gt DO KNOW all applications and Critical Thinking for every chapter unless told otherwise Not on test I Table 31 only need to know what was gone over in class I Brain only need to know what was gone over in class I Action potential Don t need to know sodiumpotassium etc Exam 1 Review 0 Test instructions 0 2 pencil she has scantrons 0 Write notes on test 0 400 class 0 Test material 75 from notes 25 from book Know key terms Know definitions and the differences in definitions Online study guide address on BB Personal Appsamp Critical Thinking App at the end ofthe chapters are fair game Only need to know names and dates mentioned in class Know pie charts main ideas Could ask general numbers OOOOOOOOO Chapter 1 illustrated overview on page 2021 I Understand the 7 unifying themes I Don t need to know psychiatry Stimulus response selfconcept or research on Figure 18 but still know the general idea 0 Chapter 2 I Understand scientific investigation steps on page 4144 I Skip personal app 7073 I Knowjournal article discussion in main part of chapter 2 0 Chapter 3 I Don t need to know Autonomic NS 0 Just what we went over in class 0 Nothing in figure 38 Under action potential 0 Sodiumpotassium o figure 32 o Postsynaptic potential PSP Visionhearing for 2 hemispheres fig 322 Won t be asked to label pictures of brain or structures not mentioned in class like limbic system and fig 39 ventricles Stereotaxic instrument Fig 324 major endocrine glands Basic Principles of Genetics p 110112 0 Only what we went over in class skip most The cutting Edge Genetic mapping p 115 The Evolutionary Bases of Behavior p 116119 0 Just know what we talked about in chapter I Do need to know Biases Ignoring the base rate Lake wobegon effect Confirmation bias False consensus effect Monday September 30 2013 w o Sensation Perception o Sensation stimulation of sensory organs I Sensory organs directly translate you automatically know 0 Perception selection organization and interpretation of sensory input I when you actually know what s going on you have to interpret make sense out of whatever you see hear etc I Synesthesia when a stimulation of one sense evokes the sensation of another 0 Like LCD trip taste colors see sounds 0 Absolute ThresholdJust Noticeable Differences 0 Absolute Threshold I Smallest quantity reliably detecting I The minimum point of when you can hear someone 0 At first you can t but as they get louder as soon as you can hear them absolute threshold 0 Just Noticeable Differences I IND proportional to the initial stimulus established by Weber s Law 0 Big things require big differences I Smallest difference in stimulus of intensity detectable I You can tell the difference between 1 and 2 02 but not a small difference like 01 02 Wednesday October 2 2013 0 Social Desirability Bias 0 Trying to create a persona that someone in society will think highly of 0 Example someone keeps asking you if you see a dot You say no but after a while you say yes because you think they will think something is wrong with you because you don t see it 0 Signal Detection Theory 0 Depends on two things I Sensory processes 0 Did you actually hear someone calling you Did you really hear it I Decision processes 0 When you re unsure if someone calls you you have to make a decision to act on this questioning belief Do you ask if you were called or ignore it Hit I When you correctly heard or saw the stimuli Miss I There s a noise stimuli but you don t hear it False alarm I Say you heard saw something but you actually didn t Correction rejection I When you say you don t hear something after being asked and you say no but it s correct no one said anything I Intentionally checked for to determine social desirability bias truth 0 Sensory Adaptation Q When you Visit an older person their perfume is very strong at first But after a while you get used to it This is a decline in sensitivity to prolong the stimulation I Your body gets tired of telling you that there s a smell 0 The sensory receptors get tired Good or bad thing that your body is informing you of the sensoria I Good if it s a bad smell then it s great You don t have to smell poo I Bad if you continued to feel your shirt sleeve like when putting the shirt on all day along with everything else you could be bombarded with many different signals 0 Visual Stimuli o Rarely adapt to because environment is constantly changing 0 Depth amp Distance Perception 0 Depth perception interpreting visual cues to see how close far they are I Binocular clues about the distance based on the differences of two eyes 0 Up to 25 feet 0 Retinal disparity the slight difference of visual field between the left and right eye 0 Example seeing the sausage I Closing one eye at a time to look at your finger Your finger quotjumpsquot 0 Convergence refers to the fact that your eyes turn inward to focus on a nearby object I Monocular one eye 0 Pictorial depth views 0 Linear perspective I Picture of the road it looks narrower but we know it s just because it gets further away 0 Texture gradient I Picture of a ower you can look at each individual ower How we see colors 0 Interposition picture of grapes in front of apple we know this because the grapes are blocking part of the apple 0 Relative size eggs in an egg carton the egg toward the front of the carton looks bigger but actually isn t 0 Height in plane closer mountain is taller 0 Light and shadow light is closer shadow is farther away 0 Motion parallax images of objects at different distances move across the retina at a different rate 0 Trichromatic Theory there are three types of cones sees color in the eye I People who are color blind color deficient usually just one color you re missing I Three different types of cones Red green blue 0 These three colors can make any color 0 Opponentprocess Theory I When one is switched on the other is switched off Red green yellow blue Black white I Flower red stem with green ower and black background Stare for a minute and look at a dot the picture changes to green stem red ower and white background After image visual image that persists after image is removed Pereeptual preee55e5 e Pereeptual eenstaneies 0 Top DownBottom Up Processing I Bottom up sensory receptors Example THE CAT The H and A are identical in the way that they are drawn with two slanted unconnected lines with one horiztonal line But you still know that it s quotthe catquot because of the concepts you have already 0 Top down concepts expectations memory I swimners o Gestalt I quotform or shapequot I The whole can be greater than the sum of its parts I Example Proximity 0 Elements that are close to one another tend to be grouped together Closure 0 Viewers tend to supply missing elements to close or complete a familiar figure Similarity 0 Elements that are similar tend to be grouped together Simplicity 0 Viewers tend to organize elements in the simplest way possible Con nuny 0 Viewers tend to see elements in ways that produce smooth continuation o PeakEnd Rule Theory 0 Story 1 Humans are like robots The first group of people saw a movie that s scary through the whole thing The second group saw a different movie that wasn t scary at all but a dead body comes out of the closet and then it ends with happiness and butter ies Objectively the first one would be scary because it s scary the entire time But people think the second one would be because the peak and end play a larger subjective role 0 Story 2 Colonoscopy first group has it but the second group gets it done but at the end they leave the instrument in for a few minutes longer than the first group Objectively the second group had more pain because it lasted longer But the first group said it was more painful because it ends drastically Objectively ripping the BandAid off is less pain But subjectively it s less pain to pull it off slowly o Hindsight bias 0 Basically when we look back it s a feeling of quotwe knew better 0 Overconfident bias 0 People are too confident 0 Example folding a piece of paper a ton of times then being asked how high it is Some people say 3 ft 8 inches etc Then asked how confident they are in that answer People underestimate true value with lots of confidence Real answer is like all the way to the moon Test Review 0 Online study guide on BB WHAT S NOT ON THE TEST 0 Chapter 5 0 Skip section critical thinking Alcoholism 0 Chapter 6 0 Practice questions 5amp6 0 Figure 614 Key term dissociation Tables 52 and 53 psychotic drugs 0 Do read text and get main points Mechanisms of drug action p 217218 0 Fig 519 and 520 Psych 2010 Chapter 5 o Consciousness awareness of self and surroundings 0 Internal self 0 External surroundings 0 You are conscious during sleep but not completely aware you can hear a baby start to cry but you don t hear other sounds 0 Biological Rhythm periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning 0 Special kind of biological clock Circadian Rhythm The 24 hour biological cycle Happens in humans animals but also plants and insects 0 Terms early bird and early worm Genetic predisposition Can be overcome long genes tend to be night owls early birds more prejudice in the evening I night owls are more prejudice in the morning prejudice thinking is reallyjust lazy thinking 0 Traveling west to east is better for jet lag o Closer to the equator you live the better you sleep 0 Physiological Pathway 0 Biological clock Light levels hit your retina 9 the SCN of hypothalamus 9 pineal gland 9 secretion of melatonin more likely to sleep Brighter lights inhibit dimmer lights promote 0 Physiological Aspects of Sleep 0 Sleep tips Get up and go to bed at the same time every day so that your body can get into a rhythm Then you ll be able to sleep better in a darker room When you wake up let in a lot of light to your retina so that your brain quotrestartsquot There s not a realone sleep center in the brain Ascending Reticular Activating System Pathway so that inside your body you know that it s daynight If this gets damaged you have continuous sleep Not the same thing as a coma If you were to stick an electrode in there you would stay awake for days Body temperature goes down while we sleep and up when we awaken Psych 2010 Chapter 5 So you can get to sleep faster in a colder room because it helps your body lower its overall temp o EEG patterns Associated with States of Consciousness EEG Pattern Beta Typical State Beta Normal waking thought alert problem solving Alpha Deep relaxation blank mind meditation Theta Light sleep Delta Deep sleep 0 Sleep stages graphscharts in ch 5 0 Stage 1 Sleep Theta waves brief transitional 17 minutes Hypnic jerks brief muscular contraction Most of the time people don t realize they were asleep 0 Stage 2 Sleep Sleep spindles Brief bursts of higher frequency brain waves In between the fast awake waves and slow waves Lasts 1025 minutes 0 Stage 3 amp 4 Sleep deep sleep quotslowwave sleep 30 minutes Progressively more delta waves high amplitude low frequency More difficult to wake the person 0 REM Sleep Rapid Eye Movement Most vivid dreams in REM sleep Lowvoltage high frequency beta waves Start to come out of sleep quotparadoxical sleep because our body is sound asleep but our brain is wide awake This is when your muscles are relaxed Good thing you don t act out your dream But sometimes when you wake up your brain can be awake but your body isn t so you re still paralyzed Heart rate and blood pressure actually go up during this period of sleep Young adults spend 2025 of the night in REM sleep REM sleep periods get longer after each cycle Occurs every 90 minutes Psych 2010 Chapter 5 0 Sleep walking Right before REM In the deep sleep stage 3 amp 4 Not dangerous to wake the person up 0 Night terrors during deep sleep Not a nightmare Waking up in panic No story not being chased Just sheer terror 0 Nightmares occur during REM sleep Really bad dream More likely to happen at the end partially because it s the longer REM period When you wake up suddenly it s a nightmare The sense of falling 0 Sleep spindle Brief spurts of high frequency waves 0 Benefits of Sleep 0 Immune functioning is better 0 Helps fight obesity and resulting problems Hormonally and psychosocially o Hormones appetite is in balance 0 Benefits of REM and Slow wave sleep 8 hours of interrupted sleep doesn t NOT equal 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep REM and SWS are important Don t break up sleep into periods If you wake up in the middle ofthe night because you hear something but go back to sleep then you re body goes back to the cycle that it left off in REM rebound If you are deprived of REM then your body is going to cycle faster to get there faster because it needs it And you ll spend additional time in REM Also SWS rebound But REM rebound occurs first before SWS rebound 0 Memory consolidation synaptic changes with recently stored memories Makes them more durable and stable Neurogenesis helps with problem solving and creativity Synaptic change helps you to remember things with more sleep to enforce the information Getting sleep after you memorize something will help 0 Sleep amp Aging 0 Aging starting with age 20 on o The proportion of slow wave sleep goes down but REM stays the same Psych 2010 Chapter 5 o 80 year old will spend less time in SW5 but the same amount of time in REM Older people don t sleep as much because they are less sleepy during the day than younger people and choose 15 hours less sleep Older people can tolerate sleep deprivation better than young people BUT older people are worse with circadian shifts jet lagshift in sleep schedule NOT ON EXAM 2 o 211 dissociation 0 Table 53 Psych 2010 Chapter 6 September 18 2013 gt Learning and Conditioning I Behaviorism believed we should study only observed behavior any relatively durable changes in behaviorknowledge from experience 0 learning association between environmental stimuli and the organism s responses I Stimuli 9 Responses two different types 0 Classical consists of reflexive responses cringing at the dentist s drill Operant voluntary response work 9 pay check 0 learning in which a stimulus bell acquires the capacity to evoke a response salivation that was originally evoked by another stimulus food I Unconditioned stimulus Dog food brought to dog it salivates Unconditioned stimulus 9 unconditioned response I Conditioned Stimulus Adding a bell to the scenario would make it conditioned because it s indirectly stimulating the response of salivation 1 Acguisition initial stage of learning something a Stimulus contiguity occurs together in time and space 2 Extinction gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of conditioned response a Ring the bell but the dog doesn t come because after so many times the dog realizes that the bell doesn t mean food is present 3 Spontaneous Recovery reappearance after nonexposure a Bell food repeated and then just bell so the dog doesn t expect food But sometimes the bell reminds him of food so he salivates 4 Stimulus Generalization after learning a specific stimulus response the response is the same to a new stimuli new stimuli but be similar to old a Like a tuning fork instead of bell They sound the same b The more similar the more likely to generalize 5 Stimulus Discrimination after learning a specific SR the dog doesn t respond in the same way a IF after a while the dog can figure out the difference in bell and fork then the dog can stop salivating gt Does this work in real life Yes 0 Advertisers use this on purpose Brad Pitt car women want the product Even if he isn t with the product when they see it they still remember the connection and want it Psych 2010 Chapter 6 September 18 2013 Monday September 23 2013 Operant Conditioning 0 Responses come to be controlled by their consequences 0 Rewards I Increase response 0 Punish I Decrease Response Positive Negative Reward Punishment 0 Positive Rewards I Increase probability of a given behavior 0 Negative Rewards I Increase probability of a given behavior 0 Positive Punishment I Decrease probability of a given behavior 0 Negative Punishment I Decrease probability of a given behavior Action that immediately follows behavior is reinforcement The sooner a consequence follows a response the greater its effect Different rewards and punishments work for different people Punishment can be rewarding because of the attention 0 Logical Consequences 0000 Primary Rewards o Satisfy biological needs 0 Not learned 0 Ex Food water sex Secondary Rewards o Learned 0 Associated with primary Primary Punishers o Inherently unpleasant 0 Pain being tortured being too hot being too cold 0 Not learned Psych 2010 Chapter 6 September 18 2013 0 Secondary Punishers o Learned 0 Ex Speeding ticket 0 Rewards gt Punishment 0 Sports Illustrated Curse o Athlete on the cover of Sports Illustrated athlete falls from greatness 0 Regression to the mean 0 When you are at your peak you are most likely to go back towards the mean 0 ask me for explanation 0 Hot Stove Rule Immediate punishment works best Consistent Impersonal Moderate Fits the crime Nonphysical tends to work better Punish privately 000000 0 Explain why 0 Principles of Operant Conditioning 0 Acquisition I Reinforcement o Extinction I Quit reward decrease given behavior I Quit punishment increase given behavior 0 Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination o Discriminative Stimulus I Cues that tell probability of consequences I When to do things 0 Shaping I Reinforcement of closer approximations of desired response 0 Psych 2010 Chapter 6 September 18 2013 o Reinforcement Schedules 0 Continuous I Every time designated response occurs it is reinforce I Weaker but is taught faster 0 Intermittent partial I Only reinforce some of the time Stronger but takes longer I FixedRatio FR 0 Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses I Variable Ratio VR 0 Reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses I Fixed Interval Fl 0 Reinforced for 1St response after a fixed time has elapsed I Variable Interval VI 0 Reinforcement is given for 1St response after a variable time Psych 2010 Chapter 6 September 18 2013 Wednesday September 25 2013 Operant Conditioning 0 parenting styles I Authoritarian rigid controlling 0 Example Tiger mom Tends to use physical force or at least threaten it 0 Causes children to grow up timid and insecure but then rebel in teenage years I Two types of permissive both don t set boundaries kids can do whatever o Neglectfuluninvolved o Indulgent very involved but still don t set limits on their quotangelsquot 0 Parents are referred to as quothelicopter parents I Don t really let kids make their own decisions I Therefore the kids turn out selfish and immature because they re used to getting their way and haven t had consequences for their behavior I Authoritative parents do set limits but they are respectful to their children and appeal to reason Tend to use nonphysica punishment 0 Premack Principle one activity can act as a reinforce for another I BASICALLY you won t enjoy your favorite class homework if you start with it So you need to do the subject you hate first then what you like Otherwise you ll fail and die I Math is your favorite class lt3 so do this homework last I Econ is worst class don t do this homework because you don t have the class WTF Observational Learning we learn by observing others 0 Behaviorists would NOT agree with this I Vicarious Learning Psych 2010 Chapter 6 September 18 2013 Tried to show that observational learning wasn t a think 0 Bandura I Behaviorists that said quotbehaviorism works but we also have brains I Devised four key processes 0 Attention pay attention Retention commit it to memory Reproduction converting memory to action 0 Motivation has to be worth doing 0 Featured study Bobo a stupid clown 0 Put a blow up clown that has weights so that it stands up after being knocked down in a room with children an adult goes in and hits in walks out Kids hit it now 0 Four conditions to the study kids watched fight on TV before seeing Bobo I Aggressive model was rewarded Most aggressive I Aggressive model was punished 0 2nd most aggressive I Nonaggressive model 0 3rd most aggressive I No model kids didn t even watch TV 0 Least aggressive faggots Psych 2010 Chapter 6 0 NOT ON THE TEST 0 000000 KNOW Generalization gradients Table 52 and 53 Mechanisms of drug action p 217218 Personal APP Commulutive recorder Emit elicit Clip from My Name is Earl rubber band to train randy September 18 2013 Chapter 7 3 key processes in memory memory depends on ALL 3 if one is missing you forget 1 forming the memory code converting information to memory 2 maintaining the coded information memory 3 ocate recovery memory 1 information 9 memory 0 Do it through I Attention focusing awareness on narrow range of stimuli I Filtering screen out most of the stimuli 0 Two types of ltering 0 Early filtering filter the input before the brain processes the meaning I This type is for complicated high load thinking where you re so focused it s consuming all of your attention I Example when you re studying and you re so focused that you filter everything out don t hear people call your name because you re so focused 0 Late filtering filter the input after the brain processes the meaning I Example cocktai party phenomenon You re at a party A bunch of people are talking But somehow you re managing to have a conversation with one or a few people close to you And you can somehow manage to also hear your name being called 0 You weren t listening to the distant name call you were in a conversation 0 Your brain was filtering for you late and that s how you heard your name I Divided Attention this is when you try to pay attention to two or more simultaneous messages 0 Causes a great decline in productivity 0 Cannot do both you can only handle one high load attention consuming activity at a time 0 Your brain cannot handle two conversations at the same time Studying can t watch TV and study at the same time 0 And if you listen to music while studying you can t sing the words because your brains can t tell the different between hearing words and coming up with words 0 Texting and driving 0 Law makers assumed that the problem was with holding the phone and not talking If you hold the phone you re 4x more likely to crash But if you re handsfree 3x more likely to crash I And texting while driving you re 23x more likely I If you think it s morally wrong to drink and drive then you should never text and drive because the likelyhod to wreck is double that Novices tend to take their eyes off the road for more than 3 seconds while trying to do other things in the car eating changing the radio etc 0 Older people tend to take their eyes of the road for less than 3 seconds but they still do I Encoding Levels 3eves 1 Structural shallow processing a Physical structure i Notice only the color of a tshirt from a person walking by 2 Phonemic intermediate processing a Words and sounds 3 Semantic deeper level a Know meanings i Recognize the words meaning on the tshirt Levels of processing theory the deeper the processing the longer lasting the memory I Enhancing Encoding Elaboration basically means thinking of an example Selfreferent encoding basically things that are personally relevant 0 Example you have the same dog name as someone else 0 Visual Imagery creating visual images 0 0 Concrete object words are easier to remember than abstract words ex Justice abstract vs ball link method linking words to pictures method of Loci linking images with locations I imagining things down your driveway I if you have to make a speech in class and you have six points imagine six points on your body So if you get interrupted or lost you can think to what body part you left off and then move to the next one Dual coding theory visual semantic better memory I So if you want to remember something think of ways to quotseequot visualize it and deeply think about it Monday September 30 Chapter 7 o 3 Box Model of Memory picture in book I Sensory when you hear something it goes through sensory memory Only a 14 second long Attention not really memory storage I shortzterm most cognitive people refer to it as working memory without rehearsal last about 20 seconds limited 0 they used to think it was 7 i 2 0 now they think it s closer to 4 i 1 Chunking o Grouping letters into chunks that makes it easier to understand 0 FBI IBM BMW CIA is easierto remember than CWIBMBAIFMIB I ongterm thought to have unlimited capacitybeing stored indefinitely Flashbulb memory a type of long term memory 0 Very vivid detailed recollection of a momentous event 0 More emotional intensity 0 But people tend to be over confident in how true they are I People think that they are more accurate than normal memories but tend not to be Organization of Memories 0 Clustering I The tendency to remember similar or related items in groups 0 Conceptual Hierarchies I Multilevel classification system based on common properties 0 Schema I A frame work of how we organize and interpret information I Easier to remember things that are schema inconsistent I More likely to quotfalsely remember schema consistent Because you know what should be there 0 Example doctor s office with a wine bottle doesn t belong 0 Semantic Nodes I Representing concepts joined together by pathways I Like being in an attic with a flashlight if it s close you can see it more clearlyget to it faster 0 Parallel Distributed Processing PDP I quotconnectionistquot I Pattern of activation is knowledge rather than points I Therefore pattern is lit up not nodes I Resembles neural networks 0 Reconstructive 0 When you retrieve memories it s not retrieving long term memories It s pulling from the snaps that your brain took and plays them together like a video 0 Memories are stored as snapshots o Misinformation Effect the recalled event is altered by misbelieving postevent information I Car crash 0 When group one was asked about the accident with the term quotsmashquot they thought that cars were fasterglass smashed But when group 2 was asked with the term quotbumpquot they said that the cars were slower and without glass Actually no glass 0 Context Cues I Putting yourself back into the context of which it happened I Like when you walk into a room and forget why you went in there you go back to where you were right before then so that way you can remember what you needed because the contextsurroundings of that room can help bring back the memory 0 Encoding Specificity don t read in book I Context is encoded with the stimulus therefore retrieval is better if it matches the context 0 Transfer Appropriate processing I The initial processing of information is similar to the type of process required by retrieval 4 Forgetting o Retention I How its measured I Proportion of material remembered I Ebbinghause o Memorized nonsense syllables Discovered that most of the forgetting occurred within the first hour 0 methods to measure forgetting 1 recall reproducing information on your own a short answer exams essay exams 2 recognition a multiple choice b less forgetting c Most forgetting is still within the most then levels off from there 3 Relearning a How much practice it takes to relearn the material b Savings scare i Estimates how much you have retained s o serialposition effect I recall is better for things at the beginning and end of lists I Primacy effect remember beginning of the list I Recency effect remember beginning of the list TEST 2 READNG CHAPTER 4 1 Intro a Visual agnosia inability to recognize objects through sight b Sensation vs Perception i Sensation stimulation of sense organs ii Perception selection organization and interpretation of sensory input 2 Psychophysics Basic Concepts and Issues a Psychophysics the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience b Looking for Limits i Stimulus any detectable input from the environment ii Absolute threshold the minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect this is relative to the person detecting iii Just Noticeable Difference JND the smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect i The detection of stimuli involves both decision and sensory processes Both are influenced by factors other than the intensity of the stimulus ii Four possible outcomes 1 Hits detecting signals when they are present 2 Misses failing to detect signals when they are present 3 False alarms detecting signals when they are not present 4 Correct rejections not detecting signals when they are absent iii Detectability measure in terms of probability and depends on decision making processes as well as sensory processes i Subliminal perception the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness below threshold 1 Perception without awareness CAN take place i A gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation 3 The Visual System Essentials of Sight i Individual cells in the primary visual cortex don t respond much to little spots they are much more sensitive to lines edges and other more complicated stimuli vi vii viii Figure 413 on page 141 Simple cells respond best to a line of the correct width oriented at the correct angle and located in the correct position in its receptive field Complex cells also care about width and orientation but they respond to any position in their receptive fields Feature detectors neurons that respond selectively to very specific feature of more complex stimuli Figure 415 on page 142 1 Ventral stream processes the details of what objects are out there 2 Dorsal stream processes where the objects are Cells in the temporal lobe are especially sensitive to pictures of faces Grandmother cell cells that react to one specific thing Picswords quotHalle Berry or quotBill Clinton Color is a psychological interpretation It is not a physical property of light itself Perception of color depends on complex blends of all three properties of light 1 Wavelength hue shading 2 Amplitude brightness 3 Purity saturation Figure 418 on page 143 Subtractive color mixing works by removing some wavelengths of light leaving less light than was originally there 1 Mixing paints makes the colors darker and darker Additive color mixing works by superimposing lights putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself 1 Mixing lights makes the colors brighter than they would be on their own The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths Color blindness the inability to distinguish among colors Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors The Three pairs 1 Red vs green 2 Yellow vs blue 3 Black vs white Complementary colors pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed iv After image an image that persists after a stimulus removed 4 The Visual System Perceptual Processes vi vii viii Perceptual set a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way nattentiona blindness the failure to see visible objects or events because one s attention is focused elsewhere Feature analysis the process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form Bottomup processing a progression from individual elements to the whole Topdown processing a progression from the whole to the elements Subjective contours involves the perception of contours where none actually exist Phi phenomenon the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession 1 Frames in movies Gestalt Principles 1 Figure and Ground figures stand out in front of the ground a Figure what is being looked at b Ground the background against which it stands 2 Proximity You can perceive either rows or columns based on the distance between dots 3 Closure the mind completes figures that have gaps in them to see the whole Similarity Elements that are similar tend to be grouped together 5 Simplicity Viewers tend to organize elements in the simplest way possible breaking a figure into a rectangle and triangle 6 Continuity Viewers tend to see elements in ways that produce a smooth continuation Distal stimuli stimuli that lie in the distance that is in the world outside the body Proximal stimuli the stimulus energies that impinge directly on sensory receptors 1 Often distorted shifting representations of distal stimuli a square sheet as it moves away changes its shape based on how you see it proximal but it is still a square sheet distal xi Perceptual hypothesis an inference about which distal stimuli could be responsible for the proximal stimuli sensed seeing two different things in the same image like duck vs rabbit i Binocular depth cues clues about distance based on the differing views of the two ears ii Retinal disparity refers to the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object iii Convergence involves sensing the eyes converging toward each other as they focus on closer objects iv Monocular depth cues clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone v Motion parallax involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates vi Pictorial depth cues clues about distance that can be given in a flat picture 1 Linear perspective lines converge in the distance 2 Texture gradients details are too small to see when they are far away Interposition object is between you and another object Relative size object appears larger Height in plane distant objects appear higher in a picture 9199 Light and shadow helps in judging distance CHAPTER 5 1 Biological Rhythms and Sleep a periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning Organisms have internal quotbiological clocks that monitor the passage of time b the 24hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species i Ignoring these causes jet lag c A rough rule of thumb forjet lag is that the readjustment process takes about a day for each time zone crossed when you fly eastward and about twothirds of a day per time zone when you fly westward 2 The Sleeping and Waking Cycle a a test that measures and records the electrical activity of your brain records muscular activity and tension records eye movements d consists of sleep stages 3 and 4 during which high amplitude lowfrequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements highfrequency lowamplitude brain waves and vivid dreaming consists of sleep stages 1 through 4 which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements relatively little dreaming and varied EEG activity i Ascending Reticular Activating System ARAS consists of the afferent incoming nerve fibers running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal 3 Problems in the Night Sleep Disorders a refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep i Difficulty in falling asleep initially ii Difficulty in remaining asleep iii Persistent early morning awakening a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods involves frequent reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep anxietyarousing dreams that lead to awakening usually from REM sleep abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep 4 Theories of Dreaming a b consists of the plot of a dream at a surface level refers to the hidden or disguised meaning of the events in the plot 5 Hypnotic Induction and Susceptibility a a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility c i Responsiveness to hypnosis is a stable measurable trait Can be estimated with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale SHSS High hypnotizability is made up of three components 1 Absorption involves the capacity to reduce or block peripheral awareness and narrow the focus of one s attention Dissociation involves the ability to separate aspects of perception memory or identity from the mainstream of conscious awareness Suggestibility involves the tendency to accept directions and information relatively uncritically Hypnotic Phenomena some participants can withstand treatments that would normally cause considerable pain iv hypnosis can sometimes reduce inhibitions that would normally prevent subjects from acting in ways that they would see as socially undesirable hypnosis may influence a subject s later behavior 5 Meditiation Pure Consciousness or Relaxation a refers to a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control 6 Altering Consciousness with Drugs a Princip i vi vii al Abused Drugs and Their Effects chemical substances that modify mental emotional or behavioral functions drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain sleepinducing drugs that tend to decrease CNS activation and behavioral activity drugs that tend to increase CNS activation and behavioral activity a diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience the hemp plant from which marijuana hashish and THC are de ved encompasses a variety of beverages containing ethyl alcohol viii a compound drug related to both amphetamines and hallucinogens especially mescaline b Factors Influencing Drug Effects i refers to a progressive decrease in a person s responsiveness to a drug CHAPTER 6 1 Intro a any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to expe ence 2 ClassicalConditioning a irrational fears of specific objects or situations b a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus c Terminology and Procedures I a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous condition ii an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous condition iii a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response iv a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous condition v A trial in classical condition consists of any presentation of stimulus or pair of stimuli d Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning i Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning something ii Extinction the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency iii Spontaneous recovery the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus iv Renewal effect if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place Extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning V vi vii viii Stimlus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the generalization can be quantified in graphs called generalization gradients Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus Higherorder conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus 3 Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences b Thorndike s Law of Effect Law of effect if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying the effects the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened c Skinner s Demonstration It s All a Matter of Consequences Reinforcement occurs when an even following a response increases an organism s tendency to make that response d Terminology and Procedures Operant chamber Skinner box a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled Reinforcement contingencies the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers Cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time Primary reinforcers event that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs Secondary or conditional reinforcers events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers e Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning Shaping consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforce has been terminated Discriminative stimuli cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences reinforcement or non reinforcement of a response f Schedules of Reinforcement vi vii Schedule of reinforcement determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforce Continuous reinforcement occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced Intermittent or partial reinforcement occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time Fixedratio FR schedule the reinforce is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses a rat is given cheese after every tenth lever press Variableratio VR schedule the reinforce is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses a rat is given cheese after every tenth lever press on average the actual number varies Fixedinterval Fl schedule the reinforce is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed a rat is reinforced for the first lever press after 2 minutes must do it again after another 2 minutes Variableinterval VI schedule the reinforce is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed g Positive Reinforcement Versus Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus Negative reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive unpleasant stimulus Escape learning an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation Avoidance learning an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring h Punishment Consequences that Weaken Responses Punishment occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response Making Punishment More Effective 1 Apply punishment swiftly A delay undermines its impact 2 Use punishmentjust severe enough to be effective 3 Make punishment consistent 4 Explain the punishment 5 Use noncorporal punishments such as withdrawal of privileges 4 Changing Directions in the Study of Conditioning a Recognizing Biological Constraints on Conditioning i Preparedness involves speciesspecific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways and not others b Recognizing Cognitive Processes in Conditioning i Latent learning learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs 5 Observational Learning i Observational learning occurs when an organism s responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models 6 Critical Thinking a Evaluative conditioning consists of efforts to transfer the emotion attached to a US to a new CS CHAPTER 7 1 Encoding involves forming a memory code Storage involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time 3 Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores Encoding Getting Information into Memory a The Role of Attention i Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events b Levels of Processing i Levelsofprocessing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longerlasting memory codes c Enriching Encoding i Elaboration linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding d Dualcoding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall e Selfreferent encoding involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant 4 Storage Maintaining Information in Memory a Sensory Memory i Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time usually only a fraction of a second b ShortTerm Memory Shortterm memory STM a limitedcapacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 1020 seconds Rehearsal the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information Chunk a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit c Long Term Memory Longterm memory LTM an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time Flashbulb memories unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events d Howls Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory Conceptual hierarchy a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items Schema an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or even abstracted from previous experience with the object or even Semantic network consists of nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts iv Connectionist or parallel distributed processing PDP model assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks 5 Retrieval Getting Information Out of Memory a Using Cues to Aid Retrieval Tipofthetongue phenomenon the temporary inability to remember something you know accompanied by a feeling that it s just out of reach b Reconstructing Memories and the Misinformation Effect Misinformation effect occurs when participant s recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent information c Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring Source monitoring involves making attributions about the origins of memories Sourcemonitoring error occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Reality monitoring refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources one s perception of actual events or internal sources one s thoughts and imaginations 6 Forgetting When Memory Lapses a How Quickly We Forget Ebbinghaus s Forgetting Curve Nonsense syllables consonantvowelconsonant arrangements that do not correspond to words Forgetting curve graphs retention and forgetting over time b Measures of Forgetting Retention refers to the proportion of material retained remembered Recall measure of retention requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues Recognition measure of retention requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options Relearning measure of retention requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before c Why We Forget vi vii Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time Interference theory proposes that people forget information because a competition from other material Retroactive interference occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information Proactive interference occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information Encoding specificity principle the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code Transferappropriate processing occurs when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention Repression refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious 7 Systems and Types of Memory a Declarative Versus Procedural Memory Declarative memory system handles factual information Nondeclarative memory system houses memory for actions skill conditioned responses and emotional responses b Semantic Versus Episodic Memory Episodic memory system made up of chronological or temporally dated recollections of person experiences Semantic memory system contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned c Prospective Versus Retrospective Memory i Prospective memory involves remembering to perform actions in the future ii Retrospective memory involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information 8 Improving Everyday Memory i Mnemonic devices are strategies for enhancing memory b Engage in Adequate Rehearsal i Overlearning refers to continued rehearsal of material after you first appear to have mastered it ii Serialposition effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle c Enrich Encoding in Mnemonic Devices i Link method involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together ii Method of loci involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations 9 Critical Thinking a Hindsight bias the tendency to mold one s interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out Wednesday October 9 Chapter 9 gt Types of Psychological Tests 0 Two basic types a Measures intelligence aptitude achievement b Intelligence general mental ability c Aptitude Test specific type of mental ability Like for reading or math etc d Achievement mastering the knowledge of various subjects PASS a Measures motives interests values attitudes b Observe gather samples of behavior then look at individual differences c People tend to overestimate how much you can get from a personality test They really can t predict behaviors as well as a lot of people assume gt Reliability amp Validity Not interchangeable o consistency I Three different ways to measure reliability 1 Test Retest Comparing 2 tests a If room is tested weekly it s going to be able the same for the next week 2 Alternative Forms two forms of a test determines whether average person scores the same on both forms a Average of test 1 to average of test 2 3 lnterater do two different judges come up with the similar score 0 does it measure what it s supposed to I Three kinds 1 Content Validity does it cover the topic 2 Criteria Validity does it predict EX SAT scores would have criteria validity if it measured GPA 3 Construct Validity abstract idea or concept Examples Psychology aggression 4 Face Validity how it is going to work how it works a Can t always tell by just looking Can a test be reliable and not valid Yes Can a test be valid without reliable It cannot be valid without reliable IF it s not reliable then it s not measuring anything gt IQ tests predicts academic success I IQ tests are related to high status jobs but not as related to income 0 History of IQ tests I Galton in uenced by Darwin his cousin He thought IQ was based solely on hereditary like Darwinism Because smart parents have smart kids he saw that trend and noted that He ignored the schooling In mid1800s since he thought it ws hereditary he measured reaction time perception and other senses o This is the same guy that coined nature vs nurture he believed nurture heredity I Binet Bena 0 French psychologist o Commissioned by school district to test children Had children that needed special needs training Wanted to know how to divide students 0 Did a really good job so they determined this to be the first IQ test More objective than the teacher s evaluations o Looked at mental age Looked at mental performance of every child compared to the average mental performance ages 0 Binet Simon I T erman 0 Revised the BinetSimon and came up with the StanfordBinet o Added a big difference invented IQ Intelligence Quotient mental age chronological age 100 I This made it easier to test kids on the same scale I Wechsler o Looked at making tests for adults obviously can t use the same test that kids use 0 He came up with a famous test known as WechslerWAIS weight 0 He s noted for two things 1 He made the test less dependent on verbal 0 He change entire way we looked at IQ scores I He got rid of the concept of IQ but kept using the word IQ 2 Normal Distribution set it so that the average is 100 and standard deviation is 15 points higher lower IQ scale isn t really an intelligence score like before it s more like a standardized test score 0 Concerns with IQ tests I Factor Analysis 0 Correlations among variables are analyzed to determine clusters 0 On a survey If you scored a 5 on do you like to party you probably scored that high or almost that high on do you like to talk on the phone Extroverted I G General mental ability 0 Fluid Intelligence reasoning ability speed of information processing 0 Tends to go down with age 0 Crystalized intelligence applying skills 0 Age is not a factor in score Wednesday October 1 6 2013 I Adverse Impact 0 basically it s discrimination o hiring not based on what the job calls for I Success depends on two facts IQ and conscientiousness I IQ predicts better than personality test I Conscientiousness predicts the best 0 Cultural 0 We are so IQ obsessed because we believe that a high IQ leads to greater chance of success Whereas other countries are more focused on surviving o Hereditary Environmental In uence o 5050 hereditary and environmental in uence on person 0 Reaction Range genetically determined at birth limits on IQ Two ranges 80 95 or 85 110 latter is better 0 Flynn Effect IQ increases overall over time as environment improves 0 Cultural 0 10 15 point different between blacks and whites l Hereditability someone suggested that it was about 80 genetics wrong 2 Socioeconomic disadvantage If you look at reaction range you can be stuck in the smaller lower range if you have a poorer environment parents don t read non learning lower classminority SES Socio economic status refers to statusincome 3 Stereotype threat anXiety because you think others will attribute failure to a specific stereotype Chapter 10 Wednesday October 16 2013 0 Goal directed behavior the process by which behavior is activated and directed 0 Drive Theories I Seek homeostatis 0 Homeostasis state of physiological equilibrium 0 A self correcting system like air conditioning positive feedback 0 Need physical body low on water 0 Drive psychological thirst 0 Can be based on needs o Incentive Theories operant conditioning type of motivation from ch 6 internal vs external o Evolutionary Theories I deals with maximizing reproductive success 0 0 American adults 13 normal 13 overweight 13 obese I Calculated by BMI weight height 0 25 299 is overweight o For moderately overweight the mortality is actually equal with those who are within proper weight 0 Above 30 is obese 0 Mortality for obese increases greatly o Takes height into account but not muscle 0 Mortality might be calculated because of fitness not fatness 0 Biological Factors 0 set point vs settling point 0 Settling point monitors fat cells and tries to keep them fairly stable Keeps weight fairly stable You can change it if you make changes to your body like with diet and exercise 0 Set point more rigid you can t really move far from the weight 0 use this technique if you plan to lose weight 0 Genetics you can inherit vulnerability to obesity but that doesn t guarantee that you will be 0 Adaptive Research However foster kids are more likely to be like biological parents due to genetics instead of foster parents 0 Brain Regulation 1 Lateralmedial hypothalamus Ventromedial hypothalamus Chapter 10 2 Accurate nucleus Paraventricular nucleus 3 Neural circuits pass through hypothalamus o Glucose and Digestive o Glucostats neurons 0 Glucostatic theory uctuations in the blood glucose are monitored in the brain and in uences hunger 0 Levels don t change that fastmuch 0 So more glucose in the blood might contribute but doesn t fully explain it o Digestive system after you eat one set of cells in your stomach tells your brain that you re full and to stop eating but the other set of cells inform your brain to keep eating if you re not full 0 Hormonal Regulation 0 Insulin produced by pancreas 0 An increase in insulin causes hunger levels to increase 0 The sight and smell of food increases insulin 0 Ghrelin secreted in stomach after going without food 0 If you have an increase in ghrelin increase in hunger o CCK produced in the upper intestine 0 When levels of CCK increase hunger decreases O Leptin Fat cells 0 Higher levels of fat the more leptin your body produces O Leptin increases hunger decreases 0 Long term 0 All converge on hypothalamus Chapter 10 Monday October 21 Chapter 10 Motivation of Hunger amp Eating 0 Environmental Factors 0 O O O O variety quantity etc changing food colorstypes having variety causes people to get more food we are much less taste sensitive then we say we are we can eat less food by slowing down the pace and using smaller plates People think they eat because they are really hungry or because the food is really good but in reality there are other reasons If there is a greater quantity of food then you eat more If variety is increased then you eat more SensorySpecific Satiety the incentive value of food decreases as you eat a specific food The more people eating around you the more you eat Both sides see the other eating and become more comfortable to eat more 0 O O EXCEPT women on dates I The cuter the guy the less eaten If you have a skinny glass less drink Tastey food eat more But taste is suggestible More stressed more food Women eat more than men do when stressed I Women turn to food more men are more likely to turn to alcohol Sexual Orientation preference for an individual of the same other or either sex Motivation of sex Heterosexual Bisexual Homosexual Wrong stereotype lots of hetero some homo and few bi Correct stereotype more grey area Kensey the guy who came up with this concept Continuum that says that hetero bi homo decreasing in that order Chapter 10 Psychoanalytic why homosexual The theory was that the dad was weak and the mom was overprotective But this is wrong not parents fault Behaviorism just happens to happen Arousal of the same sex being there Doesn t explain homosexuality all that well but it does semi explain fetishes Biological yes I Correlation found 7590 of highly feminine young boys turn out to be gay 0 Most feminine boys acted this way before they knew about heterosex much less homo 0 Test on monkeys most boys played with trucks girls played with dolls With a few exceptions o Possibility of predisposition like being predisposition to be left handed o More gays are left handed I Falsifiable religion does NOT equal science in this aspect 0 Genetic I If one identical twin is gay there is a 52 chance that the other will be also I Fraternal 22 I Adopted 11 0 Brain I the cluster cells within heterosexual man s hypothalamus are two times larger than those in gay menwomen 0 Brain changes result of being gay not cause 0 Discovered this the same pattern in gay sheep 0 Test had straight men sweat and then gave the shirts to women to sniff Q When straight women sniff the sweat the hypothalamus lights up in the sexual arousal area 0 Did the same thing with gay men and the same light goes off 0 To not ignore the base rate they gave the shirts to straight men also but it didn t light up I However straight men did react to women sweat I one third larger in gays than straight I gay menwomen are not as good at mental rotation than straight men 0 Hormonal just looking at hormones in people is not enough to prove Not a big enough difference I Pre natal 0 Men with older brothers are more likely to be gay Chapter 10 o A woman s hormone levels as each baby boy comes along there are fewer of a certain type of hormone so baby s get fewer hormones 0 Doesn t apply to women 0 Fingerprints are developed in the womb Fingerprints of gays develop more like those of women than those of men 0 develops differently in men and women 0 Turns out that with gay men it develops in a way that s similar to both in the middle 0 a male sex hormone Sometimes women are given this when pregnant 0 To those mothers who took it they are more likely to give birth to lesbians o how easily you are shaped and modified by the cultureenvironment 0 Women are more likely to be shaped by environment 0 Women are more likely to change sexual orientation than men Emotion 0 Cognitive 0 Physiological o Behavioral Wednesday October 23 Chapter 10 Emotion a relatively intense complex evaluative feeling which includes physiological arousal ex love 0 Cognitive thinking positive or negative evaluations complex I Gold Silver Bronze 0 Gold is happiest Bronze is second happiest Silver is last 0 Silver compares themselves to gold 0 Bronze compares themselves to everyone else 0 Physiological bodily arousal I Amygdala plays central role in fear 0 Can process emotion independent of cognitive awareness I Prefrontal cortex voluntary control of emotion o Pursuing goals Chapter 10 Behavioral overt nonverbal Facial expression 7 primary emotions innate didn t have to learn Facial feedback hypothesis tells us that facial muscles send messages to the brain 0 Even if you aren t happy if you smile it will send a message to the brain to be happy 0 People will Botox are happier because they don t have frownie wrinkles to make them sad Happiness 80 of people say they are above average for happiness 0 Genetics plays 50 in happiness 0 Circumstances account for 10 of happiness 0 Intentional Activity accounts for 40 0 Poor Predictors of happiness 0 Money I If you are at poverty line money can make you happier I Once you get about 75K it doesn t make a lot of difference 0 we return to a stable level of happiness after we have positive or negative events happen to us you get used to it the stable level keeps moving up so you stay at the same level of happiness Age Gender IQ Attractiveness 0000 0 Good Predictors o SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS I Married people tend to be happier than single people 0 Work I Huge interplay between social relationships and work 0 If one is bad and the other is good you ll be okay 0 If both are bad you are screwed o Optimism o Heahh 0 Religion 0 Subjectiver parents are happier objectively parents are less happy 0 Day to day kids are work 0 The happiest people tend to be in their lives is from getting married to having the first kid 0 Chapter 10 Kids do add meaning Happiness Suggestions 0 Increase your optimism I Martin Selgman father of positive psychology wrote a book on increasing optimism Give thanks on a daily basis Everyday think of three good things that happened to you I People who did that for a week or so became happier than people who take an antidepressant Help Others I Better to give than receive Make friends and see them Chapter 11 0 Development the sequence of aged related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death 0 Prenatal Development from conception to birth 1 Germinal stage zygote the fertilized egg 0 Starts as single cells and rapidly divides o Conception to 2 weeks 0 Conception 9 implantation 9 formation of placenta 2 Embryonic stage embryo o 2 weeks to 2 months 0 When vital organs are formed 0 Mother has to be careful with meds alcohol 3 Fetal stage fetus o 2 months to birth 0 Rapid growth 0 Capable physical movement 0 Age of viability the age the fetus can survive if born prematurely o 22 weeks to 26 weeks I At 22 weeks 20 of survival rate I At 26 weeks 80 of survival rate 0 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome collection of inborn problems stays 0 Even normal drinking not problematic can have an effect I One drink leads to more drinking 0 Childhood I Motor Development muscle coordination required for physical activity 0 Developmental norms median age at which various behaviors and activities are displayed 0 Culture dependent I Even though it varies by culture it is still the same sequence I Experimental Designs for measuring development 0 Longitudinal study one group over time o CrossSectional differing ages at a single point in time 0 Problems with this I The different period in which you grow up in I Cohort Effect the difference between the ages is due to differences from growing up in a different time period 0 Cognitive Development transitions in youngster s patterns of thinking I one of the first people to study children and suggest that children s brains function differently people used to think 5 year olds could work in a factory farm 0 Stage Theory 1 Sensorimotor birth to age 2 I Noted by physical interaction I Where they acquire object permanence 0 They learn that when you put a pen behind paper it is just behind the paper not gone 1 Preoperational a 27 years b Characterized by Shortcomings quotprequot c Can39t do Conservation Physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in shape or appearance d Children can39t understand why the amount of water in a tall skinny glass is equal to the amount of water in a short fat glass even though they are at different levels comparable to the glass i Flaws in thinking 1 Centration Concentrating on one feature a Height vs volume 2 Irreversibility inability to mentally quotundoquot 3 Egocentrism see the world through their eyes a Mary and Susan are sisters if you ask Mary if she has a sister she will say yes but if you ask Mary if Susan has a sister she will say no because she doesn39t realize that she is a sister 2 Concrete Operational 711 years Can perform operations on tangible objects Overcoming shortcomings Can now do conservation Decentration can focus on more than one feature Reversibility can quotundoquot something 3 For al Operational a Ages 11 on b Can do abstract thinking c Change in degree not in nature arranger o pro s amp con s o quotshortcomingsquot I Underestimated Cognitive 0 Thought it was 18 months but it was actually like 3 4 months I Underestimating Culture 0 Some cultures learn a lot faster than others I Not discrete stages 0 People rarely learn one thing before learning another studies moralism O 0 He wasn t asking what s the correct answer the right or wrong answer He was looking at why children chose to do what they do Focusing on reasoning not development Three stages of development 1 Preconventional a Where kids do what they are supposed to because parents say so or else they get in trouble b Punishment comes first then reward comes second Except very young children understand punishment first 2 Conventional a They look at what s good for society b Doing good because quotyou re supposed to i Set rigid rules are internalized so you make the right decision because it s morally correct not because of the fear of punishment 3 Postconventional a A personal code of ethics with some exibility b Example Like when you steal food because that s the only way you can get food 0 Problems 0 Stage theory 0 Culture they were too culture specific 0 Focused on con icts I Instead of also looking at topics of sympathy and sharing 0 Attachment the close emotional bond between infants and their caregivers Note caregivers not always mothers I Harlow raised monkeys in isolation and gave them artificial mothers with chicken wire and made faces to make them look kind of real On one of them he included a bottle The other didn t it had a terry cloth material for comfort Testing if babies ran to their mothers for comfort or just food Did so by making a loud crashing and discovered that the monkey ran to the soft terry cloth mother for comfort Chapter 15 0 Who seeks treatment of these psychological disorders 0 Whites are more likely to get help than blacks 0 Women are more likely than men 0 Higher education status is more likely than lower I Not just college vs high school More people with Undergrad degree seek than high school more people with Grad degree than undergrad degree 0 Marital status I Everyone NOT married is more likely to get help than someone who is married 0 Only about 13 seeks treatment 0 Who provides 0 Psychologist I PhD more research oriented or a Psy D more clinical oriented I PhD can do better research to find the best solution than Psy D But Psy D s say that they don t have enough experience I Harder to get into a PhD program I PhD get undergrad degree Psy D goes through more school like med school PhD people can get a master s degree in MSWor Education 0 Psychiatrist I Someone who went to medical school MD so they can prescribe medicine 0 Once through med school then they go through a psychiatry residency where they learn specifically about psychiatry 0 Between the two of these psychiatrists are more likely to use psychoanalysis Monday October 28 2013 Chapter 16 0 ABC of Social Psych the scientific study of how an individual s thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by others 0 Affect 0 Behavior 0 Cognitive o Attribution the causal explanation we give for behavior of ourselves and others 0 internalexternal the reason behind a behavior can be internal or external 0 Internal the person s fault is he a jerk 0 Automatic I When a car cuts you off we naturally tend to think that it s internal quothe s such a jerk 0 External is there a situation that he is in that causes him to act this way 0 Takes work to think of the reason of a person s behavior being attributed to an external situation I Fundamental Attribution Error people tend to attribute another person s behavior to internal causes more than they should 0 People also do it to themselves but to a lesser degree 0 Example while watching a sports game the viewer tends to blame the players as quotjust not being good but if it was the viewer playing then they make up excuses like quotthe sun is in my eyes I Selfserving bias we tend to attribute our own successes to internal factors but our failures are attributed to external factors 0 We catch the ball because we are a good player but we miss because the sun was shining in our eyes 0 stable vs unstable means over time I Chart in book Reasons for catching a fly ball Unstable Stable Internal Effort doesn t have Ability talent talent or ability but tries really hard External Luck Task is difficult you have it or you don t 1 Attitude positive or negative evaluations towards some object or issue 1 Also 3 Components like Social Psychology but not the same as emotion I Affect of High Fructose Corn Syrup 0 I hate high fructose corn syrup I Behavior of HFCS o I don t eat buy high fructose corn syrup I Cognitive of HFCS o It causes obesity 0 The logic behind not liking HFCS 2 Dimensions I Strength 0 Resistant to change your attitude about something I Accessibility 0 How quickly it comes to mind 0 Do you have to think about it for a minute or is it just right there I Ambivalence o This means that you have both positive and negative feelings about it 0 It s not that you don t care you just have strong positive and negative so you end up neutral 0 Example Heart Attack Grill restaurant I Dinner that is 6000 calories I 3 day s worth of food in one mean I You might reallyyyyyy like the burgers BUT you understand that it s really bad for you so you don t eat there 3 AB Problem I Attitudes don t predict behaviors as well as they should but they do to some degree I Example you may love an ad but don t buy the product I List of IssuesProblems 0 They failed to take dimensions into account 0 Attitudes are measured in a general way but behaviors are measured in specific way 0 Situationalconstraints 0 Research study for this topic Good Samaritan study I Took seminary students and asked them to record a lecture on being a good Samaritan and at the end of the lecture 0 Low hurry group One group had to give a speech on the other side of campus but had an hour to get there 0 These individuals were 6x more likely to help injured man pretending to be hurt right in the path 0 High hurry group second group had to give a speech on the other side of campus but had ten minutes 0 Tended not to help the fake inured man 4 where you usually Simply because they belong to the group 5 because they are a part of a specific group 6 e can be or a widely held belief that people have certain characteristics because they belong to a certain group I Common positive stereotype Asians are good at math Biases for the Test I the tendency to the likelihood oflthe to which it o Example Although Tom may seem like he would be an Ivy League professor it is more likely that he is a truck driver because there are truck drivers gt Ivy League professors I occurs when people that they ve encountered of an association 0 Example when people associate mentally ill people with being violent based on past shootingsevents but that s not true Mentally ill people can have the same violence level as normal people Them being mentally ill doesn t make them more violent I past events do not affect the changes of future events Q When you flip a coin and get heads many consecutive times the odds that you ll get another head or tail is the same as at the beginning 5050 chance Just because you get 10 Heads in a row doesn t increase the chance of getting another head 0 Fallacy past eventsflips do NOT affect future flips Theories of Attitude Formation and Change End of the world cult a woman said the world would end so she got her followers to turn over all their money and wait at her house that night When the flying saucer never came to pick them up at 4 am she said quotthanks for your faith you saved the world Cognitive dissonance Theory psychological discomfort caused from an inconsistency of behaviors and attitudes I Festinger predicted that people would be more supportive of the end of the world cult when the flying saucer didn t come to take them all away I This was the first crack of behaviorism behaviorism would say you were punished so you woulnd t do it anymore 0 The saucer didn t come sooooo you re punished Won t believe it again idiot I Effortjustfication after working hard and making sacrifices you try to convince yourself that it was worth it 7 SelfPerception Theory you infer your attitude from your behavior I when you do something you think of reasons behind why you did whatever you did I When you love NFL but don t watch it for pretty much the whole season but you watch a lot of college football you realize that you like college football better You realize your attitude has changed by observing your actions 8 Learning Theory chapter 6 9 Elaboration Likelihood Model according to this model there are two basic routes to change someone s ideasfeelingsattitudes 39So this one is about the 0 Example Ron Paul s campaign involved presenting lots of logical information o This one is more on the 0 Example John McCain and Romney their slogans were like quotBelieve America and quotAmerica First These are very patrioticemotional and less logic I However both Central and Peripheral routes lead to persuasion But if people have the motivation and ability to follow it f this is a realimagined 1 a guy who did research on this He did an experiment in which he supposedly had 7 subjects to test While everyone was present to be tested he would show them a picture of lines where they had to determine which one was the closest in size to the given one But then when the first person said it looked like the wrong one everyone else agreed those who were in on the experiment as they said the wrong answer to watch the real subject person s reactionanswer o 2 key determinants for the subject to conform o every single person had to give the wrong answer for the subject to agree with the wrong trend 0 once you get to 4 people in a group it really doesn t matter how many people are there I Group size only matters if the answers are anonymous this is still a change in behavior guy who did this study He devised an experiment that tested if a group of people would really follow direct orders form an authority figure even if it harms peopleis bad An experiment to test how much a teacher would give a student if directed to by an authority figure Teachers would give an increasingly more powerful shock when the answers were wrong Teacher thought it was real shocks but not A recording of the student in pain was played The guy being shocked is the confederate because he is in on it 0 When the learner was being strapped in he stated that he had heart problems but he quotwasn t worried about it The doctor stated that quotalthough the shocks will be painful it is not bad for your health The teacher listened to all this Milgram planned this so that the teacher hears this exchange 0 The teacher ended up shocking the learning at increasingly more powerful shocks 0 The learner yelled stop But the teacher didn t stop because quotthe straps looked weak and he could have gotten them off I was just doing myjob But the teacher looked distressed when giving the shocks as each wrong answer occurred o If a person presses the 150V then they are most likely going to go all the way to XXX which is the most powerful o for the original experimen H would go past the 150V mark in the recent experiment I of the teachers 0 Later in more recent years this experiment was to test if people have changed over the course of about 60 years Everyone always said how people wouldn t listen to harm other people anymore we ve changed nicer But when tested people are still the same 3 Zimbardo performed the quotStanford prison simulation I 70 people applied Each went through a psychological test to filter out those with any mental disorders Only 24 were selected It was randomly assigned so that the mean people couldn t volunteer for guard Basically for two weeks the guards held the prisoners in the prison simulation Only lasted 6 days 4 Group Processes idk where this goes 0 If you lose 20 sad 0 Ifyou o If we were robots the lostgain would leave us feeling whatever Test Review 0 Do Personal application and critical thiking applications at the end of each chapter DON39T NEED TO KNOW Chapter 9 0 Correlation coefficient 0 quotHeredity and Environmentquot pg 373376 0 quotNew Directions and Assessmentquot pg 382386 Chapter 10 0 General question on sex orientation 0 Not on test hierarchical classifications temperament Easy slow to warm up difficult 0 Brain structures not mentioned in class 0 Biological vs social motives fig 102820 0 Specific diseases associated with obesity fig 104 0 Fig 1016 0 Fig 1019 0 Fig 1021 Theories of emotion fig 1024 Chapter 11 0 Specific info form figure 111 112 113 0 Just know general info from class 0 Patterns of Attach ment pg 449450 0 Erikson all sections 0 Figure 1114 only 3 Kohlberg levels from class not 6 0 Figure 1115 0 quotsearch for identity 0 Section pg 466467 0 Figure 1120 0 Key terms 0 Menarche o Spermarche Chapter 16 o All individualscollectivist countries listed fig 163 0 quotlove as attachment pg 675677 0 Figure 164 0 Figure 165 0 quotfactors in persuasion pg 682684 0 Figure 169 0 Figure 1617 except DO know social loafting Personal applications fig 1619 1620 Wednesday November 6 Chapter 13 0 Stress Response response to stress sweating shaking o Developed for a good reason developed to be adaptive 0 Stress Response is good because it was built for I Physical danger blood runs to legs and arms so you can fight or ight and it takes blood away from digestive system I Short term stress ST stress you re not going to be running away from the bear all day I Stress Response has become maladaptive 0 Long term stress is not good because you re food isn t being digested all day 0 Increases chance of death and disease 0 said its not the event that is stressful it s the anticipation and appraisal that IS 0 People s logic Anticipating Event 9 Consequence I You got stood up on a date so you re worthless 0 Ellis says Anticipating Event 9 Belief 9 Consequence I You should just get annoyed instead of getting angry 0 Ellis came up with RationalEmotive Therapy which is therapy based on this logic Lets work through this instead of jump to conclusions 0 Illogical Thinking o Catastrophize when you take a small problem and it gets bigger and bigger and bigger and bigger I Ex You fail a paper you think that you re going to fail everything else and fail out of college and live under a bridge 0 Overgeneralize one small bad characteristic and you think of yourself as overall bad I Ex You fail paper and you think you re dumb and ugly and boring etc 0 Stress any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one s well being thereby taxing the system 0 Acute stressors threatening events that are short duration and have a clear endpoint 0 Chronic stressors long duration and no readily apparent time limit 0 Predictable vs Unpredictable I Unpredictable is more stressed out because you don t know what is going to happen 0 Controllable vs Uncontrollable I Uncontrollable is more stressed I People doing a puzzle with noise in next room If noise was too much you press button and the noise would stop The button didn t work but the people didn t even use the button Knowing that they could stop the noise made them less stressed 0 Stress is cumulative minor stressors 9 major diseases 0 Major Types of Stress 1 Frustration a blocked goal a Can be little like a traffic jam 2 Con ict two or more incompatible motivation or behavior impulses I Approachapproach a choice between two attractive goals Least stressful of the three I Avoidanceavoidance a choice between two unattractive goals Tends to be the most stressful however it depends I Approachavoidance a choice about a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects Ex hot fudge sundae yummy but fatty Vacillation the back and forth between aspects 2 Change having to adapt to different living circumstances a Social Readjustment Rating Skill SRRS looked at different types of change and put them on a scale to rate stress 1 ii iii iv v vi Death of spouse 100 Divorce 73 Vacation 13 Christmas 12 Does this work Yes people will higher scores have both physiological and psychological problems BUT the top of this is just bad negative things so they aren t really measuring change they are measuring frustration You get the most stress from the negative things There is no real proof that change itself is inherently stressful People think change is stressful because of the uncertainty that comes with it 3 Pressure expectations and demands to behave a certain way a Perform whether or not you execute successfully b Conform going along with the crowd Monday November 11 Chapter 13 Physiological Responses to Stress o Hans Selye doing research with stress to see if a hormone caused stress Injected hormone in rats Give one group saline injection and the other the hormone Both had stress This was because he chased them trying to inject them Conclusion was 0 General Adaptation Syndrome model of body s stress response 1 Alarm Stage body first recognizes that there is stress Physiological arousal a Fight or ight 2 Resistance physiological arousal plateaus People might even feel calmer 3 Exhaustion body s resources are depleted Arousal comes back down a Body is susceptible to disease 0 Immune Response Body s defensive reaction from things like bacteria viruses and other foreign substances 0 Stress can reduce immunity at the cell level 0 Students took married couples and machine cuts skin making sores and then the married couples either fight or get along The couples that fight the sores don t heal but the couples that get along the sores healed o Neurogenesis formation of new neurons 0 This is a good thing 0 Stress can interfere with this 0 Exercise can increase neurogenesis Personality 0 Type A weak correlation with heart problems 0 Strongly competitive o Impatient o Hostility strong correlation with heart problems 0 Type B o Relaxed 0 Patient 0 Easy going Emotional o YerkesDodson curve stress vs performance 0 Little stress less performance 0 More stress more performance 0 However too much stress less performance 0 Psychosomatic disease many people mistake this for its all in your head Rather it just begins in your head and turns into a disease 0 Ex blood pressure ulcers 0 Out dated term because almost all diseases are like this 0 MindBody connection eastern medicine got it right they focus on meditation and shit 0 Stress only moderately predicts health diet exercise genetics play bigger role Behavioral o Learned helplessness passive behavior from unavoidable aversive events 0 Put a dog in a room half room was redblue Electric currect ran through red side Learns that he should stay on the other side Then they ipped it Then the dog goes to hang out on the other side Then they ran a current through the whole oor Then they went back to original Then he just stays in the same spot I Pound dogs were better handling this because they had internal locus of control so they think they have power over the environment These dogs were hood I Domestic dogs weren t so good with this 0 If a goal is truly unattainable its better to disengage then knock your head against the wall I Example Not everyone is going to be President 0 Coping when you re trying to deal with demands from stress alcohol 0 Constructive coping 1 Confront your problems directly a Make it task relevant some kind of action b Behavior can lead to attitude 2 Optimism tendency to expect good outcomes 3 Social Support emotional support from friends family a Social bonds do not equal social support b Bad social relationships are hard to break but sometimes you ll be better off without them 4 Conscientiousness being disciplined and dependable 5 Exercise do exercise what you want to do a Aerobic gt Anaerobic 1 Running gt weight lifting b Should be regular 2030 min3x a week 6 Reframe if you need to a Do it at right time Chapter 12 Personality unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits 0 Consistency over time and across situations 0 Distinctiveness unique why everyone acts in situations differently o Cattell came up with 16 different traits for personalities 0 Scientists now have narrowed this down to 5 Big Five The FiveFactor Model on a continuum o Extraversion upbeat happier sociable outgoing o Neuroticism anxious self conscious insecure more likely to be divorced o Openness to Experience tend to be curious imaginative independent higher IQ o Agreeableness sympathetic cooperative closely related to childhood temperament o Conscientiousness discipline dependable higher levels of performance and college GPA Wednesday Nov 13 o Psychodynamic Theory diverse theories descended from Freud focusing on the unconscious o Psychoanalytical behavior is the outcome of unconscious con icts and motives early childhood experiences and coping methods for sexual aggressive urges I Freud thought we had 2 basic biological drives 0 Sex 0 Aggression 0 Choose these because these can be more complex and ambiguous and are thwarted more often You can tell more about a person by their sex and aggression rather than their hunger and thirst I Levels owaareness 1 Conscious 2 Preconscious right below surface of awareness not aware at time but you can get to it easy 3 Unconscious much larger thoughts memories desires well below surface of conscious awareness Freud thought this exerted great in uence on people I Personality structure 0 Super Ego runs the garnet from both awareness and personality referee moral component states what is right and wrong 0 Ego mediates between Id and external world Tries to keep id happy while still going in bounce of reality Reality Principle Secondary Process Thinking rational realistic problem solving Finding a way to delay gratification 0 Id bottom primitive instinctive component that operates under the pleasure principle immediate gratification Primary Process Thinking I Con ict between all these causes anxiety I Defense Mechanism unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions anxiety guilt Done through self deception o Repression bury distressing thoughts in the unconscious 0 Projection you attribute your own thoughts to someone else while you repress it in yourself 0 Reaction formation you behave in a way that is opposite to your true feelings preacher who does drugs and shit 0 Regression revert to immature patterns of behavior 0 Rationalization where you create a false but plausible to justify inexcusable behavior 0 Analytical Psychology lung was colleague of Freud and thought he was going overboard on the sex stuff So Jung started this stuffs I 2 layers unconscious I Personal Unconscious repressed and forgotten stuff I Collective Unconscious latent memory traces inherited from ancestral past deeper level of unconscious that everyone shares I First to describe Extraversion vs Introversion 0 Individual Psychology Adler was like lung and though Freud was overboard with the sex stuff I Striving for Superiority universal drive to adapt improve one self and master life s challenges I Compensation efforts to overcome feelings of inferiorities Do this by developing abilities I But some people have excessive feelings of inferiorities Inferiority Complex excessive feelings of inferiorities 0 Parents have a role in this either by giving them too much or neglecting them I Over compensation you emphasize appearances and not reality You hide your inferiority within yourself I First to suggest birth order like first born is best last is baby 0 Evaluating Psychodynamic perspectives 39 PI 0 S o Unconscious 0 Internal con ict 0 Childhood experiences 0 Defense Mechanisms Not falsifiable Inadequate empirical evidence used retrospective memories 0 Sexist views 0 Behaviorism as a personality theory believe that the environment controls behavior BF Skinner o Skinner would say that there is no consistency so there is no personality He wouldn t place any extra values on childhood experiences I Determinism environment in uences behavior 0 Operant Conditioning I Stable response tendencies are personalities 0 Dr Phil when you choose the behavior you choose the consequences I A behaviorist says that you don t choose the behavior 0 Bandura adds cognitive elements to Dr Phil I Social cognitive theory Social Learning Theory behavior is in uenced by the person in addition to the environment I Reciprocal determinism environment to behavior to cognitive and back around and act like you got the job when you re being interviews 0 Evaluating Behavioral perspectives if models behavior leads to positive consequences I Same sex has bigger in uence I Those that are attractive powerful and respected Monday November 18 o Behaviorism cont d o Mischel pointed out that the situation means something situation specificity behavior depends more on situation than personality I PersonSituation Controversy which in uences personality more Situation of person 0 Small chunks of time situation 0 Large chunks of time personality 0 Evaluating Behavioral perspectives I Pro s o Rigorous Research 0 Insights into learning 0 Some environment I Con s o Fragmented view 0 Did most research on animals Dehumanizing no free will No mention of childhood Diluted cognitive behaviorism no longer talking behaviorism Humanism as a personality theory emphasizes unique human characteristics freedom and growth 0 Maslow psychologists discredited his ideas 30 40 years ago I Hierarchy of needs shaped as pyramid Biology is bottom and biggest SelfActualization is at the very top This is what you reached for growth need once you get it you want more 0 Carl Rogers I Personcentered theory emphasizes the person s subjective point of view I Selfconcept collection of beliefs you have about yourself nature unique qualities typical behavior I Congruence your perspective of yourself matches what people think about you not completely perfect I Incongruence different perspectives from what you think you are and what the environment thinks you are Anxiety You can get this from parent s unconditional love 0 Evaluating Humanistic perspectives I Pro s 0 Chapter 14 Free Will Subjective POV gt Objective POV 0 They looked at the subjective point of view Selfconcept Focus on what a healthy person is 9 positive psychology Some ideas are not falsifiable Inadequate empirical evidence 0 Even ideas that they could test they didn t Unrealistic overly optimistic view of human nature Criteria of Abnormal Behavior 3D s 0 Suffering personal distress o Deviance behavior that deviates from what society considers to be normal I Least important because you don t know where to draw the line for normal 0 Dysfunctional Maladaptive can t function in daily life I Most important I John Madden 0 Thomas Szaz said you can t say these people have disorders I Value judgements voodoo is more believed in some places than others 0 Medical Model says that its useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease 0 Diagnosis distinguishing one disease from another I What I DSM how we diagnose things 0 Etiology apparent causation and developmental history of a disease I Why 0 DSM How we diagnose disorders 0 Original skinny book with about 100 disorders I Vague 0 Updated improved diagnostic criteria 0 DSM IV only 70 agreement on many disorders I 12 population could be considered to have some kind of disorder during their life 0 Not all that deviant Clinical Syndrome know each and know what they fall under 0 Anxiety Disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety can accept up to 20 of population 0 Specific Phobias amp Social Phobia persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation I Presents no realistic danger I Mild phobias are common 0 Social Anxiety Disorder extreme fear of being judges by others that causes somebody to avoid social situations 0 Panic Disorder recurrent unexpected attacks of overwhelming anxiety I Medical Student Syndrome o Agoraphobia fear of places where its hard to escape a panic attack I Crowed places open places market mall o Generalized Anxiety Disorder chronic high level anxiety I Not tied to any specific threat 0 Etiology what causes anxiety disorders I Genetic predisposition not 100 I Neurochemical factors brain chem I Cognitive factors some people think things are more stressful I Past Experience based on conditioning o Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Related Disorders 0 0CD persistent uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts obsessions and urges to engaged in senseless rituals compulsions Body Dimorphic Disorder preoccupation with one or more perceived aws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others Hoarding Disorder persistent difficulties in discarding or parting with possessions regardless of actual value Etiology I Genetic Predisposition I Stress Wednesday November 20 Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders physical ailments that cannot be explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors Psychosomatic is real however this is not You re not faking the disorder either malingering O Somatic Symptom Disorder diverse physical ailments that appear to psychological in origin Illness Anxiety Disorder preoccupation with having or requiring a serious illness I More idea that you re getting sick Conversion Disorder altered voluntary motor or sensory function with no apparent illness I Ex blindness Etiology of Somatic Symptom Disorders I Personality factors people high in neuroticism and are highly suggestive fall into this I Cognitive factors people who catastrophise and are overly focused on little things I Stress Dissociative Disorders a loss of contact with portions of their consciousness or memory disrupting their sense of identity daydreaming when you re sleep deprived or stressed this happens more often 0 Dissociative Identity Disorder Multiple personality disorder two or more largely complete and different personalities that coexist in one person Not always aware of each other Usually you have a history of another disorderhave about 3 other disorders Some people think this a learned response rather than actual disorder I Sibil before this movie typical person with this disorder had 2 or 3 personalities after this movie the typical number is around 15 Dissociative Amnesia sudden loss of personal memory or important information too extensive to be explained by forgetting Possible to have with Dissociative Fugue Depersonalization Disorder out of body experience you see yourself as someone else Derealization Disorder out of environment experience daydreaming o Etiology of Dissociative Disorders I Not a lot related to biology I Stress I Severe emotional childhood trauma Bipolar Disorder Manic Depression one or more judgment impaired manic episodes extreme euphoria hyperactive with periods of depression 0 Cyclothymic chronic but mild symptoms Major Depressive Disorder persistent feelings of sadness and despair and loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure and or activities Feelings of tiredness worthlessness Average episode lasts about 6 months 0 Dysthymic chronic but mild symptoms 0 Etiology I Biological component 0 Genetic component 0 Neurochemical o Differing volume of hippocampus I Cognitive factors 0 Learned helplessness o Ruminate think things over and over and over 0 Women are more likely to do this therefore are more likely to become more depressed 0 Poor social skills I Interaction between stress and genetics 0 They have isolated a gene for depression but not everyone who has gene has depression 0 Gene is like a loaded gun ex lysogenic cycle Personality Disorders extreme in exible personality traits that cause distress or dysfunction Don t need to know different clusters 0 Histrionic Personality Disorder Exaggerated drama queen egocentric impulsive I More likely in women 85 women 0 Narcissistic Personality Disorder People who think they are above the rules should get special treatment no empathy I More likely in men 70 men 0 Antisocial Personality Disorder like narcissists but they don t form attachment to others Chronically violate the rights of others fraud stealing They don t accept social norms Sociopaths and Psychopaths I More likely in men 80 men I Brain difference 0 Emotional words lame words They react the same to them 0 People are objects no emotion I Worst Disorder to have not human no guilt empathy desire to get better manipulate system I Etiology 0 Genetic component 0 Inadequate socialization they never learned how to follow the rules of society Chapter 15 0 Who seeks treatment 0 People with Anxiety and Depression Disorders 0 White people 0 Women 0 High Educated People 0 People who are not married 0 Who provides 0 Psychiatrist MD 0 Psychologist PhDPsyD attend medical school then do internship and residency 9 more likely to teach Freud o Master s Degreen I MSW I MEd o Psychotherapist Monday November 25 Chapter 14 o Schizophrenia characterized by disturbed thought processes along with verbal cognitive and behavior deficits o Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior 0 Disorganized speech one topic to another with no coherent transition 0 Negative symptoms I Flat tone 0 Delusion fixed false belief I Delusions of grandeur people think they are famous or powerful I Delusions of persecution you are a loved one are being persecuted watched or conspired against I These two typically go together 0 Hallucination sensory perception of something that is not present or gross distortions of something that is present I Auditory Hallucinations are more common 75 0 Usually people accusing them of something I Visual is the second most common 0 Outcome rules of fourths I gets better and never gets sick again I 14 functions but needs meds I 14 live in group homes and can function okay I do poorly institutionalized o Etiology 0 Biological basis 0 Genetic o Neurochemical 0 Structural abnormalities of the brain 0 Neurodevelopmental I Viral Infections not enough nutrients 0 Family Dynamics 0 Stability 0 Stress o Marijuana use in adolescence Chapter 15 o Psychotherapy broad term for all diverse approaches 1 Insight therapies 2 Behavior therapies 3 Biomedical therapies 1 Insight Therapies verbal interactions to enhance the client s self knowledge and promote healthful changes in personality and behavior 0 Psychoanalysis Freud relieves unconscious con icts motives and defenses through talk therapy 0 First systematic psychotherapy o Clientcentered therapy Carl Rodgers you provide a supportive or emotional climate Client plays major role in both pace and direction Climate gt Process 0 Restructures self concept 0 Wants people to become more comfortable with their genuine self 0 3 Requirements for Therapeutic Climate this lets down support for defenses I Genuineness therapist is open and honest I Unconditional positive regard no judgment of client I Empathy you understand the client s point of view 0 Effectiveness 0 Superior to no treatment 0 Reasonably Durable Effects 0 About equal efficiency to drugs for some disorders 0 Half the patients show meaningful recovery in about 20 sessions 2 Behavior Therapies apply learning principles to change maladaptive behavior 0 Behavior is learned 0 What s been learned can be unlearned 0 Systematic desensitization o Phobias are caused by classical conditioning I Anxiety hierarchy worst9 not as bad I You learn deep muscle relaxation I But them together with imagining Flooding putting somebody directing into the feared situation until the anxiety subsides declines aversion therapy cognitive therapy cognitivebehavioral therapy 0 tiltgt0 Not on test 13 Table 133 that has specific diseases only know curve we talked about brain body pathway table additional defense mechanisms 12 only know defensive mechanisms we went over in class freud s sexual stages 14 axis 1 axis 11 notes categories aren t same as book Clusters of personality Only know what we went over in class Anorexia bulimia blah blah 15 Chapter 12 Personality is unique constellation of consistent behavior traits 1 Consistency not only over time but also across situationscrosssituational being conscientious at school and work o If you organize your DVDs once it doesn t make you organized 2 Distinctiveness the unique part 0 Cattell distilled personality into 16 different traits 0 After him psychologists came up with quotthe big 5 I Big 5 says that personality is derived from these five basic traits on continuum Big Five 1 Extraversion outgoing social upbeat Tend to be happier 2 Neuroticism anxious selfconscious and insecure o More likely to be divorced 3 Openness to Experience these people are curious imaginative and independent They also tend to have a higher IQ o Opposite narrow minded 4 Agreeableness tend to be sympathetic cooperative This is most all are but this is the most closely associated with childhood temperament 5 Conscientiousness displined dependendable higher levels of productivity in the work place and higher GPAs Wednesday November 13 Chapter 12 o diverse theories descending from Freud focusing on the unconscious o Psychoanalytical according to this theory behavior is the outcome of unconscious motives and conflicts early childhood experiences and coping methods for sexualaggressive urges gt Freud believes that we have two biological drives sex and aggression however there are more to choose from like hunger thirst He chose these two because compared to the other biological drives these are more complex and ambiguous They are more subtle inconsistent messages Asking to have sex is different than asking to go grab food These two drives are thwarted more often than other drives These are not really the two most basic drives gt Levels of Awareness picture in book I Conscious above the level of awareness I Preconscious just barely below the level of awareness I Unconscious well below the level of awareness this area is the largest 0 According to Freud these exert great influence but people don t realize it sex aggression childhood experiences influence 0 Personality Structure I Id the primitive instinctive component found completely in the unconscious o Operates according to the pleasure principle needing gratification ex starving need food now cannot wait 0 Primary process thinking primitive illogical irrational I Ego mediates between the Id and reality partially above and below the water level of consciousness o Tries to give the d what it wants while still functioning within society 0 Operates according to the reality principle you have to wait ex makes you wait to get food until after you leave the job interview instead of leaving during it to satisfy your hunger 0 Secondary process thinking thinking more responsiblyrationallyrealistic when solving problems I Superego this is what keeps a person up to date with the rules of a situation 0 Basically the moral component that states right and wrong 0 Keeps the Id and Ego in line when their wants differ 0 Defense Mechanism unconscious actions that protects a person from unpleasant emotions anxiety guilt I We kind of lyingtricking ourselves to make ourselves feel better 5 types 1 Repression bury unpleasant thoughts in the back of your mind to help you forget 2 Projection This is where you attribute your thoughts someone else While at the same time repressing the thoughts it in yourself a You see others as yourself You project your thoughts of yourself onto others around you Reaction Formation you behave in a way that is opposite of your true feelings 4 Regression this is where you revert to immature patterns of behavior a Example 50 year old business man throws a tempertantrum on the golf course However he doesn t really regress back he just acts like a child momentarily 5 Rationalization where you create a false but plausible excuse to justify unacceptable behaviors S a Example walking through the park you liter Someone says quothey that s not nice You respond with quotif I didn t litter grounds keepers wouldn t have a job No you were just being lazy Not trying to keep theirjob for them 0 Analytical Psychology created by Jung colleague of Freud I Jung broke away from Freud s psychodynamic theory for two reasons I 2 layers unconscious 0 Personal Unconscious buried underneath o Collective Unconscious latent memory traces inherited from the ancestral past 0 A deeper level that every shares and is shared by the entire human race as well as people from the past I Jung created the concepts of Extroversion vs ntroversion 0 Basically people are born differently Some extro some intro 0 Individual Psychology Adler I Striving for Superiority this is a universal drive something that everyone has to adapt prove one s self and to master life s challenges I Compensation 0 This is good Adler realized that everyone has this inferiority Everyone has a drive to overcome it Compensation is how they overcame it o Inferiority Complex excess feelings of weakness and inadequacy o Adler agreed with Freud that childhood is important Like too much care or not enough kids can have inferior complexes 0 Overcompensation when you hide your inferiority from yourself I This isn t good because you are emphasizing appearances not reality I Example trying to fit 3 children in the backseat of a tiny sports car I Birth order Adler was the first to come up this trend theory 0 1st born is different from 2nd 2Incl is different from 3rd etc 0 Your personality may be based on which birth you are level of money changes as birth order increases most of the time 0 Evaluating Psvchodvnamic perspectives CONS Unconscious the unconscious that Freud talked about Not falsifiable isn t the same unconscious that is being if it s not falsifiable then it can t be tested explored now not scientific Internal conflict Inadequate empirical evidence Childhood experiences Very sexist views Defense mechanisms we do use these but not all of them o as a personality theory 0 Skinner worked with operant conditioning 0 quotPersonality is internal consistent o Opposite behaviorists think that personality is affected by the environment 0 Stable response tendencies by looking at responses of the environment it can give you stability 0 Skinner doesn t really place a lot of interest in childhood 0 Dr Phil quotYou chose a consequence when you chose the behavior A strict behaviorist like Skinner would say that you cannot choose your behavior I determinism o Bandura says we need to consider the fact that we have brains I Social cognitive theory social learning theory in book behavior is influenced by the person and environment I Reciprocal determinism basically environment behavior and cognitive aspects all affect each other 0 Performed a lot of models for behavior 0 If the model s behavior leads to a positive outcome it becomes more likely more appealing I If your brother asks for a cookie and your mom says yes you are more likely to ask 0 If model s behavior leads to a negative outcome it is less appeahng 0 Same sex models girls look up to girls and boys look up to boys 0 Attractivepowerfulrespected individuals are admired more than others 0 Evaluating Behavioral perspectives o Mischel I Developed quotsituation specificity behavior depends more on the situation than the personality I There was a personsituation controversy that debates which is larger situation or personality It depends on time small or large chunks o Moment to moment depends more on situation 0 Longer chunks of time depends more on personality 0 Obviously m count to determining behavior Evaluating Behavioral perspectives Pros Cons o Rigorous research 0 Dehumanizing no free will 0 provided insight to learning 0 used heavily based on animal research even though animals do not ALWAYS predict human behavior well rats don t have cognitive dissonance like humans 0 Fragmented view 0 Cognitive research can you really say that it s behaviorism o No childhood o Humanism as a personality theory emphasizes the unique qualities esp freedom and personal growth 0 Maslow I Heirarchy Pyramid of Needs even though the needs are actually the drives I Selfactualization top of the pyramid 0 Be all you can be 0 Carl Rogers I personcentered theory 0 emphasizes a person s subjective point of view I selfconcept 0 this is a collection of your beliefs about your nature inequality and typical behavior 0 the big picture of how you see yourself I congruenceincongruence 0 look at self and environment in a comparecontrast Venn diagram 0 Congruence the similarity portion large in size because the circles are close together what you think you are matches with what the environment thinks you are in a larger portion e portions of self and environments view of what you are will never be 100 0 ncongruence opposite What you think you are matches to what the environment thinks you are in a smaller portion 0 Correlation with anxiety Evaluating Humanistic perspectives Pros Cons free will 0 Some no falsifiability subjective gt objective 0 Inadequate empirical evidence Self concept 0 Unrealistic Overly optimistic Focus on what a healthy person is this lead the way to positive psychology People aren t really humanists anymore but they are positive psychologists instead Wednesday November 6 Chapter 13 0 Stress Response the original stress response started about being adaptive so it was good Our stress response system was built to protect us More physical than psychological 0 Two types I stress puts blood in extremities instead of digestive system so that you can run fight Basically shuts down unnecessary functions so that you can get out of danger I ST stress just have to get to the safe point 0 Psychological stress mental stress 0 Now the stress response is maladaptive People die from lifestyle choices I Maladaptive opposite of adaptive 0 Example blood going to legs even though you re only writing an essay 0 Stress not from event 0 time leading up to the event I idea Anticipating event 9 consequences 0 Example if you re anticipating your date but it gets cancelled So the consequence is that you feel that you are worthless I Ellis said that there should be another step in there before you think you re worthless Belief should be the middle ground between the two 0 Anticipating event 9 belief 9 consequences 0 Illogical Thinking o where you take a small problem and it keeps getting bigger and bigger and bigger I Example bad on essay 9 fail class 9 fail Clemson 9 fail at life 0 Basically a slippery slope o when you take one small bad characteristic and you think that it means that you re bad overall I Example taking one problem and you re making it bigger 0 Stress any circumstances that are threatened or perceived to threaten one s wellbeing Thereby taxing the system Stress doesn t have to be something that threatens you it can be something that you think threatens you so that s why it s only perceived as a threat sometimes Circumstances don t have to be rational o This stress lasts for a short duration and has a clear endpoint I Example Final Exam is acute It will be here in a month short time and it will end on the day of the exam after you take it o this stress lasts for a longer duration and there is no readily apparent time limit I Example Searching for employment since you have a spouse and kids this is a chronic stress because you search for a long time and you don t know exactly when you will get hired o Predictive vs unpredictable I isn t as bad because you know it will happen 0 Germany London bombings 0 Urban London was used to bombings since they were bombed every day 0 But rural London wasn t since it came maybe two times a week So they became more stressed I worse for you because it comes as a surprise each time o Controllable vs uncontrollable I less stress If you re in an irritable situation but you think you have the power to change it if you wish even though you don t and won t use it you seem to have less stress I more stress I Example individuals are working on a puzzle Construction is going on next door They have a button to make it all stop Don t use it But because they thought they had that power they were less stressed I Cumulative minor stress 9 major disease 0 Major Types of Stress 1 blocked goal a Example traffic jam two or more incompatible motivations or behavior impulses typically least stressful a choice between 0 Example you get lots of moneyzzzz You can t decide between two expensive items typically most stressful a choice between 0 Example studying chemistry or psychology Both are disgusting O a choice about a that has both unattractive and attractive qualities Tough choice 0 Example hot fudge sundae delicious but lots of calories going back and forth with approach 3 having to adapt to different living circumstances a SRRS yes change is stressful Major stressors had the most points death of spouse 100 divorce 73 jail13 And ChristmasVacation had the least points 12 b Yes people with higher stress ratings show both physiological and psychological sickness BUT the major stressors are negative events Therefore the scale isn t measuring change it s measuring frustration c There s no proof that change itself is stress It s dealing with the stress the uncertainty is the reason behind stress 4 expectations or demands to behave in a certain way a Two types i the pressure to perform tasks successfully ii to change and do what other people do Monday November 11 Chapter 13 Physiological 0 Han Selye injected rats with hormones The results rats showed signs of stress For the control group he injected with saline solution However their stress may be caused because he stressed them out because he was clueless on the best way to inject them 0 Developed General Adaptation syndrome 0 General Adaptation Syndrome a model of your body s stress response Three stages 1 alarm when your body first recognizes the stress a Example fight or ight syndrome 2 resistance This is where the physiological arousal stress plateaus a This is where we have gotten used to the stress so the level doesn t increase b BUT can youhave you really adapted to the stress no because the level is not back to the initial value The levels are now level because you have adapted 3 Exhaustion the body s resources are depleted The arousal has decreased You can actually weaken and die Problem you can t really deplete your body is actually turning on itself The stress response is more damaging than the stress ball 0 Immune Response the body s defensive reaction while trying to defend itself against bacteria viruses and other foreign objects 0 Stress can actually reduce immunity at the cell level I Because stress can change the cell body 0 Experiments I During finals you re more likely to get sick because you re stressed Stress also affects the healing time for sicknessesinjuries slows it down 0 Neurogenesisneuronsbeginning 0 Formation of new neurons I However stress can interfere with the production of new neurons I But exercise can increase the production of neurons Personality 0 Type AType B personalities 0 Type A people tend to be strongly competitive even when they don t need to be Also impatient hostility I There is a weak correlation with the entire list of traits but strong correlation with hostility in patients at a cardiologist office 0 Type B relaxed easygoing patient Emotional o YerkesDodson curve looks at stress arousal and performance at work and other areas too 0 As you add stress the performance goes up 0 BUT if you add too much stress the performance goes down M Stress o Psychosomatic disease 0 Doesn t mean that the disease is quotall in your head it means that it starts psychologically and ends up physically I Example ulcers 0 Outdate almost all diseases of psychosomatic Basically 0 Stress only moderately predicts illness 0 Diet exercise smoking genetics play a more major role in predicting illnesses 0 Most research is correlational Behavioral o Learned helplessness passive behavior from unavoidable aversive events 0 Experiment small room for a dog Painted half of it red Ran an electric current through red side I So if the dog went on that side it would get shocked So then it went to the green side I BUT they had an electric current through BOTH sides So the dog got shocked both times So it went back to the red side Even when the researchers decided to turn the electric current off the green side they stayed on the red side crying I Stray dogs performed wiser than the home dogs because stray dogs have an internal locus of control 0 Internal locus of control you think you have control external whatever happens I Strays had a higher chance of crossing back to the green side after it had been cut off because they felt in control 0 Coping any effort that you take to overcome the stress 0 Example drinking an excessive amount of alcohol is taking an effort to try to overcome stress However it is NOT constructive coping o Constructive coping the helpful effort to overcome stress 1 First confront the problems DIRECTLY i Do something that has to do with the task itself ii If it s a problem with school fix the problem with school Don t go work out or make a Christmas list iii It should be an action Doesn t have to be an action to solve the problem it could be as simple as making a schedule because that still confronts the issue 2 Second be optimistic to expect good outcomes 3 Social support is also important i However realize that social bonds do NOT equal social support ii Usually people can easily create bonds but it s harder to break the relationship 4 Be conscientious being disciplined dependable 5 Exercise do exercises that you want to do i Aerobic works better anaerobic 1 Swimming biking is better than lifting weights ii Should be regular about 2030 minutes 3 times a week 6 Reframing i Reframe at the right time 1 You don t want to tell yourself that there is more to life than good grades don t tell yourself that until it gets closer so you can be less stressed ii Needs to be action oriented Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders 0 Criteria of Abnormal Behavior 0 Defined as deviance in behavior from those who are quotnormal majority I Example it s not normal to have 23 cats 0 Distress personal mind playing tricks on you 0 Dysfunctional maladaptive preventing you from functioning in daily life 0 most importantproblems o Dysfunctional is worst 0 Deviance is least here 0 How do you gather the standards for normal Where do you draw the line I Has a positive end I iQ of 180 not normal but not bad 0 Takes numbers 2 amp 3 usually to be abnormal 0 Problems with labeling someone as abnormal you get into the midset of quotnormal and abnormal people Not the case I Continuum thing again 0 Example announcer that makes millions of dollars a year but can t go to Hawaii to announce a big gme because he has a fear of falling dying goes in the grey area with the lady with 23 cats I Looked at as an illness 0 Thomas Szasz believed that mental illness shouldn t be an illness because it involves values I Cross cultural 0 Medical Model 0 Diagnosis what when you distinguish one disease from another 0 Etiology why the causation of the illness 0 DSM diagnostic and statistical manual 0 Includes listings of ALL of the disorders 0 originalcurrent I original included 100 disorders but very vague I current DSM 5 newest as of May 0 more specificinformation 0 only about 70 agreement on most disorders 0 Improved diagnostic guidelines 0 DSM 4 has about 3x more than the original disorders 0 Problem increase the likelihood that people will have disorders So about 50 can have a disorder This begins to make it an easier for a person to be diagnosed Therefore disorders aren t so abnormal Clinical Syndromes Anxiety Disorders 0 marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety Quite common 20 population 0 Specific Phobias o This is a specific persistent irrational fear of an object or situation that seems to have no realistic danger 0 Social Anxiety Disorder I Social Phobia 0 Extreme fear of being judged by others so that you avoid social situations 0 Panic Disorder I This is reoccurring unexpected attacks of overwhelming anxiety 0 Agoraphobia 0 Anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives certain environments as dangerous or uncomfortable often due to the environment39s vast openness or crowdedness These situations include but are not limited to wideopen spaces as well as uncontrollable social situations such as the possibility of being met in shopping malls airports and on bridges 0 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 You re worried about EVERYTHING o Etiology of Anxiety Disorders I Cognitive Factors 0 Genetics 0 People do have a predisposition more likely to not for sure going to get it o Neurochemicals 0 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Related Disorders I Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0 Persistent uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts and urges to engage in senseless rituals o Unwanted thoughts obsessions o Urges to senseless rituals compulsions 0 They know it s senseless 0 Example thought you re going to die from germs 9 ritual wash your hands constantly I Body Dysmorphic Disorder 0 This is a preoccupation with one or more perceived flaws in physical appearances They are either not noticeable by others or very slightly noticeable I Hoarding Disorder 0 Persistent difficulty discardingparting with possessions regardless of actual value 0 Etiology of OCD I Genetics and stress can play a role Film Dr Phil A guy is allergic to his girl But it s really just somatization now called somatic symptom disorder It can be undone It s just a neurological link However he s not malingering faking it 0 these are physical ailments that cannot be explained by organic conditions They are largely due to psychological factors NOT faking it that would be called malingering o Somatic Symptom Disorder these are diverse physical ailments I Psychiatric condition marked by multiple medically unexplained physical or somatic symptoms In order to qualify for the diagnosis of somatization disorder somatic complaints must be serious enough to interfere significantly with a person39s ability to perform important activities such as work school or family and social responsibilities or lead the person experiencing the symptoms to seek medical treatment 0 Illness Anxiety Disorder preoccupation with having or acquiring serious illness Minimal symptoms I More in your head more concerned with getting sick 0 Conversion Disorder altered voluntarily motor or sensory function with no apparent organic basis Sometimes the symptoms are impossible o Etiology of Somatic Symptom Disorders I Doesn t depend on genetics I More dependent on personality factors 0 Like people who are neurotic I Cognitive factors play a role Overly conscious concerned with minor things I Stress people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory Mild dissociative experience daydreaming quotsoul floating above your body feeling during the week of finals 0 Dissociative Identity Disorder used to be called quotmultiple personality disorder I Two or more largely complete personalities coexisting in one person 0 Different personalities can be different genders identities names ages Transitions can change suddenly and not prompted I Most people who get this are already diagnosed with other disorders like 3 or more I Might be a learned response from the psychologist I Could also be due to heavy drug use 0 Dissociative Amnesia this is a suddenly loss of personal information I A sudden loss of forgetting who you are Can forget a specific event or a complete loss of life history I It s too extensive to be explained by simply forgetting I Sometimes it occurs with quotdissociative fugue this is a sudden o DepersonalizationDerealization Disorder I Depersonalization out of body experience 0 Like where you are detached from your body and looking at yourself I Derealization detached from your surroundings last longer more pervasive Foggy dreamlike state 0 Etiology of Dissociative Disorders I Stress I Severe childhood trauma 0 Used to be called quotmanic depression I One or more manic episodes with periods of depression 0 A manic episode has EXTREME euphoria o Milder version Cyclothymic I chronic but mild symptoms Not extreme enough to be labeled as bipolar 0 Major Depressive Disorder 0 0 Persistent feelings of sadness and despair And loss of interested in previous sources of pleasure I Not like stopping going out with friends and gardening More like when you are in a depressed mood daily You don t feel like getting out of bed even brushing your teeth You can lose sleep feel extra tired I Average time for one episode lasts about 6 months Milder version dysthymic I Chronic but mild symptoms 0 Etiology of Depression and Bipolar O O O O Gene c Neurological factors People who are depressed have a reduced hippocampus volume size Cognitive factors I Learned helplessness I Ruminate thinking rethinking constantly 0 Women are most likely to have this because they overthink too much Poor social skills Stress can affect depression and bipolar I quotpulls the trigger of the gun of the gene for the disorder 0 Personality Disorders 0 0 Extreme inflexible personality traits that causes distress or dysfunctions in socialwork settings Three clusters 1 Histrionic Personality Disorder people with this are EXTREME drama queens a Women are more likely to have this 85 of people with this are women 2 Narcissistic Personality Disorder lack empathy You re too good for what you got a Men are more likely to have this 70 of people who have this are men 3 Antisocial personality disorder this is someone who is a sociopathpsychopath These people as well think that they are quotabove the law But these people don t form attachment to others It doesn t mean that they aren t with people but they don t form real attachments They chronically violate the rights of others a Like taking a handicapped person s parking spot when you don t actually need it b A sociopath person reacts the same to the terms chair and murder c If asked to solve an algebra problem and then asked if a child should be saved a normal person automatically says yes but the sociopath continues to use their brain the part that solves the math problem to solve the problem of the child needing to be rescued d Sociopaths don t have guiltemotion which separates humans from animals e The solutioncourse for someone that is a sociopath i Well they don t have guilt so they don t try to get help Or they might lie about going or try to con the psychologist f Etiology of Antisocial personality disorder 1 Genetic component 2 Inadequate socialization o Schizophrenia characterized by disturbed thought processes along with verbal cognitive and behavior deficits O O O Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Disorganized speech one topic to another with no coherent transition Negative symptoms I Flat tone Delusion fixed false belief I Delusions of grandeur people think they are famous or powerful I Delusions of persecution you are a loved one are being persecuted watched or conspired against I These two typically go together Hallucination sensory perception of something that is not present or gross distortions of something that is present I Auditory Hallucinations are more common 75 0 Usually people accusing them of something I Visual is the second most common Outcome rules of fourths I 14 gets better and never gets sick again I 14 functions but needs meds I 1A live in group homes and can function okay I do poorly institutionalized Etiology 0 Biological basis Gene c Neurochemical Structural abnormalities of the brain Neurodevelopmental I Viral Infections not enough nutrients 0 Family Dynamics 0 Stability 0 Stress o Marijuana use in adolescence OOOO Chapter 15 0 Who seeks treatment of these psychological disorders 0 Whites are more likely to get help than blacks 0 Women are more likely than men 0 Higher education status is more likely than lower I Not just college vs high school More people with Undergrad degree seek than high school more people with Grad degree than undergrad degree 0 Marital status I Everyone NOT married is more likely to get help than someone who is married 0 Only about 13 seeks treatment 0 Who provides 0 Psychologist I PhD more research oriented or a Psy D more clinical oriented I PhD can do better research to find the best solution than Psy D But Psy D s say that they don t have enough experience I Harder to get into a PhD program I PhD get undergrad degree Psy D goes through more school like med school PhD people can get a master s degree in MSWor Education 0 Psychiatrist I Someone who went to medical school MD so they can prescribe medicine 0 Once through med school then they go through a psychiatry residency where they learn specifically about psychiatry 0 Between the two of these psychiatrists are more likely to use psychoanalysis Psychotherapy broad term for all diverse approaches 1 Insight therapies 2 Behavior therapies 3 Biomedical therapies 1 verbal interactions to enhance the client s self knowledge and promote healthful changes in personality and behavior Psychoanalysis Freud relieves unconscious conflicts motives and defenses through talk therapy 0 First systematic psychotherapy Clientcentered therapy Carl Rodgers you provide a supportive or emotional climate Client plays major role in both pace and direction Climate gt Process 0 Restructures sef concept 0 Wants people to become more comfortable with their genuine self 0 3 Requirements for Therapeutic Climate this lets down support for defenses I Genuineness therapist is open and honest I Unconditional positive regard no judgment of client I Empathy you understand the client s point of view 0 Effectiveness 0 Superior to no treatment 0 Reasonably Durable Effects 0 About equal efficiency to drugs for some disorders 0 Half the patients show meaningful recovery in about 20 sessions 2 apply learning principles to change maladaptive behavior 0 Behavior is learned 0 What s been learned can be unlearned 0 Systematic desensitization o Phobias are caused by classical conditioning I Anxiety hierarchy worst not as bad I You learn deep muscle relaxation I But them together with imagining o Flooding putting someone directly into the feared situation until the anxiety subsidesdeclines Aversion therapy pair unpleasant stimulus with maladaptive sources of pleasure 4 Behavior Modification systematic approach to changing behavior a Specific behavior specific b Gather the baseline data i just keep track of whatever you are studying ii antecedents what happens before the behavior certain things will trigger the behaviordecision iii consequences after behavior ABC c Design the program i During the process reward the behavior 1 Example think about how much you study not the grade Or if you re losing weight think of what you ve controlled Your behavior not exactly what your weight is d ExecuteEvaluate the outcomes 9 i Overall we are worried about the outcomes But when we design the program we have to reward the processattempt made 5 Cognitive therapy correcting habitual thinking errors that underlie disorders a Originally the focus of design was on depression b Different from insight 6 Cognitivebehavioraltherapy a SocialSkillsTraining i Modeling watching ii Behavior Rehearsal role playing iii Shaping close and closer approximations train a seal to get closer to the ball spins ball on nose 7 Effectiveness a This works really well b Works best for specific things i OCD ii Sexual dysfunction iii Phobias c Not as good for general feelings of discontent 3 intended to help psychological issues by using physiological methods psych pharmacothera py drugs 4 categories 0 Antianxiety I Relieves tension apprehension and nervousness 0 Almost immediate relief I Older medications used valium and Xanax I Newer medications buspar o Antipsychotic I These medications reduce psychotic symptoms 0 Hallucinations hyperactivity schizophrenia I Gradually works takes about 13 weeks I 70 effectiveness I Older drugs thorazine and holdol Side effects were pretty bad People would come down with quottardive dyskinesia this is a neurological disorder with involuntary ticks Like their hands eyes or mouth would twitch About 20 would have this side effect And if they stopped taking the drug they would still have the incurable side effect it rarely went away I Newer drugs clozapine 0 Smaller risk of tardive dyskinesia o AntiDepressant I Helps people out of a depression Elevates the mood I Works gradually in about 12 weeks I Older drugs tricyclics and MAO inhibitors I Newer drugs SSRls serotonin Prozac paxil Zoloft SNRIs serotonin and norepinephrine o Newer ones are stronger by have a wider range of side effects 0 Mood Stabilizers these are used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar disorder I Older drugs lithium a salt can be toxic and fatal I Newer drugs Valproate has fewer side effects 0 Comparisons it s hard to keep people on these medications when they are bipolar because of the euphoric senses form the disorder So they don t want to take the meds Effectiveness can be effective when other methods don t work 0 You can t really talk through this disorder So the medications help 0 Sometimes they start you on medication to get you into a routine of going to therapy and then slowly remove the drugs 0 Doctors are using combinations of drugs and therapy not a set program More specialized to fit each situationindividual electroconvulsive therapy ECT uses of electrical shocks like in movies 0 This is brutal General anesthesia Produces cortical cortex of brain seizures 0 Started in the 305 and 40s for schizophrenia I Major treatment for major disorder I Didn t work for this disorder though o In the 19905 someone discovered that it works for depression I This is serious so it s a last resort First try talking and then drugs Then maybe this Side Effects some memory loss Good news no long term effects I Most people say that it doesn t cause brain damage brain stimulation yes it s real o Biases 1 Linda is 31 and single Outspoken Very bright Deeply concerned about social issues So which is more likely that she is a bank teller or that she is a bank teller AND she participated in the feminist movement Well one is more likely because it s more general 0 when people assume that 2 uncertain events happening together are more likely than either happening alone 0 when people estimate the frequency of an event based on how easy the instance comes to mind 0 Examples you see hear about more plane crashes but actually there are more car crashes o Anchoring and Adjustment 0 Predicting sales for a future year take last year anchor and estimate up or down adjustment People never really adjust enough
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