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PSY 100 Fall 2013 Human Memory Chapter 6 I Memory I System by which we retain info and bring it to mind II Three processes I encoding II storage III retrieval II Memory Encoding II II III III Memory Storage III IV Memory Retrieval IV III Retrieval cues I V Encoding Speci city Principle V IV State dependent memory PSY 100 Fall 2013 I V Contextdependent memory effect II VI Memory Stages VIThree stage model I II III VII Sensory Memory VII VI VII Iconic Memory I II VIII Eidetic imagery III IV V VI IXEchoic memory VII PSY 100 VIII IX Fall 2013 Short Term Memory VIII X XI XII XIII Working Memory IXPhonological loop I XIV Visuospatial Sketchpad II XV Episodic buffer III XVI Central executive IV Long Term Memory X I II Consolidation I III Elaborative rehearsal PSY 100 Fall 2013 II IV Semantic network model Fall 2013 1 Learning Chapter 5 PSY 100 I What is learning I the modi cation of behavior through practice training and expenence II Four ways I classical conditioning II operant conditioning III insight learning IV latent learning 5 Observational learning II Classical Conditioning I Founder II De nition a stimulus originally neutral elicits the same or similar response to one originally elicited by another stimulus III Basics I unconditioned stimulus II unconditioned response III conditioned stimulus IV conditioned response III The process of conditioning II food us Fall 2013 2 IV drool ur V bell food VI neutral stimulus unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response VII VIII IV Stimulus Strengthening Characteristics III frwquency of pairing I more often the cs Paired with us The stronger amp more reliable the cr Will be IXtiming II the strongest cr39s occur when cs presented rst and remains throughout presentation of us X intensity of us III stronger us leads to faster conditioning V Classical Conditioning phases IV Acquisition I the act or profess of achieving the mastery of something XI Extinction II the act or condition of loosing something learned XII Spontaneous Recovery III after extinction acquisition of something quotlearnedquot is Fall 2013 tried and we see 12 acquisition goes up XIII Renewal Effect IV if response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired the extinguished response will reappear if person is returned to original environment VI Stimulus Properties V Generalization I patient notices no differences between two stimulus XIV Discrimination II can distinguish between stimulus VII Higher Order Conditioning VIconditioned stimulus functions as an us VIII Taste Aversion VII eat foodgt get sickgt wont eat that food again IX Applications of Classical Conditioning VIII fear response I conditioned emotional reaction I phobias XV positive emotions II odorsmusic associated with pleasant emotions XVI drug craving III cravigs may be elicited by cues from the environment Fall 2013 X Operant Conditioning IXFounder bf Skinner XVII De nition form of learning with voluntary responses come to be controlled XVIII Basics I all matter of consequences I reinforcement II punishment XI Skinner Box III box with electric oor XII Cumulative Recorder IV records resposes the steeper the slope the faster the response XIII Processes in Operant Conditioning V Acquisition II initial learning stages II behaviorincreases due to reinforcement XIX Shaping III reward for good behavior XX Extinction IV no more rewardslost of behavior Fall 2013 XXI Generalization V cant tell difference XXII Discrimination VIte difference XIV Reinforcers VI primary II satisfy biological needs XXIII secondary III paired with primary XXIV continuous IV do behavior gt reinforced every time XXV intermid Sometimes enforce XV Schedules of Reinforcement VII x ration II certainspeci c number of responses III number of things to do in order to get reward XXVI variable ratio III dont know how many times to respond in order to get rewards IV gambling XXVII xed interval IV set time Fall 2013 V every two weeks get a paycheck VIpatient doesnt usually respond until the last minute XXVIII variable interval V amount of time between reinforcement changes VII pop quizzes XVI Reinforcement and Punishment VIII positive reinforcement II get reward for behavior VIII owest quiz grade dropped if you have perfect attendance XXIX negative punishment III get punished for behavior IX break curfew get extra chores XXX positive punishment IV get something for bad behavior X fail quiz more homework XXXI negative reinforcement V take away stuff XI XVII Insight Learning IX Founder tolman and hazcik XXXII De nition Fall 2013 XXXIII Basics II XXXIV Example III rats in maze dont memorize path unless they are rewarded XVIIIOperant Conditioning X Founder albert bendura XXXV De nition observe something than do it yourself XXXVI Basics II pay attention XII retain the info XIII be able to reproduce it XIV motivation XXXVII Example III XIX Advice to future parents II III Research Methods in Psychology PSY 100 Fall 2013 Is Psychology a Science I YES BIATCH II Empirical approachTo study human behavior III Scienti c method Four Basic Objectives IV Describe II inferenceconclusionbased on observation V Explain VIPredict VII Control Step 1 Developing a research question VIII How do we develop research questions III observe human behavior II look to previous research III testing commonly elds IV from theories II An explanation that organizes observations into meaningful patterns and accounts for relationships among observed events in terms of underlying mechanisms II theories can be supported but not proven IV Step 2 Hypothesis II state the research question in terms of a hypothesis II precise prediction that can be tested through research IX the hypothesis is a statement about the predicted relationship between variables III factors ir measures that vary within an experiment or among individuals X Variables can be IV independent manipulated by the researcher V dependent the outcome or the one that changes as a result of the independent variable V Step 3 Gathering Evidence III Descriptive Research V Case Study III in depth study of one or more individuals IV methods used by II Piaget II Freud V close observation andor interviewing of participants VIProbems III relies on memories IV withholding of important information V experimenter bias VINaturaistic Observation II method of research based on careful observation of behavior in natural settings VII Problems VIpossibiity of no informed consent or debrie ng of participants VII experimenterobserver bias VII Correlational Method III examines the link between two variables VIII Bene ts VIII Offers clues to underlying causes II relationship between smoking and lung cancer IXdentify groups of people at high risk for physical or behavioral problems III alcohol use in teens predicting alcoholism as adults X Increases understanding between variables or events IXProblems XIcant tell us cause and effect relationship XII third variable VIII Survey Method IV XIII Structured interviewsused to gather information about groups of people XIV Questionnaires X Survey a population XV sample XVI random sampling XIProbems XVII social desirability XVIII volunteer bias XIExperimental Method II investigate a cause and effect relationship by manipulating variables and observing the change in others V Independent Variable XII Dependent Variable IXOperational De nition VIde ning a variable based on the procedures or operations used to measure it X Random Assignment VII method of randomly assigning subjects to experimental or control groups XIControl vs Experimental Groups VIII Control baseline XIII Experimental receives the manipulation of independent variable VI Step 4 Drawing Conclusions II Statistics III using math to organize summarize and interpret numerical data XII Descriptive statistics IV Measures of central tendency XIII XIV XV XII Variability XIII Correlations Central Tendency V Mean XIV Median XV Mode Variability VIhow much scores vary from each other and from the mean XVI Standard deviation IXnumerical depiction of variability XIV high variability high standard deviation XV low variability low standard deviation Correlation VII a description of a relationship between two variables X Measured 100 to 100 XIX Strength XX Direction XVII correlation does not imply causation VII The Hallmark of Science III VIII Ethical Concerns IV informed consent XVI Debrie ng if using deception History of Psychology August 28 2013 PSY 100 I What is psychology I relatively young discipline II scienti c discipline III II Psyche II mind II Logos II knowledgestudy II Philosophy and Modern Psychology II Socrates III know thyself IV Hypothesis testing III asking questions II determine beliefs and knowledge where they come from III IV Plato II Student of Socrates V rely on thought and reason observe to aquire true knowledge V ARISTOTLE III emphasis of experimentation and observation as pathway to knowledge VIdeductive and inductive reasoning VIDESCARTES IV quotcognito ergo sumquot I think therefore im VII Dualism IV mind in uences the body V body in uences the mind III Early Psychologists II Gustav Theodor Fechner V in uenced by Decartes VIII Psychophysics VII Hermann von Helmholtz VI theory of perception of color IV First Psychology Lab III Wilhelm Wundt VII rst to call psychology a science separated from others IX university of Leipzing VIstabished in 1879 X interested in studying VII consciousness VIII person39s perspective V Psychology in the USA IV G Stanley Hall VIII student of Wundt XI stablished the American Psychology Association IX rst president atJohn Hopkins III lst stablished lab in usa I John Hopkins University VI Schools of Psychology Foundations of Psychological Science I Structuralism I Founder I Edward Turchemer I student of Wundt IV Principle I attenots to de ne STRUCTURE of mind I INTROSPECTIVE II Functionalism II Founder I WilliamJames I trained in introspection II Principle II function of behaviors III study of the function of mental processes III Behaviorism II Founder II John B Watson V Principle II only study behavior III opposses in trospective VIBF Skinner III operant conditioning VII lvan Pavlov IV closing conditioning IV Gestalt Psychology III Founder II Max Weimer IV the whole is greater than the some of its parts V Psychoanalysis IV Founder II Sigmund Freud VIII Principles V behavior by unconscious motive V typically aggressive or sexual VI childhood experiences play a role VII Psychologists Who are they and what do they do III Psychology Research Degrees and Areas II Research II Basic II get knowledge for the fun of it VII Applied IV nd solutions for speci c problems IXDegrees VIPh D VII Psy D IV Ed D VIII MD IX masters X Specialty Areas V Experimental X Clinical XICounseing XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI XXII XXIII School Educannal Developmental Personality Social Environmental Industriall Organizational Heath Consumer Forensic Sport Neuropsychologists II III IV VI VII Health Psychology I area of Psychology that studies how your psychology factors can affect your physical state Stress Overview I pressure or demand placed on an organism to adapt or adjust to its environment II stress increases beyond the point that it taxes our ability to cope III distress IV increase stress in america over the past ve years Sources of stress V Stressors II source of stress VIpositive or negative VII Common stressors II money II work III economy IV family and friends V relationships Hassles III annoyance of daily life that impose stressful burden VIII can contribute to general levels of chronic stress II marriage IXchronic stress is the same as always worrying about something Life events IV stress from major life events X more life changes gt high risk XIess vulnerable II higher stress holds III skills needed to afjust to changes in life circumstances IV some hold more opyimic attitude XII depends on how you appraise events V Frustration V negative emotional state we want to do something we cant Con ict VIstate of tension resulting from two or more competing goals XIII Con ict resolution II ApproachApproach VIII IX XI II one of two positive things II easy to choose III least stressful AvoidanceAvoidance IV two negatives avoid one will deal with the other V if too negative gt shut down VIstudy for exams or write papers ApproachAvoidance VII have both positiveand negative quialities VIII can leave goal or keep with it V Multiple ApproachAvoidance IXtwo or more goals that both have positive and negaUve X XI III IV Traumatic Stressors III events that are potentially life threatening XIV development of ptsd II avoid anything associated with traumatic experience VI reexperiencing event VII impaired functioning VIII hightened arousal IX emotional numning Type A Behavior Patter IV brhavioral pattern characterized by impatience competitive hostile XV consequences XVI Consequences of Type A II conorary heart disease Acculturative Stress V stressed by immigrants in adjusting to a new culture II XVII Acculturation can III erode family networks and relatives X Withdrawing from the larger culture XI XVIII maintain balance gt less stress The Body s Response to Stress VIGeneral Adaptation Syndrome Selye II Alarm Stage II nervous sympathetic system III ght or ight XII XIII XIV XII Resistance Stage IV body wants homeostasis V calming down VIfatigue frustration anger emotional reaction XIII Exhaustion Stage VII heartrespiration rate reduced VIII psychological effects show II Kidney disease II Heart disease III Allergic condition IV Digestive disorders V Depression IXever present stress today Gender Differences in Dealing with Stress III women tend and befriend XIV men aggresion and hostility XIX Stress and the Endocrine System III hypothaamus pituitary adrenal axis HPA a secretes corticotrophin CRH a andreno corticotrophic released ACTH a adrenal glandsa corticosteroidsgt adrenal meduagt stress hormones XX Sympathetic branch of the nervous system triggers the adrenal medulla a stress hormones II XV Stress and the Immune System IV Primary defense system against infectious disease XXI Basics II Lymphocytes II XVI Antigens III XVII Antibody IV XXII XXIII Psychological Moderators of Stress V Social Support II more friends amp family less sick you get XVIII XXIV SelfEfficacy III XIX XXV Predictability and Controllability IV XX People vary on locus of control II Internal II X External III XXVI Psychological Hardiness V Cluster of personality traits associated with increased resilience to stress II commiyment XIopeness to challenges XII internal logus of control XXVII Optimism VI PSY 100 II III Fall 2013 Thinking Chapter 71 Cognitive Psychology I area of psych that explores how we acquire knowledge II Thinking Imental representation amp manipulation of information IIIMental Image II picture or representation of an event in the mind39s eye IV Help us perform cognitive functions III remembering directions IV solve problems V mental imagery not limited to visual stimulus V audio VI taste Concepts II mental categories we use to group objects VI logical concepts I clear de ned rules for membership VII natural concept II poorly de ned rules for membership Hierarchies of Concepts II superordinate concept PSY 100 IV VI Fall 2013 II vehicle VIII basic level concept III car IX subordinate concept IV suv sedan X narrowing and re ning concepts V positive enstances motorcycle for vehicle VI negative instances motorcycle for car Problem Solving III emplying mental strategies to solve problems XI trial and error XII Insight problem solving II eureka Moment Algorithm IV step by step rules for solving a problem Heuristics V rules of thumbs XIII mental shortcuts XIV backward working heuristics II start with then collect data to see if is supported XVcreate subgoals VII breakdown of a large problem into smaller parts PSY 100 VII VIII IX XI Fall 2013 3 Mental Roadblocks VI tendency to rely on mental strategies that worjed in the past but dont work for the current problem XVI Functional xedness II inability to use objects in new ways XVII A x for a roadblock VIII incubation period representativeness Heuristic classifying something based on how similar it is to a typical case avaliability Heuristic classifying something based on how much information is given and with what answer it is more likely to match Framing 600 people are sick there are two types of medicines a will get 200 people better b will kill 400 Same odds with both medicine Creativity VII Thinking that II leads to original practical meaningful solutions IX generates new ideas or artistic expressions XVIII distinct from general intelligence XIX measure by divergent thinking XX Cognitive processes underlying creativity PSY 100 Fall 2013 X metaphor and analogy XI conceptual combination XII conceptilual expansion PSY 100 Fall 2013 1 Motivation Chapter 81 amp 82 I Motivation for behavior a WilliamJames i Innate motives that were activated by features of the environment b William McDougaI i 13 instincts Parenting iii Food seeking iv repulsion v curiosity c Luther Bernard i Counted that scholars had proposed over 50000 instincts II The quotWhysquot of Behavior a Motivation i activate ii direct iii sustain b Motives i Why of behavior 1 Wants and needs that drive behavior III Instincts a Instinct behavior i Genetically programed ii Innate pattern of responses iii Speci c to members of species b Instinct theory i Belief that behavior is motivated by instinct c Not used much anymore i Too broad ii Flexible variable human behavior iii More applicable to animals IV Needs and Drives a Drive theory i Drives arise from need to satisfy biological needs that need satisfaction PSY 100 VI VII VIII Fall 2013 b Need i State of deprivation or de ciency c Drive i Bodily tension resulting from an unmet need d Drive reduction i Satisfy need e Based on principle of homeostasis Types of Drives a Primary Drives i Innate food water sex shelter b Secondary Drives i Learned or acquired through experience Arousal Theory a Harry Harlow i Biologically based drive for exploration b Stimulus motives i Internal state ii Prompt stimulation seeking behavior Optimal Level of Arousal a Sensation Seeking i Marring Zuckerman ii High on sensation seeking 1 Get bored easily 2 Dif culty restraining impulses 3 Strong genetic components Psychological Sources of Motivation ancenUves b Cognitive Dissonance c Psychosocial Needs IncenUves a pull side of motivation b Incentive value i Strength of the pull of goalreward ii In uenced by learning and expectances culture plays a big role on this Cognitive Dissonance PSY 100 XI XII XIII Fall 2013 3 change behavior change attitude inconsistant experience dissonance with self add cognitions avoid thinking about it Psychosocial Needs a Interpersonal needs b Need for affiliation i Part of a club c Need for achievement i Motivated by challenges ii Motivated by goals iii Avoid failure d Achievement Motivation i Achieve success e Avoidance Motivation i Avoid failure Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs a Physiological biological needs sex food b safety c Love and belongingness d esteem e Selfactualization Maslow s Other Needs a Cognitive i Need to know understand explore b Aesthetic i Beauty symmetry and order c Selftranscendence PSY 100 XIV XV XVI XVII Fall 2013 i Need to connect to something beyond self ii Help others realize own potential Biology of Hunger a Hypothalamus i Eatinghunger regulation b Lateral Hypothalamus i Turns on eating mechanism c Ventromedial Hypothalamus i Tells you when you are full d Chemicals involved i Neuropeptide y says you are hungry in brain ii Ghrelin release by stomach tes your brain you are hungry iii Leptin fat cells say you had enough to eat Obesity a Related to lifethreatening problems b Body mass index Causes of Obesity a Consuming too many calories b Basal metabolic rate c Genetic factors d Set point theory i We have predetermine weight and the brain makes sure we stay that weight e behavior i Portion sizes ii exercise f Emotional states i anger H fear iii depression iv anxiety Eating Disorders and Body Dissatisfaction a Anorexia Nervosa i Selfstarvation ii Dangerously low body weight b Bulimia Nervosa i Binge eating ii purging Research Methods in Psychology PSY 100 Fall 2013 I Is Psychology a Science A Yes B Empirical Approach To Study Human Behavior C Scientific Method 11 Four Basic Objectives A Describe 1 InferenceConclusion based on observation B Explain Theory C Predict D Control 111 Step 1 Developing a research question A How do we develop research questions 1 Observe human behavior 2 Look at previous research 3 Testing commonly held beliefs 4 From Theories a i An explanation that organizes observations into meaningful patterns and accounts for relationships among observed events in terms of underlying mechanism b ii Theories can be supported but can t be proven once they are proven they become facts IV Step 2 Hypothesis A State research question in terms of hypothesis 1 Predictions that can be tested through research B A statement about the predicted relationship between variables 1 Factorsmeasurements that vary within an eXperiment or individuals C Variables can be 1 independent manipulated by researcher 2 dependent the outcome or the one that changes as the result of research V Step 3 Gathering Evidence A Descriptive Research 1 Case Study a In Depth of one or more individuals b Method used by 1 Piager 2 Freud c Close observation and or interviewing of participant d iv Problems 1 rely on memories 2 withholding of important information 3 eXperiments are bias 2 Naturalistic Observation a based on careful observation of people s behavior b problems 1 no informed consent from participants 2 experimentsobserver bias 3 Correlational Method a examines the link between two variables b Benefits 1 Offers clues to underlying cause a relatio nship between smoking and lung cancer b Identify groups of people at high risks for physical or behavioral problems b alcohol use during teen years and adult life 2 increases understanding between variables or events c Problems 1 can t tell cause and effect relationship 2 third variable 4 Survey Method a structured questionnaireinterviews to get information from a group of people 1 structured interviews 2 Questionnaires b Survey population 1 sample 2 random sampling c Problems 1 social desirability bias 2 volunteer bias B Experimental Method 1 Investigate a cause and effect relationship by manipulating variables and observing the change in others a independent variable b dependent variable 2 Operational definition a defining variable based on the procedures used to measure it 3 random assignment a method of randomly assigning subjects to eXperimental or control 4 control vs eXperimental groups a control control group baseline b eXperimental receives the manipulation of independent variable VI Step 4 drawing conclusions A Statistics 1 using math to summarizeorganizeinterpret numerical data B Descriptive Statistics 1 Measures of central tendency 2 variability 3 Correlations C Central Tendency 1 Mean Average 2 Median middle 3 Mode occurs the most D Variability 1 how much scores vary from each other and from mean 2 Standard deviation a numerical deception of variability b high variabilityhigh standard deviation c low variability lower standard deviation E Correlation 1 a description of relationship between two variables a Measured 1 strength how closely two variables are related 2 direction has to do with positive or negative signs What is personality a section of psychology devoted to the investigation of personality i stable psychological characteristics and behavioral patterns ii account for individuality iii consistent over time First Studies of Personality a William Sheldon b 3 types of personalities i ectomorph nerds ii endomorph fat lazy people iii mesomorph buff Psychoanalytical Perspective a Freud b unconscious motives guide our behavior and shape our personality c 1881 1885 developed psychoanalysis Structure of Personality a Conscious things we are aware of b PreConscious just below conscious c Unconscious unacceptable urges impulses ideas The ID a I want it now b unconscious c pleasure principles d devil on your shoulder Ego a tries to balance ID with realities of life b reality principles i practical and acceptable in satisfying basic needs c social skills Superego a internal moral guardian on conscious b strives for perfection c parental value system d angel on your shoulder Psychosexyal Development Stages a Oral b Anal c Phalic d Latency e Genital Oral 9 biting sucking mouthing between birth 18 months 9 10 Anal 11 Phalic 12 latency 13 Genital 14 Modern Perso C weaning Change from milk to solid foods d oral behaviors i smoking ii nail biting iii smoking a retention and release of bodily waste b 18 months 3 years C toilet training d anal retentive e anal expulsive a masturbation b 3 6 years identify gender C Oedipus complex d same sex attraction e penis envy a 6 puberty b learn right from wrong moral and values C develop superego a return of sexual interest b puberty adulthood nality Theory a Gordon Allport i Cardinal Traits define personality ii Central Traits wide in uence on behavior iii Secondary Traits too specific only applicable to few situations b Raymond Cattell i surface traits observable through behavior ii source traits measurable traits 1 we can measure 16 of these C Hans Eysenck i pessimistic reserved ii Extroverted Neurotic aggressive optimistic active friendly people oriented iii Introverted Stable passive controlled thoughtful low on neuroticism iv Extroverted Stable relaxed calmed even tempered talkative carefree love on neuroticism Introverted Neurotic tense anxious moody shy 15 Big 5 Personality a Predominant Theory i Openness curious imaginative creative ii Conscientiousness 1 up reliable ethical responsible 2 down disorganized or impulsive iii Extraversion 1 up outgoing friendly social 2 down like to hang alone don39t like big crowds iv agreeableness 1 up get well with others maintain peace 2 down don39t care if people get irritated v Neuroticism 1 up worrying anxiety 2 down calm easy going 16 Trait Perspective a some believe traits change over time b better adaptable as we age c may fall victim to circular reasoning 17 Walter Mischel a Situation and Person Variables b Situation i environmental factors rewards vs punishment c Person i 2 Variables 1 EXpectancies what are you eXpecting your behavior to be like 2 Subjective Values the worth you place on desired outcome ii 3 added 1 competencies have skillsknowledge to complete desired outcome 2 Encoding Strategies how you perceive event 3 self regulatory systems and plans can you make a plan to get desired outcome and reward yourself for achieving the outcome 18 Assessing Personality a Phrenology b Handwriting c SelfReport Measures d Projective Test 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Phrenology a bumps on head Handwriting a analyzing personality based on handwriting SelfReport Measures a Objective Test i Scored Objectiver ii based on research b Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI i 567 TF questions ii constructed to aid in diagnosis of mental disorders c MyersBriggs Personality i CanJung Self Report a Positive i inexpensive to administer ii easy to score iii more willing to disclose personal info iv can predict wide range of behavior b Negatives i people may lie ii social desirability iii some test can identify biases Projective Test a Ambiguous or vague test material i believed to reveal unconscious needs drives and motives b Rorschach Inkblots Rorschach a Herman klex rorschach b made ink stains on papers c scoring is complex i content ii form d interpretation have validity i responses can predict success in therapy ii distinguish psychological disorders e detect underlying needs for dependency Thematic Apperception Test a Henry Murray b stories people tell based on a picture gt aspects of personality c evaluation 1 stimulus pu frownf a What is social Psychology i the study of how individuals thoughts feelings and behaviors are in uenced by real or imaginary groups 2 Perceiving others a Stereotypes people i Generalization of personality attributes of group of ii Set of Social Schema b Self Fulfilling Attributes C i eXpectations that help bring out eXpected outcome Fundamental Attribution Error personality situation 3 Judging Others a Attitudes idea i your behavior says something about your ii there is something wrong with the person not the i social positive or negative evaluations of person or b How are attributes formed C Kinds 1 Classical Conditioning 1 Tea friends tea makes you happy ii cognitions iii emotions iv behaviors i Implicit vs explicit ii changing attitudes 1 Elaboration Likelihood Model superficial Cue a Not motivated to process info gt Peripheral cues gt weak temporary change content b Motivated to process info gtcentral cues gtlong lasting attitude change 2 Cognitive Dissonance a emotional gthardest to change not rational b behaviors amp attitudes gt easiest to change c icky feeling when do something against self image 3 iii Prejudice 1 Prejudging in a negative way 2 negative feeling toward individual based on group membership affiliation 3 Component a affect b stereotype C discrimination 4 Examples a Racism b seXism c discrimination d What leads us to like others i Similarity 1 best predictor of relationship success a life perspective major where come from ii Familiarity 1 attracted to people who look like you 2 attracted to people who have name familiarity iii reciprocal liking 1 like others who like us first iv prosocial behavior 1 any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person v Altruism 1 desire to help another person even if it involves a cost the helper vi Bystander Effect 1 Kitty Genovese a young woman attacked b 38 people saw what happened no one helped 2 Latane amp Darley a was it just New Yorkers b little people 7 people gt alert someone of smoke took 20 mins c alone gt alert someone of smoke took 1 minute vii 5 steps to 1 Step 1 notice something happened 2 Step 2 interpret event as an emergency a Pluralistic Ignorance i look at others and if no one reacts neither will you 3 Step 3 Assume Responsibility a Diffusion of Responsibility i more people less likely to take responsibility 4 Step 4 Know appropriate form of assistance a Knowledge b competence 5 Step 5 implement decision a bene ts vs cost b dangerous c legal concerns d embarrassment viii Social In uences any way our behavior is in uenced to change 1 When will people conform a when situation ambiguous i the more uncertain you are the more you will rely on info from others 2 when the situation is a crisis a if we feel scared and panicky we refer to others 3 when other people are experts a we look to police ight attendants etc 4 Conformity a change in behavior due to the real or imagined in uenced of other people b normative social in uence i the need to be liked c International social in uence i the need to be right 5 Compliance a when we yield to requestfavors from others b Foot in the door i ask for little things then ask for larger requests c Scarcity i tell you only left when they have a huge stock left 6 Obedience a yielding of commands of authority gure b i wasjust following ordersquot e Group Behavior 1 i Social Norms a 1 Social Facilitation 1 Normal vs Abnormal Behavior a Criteria that needs to be met in order for behavior to be classified as abnormal i unusualness ii Social Deviance acting against social norms iii emotional distress iv maladaptive behavior v dangerousness vi faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality 2 Models of Abnormal Behavior a Early Beliefs i demonic possessions b Medical Model i mental illness ii biological bases c psychological model i unconscious con icts ala Freud d Sociocultural i takes into account can text e biopsychosocial model i interaction between biology psychology and sociocultural factors ii inherited predisposition and environmental factors development of the disorder 3 What are psychological disorders a Deviant b maladaptive c emotional distress d classification multiple access 4 5 DSM multiaxial system a Axis 1 clinical disorders b Axis 2 Personality Disorders c Axis 3 General Medical Conditions d Axis 4 Psychosocial and environmental problems e Axis 5 Global Assessment of Functioning Anxiety Disorders axis 1 a Anxiety i general emotional state of uneasiness of distress ii associated with worry or apprehension about the future uncertainties b Types 0 i phobia ii panics iii iv 7 Phobia generalized anxiety OCD a irrational or excessive fears of a particular object or situation b Types i 5 of population ii population iii population 8 Panic Disorder Social afraid of being in group or social situations Specific geared towards objects 9 of the Agaraohiba afraid of wide open spaces 1 of a sudden episodes of sheer terror b Physical Symptoms 1 ii iii iv V Vi sweating nausea numbness or tingling sensation chills ashes chest pain shortness of breath c Prevalence 5 9 Generalized Anxiety Disorder a persistent anxiety not tied to an object or situation b worry about everything c Symptoms i ii iii iv 10 a Prevalence i shakiness inability to relax fidgeting feeling of dread 4 of the population 11 Obsessive Compulsive disorder a Obsessions i ii iii b Compulsion i ii c Causes ii nagging intrusive thoughts no control repetitive behaviors or rituals 2 3 of population biological 1 cooperative amigdala Psych 1 classical operant conditioning 2 cognitive mode of panic disorder iii Cognitive Mode of Panic Disorder 1 perceived threat gt feeling of worry gt body sensation gt claustrophobic interpretation of sensations d Dissociative Disorders i problems with memory ii change in consciousness or self identity iii affect the ability to maintain cohesive sense of self iv Dissociative identity disorder v Dissociative Amnesia e Dissociative Identity Disorder i two or more distinct personalities within one body 1 each personality has its own way of speaking memories and traits 2 differ in gender age and sexual orientation ii Just how many different identities 1 Women about 15 2 Men about 8 iii causes 1 prolonged physical or sexual abuse as a child f Dissociative Amnesia i specific loss of information or memory about life experiences 1 not caused by physical trauma ii Prevalence 1 rare iii Causes 1 extreme severe anxiety resulting from amnesia g Somatoform Disorders i physical symptoms or complaints that can t be explained medically ii conversion disorder iii hypochondriasis h Conversion Disorder i loss of physical function 1 hysterical paralysis can t move certain part of body 2 hysterical blindness can barely see 3 anesthesia loss of feeling in arm or hand ii Prevalence 1 Rare i Hypochondriasis i Preoccupation that something is wrong with your health ii physical complaint or symptoms that people take to be a sign of underlying serious illness iii Prevalence 1 Unknown j Causes of Somatoform Disorders i Freud 1 hysterical symptoms is outward sign of unconscious struggles between opposing movements ii symptoms serve a purpose can t engage in unacceptable activities k Secondary Gain 1 Avoidance of anXiety provoking situation m conversion disorder i reinforced with attention 12 Mood Disorders a severe or persistent disturbances in mood i limit ability of individual to function b Depressive Disorders i Major Depression ii Seasonal Affective iii Dysthymic c Bipolar 13 Major Depression Disorder a Symptoms i loss of interest in activities ii change in sleepeating iii feeling of sadness or uselessness iv lasts monthsyears b High chance of reoccurence c recurrent thoughts of suicide or attempt of suicide d Prevalence i 16 of adults ii 21 of women iii 12 are men 14 Other Depressive a Seasonal Affective i fall and winter ii people that live in northern hemisphere get affected the most b Dysthymic disorder i mild chronic form of depression ii less severe symptoms than MDD iii length 5 years iv Prevalence 6 15 Bipolar Disorders a Extreme mood swings from euphoria i may have normal moods b Mania i restless excite talkative argumentative ii pressured speech iii ight of ideas iv in ated sense of self worth v Prevalence 1 l6 Cyclothymic Disorder a mild mood swings bipolar disorder b develop during late adolescence up until adulthood c Prevalence i Men and women affected equally ii 4 1 of population 17 Causes of mood disorders a Cognitive i distortion of thinking patterns b Learned helplessness model i even when you do the best you can at something you still think that the worst will come from it c attributional style explanation for events i internal vs external ii global vs specific iii stable vs unstable d Biological factors i serotonin ii norepinephrine l8 Schizophrenia a split brain in greek severe chronic psych disorder disturbance in thinking emotional behavior perception develops in late adolescence and adulthood until death NOT dissociative identity disorder Symptoms i distortion of reality psychotic disorder ii positive weep 1 presence of something else in addition schizophrenia 55 iii negative affect 4 5 all things associated with bizarre behavior disordered thoughts behavioral excesses lacking below normal apathy lack of emotional response ap withdrawal social isolation iv 1 of general population affected g Types i Disorganized schizophrenia l 9959 ii catatonic grimaces iii Paranoid are after them 5 schizophrenia h Causes confused behavior lack of emotion neglect for general hygiene incoherent speech vivid and frequent hallucinations inappropriate emotions bizarre movements postures are delusions of persecution think ppl delusions of jealousy auditory hallucinations most frequently occurring type of i Genetics strong link between schizophrenia and hereditary ii biochemical imbalance overactivity of dopamine iii brain abnormality shrinkage in brain tissue gt enlarge inventricals 1v psychosocial life stresses recreational drug use that increase dopamine l i Personality disorders aXis 2 i excessively rigid and maldaptive patterns of behavior 1 resulting in difficulty adapting to life ii iii iv j Antisocial 1 ii iii ends antisocial personality disorder borderline personality disorder make your own rules doesnt matter who gets hurt in the process Symptoms 1 irresponsible 2 act on impulse 3 see other people as a means to your 4 reduced empathy response 5 typically socially adapt Men 3 6 iv V Women 1 vi Causes 1 biological factors a prefrontal corteX abnormality b higher levels of stimulation for optimal arousal 2 environmental factors a lack of parental warmth and nurturing b neglect abuse rejection or harsh punishment 19 Borderline personality a characteristics i ii iii iv b Causes i ii stormy personal relationships dramatic mood swings difficulty controling emotions unstable self image inability to develop cohesive self concept brain imaging 1 abnormalities in brain areas involved with emotion regualation and impulse control emotions iii 20 2 profound corteX and negative prevalence 2 6 of population
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