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Public Speaking

by: Robert Harrell

Public Speaking SPC 205

Robert Harrell
Public Speaking
Bethany Terry

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About this Document

Speech notes containing Ethos, Pathos and Logos.
Public Speaking
Bethany Terry
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This 23 page Bundle was uploaded by Robert Harrell on Monday August 31, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SPC 205 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Bethany Terry in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.


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Date Created: 08/31/15
Chapter One Becoming a Public Speaker 0 Rhetoric practice of giving speeches 0 Agora public square where Athenians would meet to discuss issues of public policy 0 Forum public space where Roman citizens in the Roman republic could express ideas 0 Public Forum variety of venues for the discussion of issues of public interest 0 Forensic Oratory advocating on your own behalf or legal speech 0 When in trial you were your own advocate so your chance of persuading a jury depended on the quality of your speaking skills 0 Deliberative speech given in legislative or political contents 0 Epideictic speech delivered in special ceremonies Canons of Rhetoric 0 Invention O Arrangement 0 Style 0 0 Memory 0 Delivery Types of Communication 0 Dyadic Communication 0 An exchange of information between TWO people I Ex coffee shop 0 Small Group Communication 0 A small number of people who can see and speak directly to one another I Ex Our class dinner with friends 0 Mass Communication 0 A large group of UNKNOWN PEOPLE 0 The reveivers of message are either not present or are part of such a large crowd that that there is little or NO interaction 0 Public Speaking 0 A message is transmitted from one person to Chp 2123 Visual Aids Designs 0 Focus on continuity 0 Colors 0 Fonts 0 Upper and lowercase letters Styling bold underline italics 0 Typefaces 0 Serif I Times New Roman I Courier New I Garamond I Book Antiqua 0 Sansserif I Arial Narrow I Haettenschweiler I Verdana I Century Gothic 0 I Sizing 0 Headings should be 36point or larger 0 A PowerPoint will not save an otherwise poorlyplanned speech 0 IT S A SPEECH NOT A SLIDESHOW 0 DON T 0 Stretch images Use blurry or small photos Add in too many animations Add in sounds Add videos 0 Use hard to read colors 0 Tips for using aid effectively 0 Talk to audience not screenposter 0 Backup plan in case of technical errors 0 O O O MLA Format 0 Intext citations 0 Author s last name 0 Example Conrad 3 0 When to use I If the info didn t come from your brain I At the end of direct quotation I At the end of info that was from that source 0 Works Cited Reminder 0 Should be in alphabetical order by author s last name 0 Doublespace 0 Second line of each cite Chapter Three Speech Anxiety Public Speech Anxiety PSA 0 Fear or anxiety associated with either actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker 0 Why 0 Lack of positive experience 0 Feeling different 0 Being the center of attention Trait Anxiety 0 High Trait Anxiety 0 Naturally anxious much of the time 0 Remain nervous throughout speech 0 Comment on what went wrong and how they didn t enjoy making the speech 0 Low Trait Anxiety 0 Experience nervousness only in novel situations 0 Get nervous at the beginning but gain confidence throughout speech 0 Comment positively on the experience after it s over and look forward to the next opportunity 0 How to combat 0 Be prepared I Start your research early I Choose a topic that is meaningful to you I Analyze your audience Practice practice practice 0 Use Visualization I Often people do as they visualize 0 Imagine yourself giving a speech successfully 0 Hear the audience applause 0 Give your speech in front of mirrors 0 Relax I Seeing an uncomfortable speaker is uncomfortable for the audience 0 Remember that the audience wants you to succeed 0 Practice Progressive Relaxation 0 Practice Controlled Breathing Personal Report of Communication Apprehension Chapter Four 1 Important 2 Experience 3 Prior Knowledge Internal Noise 0 Anything inside self External Noise 0 Anything outside of self Script Writing Defensive Listening Cultural Barriers Chapter Five Organizing your speech 0 General Purpose To informTo persuade 0 Speci c Purpose To inform them of what Topic 0 Thesis Here you write a sentence that states what the main idea of your speech is as well as your main points 0 Listeners have a better call of the main points made at the beginning of a speech Primary Effect and at the end of a speech Recency Effect 0 Put especially important points at the beginning of the speech and reiterate them at the end Coordination v Subordination 0 Coordination ideas that are given equal weight indicated by parallel alignment 0 Subordination ideas given relatively less weight and indicated by indention 0 Roman Numerals I II III IV 0 Capitalized Letters A B C 0 Arabic Numerals 1 2 3 o Lowercase Letters a b c Transitions 0 Transition 0 A phrase or word used to link ideas 0 Form a bridge between what has already been presented and what will be presented next 0 AKA called connectives 0 Full Sentence Transitions Next let s look at exactly what sales contests can do for us 0 Signposts tells the audience where you are going I A word phrase or short statement that indicates to an audience Outline Patterns 0 Chronological o AKA the temporal pattern 0 Follows the natural sequential order of the main points 0 Used for topics that describe a series of events in time or develop in line with a set pattern of actions I History of something I Steps in a process 0 Spatial 0 Used for topics describing the physical arrangement of a place scene or an object I Parts of a building 0 Tour of the White House 0 Walk in the door 0 Moving to the next 0 At the back of the house I Function of parts of a ower 0 Petals 0 Stem 0 Leaves 0 Causal o CauseEffect I Used for topics that show a causeeffect I Usually takes the following format 0 Cause 0 Effect 0 Can be reversed in some instances 0 ProblemSolution 0 Used for topics that aim to provide a solution for a problem persuasive 0 Usually takes following format I Problem I Solution 0 Topical Categorized 0 Used for topics where main points are all of relative equal importance they can be arranged in any order without negatively affecting one another 0 Narrative 0 Used for topics that tell a story 0 Tells a story but still incorporates main points and possibly other outlines I EX Lessons from the life of George Washington I The little engine that could 0 Circular 0 Used for topics that aim to get listeners to follow a particular line of reasoning 0 Develop one idea which leads to another and another until you arrive back at the thesis Types of Outlines Working Outline preparation or rough draft outline contains your entire speech organized and supported to your satisfaction Speaking Outline delivery outline Sentence Outline each main and supporting point is stated in a sentence form as a declarative sentence Phrase Outline uses partial construction of the sentence form of each point Keyword Outline uses the smallest possible units of understanding to outline the main and supporting points Types of Supporting Material Making the most of Statistics 0 Make sure that the statistics you present in your speech are from reliable and neutral sources 0 Use statistics sparingly 0 Round off large numbers when possible 0 Use visual aids to present statistical information if appropriate and possible Accuracy of Content 0 Information 0 Data set in a context for relevance I Patient s vital signs are data 0 Propaganda 0 Information represented in such a way as to provoke a desired response I An advertisement to conserve energy 0 Misinformation 0 Something that is not true I An urban language 0 Disinformation o Deliberate falsi cation of information I Falsi ed profitandloss statement Evaluating Web Sources 0 Examine the domain suffix at the end of the address 0 edu o gov o org 0 com 0 Identify the creator of the information 0 Check for currency Oral Citations 0 The author or origin of the source 0 documentary filmmaker Ken Burns 0 National Science Foundation Web Site 0 The type of source 0 Magazine 0 Book 0 Personal interview 0 The title or description of the source o In the book Endangered Minds 0 The date of the source exact or approximate Suggestions in Research 0 Keep a working bibliography 0 Identify the following 0 Direct quotations intext citations with page numbers and works cited 0 Paraphrases intext citations and works cited 0 Summaries intext citations and works cited De ning Information Operational definintions defining the topic by explaining what it does 0 A computer is something that processes information Definition by synonym defining the topic by comparing it to something with which it is synonymous 0 A friend is a comrade Etymology defining the topic by illustrating the root meaning of the word in question Learning Styles Visual learn by viewing visual explanations of ideas Aural understand best by hearing the spoken word Readwrite most comfortable processing information that is textbased Kinesthetic learn best by experiencing information directly Multimodal combination of 2 or more learning styles IntroConclusions Intros 0 Arouse the audience s attention and willingness to listen Introduce the topic and purpose Establish credibility to address the topic Preview the main points Motivate the audience to accept your speech goals Should not occupy more than 1015 of the overall speech I 30 seconds1 minute of informative speech 68 minutes Conclusion 0 Signal speech closure Summarize key points Reiterate thesis or central idea Challenge audience to respond Should not occupy more than 1015 of speech I 30 sec1 min Challenge audience to respond 00000 O O O O 0 Informative Speech the speaker challenges the audience members to use what they ve learned 0 Persuasive speech call to action the speaker challenges listeners I To act I See the problem I Change beliefs Change both actions and beliefs Chapter 17 Language Prepare your speech for the Ear Use familiar words Use repetition and transitions Use examples Avoid Jargon 0 J argon the specialized insider language of a given profession Using Concrete Language Concrete language specific tangible and definite describe things we can physically sense see hear taste smell and touch Abstract language general or nonspecific leaving meaning open to interpretation Style Your Speech Simile figure of speech used to compare one thing with another by using the word like or as ex He works like a dog Metaphor figure of speech used to make an implicit comparison without use of like or as Analogy extended metaphor or simile that compares an unfamiliar aspects with familiar aspects Understatement a figure of speech in which the speaker draws attention to an idea by minimizing its importance Flunking out of college might be problematic Avoid these Hedges unnecessary words and phrases Language 0 Anaphora speaker repeats word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases clauses or sentences 0 Epiphora repeat a word of phrase at the end of successive statements 0 Parallelism arrangement of words phrases or sentences in a similar form numbering points 0 Triads parallel elements in threes Chp 18 0 Methods of Delivery 0 0 Speaking from manuscript you read the speech verbatim Speaking from memory oratory you put the entire speech word for word into writing and then memorizing it Speaking impromptu unpracticed spontaneous or improvised involves speaking on relatively short notice with little time to prepare Speaking extemporaneously you prepare well and practice in advance give full attention to content arrangement and delivery you speak from an outline or notes 0 Word Delivery 0 O Pronunciation correct formation of words I leaves leevs is not pronounced leephs Articulation clarify or forcefulness with which the sounds are made I not mumbling 0 Nonverbal communication 0 O O O Clarifying the meaning of verbal messages Facilitating feedback between the speaker and the audience Helping establish a relationship between the speaker and audience Helping the speaker establish credibility Chapter 25 Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs 0 Every person has a set of basic needs ExpectancyOutcome Values Theory 0 We evaluate potential costs and benefits associated with taking action 0 The expected outcomes become our rationale for acting in a certain way 0 When you want to persuade listeners to change their behavior you should identify the expected outcomes and use them to appeal to your audience Chp 26 Toulmin s Model 0 Claim 0 The statement indicating what the speaker hopes will be believed 0 Evidence 0 Supporting materials 0 Warrant 0 Makes connection between Claim and Evidence Fallacies of Reason 0 Arguments that are flawed 0 Begging the question I An argument is stated in such a way that it cannot help but be true even though no evidence has been presented 0 EX War kills Bandwagoning I Posing arguments that use unsubstantiated generalized opinions as a basis 0 Ex Nikes are superior to other brands of shoes because everyone wears Nike EitherorFallacy I Poses an argument stated in terms of only two alternatives even though there may be many additional alternatives 0 Ex If you don t send you kid to private school they won t get into college Ad Hominem I Targets a person instead of the issue at hand in an attempt to incite an audience s dislike for that person 0 Ex How can you support that candidate s position on XYZ when he has been divorced Red Herring I An argument that uses irrelevant information to divert attention away from the real issue 0 Ex The previous candidate suggests that education needs reform I disagree and suggest we study what s wrong with our health care system I Hasty Gneralization 0 An argument that uses an isolated instance to make an unwarranted general conclusion 0 Ex A Labrador retriever bit my sister this type of dog is dangerous and its breeding should be outlawed I NonSequitur 0 Do not follow the argument s conclusion does not connect to the reason I Slippery Slope 0 An argument based on the faulty assumption that one case will lead to a series of events or actions I Appeal to Tradition 0 Suggests that the audience should agree with the claim because that is the way it has always been done 0 Ex A marriage should be between a man and woman because that is how it has always been Chapter 27 Organizing a Persuasive Speech 0 Inoculation Effect 0 By anticipating counterarguments and then addressing or rebutting them you can inoculate your listeners against the virus of these other viewpoints O Problemsolution Pattern 0 Organize speech points to demonstrate the nature and the signi cance of a problem and then provide the justification for a proposed solution 0 ProblemCauseSolution Speech points arranged in order to demonstrate the problem reasons for the problem and the solution to the problem Chapter 28 30 Chapter 30 Collaborating and Presenting in Grooups Task Roles handson roles that directly relate to the groups accomplishment of its objectives 0 Recording secretary notes 0 Moderator facilitates discussion 0 Initiator helps the group get moving by generating ideas offering solutions 0 Informant 0 Interpersonal Roles facilitate group interaction 0 Harmonizer reduces tension 0 Gatekeeper keeps discussion moving I Counterproductive Roles individuals who focus on individual versus group needs 0 Floor Hogger not allowing others to speak 0 Blocker being overly negative about group ideas 0 Recognition Seeker calls attention to oneself rather than to the group tasks 0 Groupthink 0 The tendency to accept information and ideas without subjecting to critical analysis I Participants reach a consensus and avoid con ict in order to not hurt others feelings I Members who do not agree with the majority feel pressured to conform 0 Avoiding Groupthink I Devil s Advocacy arguing for the sake of raising issues or concerns about the idea under discussion I Dialectical Inquiry devil s advocacy that goes a step further by proposing a countersolution to the idea 0 Leadership Styles 0 Autocratic make decisions and announce them to the group 0 Consultative consult make decisions after discussing them with the group 0 Participative make decisions with group 0 Delegative delegate ask the group to make the decision O Dewey s process of re ective thinking 0 ID the problem I What is being decided on Conduct research I What information is needed to solve the problem Establish guidelines and criteria I Discuss how the solutions will be judged Generate solutions I Conduct brainstorming sessions Select the best solution I Weigh the merits of each idea and select one Evaluate solutions I Does the solution have weaknesses Chapter 28 Special Occasion Speeches 0 One that is prepared for a speci c occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion O O 0 Entertainment Celebration


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