Psychology 101- Midterm 2 -Study guide
Psychology 101- Midterm 2 -Study guide
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Jomay Notetaker on Monday May 5, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 269 views.
Reviews for Psychology 101- Midterm 2 -Study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/05/14
Midterm 2 Study Guide Monday May 5 ZO14 1 1 AM Restoration model 0 Sleep recharges our bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue EvolutionaryCircadian sleep models 0 Sleep increases a species chances of survival in relation to tis environmental demands Sleep and memory consolidation 0 REM rebound effect 0 Memory consolidation Sleep disorders 0 Insomnia 0 Restless leg syndrome I Urge to move one39s leg or other body parts while attempting to sleep 0 Narcolepsy I Genetic predisposition I Cataplexy 0 REMSleep Behavior Disorder RBD I They can start acting out their dreams 0 Sleep walking I Occurs during stage 34 I Occurs in 1030 of children 5 of adults 0 Somniloquy I Sleep talking I Can occur during 34 stages 0 Night terrors I Common during 34 stages 0 Sleep apnea The nature of dreams o Dreams can occur during any sleep stage 0 Hypnagogic state I The transitional state from wakefulness though early stage 2 sleep I Visual hallucinations are common I Occurs most often during REM 0 What we dream about I Commonly they contain negative content I Women usually dream about women and men I Men usually dream more about men Freud39s psychoanalytic theory 0 Wish fulfillment 0 Manifest content I The surface story o Latent content I The dreams disguised psychological meaning o Dream work I The process by which a dreams latent content is transformed into the manifest content Activation synthesis theory Psych 101 Page 1 Cognitive theories 0 Problemsolving dream models 0 Cognitiveprocess theories I Similarity between dreaming and waking mental processes Day dreams 0 Significant part of the waking consciousness that provides stimulation during periods of boredom 0 Fantasyprone personality I Individuals who often live in a vivid rich fantasy world that they control 1 Most female Other alterations of consciousness and unusual experiences 0 Out of body experiences OBE I Sense of conscious leaving one39s body 0 Near death experiences NDE I OBE reported by people who have nearly died or thought they were going to die 0 Deja vu I Feeling of reliving an experience that is new Drugs and Brain 0 Drugs are carried throughout the brain by capillaries O Bloodbrain barrier I Lining of tightly packed cells that lets vital nutrients pass through so neurons can function 0 Agonists I Drug that increase the activity of a neurotransmitter I Binds with and stimulate postsynaptic receptor sites I Makes deactivation more difficult I Examples 1 Opiates 9 Relieve pain by activating the receptor sires that receive endorphins Amphetamines 9 Cause neurons to release greater amounts of dopamine and norepinephrine 0 Antagonists I Drugs that inhibitdecrease the action of neurotransmitter I Reducing a neurons ability to synthesize store or release neurotransmitter I Prevents neurotransmitters from binding with postsynaptic neuron 0 Tolerance I Decreasing responsiveness to a drug over time 0 Compensatory responses 0 Withdrawal 0 Conditioned drug responses Take a drug Body produces compensatory response Repeatedly take a drug Compensatory response in a particular setting 39 Setting alone Conditioned compensatory response Take same does of drug Compensatory responses not a full strength in unfamiliar setting Drug produces stronger reactions quotoverdosequot more likely I Substance dependence Psych 101 Page 2 III Substance use that causes a person significant distress or substantially impairs that person39s life 9 Physiologicaldependence 0 Psychologicaldependence Depressants o Decrease nervous system activity I Reduce feelings of tension and anxiety I Produce sate of relaxed euphoria o Alcohol I Most widely used recreational drug in many cultures III Increase the activity of GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter III Decreases the activity of glutamate excitetory neurotransmitter III Depresses the action of inhibitory control centers of the brain 0 Barbiturates 0 o Bloodalcohol level BAL I Measure of alcohol concentration in the body I Elevated BAL levels impairs reaction time coordination o Alcohol myopia o Expectancy theory I Effects produced by expectation of how alcohol would influence them Chapter 7 Learning o A relatively enduring change in an organism39s behavior or capabilities Four bases learning processes o Habituation O Classicalconditioning O Operant conditioning O Observationallearning Behaviorism o Assume that there are laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms Personal adaptation O Focuses on how an organisms behavior changes in response to environmental stimuli Habituation Ivan Pavlov o Remembered for his experiments on basic learning process 0 Unconditioned stimulus UCS I Didn39t do anything o Unconditioned responses UCR O Conditioned stimulus CS gt CR I D Classical conditioning o A process in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli o Acquisition 0 I stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response 0 Unconditioned stimulus UCS I Elicits an innate response UCR without prior learning 0 Conditioned response CS I a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus D Typically occurs over the course of many pairings but it can happen in Psych 101 Page 3 a single trial in certain cases 0 Four different ways to pair things to stimuli I Forward shortdelay pairing I Forward trace pairing I Simultaneous pairing I Backward pairing 0 Classical conditioning is strongest when I Repeated pairings between CS and UCS I When UCS is more intense I Sequence involves forward pairing I Time interval between the Cs and UCS Extinction Spontaneous recovery Stimulus generalization Discrimination I A CR occurs in the presence of one stimulus but not others 0 Higherorder conditioning I Occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS I Produces a CR that is weaker and extinguishes more rapidly than the original CR o Exposure therapies 0 Systematic desensitization I Patients learn muscle relaxation techniques and then are gradually exposed to fear provoking stimuli 0 Aversion therapy I Conditions an aversion to a stimulus that triggers unwanted behavior by pairing it with a noxious UCS 8 Classical Conditioning I Often used by advertisers to influence our attitudes towards products 0 Allergic reactions I Classical conditioning can be used to elicit an allergic reaction to a previously neutral stimulus 0 Anticipatory nausea vomiting ANV I Developed by many chemotherapy patients in anticipation of a treatment session Conditioning 0 Thorndike39s law of effect I Instrumental learning III The process by which animals utilize trial and error to achieve a desired outcome III Puzzle box I A response followed by a satisfying consequences will be more likely to occur I A response followed by an annoying consequences will be less likely to occur OOOO Operant Conditioning o Behavior is a influenced by consequences that follow it 0 Skinner box I Box contains a lever on one wall I A food pellet is released when the lever is pressed 0 Reinforcement Psych 101 Page 4 I Reinforcer III The outcome a stimulus or event that increases the frequency of a response 0 Punishment I A response is weakened by an outcome that follows it I Punisher III A consequence that weakens decreases the frequency of a response I Skinner39s ABC III Antecedents of behaviors i Behaviors III Consequences that follow behavior 0 Classical vs operant I Operant III Behavior changes as the result of the consequences that follow it III Focuses on emitted behaviors o Discriminative stimulus I A signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences 0 Positive reinforcement III Primary reinforcers III Secondary rein forcers 0 Negative reinforcement III Negative reinforcer 9 The aversive stimulus that is removed or avoided 0 Operant extinction I The weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced III Resistance to extinction 9 The degree to which no reinforced response persist 0 Problems with punishment I Suppresses behavior does not provide an acceptable alternative I May arouse negative emotion o Effective punishment I Must occur after every transgression I Must be immediate I Must be intense I Must not be signaled by discriminative stimulus 0 Shaping I Reinforcing successive approximations toward a final response 0 Chaining 0 Operant generalization I An operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one another Schedules of reinforcement 0 Continuous reinforcement I Every response of a particular type is reinforced I Ex Rat receives food every time a lever is pressed 0 Partial intermittent reinforcement I only a portion of the Reponses of a particular type are reinforced 0 Ratio schedule I a certain of responses are reinforced III Based on of responses 0 Interval schedule I A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF TIME MUST ELAPSE BETWEEN REINFORCEMENTS Psych 101 Page 5 REGARDELSS OF HOW MNAY RESPONSES OCCUR 0 Fixed schedule 0 Variable schedule VR I The required number of responses or the time interval varies at random around an average 0 Fixed ratio schedule VI I Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses Observational learning 0 Occurs by observing the behavior Modeling 0 Human39s capacity to learn by observation The role of learning in dental fear 0 Women more than men 0 More younger people than older o Lower ed lower income Example 1 0 Neutral US UR I CS CR The modeling process 0 Attention 0 Retention 0 Reproduction 0 Motivation Sef efficacy 0 People39s belief that they have the capability to perform behaviors that will produce a desired outcome Viewing media violence o Decreases viewers concerns about the suffering of victims 0 Habituates us to the sight of violence 0 Provides aggressive models Applications of observational learning o Learning academic and sports related skills enhancing pro socia behavior 0 Addressing global social problems literacy AIDS Adaptive brain o Learning involves multiple brain regions and neural circuits I Hypothalamus and dopamine pathways regulate our ability to experience reward I Cerebellum plays a role in acquiring classically conditioned movements 0 Amygdala I Plays role in acquiring conditioned fears I Frontal lobes becomes less involved as we gain experience at novel tasks Cognition and Conditioning Insight 0 The sudden perception of a useful relationship that helps to solve a problem Kohler and insight 0 Sudden perception of relationships allowing for rapid problem solving 0 Eg Chimpanzee with bananas and crates Cognitive map 0 A mental representation of spatial layout 0 Eg quot an expectation of what leads to whatquot Tolman and Latent learning o Learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until later when there is an Psych 101 Page 6 incentive to perform Chapter 8 Memory Information that is retained longer than the stimulus that created it Model of memory o Boxes in you head Atkinson amp Schifrin 1968 I Sensory memory I Shortterm memory I Longterm memory Sensory memory o Briefly holds incoming sensory information we receive through our senses I Sensory register initial info processors III Iconic store visual information 9 Capacity is huge 0 Durations lt5 second III Echoic store auditory information 9 Capacity is huge 0 Duration is 24 seconds Short term memory 0 Temporarily holds a limited amount of information 0 Memory codes I Visual mental images I Phonological sounds I Semantic meaning I Motor patterns of movement 0 George magic number I 7 2 59 I Chunking III Combining individual items into larger units of meaning I Interference provides evidence for 2030 seconds 0 Working memory I Auditory code I Visual code I Semantic code I Motor code Working memory 0 Temporarily stores and processes information 0 Phonological loop I Stores mental representation of sounds 0 Visuospatialsketchpad I Stores visual and spatial information Long term memroy 0 Our library of more durable stored memories I Unlimited storage capacity I Memories can endure for a lifetime I Debatable Serial position effect 0 The ability to recall an time is influenced by the items position in a series I Primary effect III Superior recall of early items III Evidence for LTM long term memory Psych 101 Page 7 9 Semantic errors big for large I Regency effect III Superior recall of recent items III Evidence for STM 9 Auditory errors top for pop Rehearsal 0 Maintenancerote I Simple rote repetition I Keeps information active in working memory I Not an optima method to transfer information into longterm memory I Spacing effect o Elaborative rehearsal I Focusing on the meaning of information or expanding on it in some way Elaborative techniques o Levels of processing 0 Mnemonics I A technique for organizing information so it can more easily be recaHed Explicit memory 0 Semantic memory I General factual knowledge 0 Episodic memory I Has to do with personal experiences Implicit memory 0 Procedural memory Schemas 0 A cognitive structure which provides a meaningful framework for organizing information I Aid in encoding I Store the gist I Aid in retrieval I Schema III A pattern of knowledge describing what is typical or frequent in a particular situation I Script III A we structured sequence of events associated with a highly familiar activity Associative network 0 Activation of one network leads to a spreading activation of related concepts I Priming III The activation of one concept or one unit of info by another Chapter 9 Amnesia Infantile childhood o 25 years of age Korsakoff39s Alzheimer39s disease 0 Symptoms include forgetfulness poorjudgment confusion and disorientation 0 Patients have plaques and tangles in their brain Psych 101 Page 8 I Plaques clumps of protein fragments that buidl up on the outside I Tangles Search of Engram O Hippocampus acts to consolidate new info convert short term memories into permanent long term memories o Amygdaa emotionally arousing aspects of events Flashbulb memories o Memories for highly emotional and unexpected events Improving memory 0 Overlearn o Associate o Distribute practice Algorithms o Formulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutions Heuristics O Shortcuts that may or may not provide correct solutions Cognitive illusions o Representativeness I The tendency to judge the likelihood of an events occurring by how typical It seems D Increased speed in decision making D Ignore numerical probabilities or quotbase ratesquot Gambler39s fallacy The belief that random process are selfcorrecting so that temporary deviations in one direction will be matched by later deviations in the opposite direction o Availability The tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how easily instances of that event come to mind o Anchoring The tendency to use one stimulus as an quotanchorquot or reference point in judging a second stimulus or making a new numerical estimate o framing The biasing effects on decision making ofthe way in which a choice is worded Depends on the context Psych 101 Page 9
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'