The Biological Basis of Psychology
The Biological Basis of Psychology
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Date Created: 05/05/14
Psych 3 Midterm S14 lier History of biopsychology 35 pts Ancient Egyptians mummified bodies and disregarded the brain placed importance on the heart because they believed it was the center of emotions and therefore cognition Aristotle believed that the heart was still the seat of intelligence he believed the brain was a cooling system for the blood to travel through although Plato believed that the brain held more importance Leonardo da Vinci injected the brain with hot wax and found a mold of ventricles which house the cerebral spinal fluid He diagrammed the brain which garnered people39s attention People focused on the brain chambers which people thought could house intellect Rene Descartes in the 1600s propagated dualism which was the belief that the mind deals only with spiritual aspects of life while the brain and body deal with the physical aspects Descartes focused on the pineal gland He had to separate the mind from the brain because any topic dealing with spirituality was overseen by the church Paul Broca propagated brain localization He studied brain damage and behavioral impairments and he found out that the brain is the seat of cognition Broca studied stroke patients who developed speech impairments and studied their brains post mortem He looked for specific areas in the brain that were damaged and patients with a particular speech condition had damage to their Broca s area the left inferior frontal gyrus This discovery led to the belief that certain parts of the brain specialized in processing specific thoughts and behaviors o Broca s aphasia severe language disability characterized by an understanding of words and definitions but an inability to retrieve words in a mental lexicon so sufferers have an understanding of what they want to say but cannot find the means to say it Aggregate Theory said that the brain was involved in everything and that there was no specialization Was disproved by Broca Phineas Gage was involved in an accident in which a piece of railing went through his cheek and into his prefrontal cortex He first seemed alright and alive but his personality and behavior changed and he lost the ability to plan for the future Brain injury affected his personality which was a breakthrough belief because people still thought that personality and physical brain activity were separate 0 Phrenology was propagated by Franz Joseph Gall in the early 19 century He believed that the brain was organized into 35 certain functions whose development was proportional to the size of the region People got head readings to get their scalps read much like palm readings or personality tests Believed scalp topography could indicate personality and intelligence No correlations found between head bumps and personality traits 0 Neuron doctrine hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally metabolically and functionally People believed that the brain was simply a series of tubes Golgi method of staining was used to inject a dye into a slide of neurons and only certain cells would absorb the dye Ramon y Cajal discovered that there are gaps between neurons called synapses and that the brain is made of individual cells Gogi was actually one of the theorists who believed that the brain was one entire mass 0 Cognitive Neuroscience 9 much development in the area due to advances in technology we are now able to see parts of the brain light up in scanners in response to mentalcognitive stimuli 0 Future of Biopsychology o Berkeey researchers are decoding neural information to reconstruct visual images o Duke University brain machine interfaces are being developed so that prosthetic limbs can obey mental signals o Stanford optogenics turning on and off certain neurons using only light 9 researchers are able to control parts of the brain using only fiberoptic cords may help in turning on neurons that are deactivated in some blind people to emulate sight o Obama s Brain Activity Map Project Obama funded researchers who are using a fleet of nanoprobes to measure functional brain activity Neuroanatomy 16 pts The Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System is comprised of the brain and spine 0 Peripheral Nervous System is comprised of nerves everywhere else o Afferent nerves carry sensory information FROM body TO central nervous system o Efferent nerves carry motor signals FROM central nervous system TO body 0 Autonomic Nervous System regulates the body s internal processes o Sympathetic nerves autonomic motor nerves from thoracic and lumbar regions that synapse on secondstage neurons far away from target organs Stimulate organize and mobilize energy o Parasympathetic nerves autonomic motor nerves from brain and sacral regions that synapse on secondstage neurons that are very short CNS neurons terminate near their target organs Work to conserve energy Navigating the Brain 0 Directional o Rostral or anterior is towards the front of the brain Caudal or posterior towards the back Dorsal is towards the top surface of the brain Ventral is towards the bottom surface Superior above o Inferior below OOOO 0 Planes o Horizontal plane or axial slice is a horizontal cut that cuts the brain into a top and bottom o Saggital plane cuts the brain vertically and laterally along the hemispheres I a saggital plane that cuts the brain into hemispheres is a midsaggital plane o Frontal or coronal slices cut the brain into a front and a back Development of the Brain 0 25 days fluidfilled neural tube develops in the fetus 0 40 days 3 swellings give rise to the frontal brain midbrain and hindbrain 0 50 days forebrain splits into telencephalon and diencephalon and hindbrain splits into metencephalon and mesencephalon Major Structures of the Brain you should view the slides Forebrain the largest segment of the brain Telencephalon where cognitive processes and most complex mental functions take place 0 Cerebral cortex is a layer of tissue that covers the cerebral hemispheres with gyri sulci and convolutions o Neocortex is 90 of the cerebral cortex which is the convoluted part I Fissures are the deepest grooves They separate the brain into the hemispheres and the lobes 0 Longitudinal fissure divides the hemispheres 0 Central fissure divides frontal lobe from parietal lobe 0 Lateral fissure or Sylvian fissure divides the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes I Lobes are distinct areas of the brain 0 Occipital lobe is located at the back and associated with visual processing 9 a large part of the brain is dedicated to sight Parietal lobe is located mediallydorsally at conjunction of the lateral and central fissures is associated with somatosensory functions and spatial attention and sense of touch Temporal lobe is located on the lateralventral sides of the brain is associated with auditory processing language comprehension and object recognition 0 Wernicke s region is on the anterior surface of the temporal lobe is responsible for language comprehension o Wernicke s aphasia another language problem sufferers produce broken nonsensical speech and are unable to understand language when it is written or spoken They may possess proper grammar and structure and even syntax but what they say does not make sense Frontal lobe is the most anterior lobe associated with motor control reasoning language production inhibition control working memory voluntary movements Prefrontal cortex is the quotinhibition center I Gyri are specific convolutions in the brain Precentral gyrus located anterior to central sulcus and contains motor cortex Postcentral gyruslocated posterior to central gyrus contains somatosensory cortex Superior temporal gyrus contains auditory cortex Angulate gyrus located deep within the brain 0 Hippocampus is 10 and associated with memory located at the edge of the cerebral cortex in the medial temporal lobe o The brain is laid out like a homunculus where the areas associated with senses we rely most on take up more cortical space Areas that need finer motor control have larger portions of cortex allocated to them 0 Brain systems 0 Basal ganglia a group of subcortical structures that plays a role in voluntary movement I Amygdala an almondshaped nucleus in the anterior temporal lobe associated with emotion I Caudate nucleus I Putamen I Palladus I Substantia nigra appears black 9 Parkinson39s disease 0 Lymbic system a circuit of midline brain structures that circle the thalamus I Amygdala processes emotions and fear I Hypothalamus associated with memory but controls the Four Fs of motivation food fight flight freproduction CD I Cingulate cortex I Cingulate gyrus association cortex involved in decisionmaking monitoring behavior and directing attention I Fornix I Septum 0 Cerebral commissures o Corpus callosum comprised of bundles of axons that transmit info to other neurons is a fibertract that connects the two hemispheres Where most of the inter hemisphere communication occurs I Splitbrain patients have a severed corpus callosum which was severed to treat seizures Each hemisphere acts independently of the other Diencephaon 0 Thalamus is medially deep inside the brain and sits on top of the brain stem is a relay sitefor sensory processes is a quotrelay station o Lateral geniculate nuclei relay visual senses 0 Hypothalamus is below the thalamus controls the four Fs through the pituitary gland 0 Pituitary gland is the site of hormone secretion 0 Pineal gland source of serotonin and melatonin release affects sleep patterns 0 Optic chiasm the point at which the two optic nerves split between the visual fields and cross over 0 Mammillary bodies are tiny spherical nuclei on inferior surface of thalamus 0 Olfactory bulb receptors of smell Midbrain involved in the senses Mesencepahon 0 Tectum is the dorsal surface of the midbrain have the colliculi o Inferior colliculi have auditory function o Superior colliculi have visual function 0 Tegmentum o Periaqueductal gray gray matter around cerebral acqueduct which contains 3quotquot and 4rh ventricles 9 it mediates painreducing effects of opiates o Substantia nigra and red nucleus both play a part in the sensorimotor system Hindbrain keeps us alive by running internal processes Metencephaon houses many ascending and descending tracts and part of the reticular formation 0 Pons a bulge on the brain stem s ventral surface 0 Cerebellum quotlittle brain which is a sensorimotor structure is associated with voluntary movements Myeencephaon is the part of the brain that keeps us alive 0 Medulla the myelencephalon is composed of tracts that carry information to the rest of the body 0 Reticular formation a complex network in the core of the brain stem and plays a role in activationarousal but has several other functions eg sleep attention movement muscle toning and autonomic reflexes
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