Exam 3 PowerPoint and Study Guide
Exam 3 PowerPoint and Study Guide 81382 - MICR 3050 - 001
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Chapter 81 84 86 Control of Microorganisms in the Environment Microbial Control Methods Copyright The MoGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Microbial Control Methods Mechanical Bioiogicai agents Physical agents Chemical agents removal methods Predator 7 Liquids Hadi tion Sterilization incineration Steam Boiling water under hot water pressure pasteurization Sterilization Sterilization Sterilization Disinfection The destruction or removal of vegetative pathogens but not bacteriai endospores Usuaiiy used only on inanimate objects ionizing Nonionizing Sterilization The complete removai or destruction of ail viable microorganisms Used on inanimate objects Antisepsis Chemicals applied to body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens St 1 t 7 Chemotherapy Chemicais used internaliy to iltii or erquot quot23 390quot 3quot 60 on inhibit growth of microorganisms within host tissues gamma Frequently Used Terms sterilization destruction or removal of all viable organisms Does include endospores Sterilization is an absolute condition disinfection 3 killing inhibition or removal of pathogenic organisms disinfectants agents usually chemical used for disinfection usually used on inanimate objects Alcohol and hydrogen peroxide can be used on living tissues Bleach can be used as a disinfectant but you wouldn t want to put it on an open wound sanitization reduction of microbial population to levels deemed safe based on public health standards Antisepsis against rotting prevention of infection of living tissue antiseptics 39 chemical agents that kill or inhibit growtiofm microorganisms When applied to tissue u quot r Y A r l uJn n 7 R31 It a rm a 39 h I chemotherapy use of chemicals to kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms Within host tissue Antimicrobial Agents cide suffix indicating that agent kills Germicide kills pathogens and many nonpathogens but not necessarily endospores bactericides fungicides algicides and Viricides static suffix indicating that agent inhibitsstop growth bacteriostatic and fungistatic The Pattern of Microbial Death microorganisms are NOT killed instantly population death usually occurs exponentially measure of agent s killing efficiency Decimal reduction time D value time to kill 90 must be sure Persister cells are dead Copyright The lMchraiWHill Companies lno Permission required for reproduction or display Table 1l A Theoretical Microbial HeatKilling Experiment Microbial Number Microorganisms Killedl Microorganisms Minute at Start all Min Lrte in 1 Minute 910 of TotalllI at Erld of 1 Minute Log1 a of Survivors 1 196 9 x 195 195 s 7 2 195 9 x 194 104 4 3 194 9 x 193 193 4 193 9 x 102 112 2 5 1r2 9 X 1111 19 1 a 101 9 1 o 7 1 09 0951 1 I It a 7 l Assume that the initial sample contains IUE tregetative microorganisms per milliiliter and that 3990 of the organisms are killed during each minute of exposure The temperature is 12W Pattern of Microbial Death Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display 5 l 5 o e 2 4 39 a I quotI E I Q l E 2 E v I g I i v D VENUE 6 x o I i l ii 1 I i quot I i I i I i i I it I m i i 1 ill I I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 Minutes of exposure a Conditions Influencing the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Agent population size population composition concentration or intensity of the agent If you increase intensity you may or may not see a greater result But sometimes once you ve maxed out the result doesn t improve Example 70 alcohol works better than 90 Duration of exposure temperature local environment pH can play a large role Acidic foods can be disinfectedpasteurized than those that are not acidic because the acid helps Are they in a biofilm If so they are harder to kill Organic matter So then you ll have to clean and disinfect Filtration Mechanical Removal as opposed to using 10 reduces microbial population or sterilizes solutions that are heatsensitive J Martinko hetl membrane filters With also used for air defined pore size surgical masks cotton plugs on culture vessels How to work Without a ame highefficiency particulate air HEPA filters disinfects the air from the outside before it comes inside laminar ow biological safety cabinets Physical Methods to Control Microbes 1 Heat moist and dry 2 Low temperature 3 Radiation Moist Heat works better than dry heat destroys bacteria fungi and Viruses degrades nucleic acids denatures proteins and disrupts membranes 3 types boiling Will not destroy endospores so does not sterilize Autoclaving lab supplies go through this Method of sterilization against all life forms including endospores Pasteurization does not mean sterilization Increases shelf life 12 Cepylright The MeGrew Hill Cmpeniree inc Penmieeien Fequired fir r eemductin r display Approximate Conditions far Moist Tabie 82 Heat Ki39i39ing I w rgn i sm Vegetative Celis Spores I Yeasts minutes at SIB6 C minutes at 70 80 l Melds 30 minutes at 62 C minutes at SODC 1 to 7 quot i utes il 7211C LViru SES 30 minutes at DC i Cenitiem m memphilic betteriei 13 Autoclave Effective against all types of microbes sterilization Pressure 15 psi Temp 121 degrees C steam Time 15 to 20 min Validation process 14 autoclave incubate observe for growth of indicator organisms Chamber pressure l 7 v gauge Steam exhaust valve Steam exhaust Thermometer and valve 5 V KC Steam supply valve l Steam enters here Figure 203a Brock B iolo gye l Ml craovgauisms l lle 2006 Pearson Pr eutlte lllallr luci Aulotlulve lime 130 I Stop steam J 120 w Vquot H Ill lBegIn Sterilization time 0 pressulre Flowing 39 steam 91 5 Temperature C Telm PEl th Temperature of object being of autoclave sterilized 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Total cycle time min e Figure 203 Brock Biology of Microorgonlsms llle i f fr mgamms 1 1 IE to zone Pearson Pl39El39l tlEE llloll loo 100 Martinko Howie quot iL rquot w 1w 7 139 u 335 l 5 I Pasteurization controlled heating at temperatures well below boiling used for wine milk and other beverages kills pathogens present and slows spoilage reduces the total load of organisms present 0 process does not sterilize Dry Heat Sterilization less effective than moist heat sterilization requires higher temperatures and longer exposure times items subjected to loo 170 C for 2 to 3 hours oxidizes cell constituents and denatures proteins Copyright Thue MicGrawHill Compannies Inc Permission quotrequired m or reproduction or dispihay h 3 a if 9 Raymond B OteroNisuals Unlimited 18 Low Temperatures Freezing stops microbial reproduction due to lack of liquid water because they need liquid water to reproduce some microorganisms killed by ice crystal disruption of cell membranes Refrigeration Slows microbial growth and reproduction Ultraviolet UV Radiation most bactericidal wavelength is 260 nm causes thymine dimers 20 in DNA limited to surface sterilization does not penetrate glass plastic dirt films etc Figure 204 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11le 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Im i ir fquot l Martinko Ionizing Radiation Copyright The NicGraw iiIill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or dispiay agent that penetrates Radiationmm I Chamber With radiation shield deep Into objects Ceiniveyor system with pailets 0t steriiized materials cold sterilization antibiotics medical supplies Food Chapter 91 93 98 169 Control of Microorganisms in the Environment Compared with antisepsis disinfection is usually a More aggressive because it can be used on inanimate objects b Less aggressive c Equally aggressive 1 Not aggressive Chemotherapeutic Agents chemical agents antimicrobials used to treat disease by destroying pathogenic microbes or inhibiting their growth within a host antibiotics Microbial products or their derivatives that kill susceptible microbes OR inhibit their growth eX penicillin streptomycin synthetics eX Sulfa drugs quotA chemicals semisynthetics eX ampicillin amoxycillin V A take a true antibiotic and modify it General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs selective toxicity ability of drug to kill or inhibit pathogen While damaginghost as little as possible Therapeutic dose ED l drug level required for clinical treatment toxic dose TDSO drug level at which drug becomes too toxic for patient produces side effects therapeutic index ratio of toxic dose to therapeutic dose the larger the therapeutic index the better 4 General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs narrowspectrum cidal agent drugs Kills microbes attack only a Static agent fe Wdlfferent inhibits growth of Pathogens microbes broadspectrum Side effects drugs undesirable atta k Xman effects of drugs on different pathogens host cells Bacteriostutic Total cell count T Viable cell count Log cell number T 0 Figure 209a Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Buderiocidul Log cell number T 0 Figure 209b Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Buderiolyiic Log cell number Time Figure 209c Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Antimicrobial Agents Used In Vivo Classi cation 3 3 150 O molecular I Cephalosporins Strucw e 17 I Macrolides mechanlsm of action I Quinolones SPBCtrum 0f 39 I Penicillins antimicrobial activity Aminoglycosides O 0 categorles 14k Tetracyclines 37 synthetlc I Other semisynthetic 11 antlblotlcs DNAdirected RNA Cell wall synthesis DNA WW m augment polymerase Cycloserine Quinolones NFIidiXic add Actinomycin Rifampin Vancomycin CIPI Ofloxadn Streptovaricins Bacitracin Novobiocin Penicillins Protein synthesis Cephalosporins 50 inhibitors Monobactams Carbapenems Erythromycm macrolldes Chloramphenicol Clindamycin Lincomycin Folir acid metabolism Trimethroprim Sulfonamides ititt titttitl39 Protein synthesis 30 inhibitors Tetracyclines h Spectinomycin Streptomycin Cytoplasmic membrane Gentamicin structure U Kanamycin Polymyxins quot Arnlkacln Daptomycin Nitrofurans Protein s nthesis PABA cytoplasmic Cellwall tRllyAl membrane Muplrocm Puromycin Figure 2014 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Copyright The McGrawHill Companies inc Permission required for reproduction or display Properties of Some Common Antibacterial Drugs Table 91 Antibiotic Primary Group Effect E Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibition Penicillins Cidal I Cephalosporins Cidal Vancomycin Cidal I Protein Synthesis Inhibition Aminoglycosides Cidal I Tetracyclines Static Macrolides Static Mechanism of Action Inhibit transpeptidation enzymes involved in cross linking the polysaccharide chains of peptidoglycan Activate cell wall lytic enzymes Same as above Prevents transpeptidation of peptidoglycan subunits by binding to oAlao Ala amino acids at the end of peptide side chainsThus it has a different binding site than that of the penicillins Bind to small ribosomal subunit 305 and interfere with protein synthesis by directly inhibiting synthesis and causing misreading of mRNA Same as aminoglycosides Bind to 23 rRNA of large Members Penicillin G penicillin V methicillin Ampicillin carbenicillin Cephalothin cefoxitin cefaperazone ceftriaxone Vancomycin Neomycin kanamycin gentamicin Streptomycin Oxytetracycline chlortetracycline Erythromycin Spectrum Narrow Grampositive Broad Grampositive some Gramnegative Broad Grampositive some Gramnegative Narrow Gram positive Broad Gramnegative mycobacteria Narrow aerobic Gramnegative Broad including rickettsia and chlamydia Broad aerobic and Common Side Effects Allergic reactions diarrhea anemia hives nausea renal toxicity Allergic reactions thrombophlebitis renal injury Ototoxic tinnitus and deafness nephrotoxic allergic reactions Ototoxic renal damage loss of balance nausea allergic reactions Gastrointestinal upset teeth discoloration renal and hepatic injury Gastrointestinal upset Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Table 91 Properties of Some Common Antibacterial Drugs continued Cell Membrane Disruption Polymyxin B Cidal Antimetabolites Sulfonamides Static Trimethoprim Static Dapsone Static Cidal if bacteria are actively growing static if bacteria are dormant lsoniazid Binds to plasma membrane and disrupts its structure and permeability properties Inhibit folic acid synthesis by competing with paminobenzoic acid PABA Blocks folic acid synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme tetrahydrofolate reductase Thought to interfere with folic acid synthesis Exact mechanism is unclear but thought to inhibit lipid synthesis especially mycolic acid putative enoylreductase inhibitor Polymyxin B polymyxin topical ointment Silver sulfadiazine sulfamethoxazole sulfanilamide sulfasalazine Trimethoprim in combination with a sulfamethoxazole Dapsone lsoniazid Narrow mycobacterial infections principally leprosy Broad spectrum Broad spectrum Narrow mycobacterial infections principally leprosy Narrow mycobacterial infections principally tuberculosis Can cause severe kidney damage drowsiness dizziness Nausea vomiting and diarrhea hypersensitivity reactions such as rashes photosensitivity Same as sulfonamides but less frequent Back leg or stomach pains discolored ngernails lips or skin breathing dif culties fever loss of appetite skin rash fatigue Nausea vomiting liver damage seizures quotpins and needlesquot in extremities peripheral neuropathy Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Drugs minimal inhibitory concentration MIC lowest concentration of drug that inhibits growth of pathogen minimal lethal concentration MLC lowest concentration of drug that kills pathogen gt usually 2 to 4 times the 13 concentration of MIC Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Question 3615 if an antimicrobial drug has a high selective toxicity it means that it will Cause noticeable side effects in the host Be bactericidal Be more active against the pathogen than the host tissues Have a narrow spectrum of activity 15 Factors Influencing Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Drugs ability of drug to reach site of infection mode of administration susceptibility of pathogen to drug ability of drug to reach concentrations in body that exceed MIC minimal inhibitory concentration of pathogen Determining the Level of Antimicrobial Activity Dilution Susceptibility Test Smallest amount of agent needed to inhibit the growth of a test organism is the MIC Broth from which microbe can t be recovered is the MLC L 5 73 1 Minimum inhibitory concentration A 16 T D Brock Disk Diffusion Tests Inoculate culture in 5 ml of molten agar for overlay Antib ioticydiscs are placed on surface 1 Incubate for 24 48 h 4 Test organism shows sensitivity to some antibiotics indicated b inhibition of bacterial 1 growth around discs zones of inhibition after incubation Figure 201 1 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 1 1 le 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc KirbyBauer Method Used to determine the effectiveness of certain antimicrobials Sensitivity and resistance determined using tables that relate zone diameter to degree of microbial resistance Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Table 92 Inhibition Zone Diameter of Selected Chemotherapeutic Drugs ZONE DIAMETER NEAREST MM Chemotherapeutic Drug Disk Content Resistant Intermediate Susceptible i Carbenicillin with Proteus spp and E coli 100 pg S17 18 22 223 Carbenicillin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 100 pg 513 14 1 6 217 i I Erythromycin 15 pg 313 1417 218 l Penicillin G with staphylococci 10 U1 S20 21 28 229 Penicillin G with other microorganisms 10 U 31 1 12 21 222 I Streptomycin 10 pg 511 12 14 215 LSulfonamides 250 or 300 pg 312 13 1 6 217 J 1 One milligram of penicillin 6 sodium 1600 units U 18 Psssf Hey kid 00am be a Stick some of info your enome In Even Peniciuin won39i be dale o harm It was on a shortcut through the hospital kitchens that Albert was rst approached by a member of the Antibiotic Resistance The Serious Threat of Drug Resistance The Problem The Superbug is once resistance originates here in a bacterial population it can be transmitted to methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus Other baCtel la MRSA that is also a Partlculal type 0f resistant to vancomycin resistance mechanism is VRSA not confined to a single class of drugs erroneous practices select for the growth of resistant bacteria 20 Appearance of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Candida albicans gt Key Acinetobacter sp gt Gramnegative Enterococcus faecium gt Grampositive Grampositive Streptococcus pneumoniae gt Fungus Haemophilus ducreyi gt Salmonella typhi Haemophilus influenzae gt Neisseria gonorrhoeae gt Pseudomonas aeruginosa gt Salmonella sp Shigella dysenteriae gt Shigella sp gt Other gramnegative rods gt Staphylococcus aureus gt L 950 193960 19170 193980 193990 203900 201 I Year Mechanisms of Bacterial Resistance preventing entrance Ef ux pumps inactivation Target modi cation alternate pathway 22 Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies inc Permission re unre or re ro uc Ion or Is a 49 3 1 Ii 3939 1 1quot quot 3 quot A V39 i 39vquot 39r I 1 i quotx a A l Q 39 quot Antibiotic 39 r l i c o quot gt u 3 1 l 313 9 i V y 39 C Antibioticdegrading x enzyme V 1 Q 39 J gt quotI Ii m N Antibiotic altering enzyme 1 Antibiotic Origin and Transmission of Drug Resistance Origin natural immunity genes 39 spontaneous mutations Transmission location of resistance genes chromosome Plasmids R factors transposons Gene cassettes and integrons 23 Horizontal gene transfer Transformation 39 Uptake of DNA in the environment that s no longer in a cell naked DNA Conjugation SeX pilus F plasmid Transduction Transfer by Viral delivery 24 Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display DNA fragment 1 C Plasmid donor t ix rquot R 39 t eSIS ance gene is Dead bacterium Virus 39 Resistance M I I ene I gt t 39 39 g 93655 r riw 4 quot 393 t F 39 quot 8k J J L r 25 Sources of Antibiotic Resistance Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Outpatient prescription of antibiotics Inpatient prescription Use of antibiotics in of antibiotics animal feeds on farms l l l Community settings with close personal contact crowded households childcare facilities schools jails Hospitals nursing Processed food enters homes longterm care human food chain facilities environmental contamination with antibiotics Antibiotic selective pressure Inappropriate prescribing practices Unregulated sale of antibiotics Failure to complete courses of antibiotics Use of suboptimal antibiotic dosages Use of antibiotics as animal growth enhancers Horizontal transfer of antibioticresistance genes among strains from the same or different species Clonal dissemination of strains with unique survival advantages in addition to antibiotic resistance Genetic factors l Spread of antimicrobialresistant bacteria in the community 26 Preventing Emergence of Drug Resistance give drug in high concentrations to destroy susceptible give two or more drugs at same time not done often use antimicrobials only when necessary take full course of antimicrobial use narrow spectrum antimicrobials possible future solutions continued development of new antimicrobials use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial disease Bacteriophages viruses that kill bacteria Rotate microbial to prevent resistance Chapter 411 413 415 416 7quotquot 7 05 391 Microbiology quot1v quot I 0 4 39 gr v Q 1 x 9 Food 5 e 39 Microbial Growth in Food Controlled by May result in spoilage Lgrowth slimy stinky color change alters food rendering it unsuitable for consumption Intrinsic factors food composition and structure EthnSlc faCtOrS different foods undergo different environmental types of spoilage processes Copyright The McGrawHill Companies lnc Permission required for reproduction or display Table 411 Differences in Spoilage Processes in Relation to Food Characteristics Substrate Food Example Chemical Reactions or Processes1 Typical Products and Effects Pectin Fruits Pectinolysis Methanol uronic acids loss of fruit structure soft rots I Proteins Meat Proteolysis deamination Amino acids peptides amines H25 ammonia indole bitterness souring bad odor sliminess I Carbohydrates Starchy foods Hydrolysis fermentations Organic acids C02 mixed alcohols souring acidi cation I l Lipids Butter Hydrolysis fatty acid degradation Glycerol and mixed fatty acids rancidity bitterness L J 1 Other reactions also occur during the spoilage of these substrates 2 Table 292 Microbial spoilage of fresh food Type of Food product microorganism Common spoilage organism by genus Fruits and vegetables Bacteria Erwinia Pseudomonas Corynebacterium mainly vegetable pathogens rarely spoil fruit Fungi Aspergillus Botrytis Geotrichum Rlzizopus Penicillium Cladosporium Alternaria Phytoplztlzora various yeasts Fresh meat poultry and seafood Bacteria Acinetobacter Aeromonas Pseudomonas Micrococcus Acliromobacter Plavobacteriimz Proteus Salmonella Escherichia Campylobacter Listeria Fungi Cladosporium Mucor Rhizopus Penicillium Geotrichium Sporotrichium Candida Torula Rhodotorula Milk Bacteria Streptococcus Leuconosloc Lactococcus Lactobacillus Pseudomonas Proteus Highsugar foods Bacteria C lostridium Bacillus Flavobacterimu Fungi Saccharomyces Torula Penicillizmz quot The organisms listed are the most commonly observed spoilage agents of fresh perishable foods Genera in bold face include possible human Table 292 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 1 We 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Food Composition and Spoilage carbohydrates mold predominates degrades food by hydrolysis little odor ergotism disease caused by Claviceps purpurea toxins proteins or fats bacterial growth predominates Putrefication rotting anaerobic breakdown of proteins 9 stinks foulsmelling amine compounds Intrl nsuc Factors pH low pH favors yeast and mold Most bacteria like slightly alkaline pH high presence and availability of water in general lower water activity inhibits microbial growth oxidationreduction potential lower redoX less oxygen favors growth of anaerobic bacteria causes foul smell physical structure grinding and mixing promotes microbial growth antimicrobial substances coumarins lysozyme allicin etc Extrinsic Factors temperature lower temperatures retard microbial growth relative humidity higher levels promote microbial growth atmosphere Oxygen promotes growth modified atmosphere packaging MAP use of shrink wrap and vacuum technologies to package food in controlled atmospheres Food Preservation Removal of microbes Filtration may be used to sterilize depends on size of filter thougg Low temperature refrigeration at 5 5 C Slows growth freezing at S 18 C Stops growth High temperature cooking and holdingat high temperature Pasteurization does not sterilize 7 Canning can sterilize Hm g H food heated to 115 C for 25 100 minutes kills spoilage microbes spoilage of commercially canned foods is rare b Figure 291 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc T D Brock Pasteurization kills pathogens and low temperature substantially reduces hOIdlng LTH gt 63 C for 30 min number of spollage h1gh temperature orgamsms short time HTST 0 different gt 72 C for 15 seconds then rapid cooling pasteurlzatlon M eth 0 d for procedures heat for Sterilization different lengths of ultrahigh time temperature UHT processmg shorter heat1ngt1mes gt 1380 C for 2 seconds result in improved avor gt Packa ed milkcreamers Reduction in Water Availability dehydration adding solutes Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Table 402 Organisms aw Groups Most spoilage bacteria 09 Most spoilage yeasts 088 Most spoilage molds 080 Jams and Jally Halophilic bacteria 075 gt H0n6y Xerophilic molds l061 Osmophilic yeasts 061 M DIquotle fYUIt Adapted from James M Jay 2000 Modern Food Microbiology 6th edition Reprinted by permission of Aspen Publishers Inc Gaithersburg MD 10 Tables 3 5 p 42 ChemicalBased Preservation GRAS chemical agents generally recognized as safe Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Table 412 Major Groups of Chemicals Used in Food Preservation Approximate Organisms Preservatives Maximum Use Affected Foods I Propionic acidpropionates 032 Molds Bread cakes some cheeses inhibitor of ropy bread dough I Sorbic acidsorbates 02 Molds Hard cheeses gs syrups salad dressings jellies cakes Benzoic acidbenzoates 01 Yeasts and molds Margarine pickle relishes apple cider soft drinks tomato ketchup salad dressings Parabens1 01 Yeasts and molds Bakery products soft drinks pickles salad dressings SOZsul tes 200 300 ppm Insects and Molasses dried fruits wine lemon juice not used in meats or other I microorganisms foods recognized as sources of thiamine Z Ethylenepropylene oxides 700 ppm Yeasts molds vermin Fumigant for spices nuts Sodium diacetate 032 Molds Bread l Dehydroacetic acid 65 ppm Insects Pesticide on strawberries squash 1 Sodium nitrite 120 ppm Clostridia Cold cuts hot dogs sausages l L Ethyl formate 15 200 ppm Yeasts and molds Dried fruits nuts J From James M Jay 2000 Modern Food Microbiology 6th ed Reprinted by permission ofAspen Publishing Frederick MD 1 Methyl propyl and hepty esters of p hydroxybenzoic acid Answer C Table 294 Irradiated foods by category and purpose Food category Purpose tor irradiation Fresh pork Control of Trichinella spiralis parasite Fresh fruits and vegetables Inhibition of growth and maturation ripening Dried spices herbs and flavoring mixtures Microbial disinfection Refrigerated or frozen uncooked meat products including ground meat Control of foodborne pathogens Extension of shelf life Packaged frozen meats used in the National Aeronautics and Sterilization Space Administration NASA flight program Dry or dehydrated enzyme preparations eg meat tenderizer Microbial disinfection Frozen uncooked poultry and poultry products Control of foodborne pathogens Consumer labelin 7 laws in the United States require that all irradiated foods must be marked with the radura Figure 292 and be conspicuously labe ed Treated with radiation or Treated by irradiation in addition to information required by other regulations o radappertization use of ionizing radiation gamma radiation to extend shelf life of foods excellent penetratingpower can be used to sterilize some foods FoodBorne Disease about 48 million transmission cases Per year in US breakdown in hygiene 18 attributed to fecal0ral mute known pathogens Fomite inanimate at least 3000 deaths object that can transmit per year in US food T 14 Food Infection vs Intoxication Food infection Food intoxication infection resulting from ingesm n 0f the ingestion of preformed m1croblal toxms 1n foods pathogens llvmng food symptoms shortly after the food is mgestlon of pathogen consumed like fOHOWEd by gI OWtha within an hour tissue invasion andor growth of the release of toxins diseasecausing microorganism is not 15 required Table 296 Annual toodborne disease estimates for the United States b Organism Disease Number per year Foods Bacteria Bacillus cereus PP and PI 27000 Rice and starchy foods highsugar foods meats gravies pudding dry milk Campylobacter jejuni FI 1963000 Poultry dairy Clostridiimz perfringens PP and F1 248000 Cooked and reheated meats and meat products Escherichia coli 0157H7 FI 63000 Meat especially ground meat Other enteropathogenic Escherichia coli FI 110000 Meat especially ground meat Listeria moiIocytogenes FI 2500 Meat and dairy Salmonella spp FI 1340000 Poultry meat dairy eggs Staphylococcus aureus FP 185000 Meat desserts Streptococcus spp FI 50000 Dairy meat Yersinia enterocolitica FI 87000 Pork milk All other bacteria PP and F1 102000 Total bacteria 4177500 Protozoa Cryptosporidizmz parvum FI 30000 Raw and undercooked meat Cyclospora cayetanensis FI 16000 Fresh produce Giardia lanzblia FI 200000 Contaminated or infected meat Toxoplasma gondii FI 113000 Raw and undercooked meat Total protozoa 359000 Viruses Norwalklike viruses FI 9200000 Shellfish many other foods All other Viruses FI 82000 Total viruses 9282000 Total Annual Poodborne Diseases 13818500 Estimates are based on data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA USA and are typical of recent years 1 FP food poisoning F1 food infection Table 296 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 17 Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Table 413 Some Food Borne Bacteria That Cause Acute Bacterial Vomiting and Diarrhea Organism Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Clostridium perfringens Clostridium botulinum Escherichia coli i enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli enterotoxigenic strain Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio cholerae Shigella spp Salmonella spp gastroenteritis Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi typhoid fever Campyobacterjejuni L Yersinia enterocolitica Incubation Period Hours 1 8 rarely up to 18 2 16 8 16 1 824 3 5 days 24 72 696 24 72 24 72 8 48 10 14 days 2 1 0 days 47 days Vomiting 1 H H H H 1 H Diarrhea Rare l Fever 2 H H Food Source Meats dairy and bakery products sprouts carrots lettuce parsley and radishes Reheated fried rice sprouts cucumber l Rewarmed meat dishes Canned goods contaminated during processing or packaging Undercooked ground beef unpasteurized fruitjuices and cider and raw vegetables such as sprouts lettuce and celery Contaminated drinking water major cause of traveler s l diarrhea Shell sh particularly clams and oysters 1 Contaminated drinking water as well as cabbage coconut milk and lettuce Celery melon lettuce and other greens parsley sprouts Many fruits and vegetables including celery green onions lettuce and other greens strawberries tomatoes melon eggs and egg products poultry Usually spread from a healthy carrier to food via fecaloral transmission Poultry shell sh green onions lettuce mushrooms potatoes peppers spinach l Fecaloral transmission from carrier to noncarrier J Adapted from Geo F Brooks eta Medical Microbiology Zist ed Copyright 7998 Appleton amp Lange Norwalk CT Reprinted by permission 1 indicates condition is present number of symbols indicates severity 2 indicates condition is absent 3 indicates condition sometimes occurs 18 Listeria monocytogenes Gram facultative aerobe coccobacillus Psychrotroph grows in fridge acidtolerant salttolerant Sources soil water fecal material vegetation silage Foods uncooked meat and vegetables fruits processed foods unpasteurized milk and milk products invasive pathogen proliferation in phagocytes of the gastrointestinal tract Infectious dose 2 1000 bacteria Listeriosis Food Infection Symptoms 19 Onset few days to 2 months gt 12 hours for gastrointestinal symptoms fever muscle aches nausea diarrhea headache stiff neck meningitis confusion from CNS damage loss of balance miscarriage Duration usually 5 10 days Pregnant women the young and old and immunocompromised individuals most vulnerable responsible for the largest meat recall deli meats and hot dogs in US 2002 cantaloupe 2011 from California skipped steps in processing 28 people died atrisk people should not eat soft cheeses refrigerated smoked meats deli meats and undercooked hot dogs Salmonella Gram bacillus facultative aerobe Sources sewa e GI of birds and other animals Foods poultry beef pork fruits vegetables eggs custards cakes pies eggnog dairy products 1 New NDEEEQ t a39L 3475 ZESEZVE WNA MDEZTCOKS COM 11ij i If MN M D k tkjfrm 1 3 I m sorry it39s salmonellaquot U C 4 Outbreak caused by contaminated pasteurized milk L N U1 N O Cases per 1 00000 8 a U1 0 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 Year Salmonellosis Food Infection S erovar 21 Typhimurium is the most common agent of salmonellosis gastroenteritis Cells multiply and colonize in the gastrointestinal tract cellassociated endotoXins are responsible for symptoms Infectious dose usually 107109 Viable cells Cooked or canned food becomes infected by a food handler and not reheated to kill bacteria Symptoms Onset 8 48 hours diarrhea abdominal cramps lowgrade fever nausea sometimes vomiting Duration usually 2 5 days 1020 of Victims become carriers for 48 weeks Food infection results from the ingestion of while food intoxication results from the ingestion of A bacteria viruses B C Foodborne pathogens microbial Microbial toxins foodborne pathogens Viruses bacteria toxins Pathogenic Escherichia col Gram facultative aerobe coccobacillus Sources sewage GI tract of animals E Golf 51 57 H7 Categories4 types of pathogenic Enteropathogenic infantile diarrhea Enteroinvasive Shigellalike 39 F00dSi d senter blood diarrhea y y X ETEC contammated Enterotox1gen1c traveler s diarrheaquot not the only cause to drinking water 9 9 travel s d1arrhea but 1t s common EHEC undercooked cause Associated With drinking ground beef contamlnated water Occurs when travelling to Mexico Called Monte Zume s revenege Greengo gallop 2 fru1t step something Enterohemorrhagic bloody juicesa SpinaCh9 water 23 o d1arrhea Enterohemmorrhagic E coli 0157H7 Food Infection because it does colonize 24 in your intestine Leading cause of kidney failure in children Symptoms Onset 3 5 days Bloody stools intense abdominal pain fever Infectious dose unknown may be as little as m bacteria and vomiting rare Pmduces tome kidney failure brain Hemorrhagic colitis damage death HemOlytiC Uremic Duration 5 10 days Syndrome Estimated 73000 cases Bacteria destroyed by per year in the US PI39OPer heat treatment resulting in 60 deaths cooking 25 Staphylococcus aureus Gram coccus facultative aerobe Can thrive in highsalt and low aW habitats Sources human nasal cavity skin skin sores 1 I Spot39 mgn 0quot W 39 I V39C 43030 SE 83n Foods creamfilled baked EnterotoXin producer tOXin is extremely heat stable and resistant to digestive proteases goods poultry meat gravies egg and meat salads puddings vegetables 26 Staphylococcal Food Intoxication Foods usually contaminated during or after food preparation Contaminated foods are kept for several hours at room temperature or outdoors which supports rapid growth Symptoms Rapid onset 18 hours nausea explosive vomiting abdominal pain diarrhea headache weakness no fever usually subnormal body temperature Duration 12 days 27 Clostridium botulin um Gram bacillus spore former strict anaerobe Sources soil and water Implicated in wound infant and foodborne botulism Produces a heat labile so you can cook to destroy proteinaceous neurotoxin exotoxin Toxin is produced best in high protein low acid foods Toxins are destroyed by high heat 80 C for 10 minutes u z i n O L v p 2 ti 3 x 1 Z x J2 c 2 L h i h 1 O C Foods nonacid homecanned vegetables like corn and beans smoked and fresh fish Botulism Food Intoxication Endospores may Symptoms contaminate raW foods Onset 18 24 hours before harvest or blurred Vision Slaughter dizziness cramps Most foodborne cases sometimes Vomiting occur from eating foods 0 Yer Pauseaa that are not cooked after Consupatmn heart paralysis difficulty in processmg swallowing speaking Homecanned foods and breathing implicated in gt 72 Of Duration 110 days to foodborne outbreaks life lt 10 from Mortality 21 commercially processed 39 Infant bowlism usually Antitoxins but they have occurs in infants up to 2 to know what you have months old raw honey to diagnose you Treatment u Cellassociated are responsible for the symptoms of salmonellosis A Exotoxins B Enterotoxins A In small intestine shows up as antigen in ammatory response fever C N eurotoxins A Clostridium botulinum D Endotoxins 1 1 O 1 00 9O 80 7O 60 50 4O 3O 20 1 0 Total cases 1 982 1 1 O 1 00 90 80 7O 60 50 4O 3O 20 1O 0 Total cases 1 992 Foodborne botulism if Outbreak caused by f saut ed onions IL Outbreak caused by fermented fish seafood products AK I Outbreak caused by baked potatoes TX Outbreak caused by chili sauce TX 1 987 1 992 Year Infant wound and other botulism 1 997 2002 Infant botulism Wound and other botulism J 1 997 Year 2002 Figure 29 6b Brock Biology of Microorganisms 1 1 e C3 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 31 Other Foodborne Infectious Diseases Most foodborne infections are thought to be caused by viruses Symptoms gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea nausea and vomiting Recovery is spontaneous and rapid usually Within 24 48 hours Noro viruses are responsible for most mild foodborne infections in the US 9 million of the 13 million Found on cruise ships lately Rotavirus diarrhea virus astrovirus and hepatitis A from shellfish collectively cause 100000 cases 32 W Q Foodborne Protozoan Diseases Giardia lamblia Cryptosporidium parv um and Cyclospom cay etanensis can be spread Via food contaminated by fecal matter in untreated water used to wash irrigate or spray crops and Via drinking water backpacker s diarrhea hitchhiker s diarrhea Foods involved fresh foods such as fruit often imported from other countries Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan spread through cat feces or undercooked meat prenatal infection can cause blindness and stillbirth 33 Prion Disease Prion infectious agent made of proteins that cause disruption in neural tissue Symptoms depression loss of motor coordination dementia death nVCJ D Creutzfieldt Jakob linked to consumption of meat products from cattle af icted with BSE mad cow disease Brain shrinkage and deterioration occurs rapidly Brain section shawing spongtform pathology characteristic of CreutzfeldtJakob Ban on feeding cattle meat and bone meal have appeared to stop the development of new cases of BSE in Europe Food Safety Clean wash hands and surfaces often wash raw fruitsvegetables Always refrigerate perishable food within 2h0111 S 1 hour when temp iS gt 90 F Use cooked leftovers within 4 days Separate don t crosscontaminate Cook cook to proper temperatures Chill refrigerate promptly 34 Fermented Foods products products vegetables and vegetable products yeast a O Chocolatei WHOLES 39 n W John M Martinko and Cheryl Broadie Figure 293 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Table 295 microorganism Fermented foods and primary fermentation Food category Primary fermenting microorganism Dairy foods Cheeses Lactococcus Lactobacillus Fermented milk products Buttermilk Sour cream Yogurt Alcoholic beverages Yeast breads Meat products Dry sausages pepperoni salami and semidry sausages summer sausage bologna Vegetables Cabbage sauerkraut Cucumbers pickles Soy sauce Streptococcus thermophilus Lactococcus Lactococcus Lactobacillus Streptococcus thermophil us Zymomonas Saccharomycesquot Saccharomyces cerevz39siae Pediococcus Lactobacillus Micrococcus Staphylococcus Leuconostoc Lactobacillus Lactic acid bacteria Aspergz39llus Tetragenococcus halophil us Yeasts quot Unless otherwise noted these are all members of the lactic acid bacteria 127 59quot Section 1219 Zymomonas is related to Pseudomonas Section b Yeast Section 3013 A variety of Saccharomyccs species are used in alcohol fermentations 7 Baker s yeast Table 295 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 1 We 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fermented Milk lactic acid bacteria LAB grampositives that tolerate acidic conditions nonspore forming aerotolerant With a strictly fermentative metabolism 37 Mctobacillus Mctococcus Leuconostoc Streptococcus Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display I v 3 a 39 1 i i A39 39 v 39 I i 39 A W 39 C 39 w 1I 7 i39 39 u f 1 L39 39 21 1th 40 5 39 v g a I I 39 F MT 1 7 H 9 y fj 39 w 39 w 4 39 b i x y r r i r i I Category Typical Examples I Lactic fermentations Mesophilic Buttermilk cultured buttermilk lc ingo l te39tmjolk ymer Thermophilic Yogurt laban zabadz39 labneh skyr Bulgarian buttermilk Probiotic Biogarde Bi ghurt Acidophi lus milk yakult CulturaAB Ke r koumz ss acidophilus yeast milk Viilz39 II Yeast lactic fermentations III Moldlactic fermentations Source Table 31 p 58 In B A Law editor 7992 Microbiology and Biochem istry of Cheese and Fermented Milk 2 quot ed New York Chapman and Hall Probiotics probiotics benefits live microorganisms improve general which when intestinal health and administered in balance adequate amounts o immunomodulation confer a health improve lactose benefit to the host intOIBI ance Lactobacmus control of diarrhea Bifidobacterium Anticancer effects may lower serum cholesterol treatment of enteric 38 disease 39 Production of Alcoholic Beverages Produced by yeast from the fermentation of sugar to ethyl alcohol and CO2 Begins with formation of liquid containing carbohydrates in readily fermentable form Wine fermentation of grape juice usually Beer fermentation of malted grain partially germinated grains Distilled beverages from the distillation of fermented solutions Wine Production Enology Must crushed grapes preparation grapes are crushed to yield must treated with sulfur dioxide fumigant to kill Wild yeast already on the grapes Add yeast they want usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae or S elliposideus Fermentation Primary 3 5 days at 20 28 C Secondary malolactic 1 3weeks atZZO OC Aging Racking removes sediment produced during fermentation 4O sGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reprodur Processing step Biological change Grape pressing I M I 39 Sterilization Elimination of Yeast addition contaminants Addition of desired organisms i Fermentation 1 Alcohol production of must j from sugars Excess yeast i 1 39 Malolactic Setting vat 1 fermentation i 39 l I A r 7 V39 Development of a final wine 39 bouquet Possible racking Bottling Aging quot St msrezmoiied quot 39 39 St 39r s ieniavea quot Grapes crushed Grapes crushed M t Must 502 us 502 r Yeast Juice sits in contact quotFermentation vat 3 week with skins for 1 624 h pulp is not removed Press Press Yeast Pomace gt Pomace 1 discard discard Fermentation Va t Aging in Barrels 1 01 5 days 502 1 02 1 l Racking Aging 5 months Transter to 6331 Barreis 3 times per year 5 M Clarifying 2 years 3 Racking agents V W 2 agents 1 m Filtration Filtration 1 Red or Wh1t6 wmes Bottling B ot t39li g 39 Again hams 6 Dry or sweet wmes months or more a White wine b Red wine Sparkhng wmes Figure 301 8 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 1 1 e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Unit 4 Test gtIltafter this slide Ilt Beers and Ales hdaSh mashing process used to release fermentable sugars from grains germination of grains barley Wheat rice and activation of enzymes to yield malt malt mixed With water and transferred to mash tun to yield mash VVort 43 mash heated with hops plantherbs in brew kettle hops provide avor and assist in clarification antimicrobial heating inactivates hydrolytic enzymes hops removed wort clear liquid containing fermentable carbohydrates sugar from grains Beers and Ales wort inoculated Lpitched with desired yeast bottom yeasts used in production of lager beers lager stored longer at lower temperatures top yeasts used in production of ales Fermentation 7 12 days at 6 12 C lager beer 5 7 days at 14 23 C ale Storage lagering Bottling CO2 usually added at bottling can add sugar because some live yeast is still present or can simply add the C02 4 beer can be pasteurized or sterilized by filtration Processing step Biological change Barley moistening and germination H Malting floor 1 Drying and crushing W Q 00 Mashing Add hops 45 Enzymatic Heat in brew release of ket e soluble carbohydrates a Brew kettle Add yeast gt 439 Fermentation l Further enzymatic Storage lagering Lgquot a Cquot 1 Packaging L 39 activity release of maltose dextrins and proteins Spoilage organism inhibition Enzyme inactivation Flavoring from hops Clarification Remove hops Alcoholic fermentation Final flavor development Distilled Spirits Whiskey and bourbon begin with sour mash mash inoculated with homolactic bacterium Following fermentation distilled to concentrate alcohol fresh distillate is colorless color development during a in 46 Chapter 431 432 Water Purification and Wastewater Treatment Topics Why treat water and wastewater Sources and types of water pollution Drinking water treatment Wastewater treatment Indicator organisms Waterborne Disease Examples Typhoid fever Salmonella 234076 was a major public health threat before drinking water treatment Cholera Iibrio Cholera seven major pandemics since 1817 often occurs in areas with inadequate or no sewage treatment Protozoan infections Giara ia Crytosporia ium Entamoeba may be present in surface waters and may survive water treatment facilities as cysts Rare But sometimes the cysts pass through facility and survive chlorination 2 Effect of Water Treatment on Cases iof Typhoid Fever in Philadelphia PA 10000 Filtration 1906 VI cu In M U 2 o i a 1000 Chlorination q 1913 o E o E z 100 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 Year 2006 Pearson Prenti lllllllll c Why treat wastewater Cuyahoga River Late 60s caught on fire several times because it was so polluted This spurred the environmental movement Lake Hartwell In the 40s there was a plant in Pickens that built electrical transformers Used oil to try to cool it PCBs were present as flame retardant Now there are PCBs in Hartwell Fish on bottom of lake are more impacted Dead zone in Gulf of Mexico Limitation of plant growth is by limitation of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers So farmers add these to crops A lot of the N and Phosphorus gets into the Miss River and gets dumped into Gulf So when the Gulf gets fertilized it causes a dead zone because algae grows a whole lot then algae dies Bacteria uses all of the oxygen to decompose algae So a zone is created that has no oxygen so all fish leave this area Mediterranean and tourism He moved to Italy He went swimming in the Mediterranean unlike everyone else at the beach He swam out to find raw sewage around him I Downstrea m users Draw in water from upstream side Dump water lower than your city If the water isn t cleaned before dumping the lower cities suffer Sources of water pollution 039 nt SOU I CES where the water emanates from a certain point end of a Pipe Domestic home sewage tanks I IndUStrial Nonpoint sources harder to deal with I Parking IOtS39 cars leak oil antifreeze trash All of this runoff goes to a sedimentation pond usually I FEECI IOtS animals I Agricultural EICIS39 fertilizers etc for farms Golf courses and yards l Graveya rd 539 embalming fluid is toxic to environment but keeps humans from decomposing 5 Types of water pollution Bacterial and viral Organic matter BOD Biochemical oxygen demand indirect measure of the amount of organic matter in wastewater Organic matter lots of variation Doesn t measure specifically But they measure how much oxygen is produced by the bacteria as organic matter is decomposed Nitrogen and phosphorous So that we don t fertilize the water with N or P l Organic chemicals present in very low levels Inorganic chemicals metals fromcopperpipesbummg coal has mercury in it Most metals are joined with bacteria so when bacteria is removed The metal leaves with it Remove 3 gravequot 39 Raw water particulates 39 39 Sedimentation Form and remove floc containing insoluble material and microorganisms DRINKING WATER Remove all remaining 0 particulates organic FII39W39IOH and inorganic compounds Kill remaining micro Chlorination organisms i Prevent growth of new Storqge inocula Finished water lgt Distribution Figure 288b Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc WASTEWATER Primary Treatment Physical process grates and screens allowed to settle in tanks clarifiers allows solids to settle separation of solids may be discharged but still has substantial BOD John M Martinkoharnd Deborah OJung WASTEWATER condary Treatment Water from primary clarifier Mixers for aeration IV 0 Aeration basin Final clarifier Treat d watere c release We iTVSIudge Flocs fa c a Top pic normal floc settles well 35 to b Bottom pic bulking sludge disposal hairlike does not settle properly WASTEWATER Tertiary Treatment Nitrogen Removal 1St step Ammonia to Nitrate Nitrogen present in sewage as ammonia NH3 as part of proteins Nitrosomonas ancl nitrobacter convert ammonia to nitrate NO3 in aeration basins This is called nitrification ancl consumes a great deal of oxygen 10 WASTEWATER Tertiary Treatment Nitrogen Removal 23910 step Nitrate to Nitrogen Gas Nitrate is converted to N gas denitrification Nitrogen gas bubbles out of wastewater Requires special design of wastewater plant Beneficial because reduces energy required for wastewater treatment 11 WASTEWATER Tertiary Treatment Phosphorous Removal Mechanism of P removal discovered accidently in South Africa 30 years ago A group of bacteria called PAO s phosphorous accumulating organisms will remove P under the appropriate conditions Involves cycling bacteria between anaerobic and aerobic conditions 12 Wastewater Disinfection Chlorine Gaseous chlorine is dangerous Forms carcinogenic chlorinated organics THM s trihalomethanes Ultraviolet Light UV light damages bacterial DNA and prevents bacteria from reproducing If bacteria don t reproduce they will not be detected UV light is okay for wastewater disinfection because we don t need residual help like chlorine with water treatment for homes 13 reduces amount of sludge for disposal I produces methane 39 jg i I llllllllllllllll x U 0 L m 0 39 Figure 285a Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 14 Ideal Indicator Organism suitable for analysis of all types of water present wherever enteric pathogens are present survives longer than hardiest enteric pathogen does not reproduce in contaminated water detected by highly specific test test easy to do and sensitive harmless to humans its level in water reflects degree of fecal pollution 15 iColiform Enumeration Methods MPN method Membrane Filter Water sample lnoculate 15 tubes 5 with 10 ml of sample 5 with 10 ml of sample and 5 with 01 ml of sample I ifii H11 Willi Doublestrength broth Singlestrength broth 10 10 10 10 10 01 01 01 01 0 ml ml ml 1 Presumptive Lactose or lauryl tryptose broth Negative presumptive 24 i 2 hours gt After 24 hours of The absence of gas in 35cc incubation the tubes of broth tubes indicates lactose broth are examined coliforms are absent for gas production Incubate an additional 24 hours to be sure Negative Positive Figure 281 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11e 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 16 T D Brock Bacteria are used in the following Water treatment Primary wastewater treatment c Secondary wastewater treatment cl Tertiary wastewater treatment e C and D a V b V V 17 Cause name of General Route of Characteristic symptoms bacterium or characteristics of transmissio virus microbe bacteria n Gram reaction and shape viruses type of genome and shape Influenza A Influenza A Highly Typical flu symptoms fever H1N1 virus a contagious cough sore throat runny nose Swine flu respiratory body aches headache chills disease in fatigue sometimes diarrhea pigs that and vomiting can spread to humans if there is contact with an infected pig or environmen ts become contaminat ed Hepatitis A Hepatitis A o picornavirus Eating or 26 weeks before symptoms virus targets not drinking nausea vomiting diarrhea the liver enveloped food or yellow skin fever abdominal and contains water pain single RNA contaminat strand ed with infected feces Or shellfish that is not cooked properly Polio Polio virus Single Enters body No symptoms mostly Minor stranded through symptoms fever muscle RNA mouth weakness headache nausea Short usually vomiting genome 30 from hands Overall polio causes paralysis nm contaminat Simplest ed with significant stool of virus infected person some cases oraloral transmissio n Venereal Human Double Transmitted Causes at least 13 cancers wartsCervi papillonmavirus stranded through Mostly cervical cancer and cal cancer Group DNA sexual precancerous cervical lesions HPV of contact Symptoms viruses irregular intermenstrual between that are periods or abnormal vaginal ve ry bleeding after sexual intercourse back leg or pelvic pain commo fatigue weight loss loss of n appetite Paplllomawndae vaginal discomfort or odourous discharge and a single swollen leg West Nile Flavivurs genus Single stranded RNA Mosquito Only one without vaccine Fever borne virus fever headache body affects aches skin rash and swollen other lymph glands Severe animas symptoms may include stiff besides neck sleepinessdisorienta humans tion coma tremors convulsions and paralysis Enterovirus Picornavirales Single stranded RNA the virus Mostly infant children and 68 non Enterovirus can be teens infected polio found m an usualy causes mild to severe 39 fecte respiratory illness perspn S start with common cold respiratory secretions symptoms runny nose and such as cough sometimes fever Then sanva it can be difficulty breathing nasal wheezing or problems catching mucus or your breath may occur for sputum severe cases EVD68 likely spreads from person to person when an infected person coughs sneezesor touches a surface that is then touched by others UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE MICR 3050 Spring 2015 OBJECTIVES Chapter 81 83 84 86 1 959 Know and describe the methods used to control microbial growth De ne the frequently used terms of microbial growth control Describe the conditions that in uence the effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent Explain how lters are used and their functions Describe the physical methods to control microorganisms moist heat dry heat low temperature UV radiation ionizing radiation Chapter 91 93 98 169 6 De ne antimicrobial antibiotic synthetic chemotherapeutic agent and semi 7 8 9 10 11 12 synthetic chemotherapeutic agent Know and describe the general characteristics of antimicrobial drugs including the terms used to describe their action spectrum of activity and their effectiveness Explain how antimicrobials are classi ed Know the mode of action effect static or cidal and spectrum of activity for the following antimicrobials penicillin erythromycin Zpack cipro oxacin and sulfonamide De ne minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum lethal concentration and explain how they are related Describe the factors that in uence the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs Explain the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistant bacteria the mechanisms of bacterial resistance the origin and transmission of drug resistance and ways to prevent it Chapter 411 413 415 416 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control the growth of microorganisms in food Describe food spoilage and how foods can be preserved Compare and contrast food infection and food intoxication Be able to categorize the disease causing foodbome microorganisms that were discussed into the appropriate category Be able to identify the causative organism of a foodbome illness based on the general characteristics of the microbe its sources how it causes disease toxins etc the characteristic symptoms of the disease the individuals that are susceptible the foods involved andor the mishandling of the food that lead to the illness Describe other foodbome infectious diseases that are not caused by bacteria Distinguish between safe and unsafe food practices Understand the role of fermentation in food production and be able to recognize various fermented foods Know the bacteria used for fermented milk products and probiotics De ne probiotics and describe their health bene ts Understand in general the production of wine beer ale and distilled beverages Be able to compare and contrast the processes Chapter 421 423 281 321 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 De ne industrial microbiology biotechnology Describe the microbes used in industry and their desired characteristics Describe largescale fermentations and the fermenters used Distinguish between primary and secondary metabolites Know the roles of microbes used in industry including examples of their products Understand the basics of the nitrogen cycle and its role in nature De ne nitrogen xation ammoni cation nitri cation and denitri cation Explain the biochemical reactions in the rumen Understand the role of microorganisms in the rumen Chapter 431 432 32 33 34 35 36 Know the potential waterborne diseases discussed and how drinking water is puri ed Describe the goals of wastewater treatment Know the terms associated with wastewater treatment ex BOD clari ers sludge oc etc Distinguish between primary secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment Describe indicator organisms their use in the analysis of water quality and the methods used to detect them DISEASES 37 For each of the microbial diseases listed below be able to brie y describe the following a cause name of bacterium or Virus b general characteristics of the microbe bacteria Gram reaction and shape Viruses type of genome and shape c route of transmission d characteristic symptoms In uenza A H1N1 Swine Flu Hepatitis A Polio Venereal wartsCervical Cancer HPV West Nile Fever Enterovirus 68 nonpolio Even if I do not cover these diseases in class you are still responsible for the information UNIT 3 ANIMATIONS TO WATCH httphigheredmheducationcomsitesOO734024OOstudentViewOindexhtml Chapter 41 Food Pathogens and Temperature Food Spoilage Salmonella G food infection high infectious dose can kill by heat 0 Can use antibiotics Listeria grows in fridge 0 Weird symptoms most susceptible if pregnant E coli 01H57 little as 10 bacteria 0 Characteristics bloody diarrhea and kidney failure 0 Can be killed with heat Staphylococcus aureus makes heat stable toxin not safe if cooked and then contaminated after 0 Characteristics subnormal temp projectile vomiting Botulism makes neuron toxin difficulty breathing talking walking 0 Conditions for spores to germinate anoxic not acidic fruit cannot give you botulism high protein foods mostly can foods but it can be foods that are wrapped tightly or in bulk can go anoxic o Denatured by cooking Heat liable Viruses causes fast spontaneous illness Noroviruses most prevalent in US
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