AMH 2097 Notes
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Date Created: 09/02/15
African Americans from Reconstruction to Civil Rights pt 11 41415 Labor from slave to free to Sharecropping I Sharecropping O Blacks working on plantation where they live and rent out also rent tools and seeds They would have to give a portion of their profit to the owner to pay for rent Rent cost of tools and seeds are unreasonably high Sharecroppers always in debt Have to sign contracts saying they re going to work on plantation for a certain amount of time I Avg length of contract 99 years 0 Sharecropping Slavery by another name 0 Blacks were technically free but be of laws passed by Southern politicians they re not truly free I Convict Leasing 0 Former Confederate state prisons would rent convicts to plantations to do work 0 Convicts often became convicts by stupid things like being out after dark wo a pass I Given sentences like 10 yrs 0 Chain gangs I Dismal conditions no one looking out for their well being I Picking quotas like in pushing system I Years would be added on to sentence if they didn t reach their quota 0000 I Lasts for decades 0 Convict leasing lasts through 1920s 0 Sharecropping lasts through WWII and through 50s 0 Cotton industry last worldwide industry to become mechanized I Kept blacks in debt and as sharecroppers and convict leasers I Gains that African Americans made were taken away through Sharecropping convict leasing etc Racial Violence 1870sl920s 0 mob Violence terrorism intended to instill fear and insubordination in minority communities 0 A lot of terrorism directed at black ppl to keep them in fear 0 Lynch mobs would go around terrorize families kill random people 0 Different from other racial Violence be its popular and publicized I Ppl aren t ashamed I Advertised in newspapers 0 Come out Saturday there will be a lynching O Ppl who carry out lynching aren t afraid of repercussions I Supported by public Lynching at its worst during this time 0 Many times lynching defended by enacting justice on black criminals but most victims were just random ppl 0 No response from local law enforcement O Majority victims were African Americans but in the West there were lynching of Asians Mexicans and Nat Ams and Jewish ppl 0 Widespread and had local support 0 Activist and Politicians 0 Frequently spoke out against lynching and tried to end it 0 Several attempts to make lynching a federal crime I If local authorities and juries wouldn t punish lynch mobs and juries won t find them guilty it will be taken to federal court I Still not a federal offense 0 Most victims weren t criminals but ppl who tried to leave unfair employments demanded better conditions and stood up against racial segregation Racial Segregation Odd be this would have been impossible during slavery era 0 Blacks were everywhere in White life Politicians start restricting where African Americans could live and be black codes Black Codes laws that restricted black s freedom of movement own firearms right to vote etc 0 Based on Slave Codes 0 These codes lead to convict leasing system Jim Crow Laws Black codes Jim Crow and Jim Crow Laws 0 Designated to separate whites and blacks to protect each race 0 Term Jim Crow caricature of a black man in 1840s black performer dressed up as a buffoon used to make fun of white politicians I Over the top caricature I Stereotype of black free men 0 Couldn t speak well etc 0 Jim Crow becomes racial slur like the N word Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 0 Homer Plessy educated black man who was tired of riding in the black section of the train 0 Sued train co and lost and case goes to supreme court 0 Supreme court rules that segregation is ok as long as facility provided is equal I Separate but equal 0 Problem Separating ppl based on race and the facilities were never equal 0 18561960s separate facilities for blacks and whites I Schools post offices entrances facilities etc I Never equal 0 Black entrance was through the basement through boiler room etc Education and Self Help 0 Booker T Washington and Tuskegee Institute 0 Washington founded Tuskegee in AL 0 Washington was a former slave and founded college in 1881 0 Embraced idea of education and what he called selfhelp for African Americans to gain respect rise to middle class 0 Embraced separate but equal 0 He thought that directly challenging segregation would only lead to lynch mobs etc 0 White politicians loved Booker T Washington 0 They used Tuskegee as the goal for separate but equal 0 Highly criticized within black community past and present 0 A lot of blacks said they shouldn t wait for equality we need to go get it and they viewed Washington as slowing them down 0 He wasn t directly challenging segregation 0 Washington really did think he was doing the right thing for blacks I Blacks who directly challenge the system get lynched or the community gets attacked 1900s1940s 0 Civil Rights movement 0 Classical view I Only African Americans in 1950s60s O A lot of ppl pushing for Civil Rights a lot earlier 0 Before SOs60s many attempts unsuccessful Voting Restrictions 0 Voting fees 0 Literacy Tests 0 De Jure and De Facto Segregation 0 De Jure by law in the South 0 De Facto by fact in the North I Economically divided Roaring 20s 0 Economically best time in US history I Ppl becoming selfmade millionaires 0 A lot more blacks rising to middle and upper class 0 Less push for civil rights bc everyone was better off Great Depression 192941 O Gains made by blacks were gone World War II 0 African American men were asked to serve country and keep things going at home I Prominent black leaders use this as an opportunity to push for equality 0 Double V Campaign Double Victory Campaign 0 Work against fascism in Europe and Asia 0 Work for equality at home 0 Limited gains 0 W11 produced organization structure of educated black veterans who are tired of discrimination and segregation I Desegregation of military 1945 0 Before they served in the military but in segregated units 0 Often supply jobs janitorial staff 0 A lot of longer serving military men resisted at first but quickly learned blacks were good soldiers and the real problem was enlisted vs officer ranks Challenging Segregation 0 Trickle down theory 0 Integrating the military worked so this could be the catalyst for integration everywhere 0 They integrated the military and it still worked 0 Slow progression starting at the top most educated ppl I Focused on law schools professional schools and med schools I Colleges I High Schools I Elementary schools 0 Meant to be slow I If too fast push back would be extreme I They got push back even though it was slow 0 Brown vs Board of Education 1954 0 Brown 8 year old girl in Topeka KS her dad was military vet 0 He would watch his daughter walk past a white elementary school 300 yards away to get to her black school 1 mile away The next year they tried to enroll her in the white school school shuts down Challenged at local state level then goes to supreme court Supreme court ruled that separate but equal didn t work unanimous decision Ordered desegregation of public schools I The problem was that they didn t set a time table I De facto segregation til early 1970s 0 This sparked larger civil rights movement 0000 Murder of Emmett Till Emmett Till 1955 0 14 year old from Chicago visiting his granddad in Miss 0 He was tortured and murdered by two white men for the alleged crime of speaking to a white women I Her husband and brother and law 0 He was mutilated so bad they had to use a ring his father gave him to identify the body 0 Trial I Conclusive evidence they were guilty I His grandfather stood up in court and said I was with him that night they came to my house and took him then I never saw him again I Jury found them completely innocent I The men under trial then sold their story to TIME magazine admitting they did it 0 Sparked a movement Montgomery Bus Boycott SitIns O O O Rosa Parks 1955 Everyday average citizen level Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in segregated but and was thrown in jail Black community in Montgomery AL said they wouldn t ride the bus until the bus was integrated Leader in boycott was Martin Luther King Jr 26 year old preacher at the time 0 Urged restraint and nonviolence For 2 years they didn t ride the bus system 0 80 if bus riders were black 0 The bus company loses a bunch of money 0 Took a lot of effort from community to not ride the bus I Some walked 5 miles a day to work 0 After 2 years they integrated the busses Other business get boycotted too 0 The problem with this is ppl with families and kids could lose their jobs MLK gets national spotlight College and high school students They have less to lose by doing this They d go to a restaurant or store sit in the white section and asked to be served 1960 Greensboro NC 0 Local white react violently O Pouring hot soup on them and other food The store solved this problem by closing lunch counter Media sees this unequal reaction to black ppl doing simple things 0 Photos of black ppl with food being poured on them makes the South look even worse 0 Florida SwimIns 0 A lot of beaches were segregated 0 Students would go into segregated beaches and try to swim then get arrested 0 FL was going to be a big tourist attraction 39 Southern politicians didn t want northern tourists to see blacks being mistreated even if that s what they supported 1960s and Southern White Reactions 0 Freedom Rides 1961 O A effort to desegregate interstate busses I Like Greyhound 0 A group of white and black students in Washington DC get on a but to New Orleans 0 When it enters Alabama segregationists stop the bus chase off the escort and attack the bus and the ppl with baseball bats 0 Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964 O A drive to register voters for the 1964 elections 0 The ppl who worked on this project faced a lot of death threats and terrorism 0 2 white kids and a black kid were kidnapped from Miss and tortured and murdered by Southern segregationists 0 The more the stories go into the news the worse the South looks O Southerners say This is getting ridiculous Civil Rights Legislation 0 JFK made a lot of promises about civil rights which is how he got into office but once he got into office he drug his feet 0 The thought was maybe he ll do more in the second term but was killed 0 Lyndon B Johnson 0 A career politician a dirty politician 0 His first election he won was college class president he then blackmailed the other candidate into dropping from the race 0 He makes it his mission to pass civil rights legislation and make life better for Americans 0 From TX 39 Was a Southerner but not from the deep South 0 Ppl tried to kill his civil rights bills but he called them communists and then ppl didn t like them 0 Civil Rights Act 1964 0 Guaranteed all Americans to public services I Education employment voting and public services 0 Ended de jure segregation 0 Voting Rights Act 1965 O Ended polling taxes etc 0 Said that the govt could come in and investigate if something was fishy LBJ 0 President who did the most for Civil Rights but was known for getting American more involved in Vietnam War African Americas from Reconstruction to Civil Rights 4915 Reconstruction 186377 0 Effort to rebuild US after Civil War 0 Starts in occupied places in the South I WV Northern TN 0 Goal was to heal wounds caused by war reunite the country rebuild Southern econ educating former slaves and incorporating them into US society 0 Freedmen free African Americans 0 US starts providing educational opportunities in the South 0 Poor white took advantage of this 0 Economic and political opportunities 0 For a short time black s right to vote was protected and guaranteed 186577 0 Economic transition I Finding a way to go from slave labor to free labor I For a short time blacks got paid for their work got fair pay and could negotiate wages 0 Both North and South were invested in rebuilding cotton industry I Freedmen were now paid well for this work Reconstruction 18631877 0 Southern Reaction 0 Leaders of Confederacy were considered treasoners and couldn t hold office 0 They then started rallying for whites around racism 0 Terror and Violence 0 Used terror and Violence to voice dislike about Reconstruction I We don t want to incorporate African Americans in society 0 Used to keep African Americans out of work used to scare politicians who wanted to help African Americans 0 Attacked poor whites who benefitted from Reconstruction Scallywag a southerner who supported Reconstruction 0 Terrorists groups in South I KKK I So dangerous that US had to send in military to disband them 0 Made Southerners distrustful of US I Northerners are coming down and trying to take your rights 0 0 Redeemers 0 Wanted to redeem south by returning it to the rule of these Southern politicians 0 They did just enough to keep Reconstruction from working I Attacked schools paid off Northern politicians 0 After 12 years US is tired of it and gives up of Reconstruction allows Redeemers to get control back 0 They start limiting freedoms of black pp1 I Education economics political voice Labor From Slave Labor to Free to Sharecropping 0 After Reconstruction southerners introduce this system 0 Slavery by another name Chinese Immigration pt I 31715 Last big wave in First Wave of migration China and Migration 0 Massive country 0 Geographically and population I 1850 pop of China was 15X larger than US 0 Diverse 0 Rulers in the past strived to keep outsiders out 0 Over 50 minority groups in China 0 Incredibly diverse religions I Confucius Hindu Islam Buddhist Christian 0 Long history of emigration I Chinese rulers tried to limit movement out of China I Overseas Chinese or Chinese Diaspora 0 All emigrants from China I Vietnam Philippines S America Japan US Push Factors 0 Population and agricultural issues 0 A lot of land not arable for farming 0 Even in good ag years China would have to import food to feed the population I Famines O Overpopulation and underproduction of crops I European Imperialism 0 Wanted access to spices silk tea mainly the British after these goods I Chinese didn t want British goods except gold 0 Opium War 18391842 I A series of wars trying to kick British out in the end British won and Chinese forced to sign unfair treaties I Chinese govt cracking down on opium users I Opium modern heroin I Started trading opium and got Chinese hooked on drugs I Would trade opium for Chinese goods 0 Dishonorable to have lost to the British barbarian army 0 Internal strife 0 our govt is useless Chinese ppl 0 Rebellions going on against Chinese empire 0 Taiping Rebellion 185064 0 Devastates SE China 0 Caused by general dissatisfaction with Chinese govt 0 The more ppl fighting the less food is being produced O Puts down rebellion by killing crops in field so farmers who were fueling this couldn t feed their army 0 30 million ppl die during Taiping Rebellion 0 Desperate peasants are looking for opportunities elsewhere Emigrant Origin 0 Kwangtung above Guangdong and Fukien Guangdong province 0 East coast of China 0 Had exposure to outsiders 0 Mountainous little farming land most were miners they are isolated Pull Factors 0 Economic Factors 0 Biggest factor for Chinese emigrants anywhere 0 Why America 0 California Gold Rush 1849 0 Already experienced in mining 0 They call the US Gold Mountain 0 Cities banned Chinese from getting of boat to US 0 Railroad work 0 US was expanding 0 Dangerous and difficult work Americans wouldn t take jobs I East coast Irish built railroads I West coast Chinese built railroads 0 Chinese became very good at clearing mts and laying track 0 Burlingame Treaty 1868 O Encouraged immigration 0 Brokered a deal between Chinese empire and US allowing Chinese men to come over and work on railroads O Achieved cheap labor 0 Limited Chinese ability to become US citizens 0 In 1882 300000 Chinese in US 0 Doesn t take into account goals of Chinese migration 0 Doesn t take into account who came left or came back a couple times Goals of Chinese Migration 0 Temporary gt to find lots of work work hard gt save gt retire rich and return to China 0 Few women migrate to US 0 Wasn t customary for Chinese women to leave their families 0 Most men really thought they d come to US get gold fast and return home quickly to become better marriage candidates AntiChinese Sentiment 0 Takes many forms 0 Local state and national levels 0 Restricts Chinese from coming to US or restricts movement once in US I Treated as people of color 0 Suffered same oppression as Nat Ams blacks Mexicans 0 Religion Buddhism and Confucianism 0 Much stronger than antiCatholic bc they weren t even Christian I Sexuality 0 Chinese men are homosexual 0 Chinese men want American women 0 Economic O A lot of miners were skilled they knew what they were doing 0 A lot of Chinese miners who got to Gold Rush before antiChinese laws were really successful and found gold I They were banned from mines 0 Skilled railroad workers and would work for less money I Fear they d take jobs Chinese Life in America 0 Ethnic Enclaves 0 First Chinatown in NA was in San Francisco 0 Chinese had no desire to stay in America so ethnic enclaves make sense 0 American distrusted them for this reason I Chinatowns O Formed around extended families called m I Send most able workers over 0 Formed a lot of businesses that catered to Chinese ppl 0 Leaders in Chinatowns were business leaders I Hui Kuan associations 0 Selfhelp mutual aids societies made up of several clans 0 Membership based on dialect place of origin 0 Mediated disputes between Chinese immigrants 0 The Six Companies 0 6 Hui Kuan associations based is San Fran s Chinatown O In addition to helping Chinese men find work they functioned as a Chinatown govt I Would greet new arrivals find houses give some starting money I Health insurance and death insurance 0 Find a doctor find a place to be buried Tong 0 Tong a traditional group that existed in China that functioned outside of the Hui Kuan association 0 Secret societies gangs mostly connected to organized crime 0 Ppl Who couldn t get satisfaction through any other organizations 0 Ppl Who seek recourse I Landlord Who raised rent ppl could go to Tongs and seek a solution 0 Frequently engaged in organized crime 0 Drugs gambling prostitution O Stereotyped all Chinese immigrants based on Tongs Unit 3 Chinese Immigration pt 11 32415 0 Americans didn t really like Chinese because their culture was so different but the Chinese didn t really care cuz their goal was to go back to China 0 Chinese men were second class citizens Five Factors and Chinese Americans 0 Location 0 West mostly San Fran 0 First large group of migrants to West coast I Worked against Chinese 0 They went for the Gold Rush like a lot of other Americans 0 Language 0 Works against Chinese even more so than Germans 0 Since most Chinese had no intentions of staying in US they made no effort to learn English 0 Dealt with middlemen to get them jobs I Know Nothing Party Not even do they not know English they re not even trying to learn 0 Numbers 0 Not on such a massive scale like German and Irish but still significant I 1848 300 Chinese ppl in US before gold was discovered I 1880 300000 Chinese hardly accurate be it doesn t count men who lived here for 510 yrs and went back to China 0 Smaller in overall numbers than Irish and German but the West was less populated than the East I Chinese represented a higher percentage in the West 0 Chinese were viewed as a threat 0 Money 0 Goal was to make a lot of money 0 Discriminated against by Americans bc they didn t have money I If ppl don t have money they re lazy and shouldn t be in the US I Stereotypes 0 Yellow Peril I Americans fear of Chinese immigrants 0 Chinese most different group of immigrants US can think of 0 Not Christians 0 Not European 0 Keep to themselves 0 Not bringing Chinese women trying to steal American women homosexual 0 Don t speak anything close to English 0 Brought drugs with them introduce drugs and gambling and other social vices into US 0 Brought diseases 0 Cheap Chinese labor 0 Anti Chinese sentiment I Disliked bc they had their own communities I Would introduce gambling prostitution drugs I Would take all jobs Jobs Chinese took as a result I Were outlawed from working in mine 0 Railroads 0 Railroad companies love Chinese immigrants for same reason white railroad workers hated them I Worked for less money I More efficient than others 0 Laid more track dug more tunnels canals I Railroad companies lobbied for Burlingame Treaty 0 Laundry and domestic workers 0 Miners couldn t wash their clothes or cook etc 0 Filled in role that lower class women would have taken if they came to CA 0 Some of the wealthiest ppl in this time period were domestic workers I Miners would trade in gold for services bc they had no cash AntiChinese Sentiment 0 Social vices 0 Gambling opium I US doesn t care if Chinese men only smoke opium and gamble away their paycheck I Became moral sins when Americans started doing it I Gambling and opium bins did exist but blown way out of proportion 0 Ethnic Enclaves I US didn t want Chinese immigrants around I Passes laws saying Chinese ppl can t live here go to this restaurant children can t go to school I So Chinatowns did all of this for themselves I US mad bc Chinese wouldn t join American culture I Seen as alien group thatll never assimilate AntiChinese laws and action 0 Local and state level 0 1860 State of CA banned Chinese students from entering schools 0 Made a law saying men couldn t wear ponytails cultural status 0 Labor Unions 0 Wouldn t admit Chinese workers bc they worked for less money 0 When union workers would strike Chinese would come in take jobs 0 Violence 0 Riots I Worst riots in Wyoming at mine I Mad that Chines are successful I Went to their mine at night and beat a lot of Chinese men to death 0 Mugging extortion lynching Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 0 Reverses Burlingame Treaty 0 Allows Chinese in US to stay but prohibits new immigrants from coming I Only immigrant group to have a law against them entering the country 0 Many Chinese voluntarily leave 0 1882 300000 Chinese in US 0 1900 90000 Chinese in US I Continues to inhibit citizenship of Chinese ppl even Chinese babies born in US 0 Freq challenged in court 0 Not repealed until 1943 0 35 generations of families who were barred from citizenship Chinese in America 0 One of most discriminated groups in US history I Only nationality to be legally barred from entering US 0 Chinese Exclusion Act repealed in 1843 0 W11 I Few Chinese around I 190041 increasing Japanese aggression and expansion in Pacific I Japanese replace Chinese in Yellow Peril I Japanese do a lot of bad things to Chinese 0 Manchuria I China becomes US ally in WWII English Colonies and Formative Wave Migration pt 11 21215 groups coming over during colonial era includes English African Americans slaves Dutch German ScotsIrish other Scandinavian groups Germans in Colonial America 0 Largest self reported group in US census 0 Long continued migration to US 0 No country of Germany until 1871 0 When talking about Germans talking about ethnic and linguistic group 0 Germany was organized in small states and principalities 0 German society political religious and cultural turmoil 0 Should we be one country 0 Churches are breaking off from Catholic church I Lutherans O A lot of people are trying to leave Germany 0 Diverse backgrounds religion 0 Push factors 0 political religious cultural turmoil O wars between principalities O conscription I the draft all men of a certain age had to serve in the military no choice 0 no land rights princes owned all land at mercy at his whim 0 Pull factors 0 Land 0 Religious tolerance 0 Where did they go 0 New York NC SC French Louisiana 0 Majority goes to PA 39 Creates German ethnic groups called Pennsylvania Dutch 0 Deustsch German Language 0 PA Dutch German Americans and German colonists Germans 16801770 0 Many had to indenture themselves to come to new world 0 Experience was very dif from VA indentured servants 0 Many worked for other German settlers 0 Est farming communities 0 Focused on selfsufficiency rather than cash crops 0 Diversity in crops 0 Some of these farms still exist to day Amish O 0 Generally Germans farms more successful than other colonists Skilled workers coming over 0 Carpenters metal workers etc Germans O O O Largely family migration Formed ethnic enclaves 0 Germantown PA PA Dutch German Coast in Louisiana 250K Germans in US 1776 Stereotypes in colonial era 0 Good I Industrious hard working efficient successful farms high education rates 0 Bad I English Americans were distrustful of them 0 Fear of not assimilating or trying to take over them ScotsIrish in Colonial America 0 0 People of Scottish decent who received land and noble titles from English to go into Ireland and subdue Irish pop Migration is key to their existence in first place 0 Most settle in Ulster Ireland Middle position in Ireland 0 Weren t treated as bad as ethnic Irish were but treated bad by English 0 Better than Irish not as good as English 0 Scots were Presbyterian I Broke away from catholic church 0 Good to English but not a part of Church of England so still 2rld class English interests 0 Make money for English and English crown I If a ScotIrish SI was making too much money they d make laws to protect English goods and hurt Scot Irish 0 Ie band importation of ScotIrish goods Landlords O ScotsIrish had to pay rent to English landlords Push factors 0 Unfair treatment from English 0 High rent 0 English laws killing SI industry high unemployment O Econ problems and persecutions by English Pull factors 0 Land 0 Need for labor in colonies I Became indentured servants O Advertised as having religious freedom 0 SI spoke English language ScotsIrish 17001780s Where do they go 0 Avoid New England I Same biases against SI I Religious reasons 0 Middle colonies PA Delaware NY First Internal American migration 0 Go to back country and tame it I Appalachian Mountains etc I Caused problems with Nat Am Servants 0 Going to VA 0 Some skilled labor and some looking to restart textile industry they had in Ireland Indian Trade 0 Deer skin trade 0 Caused problems with colonial govt I Didn t want Indians unhappy cuz didn t want Indian war because then tobacco crop wouldn t be grown as much Told Nat Am to kill SI Stereotypes 0 Bad I Lazy short tempered drunks quick to fight Why called ScotsIrish Scottish ancestry in Ireland During colonial era just called Irish 0 They didn t really mind 183040s 0 Huge in ux of Catholic Irish SI had to find a way to differentiate themselves from Catholic Irish Created their own stereotypes to make themselves seem better 0 Natural Pioneers O Said they supported Am Rev to support American identity Bad Irish catholic Irish good Irish SI Most SI able to acculturate 0 Spoke English but didn t become absorbed in to English America Other Euro Settlers Colonial America 0 Scottish and other British I Hard to differentiate Scottish from SI bc same last name I Many same push and pull factors as SI 0 Scandinavia I Sweden I Norway I Finland 0 Many went to New Amsterdam when Dutch controlled in and stayed I Lasting in uence on American identity 0 Log cabin came from Scandinavians 0 American frontier home English Colonial attitude about migrants 0 English settlers in general 0 Looked down on other settlers from other ethnic and cultural groups I General mistrust of ppl who didn t speak English or ppl who didn t try to learn English I Concerned about ppl who didn t speak English concerned about what they were trying to do 0 Virginia 0 Plantation owners had the distrust of other settlers but still brought in indentured servants 0 Mass and New England 0 Very intolerant I Live by their rules religion etc 0 Only accepted newcomers that agreed to adhere to strict religious codes or who already did I Quakers SI Catholics not allowed 0 Would fine ship captains who brought undesirable people 0 Made laws prohibiting people who were sick or infirm to enter their colony I Deported dissenters through banishment O Ppl who raised questions about leadership ppl who didn t go to church ppl who had dif religion 0 Public banishment I Take them to city square tell them all the ways they fucked up and banish them 0 Many ed to NY and PA Pennsylvania 0 Founded as haven for Quakers 0 Most tolerant 0 Doesn t mean there weren t intolerant ppl there I Intolerant person Ben Franklin 0 One of most vocally intolerant ppl in colonial era 0 He didn t like Germans 0 Franklins writing 0 Proposed outlawing German printing presses schools 0 Said PA should fine ppl who didn t learn English 0 Came up with plan to forcibly resettle people out of ethnic enclaves I Bust up their communities and make them live in a place they had to learn English 0 Afraid Germans would come in and make PA a German colony and not an English colony I Very us vs them 0 Thinks English people are the only true white people 0 Franklins writings with his hate for everyone backfired O Germans got into politics and voted Franklin out of office Revolutionary America l760 80s 0 Result of Am Rev 0 Cutoff of English migration 0 A lot of loyalists left the US I Go to other places in British Empire 0 Canada 0 British Caribbean 0 Immigration from other parts of world slows down I US went into severe econ depression I No jobs for immigrants 0 Citizenship Laws I Originally very lax 0 Allowed all m people to become citizens within 2 years 0 Black people and Asians excluded until 1870s I Got stricter and stricter is 1790s1800s 0 Alien and Sedition Acts 1790s 0 Afraid ppl from other countries were gonna come in and take over 0 Feared they would est citizenship and vote them out of office 0 Citizenship now takes 14 years rather than 2 0 Gave president ability to deport anyone who was un American 0 Very unpopular and repealed I Shows a nation founded by immigrants can become very intolerant of immigrants German Immigration in the 1800s 31715 Second wave of German migration German Push and Pull Factors 0 Push factors 0 Religion I Protestant and Catholics I More Catholics came to US during this era 0 Political I Revolutions of 1848 I Largely failed don t bring about social political change in Europe 0 Failed revolutionaries leave the country I German Unification 1871 I Principalities unified into a single country I Dominated by kingdom of Prussia 0 People didn t want to be in a country dominated by Prussia 0 Economic I Crop failure inability to get land 0 Pull factors 0 The idea of religious Tolerance 0 Economics I Own land get work in factories Five Factors of Success I Numbers largest immigrant group during this time period 18201920 0 6 million from what is now Germany 0 1 million from German speaking areas that is not Germany 0 Money 0 Incredibly diverse group in US I Failed revolutionary to skilled worker 0 Jobs Wide variety I High class Bankers joined cultural elite in US I Middle class Crafts man butchers I Lower class factory jobs I Majority go to NW to farm I Location 0 Northeastern cities only some I Philly Boston etc 0 Upper NW I Majority go here I Illinois Wisconsin Michigan etc 0 Going to rural areas in NW helps them out be they are a lot more spread out and less antiGerman sentiment 0 Language 0 A big issue 0 People maintain German language and education 0 Settle in ethnic enclaves where German is the only language spoken I Stereotypes O Stereotypes depend on location 0 Some good I Successful farms and businesses I Good at their craft carpenter butcher etc 0 Most bad I Originates because they didn t speak English live in large numbers ethnic enclaves 0 Catholic I Most Germans were Catholic I Some who weren t Catholic were thought to be Catholic be they were German I Suffered antiCatholic violence 0 Language I Americans fear large groups of settlers who don t speak English I Fear they ll take over the US 0 Alcohol I Stereotyped as drunks beer Irish whiskey I Once settled in enclaves some created German breweries I Americans predominantly Protestant viewed alcohol as sinful AntiGerman Backlash 0 Temperance movement 0 Arose out of antiimmigrant sentiment 0 Banned consumption of alcohol 0 Dominated by Protestant religious ppl 0 KnowNothing Party 0 Antiimmigrant German and Irish German Americans I Germans are the largest voluntarily identified ethnic group in US 0 By 1880s90s new immigrants come to US that seem worse than Irish and Germans like Polish and Italian 0 Despite stereotypes 0 Most were hardworking successful contributed to society 0 They assimilated 0 Contributions 0 Hamburgers hot dogs apple pie Christmas Irish Immigration in the 1800s pt 11 3515 1820s1880s migration that happens after US declares independence not much immigration until 1820s largest group in this pd is Irish Life in the 5 Points and other enclaves 0 Jobs 0 Men labor jobs forced to sign contracts and work on railroads or canals lucky ones got to work in factories in cities 0 Women domestic servants children as well laundry mats rent boarding houses 0 Children shoe shiners tips only 0 Ragpickers ppl who couldn t find wok O Ppl who dig through trash 0 Prostitution 0 Women turned to it as a last resort 0 Complained about prostitution because they didn t want American men to succumb to sleeping with them Life in Enclaves 0 Horrid conditions but it was better than Ireland 0 Savings accounts 0 Some use money to send back money to Ireland to help send friends and family to US 0 Chain Migration O A person from a family will come to US and est foothold then send money back to home country to bring their family over AntiIrishImmigrant Backlash 0 antiimmigration the WASPs are the natives of US wanting to keep US for the natives WASPs 0 Native Americans WASPs 0 KnowNothing Party 0 Called themselves the American Party 0 Considered themselves such a secret society when asked about your party they say I know nothing 0 Generally exclusive to outsiders of the US 0 Trying to keep America American I Burned down Catholic churches beat up immigrants in their enclaves 0 NINA No Irish Need Apply 0 we need help but don t want Irish Riots 1840s60s 0 Activity of KnowNothing Party 0 Start fights beat up immigrants then police would come and arrest immigrants because they were fighting Irish and racial tension 0 White race 0 African Americans 0 Irish Irish and 5 factors of success 0 Language 0 Money 0 Location 0 Numbers 0 Stereotypes 0 Pretty much all work against them except the language part 0 Location and numbers worked together against irish because there was a lot in one place which contributed to stereotypes How did the Irish succeed in America 0 Language a big factor 0 Immigrants that come after Irish Chinese Italian and Eastern Euro immigrants have a harder time with language 0 Community support networks Hard work 0 Political process 0 People helped out Irish to become citizens so they d vote for them 0 Very corrupt but helped the ppl in need 0 End of 1800s 0 Irish started acculturating into the middle class I Formed middle class ethnic enclaves O Other groups coming in were seen as more of a threat to America 0
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