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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Summer mendez on Friday September 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SOC 200 at Central Michigan University taught by Elbert Almazan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Soc Research & Analysis in Sociology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
First Week notes dayJJ 1 What is a variable a Statistics is the study of variation b Social statistic is the study of variation in the social world c Assumed variation in criminal behavior i Criminal behavior can be a variable Variable is a social characteristic that can have two or more categories Constant is a social characteristic that has one category Examples Variable Constant Gender Women Age Men Race CathoHc Religion Educann 2 Variation a Looking at variation and the outcome the cause has to be a variable especially in criminal behavior b The causes must be variable to product two categories of people Criminal and noncriminals c Outcome is the dependent variable lndepende Depende Casual Variable Outcome Day2 1 Statistics in the social sciences Statistics study of variation Social statistics is the study of variation in the social world Causality One thing that causes another 2 Causality when Association things must very together Time order Cause must come before effect Nonspuriousness 2 things caused by a third A mechanism plausible reason of cause and effect A context specify conditions that permit or favor the causal relationship Nonspuriousness relation between two things not coincidental and caused by a third DP00quot Spurious relationship A third variable extraneous causes two others to change at the same time making it look like they are related 3 Hypothesisspeci c a Research based on theory statement expected to be found after data is collected b Nullquotno difference nothing is happening that would support our expectations c To test a hypothesis we must use variables 4 Variables are measured byoperationalized a Questions b Observations c Collected info 5 Good researchers a Test ideas against empirical reality b Plan and carry out inventions systematically c Do not become personally invested in their results d Replicate research and build social theory i Research must begin where the community of scholars left off Use others ndings and theories 6 Measurement a Concepts become numbers i Coding turn quotmeasuring devicesquot questions into numbers ii Same as instruments to quantify concept b Scales and indexes i Series of questions to answer a question ii Ex Self esteem measured by asking other ques ons Scale One question or many question used to measure a concept lndex many questions used to measure a concept 1 Levels of measurement a Nominal categories assigned Numbers have no mathematical reasoning Classify with out rank b Ordinal Categories indicated order c Interval assigns persons place and things to continuum Has no speci c interval No absolute zero point d Ration notes people places or thing on a continuum that has a zero point and speci c intervals between categories Dichotomous variables only have 2 categories
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