Study Guide for exam 1, 2, 3
Study Guide for exam 1, 2, 3 psyc3390
Popular in Adolescent psychology
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This 67 page Bundle was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Friday September 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to psyc3390 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 253 views. For similar materials see Adolescent psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Chapter 1 Adolescence is a cultural construction 0 What makes an adolescent is different in each culture 0 Cultures differ in o What adolescents are allowed to do 0 Date unsupervised What they are required to do 0 Work 0 What they are taught to believe 0 Patterns of daily life 0 Married Student Adolescence is o The period after puberty begins and before adult roles are taken on o A new term coming into common usage in early 20th century Adolescence in western culture a brief history 0 Ancient Greece 4th and 5th centuries o Plato amp Aristotle adolescence is the stage of life in which the capacity for reason develops age 14t021 Students shouldn t be in school until adolescence because they are unable to reason 0 1500 to 1890 o Lifecycle service move into the home of a master Apprenticeship training for adulthood The age of Adolescence 18901920 0 Extended childhood 0 Important changes that establish the characteristics of MODERN ADOLESCENCE Laws restricting child labor Requirement for children to attend primary AND secondary school no longer just for the rich The eld of adolescence as an area of scholarly study 0 G Stanley Hall G Stanley Hall 0 Father of scienti c study of adolescence o Wrote the rst textbook on adolescence 0 Reported that adolescents experience a great deal of quotstorm and stressquot as a standard part of their development 0 Con ict with parents mood disruptions risky behavior gt The claim that this is characteristic of ALL adolescents and that the source of it is purely biological is clearly FALSE more due to nurture and culture adolescence from Hall s time to our time o 1900 1424 years 0 2014 1018 years The initial age of menarche has declined Pushed adolescent to a younger age First signs of puberty begin about two years prior to menarche Today most adolescents attend secondary school which ends by age 18 not a signi cant age of transition for Hall Emerging Adulthood roughly ages 1825 0 5 distinguishing characteristics Identity explorations Instability Selffocus Feeling inbetween don t truly feel like a kid or adu Possibilities the age of possibilities gtUUl 39 U39l gt Emerging adulthood does NOT exist in all cultures 0 Only in cultures in which young people are allowed to postpone entering adult roles marriage parenting until at least their mid205 Transition to adulthood young people today report important marker of adulthood Accepting responsibility for oneseW 0 Making independent decisions Becoming nancially independent gt Characterized by individualism In more Collectivist cultures 0 Marriage 0 Being able to support a family 0 Being able to support parents nancially The scienti c study of Adolescence and emerging Adulthood Developmental changes are a result of biological cognitive and socioemotional processes 0 Biological physical changes within an individuals body 0 Cognitive changes in thinking and intelligence 0 Socioemotional changes in relationships emotions personality and social context 0 Scienti c Method 0 Identify a question of scienti c interest 0 Form a hypothesis 0 Choose research method and design 0 Collect data The sample should be representative of the population of interest 0 Draw conclusions Ethic in Human Research APAs ethical guidelines 0 Protection from physical and psychological harm o Informed consent 0 Con dentiality o Deception and debrie ng Research Methods Questionnaires o Closedquestion format openended questions 0 Can analyze large number of people quickly inexpengve 0 Interviews 0 Qualitative date more complex Personal 0 Coding interview data take time effort and money 0 Observations 0 Observe and record behavior can not say anything about causeeffect 0 Natural environment or lab study Ethnographic research 0 Researchers live among the people they wish to study Margret Mead First to say adoescene is not a time of storm an stress cross cuturay Case Studies 0 Examine one person or a small number of people in great depth 0 Results may not generalize Biological measurements 0 Hormonal functioning brain functioning genetics Correlational research 0 Describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics 0 Correlation coefficient 1 to 1 0 Negative vary together in opposite directions and positive vary together in same direction correlations o 0 Experimental research 0 Can reveal cause and effect bc variables are manipulated in a controlled way 0 Natural experiments 0 Twin studies adoption studies examine the relative contributions of genes and environment Methods and designs in developmental research 0 Cross sectional research 0 All data collected at one time quick and inexpensive o No information about individual developments change stability 0 Longitudinal Research 0 Studying the same individuals over a period of time 0 Can analyze stability and change in developemt behavior emotions etc and how early experiences affect ater experiences 0 Higher cost drop out effect Some pp move away or don t want to participate anymore Low socioeconomic status are more likely to drop out of study Chapter 3 Cognitive Foundations 0 Cognitive development changes in how people think how they solve problems and how their capacities for memory and attention change 0 Jean piaget cognitivedevelopment Theoryaa 0 Children of different ages think differently Involved in testing children and realized when children answered the question incorrectly all the children in the same age group answered the same incorrect way 0 Changes in cognitive development proceed in distinct stages discontinuous o The driving force behind development from one stage to the next is maturation Genetically based development What makes us go from step to step is our genes and getting older 0 The active construction of reality take place through the use of Schemes A mental conceptframework that is useful in organizing and interpreting information Believed children were active learners 0 Children are driven to understand the world Don t have to teach them to do it They learn through Schemes Assimilation and accommodation Assimilation occurs when new information is altered to t an existing scheme 0 My dog is brown so dogs are brown then I see a white dog and learn that dogs can also be white Accommodation entails changing the scheme to adapt to the new information o A child has only had female teachers so believes teachers are female Then gets a male teacher and must change scheme 0 Piaget s stage theory Sensorimotor 02 learn to coordinate activites of the senses with motor activity Preoperational 27 capable of representing the world symbolically language egocentric standing in front of the tv Concrete operations 711 better at using mental operations can reason logically about concrete events understand conservation 0 Concept of conservation 0 two glasses of different shape do they have the same amount of liquid 0 Spaced out candy looks like more 0 Dividing a piece in two makes it seem like more Formal operations 1115 to 20 can reason about problems involving multiple variables can think logically and abstractly can apply the rigor of the scienti c method to cognitive tasks Hypothetical deductive reasoning o What determines how fast a pendulum sways 0 Experiment One variable at a time 0 Formal operational thinking adolescent thinking Abstract concepts 0 Reason about concepts that cannot be experienced directly 0 Justice freedom good evil politics religion Complex 0 Can perceive multiple aspects of a situation or idea 0 Can understand metaphors sarcasm Metacognition thinking about thinking 0 Can monitor and reason about their thinking processes learn and solve problems more efficiently 0 Limitation of piagets theory Critiques of the formal operations stage 0 Individual difference 0 A great deal of variability among individuals in formal operational thinking 0 Schooling 0 Even if capable formal operational thinking is selective or is not needed 0 Cultural differences o What are the cognition requirements in a particular culture 0 Cognitive development in Emerging adulthood needs another stage piaget believed adults thought the same way just knew more 0 Postformal thinking Pragmatism o Incorporation of practical limitations to logical thinking 0 Dialectical thought 0 Most problems do not have a single solution Re ective judgement 0 Move away from duaistic thinking seeing the world in polarized terms Information processing approach ConUnuous 0 Attention o Focusing of mental effort 0 Most info enter the senses and processed no further 0 Selective attention ADHD focus on too much 0 Divided attention 0 Memory 0 In order to learn and reason you need to retain info in memeory and retrieve it when necessary Short term Long term Working memory Involves conscious active processing of incoming info and of info retrieved from long term memory 0 With age capacity increases as well as the knowledge base 0 Processing speed much quicker o Automaticity o The more automatic a task is the faster you can do it and the less working memory capacity it takes leaving room for other tasks 0 Executive functions 0 Ability to control and manage cognitive abilities such as attention memory plaining and reasoning Limitations of the information processing approach 0 Not a developmental theory not a holistic perspective 0 Computers are not selfre ective Practical Cognition Critical thinking and decision making 0 Critical thinking 0 Going beyond rote memorization 0 Does not develop automatically or inevitably 0 Decision making 0 Can adolescents make competent decision What age 0 Behavioral decision theory decision aing process Possible choices Consequences of each choice Desirability and likelihood of each consequence Integrating all info to make decision With age better at identifying more choices anticipating consequences 0 Why do adolescents take more risks than adults Make poor decisions Different evaluations of desirability of a consequence quotdual processing theoryquot two cognitive systems anayticamp heuristic intuition adolescents put more emphasis on intuition than ogic Steinberg amp Cauffman decision making is an interaction between cognitive and psychosocial factors Adolescents are more in uenced and overwhelmed by psychosocial factors Chapter 4 The norms and moral standards of a culture What is morally rightwrong Which behaviors should be rewardedpunished What is most important in life Beliefs about rolesgender roles agerelated roles roles related to social status Rooted in the cultures symbolic inheritance A set of ideas implicit and explicit about persons society nature and divinity Socialization the process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of their culture 0 Outcomes o Selfregulation restrain impulses and comply with social norms 0 Role preparation for roles in work gender and institutions such as marriage and parenthood o Cultivation of sources of meaning what is to be valued What is to be lived for 0 Cultural views 0 Individualism independent self Independence selfexpression Individual freedoms Individual achievements Western 0 Collectivism interdependent self Obedience conformity Harmonious social relations Cooperations contribution to group Eastern 0 cultures beliefs systems are not quotpure typesquot Socialization broad and narrow o Cultures de ne the range of acceptable person al variation O O Cultures differ in the degree of restrictiveness they impose Broad socialization individualism encourage individual uniqueness Narrow socialization collectivist value obedience and conformity lndividualism more creativity innovation and more loneliness social problems disorder 0 Sources of socialization 0 000000 0 O Peersfriends School Community Workplace Legal system Media Family in uence of family diminishes in adolescence Cultural belief system impact of in uence increases in adolescence The custom Complex 0 A typical practice in a culture and the cultural beliefs that provide the basis for that practice Dating o Is dating ontogenetic drive by innate processes l is it quotnatural for adolescents to start dating when they reach a certain age 0 Cultural belief in multicultural societiies O 0 Research has shown that cultural beliefs of American minority cultures tend to be less individualistic and more collectivistic than the beliefs of the American Majority culture What happen when the socialization young peope experience is not consistent across sources 0 Religious beliefs are cultural beliefs 0 O 0 Virtually all cultures have religious beliefs of some kind Prescirptions for socialization roles self regulation sources of meaning A code for behavior Individuals in developing countriestraditional cultures tend to be more religious National survey of youth and religion American adolescents 1317 2005 O 51 say religious faith is important in shaping their daily lives 52 reports attending religious services at least twice a month Still religion often a lower priority compared to friendships school media and work Parents are in uential Adolescents don t always follow traditional doctrines more likely to see religion as the way to be a good person and be happy More religious adolescents less depression lower rates of premarital sex drug use and delinquent behavior Religious participation and religious beliefs are lower in late teensearly 205 than at any other period of life Many emerging adults adopt a buffet approach to their religious beliefs Religious beliefs and participation among emerging adults related to higher wellbeing lower rates of risk behavior Cultural beliefs and moral development Religiousmoral thinking dependent on cultures beliefs or cognitive development Piagetamp Kohlberg moral development rooted in universal cognitive processes Piaget theory of moral development 2 distinct approaches to reasoning about moral issues 0 Heteronomous morality ages 47 Rules are xed set in stone Rules are sacred 0 Autonomous morality ages 1012 Can change the rules if everyone agrees Can take into account peoples motivations for behavior Chapter 5 Gender 0 Traditional cultures Adolescent boys and girls in traditional cultures often have very different lives and spend little time in each other s presence 0 From Girl to Women Girls typically work alongside their mothers from an early age During adolescence socialization narrows for girls while it becomes broader for boys Girls budding sexuality is more likely to be tightly restricted Often closely monitored by older female family members 0 From boy to man Manhood is something that has to be achieved no biological marker A de nite possibility of failure How Demonstrate 3 capacities provide protect and procreate There capacities also involve developing character qualities diligence courage con dence Spend most of their time with other males 0 Gender in American History 0 Women were discouraged from pursuing a profession because it was considered unhealthy for them This view was connected to beliefs about menstruation speci cally that intellectual work would draw a woman s energy toward her brain and away from her ovaries From girl to woman 0 4 areas where the lives of adolescent girls were narrowly constricted o occupational roles o cultural perceptions of female fragile innocent o sexuality 0 physical appearance 0 Advantages o A wide range of voluntary organizations run by adult women service projects building relationshps between adolescent girls and female mentors developing character qualities From boy to man 3 manhood transformations expectations for adolescent boys 0 communal manhood 17 and 18th cent Colonial America prepare for adult responsibilities in work and marriage small tightly knit communities interdependent o Selfmade manhood 19th cent More urbanized America Expected to become independent from their families lndividualistic character qualities self control independent decision maker 0 Passionate manhood 20th cent Passionate emotions anger sexual desire regarded more favorably as part of manhood Selfexpressionselfenjoyment Socialization and gender in the west 0 Gender intensi cation hypothesis Psychological and behavioral differences between males and females becomes more pronounced at adolescence because of intensi ed socialization pressures to conform to the cultures gender roles Girls looking physically attractive forming intimate friendships Boys being tough aggressive sexually active 0 Gender socialization 0 Differential gender socialization Socializing males and females according to different expectation about what is appropriate for each gender 0 Parents Clothing toys bedrooms encouragediscourage behaviors monitor girls closely 0 Peers Punish with ridicule and unpopularity those who deviate from gender roles expectation 0 School Teachers often assume boys and girls are inherently different in interest abilities Media amp gender O 0 Magazines focus on gender socialization especially those read by girls Focus on appearance Traditional female roles For girls media exposure is related to dissatisfaction with own appearance 0 Gender socialization as a source of problem 0 O O O 0 Girls at risk for negative body image eating disorder Overweight girls may be bullied Boys expected to be verbally aggressive toward peers defend manhood Lowstatus boys suffer insults and humiliation Adolescent boys who value aggressiveness as part of being quota manquot at greater risk for school difficulties alcohol and drug use risky sexual behavior 0 Cognitive Developmental Theory of Gender Kohlberg1966 O 0 Gender is a fundamental way off organzing info obtained from the world Age 3 understand themselves as being either male or female gender identity Age 4 or 5 identify things as appropriate for either males or females Age 610 perceptions of gender become less rigid Age 1216 perceptions of gender become more rigid gender intensi cation As adolescents become more selfre ective they become more concerned with compliance to gender norms for themselves and others 0 Gender Schema Theory 0 0 Gender is one of our most important schemas from early childhood onward By adolescence we have learned to categorize an enormous range of activities objects and personality characteristics as male or female 0 Masculinity femininity and androgyny O O Described traits regarded by most members of the American majority culture as being either masculine or feminine A crossnational study of young people in 30 countries found similar gender perceptions Adolescent also value qualities that are more gender neutral Adrogyny a combination of masculine and feminine traits An androgynous person has a greater repertoire of traits to draw on in their daily lives o Adolescents For girls best for selfesteem to be androgynous For boys best for selfesteem to be masculine Peer acceptance is highest A re ection of culture 0 Gender roles in American minority groups African American females Female role characteristic re ect dif culties black women have faced historically self reliance assertiveness perseverance Black adolescent girls tend to have higher selfOesteem and are less concerned with physical appearance than white girls African American males Historically and currently many have been subjected to insults to their manhood Many adopt extreme characteristics of the male role Toughness detachment pride con dence risktaking aggressiveness Latino women Highly traditional until recently Take care of children the home be submissive to husband Today latina women are employed at rates similar to whites Latino Men Highly traditional Machismo males dominance over females Undisputed head of household Beliefs about gender differences Gender stereotypes College students often evaluate women s work performance less favorably than men s Even when a statistically signi cant difference exists between males and females For most characteristics there is more similarity than difference Why do so many gender stereotypes persist Why do people think of the genders as radically different quotopposite sexesquot Gender schemas Gender schemas draw our attention to examples that con rm our expectations o The social roles of men and women seem to con rm our beliefs 0 Social roles theory 0 Differential gender socialization males amp females develop different skillsattitudes leading to different behaviors 0 We see different behaviors of males amp females and conclude it must be because they are inherently different Chapter 6 The self Enhanced cognitive capacity means that adolescents change in their selfconceptions their selfesteem theirs emotional understanding and their identities Culture and the self 0 Broad socialization vs narrow socialization Self conceptions more abstract 0 The capacity for abstract thought means an adolescent can distinguish between Actual self who I am Possible self who I might become ldealseW Feared self 0 The size of discrepancy between actual self amp ideal self is related to depressed mood 0 However awareness of actual and possible selves can motivate adolescents to strive for ideal self and avoid becoming feared self 0 Self conceptions more complex 0 Adolescents can perceive multiple aspects of a situation or idea Selfesteem 0 Overall sense of worth and wellbeing Selfconcept my concrete characteristics roles relationships and personality Selfimage evaluation of my qualities and relation with other 0 The increased concern about self esteem over the past 50 year is a distinctly American phenomenon o Selfesteem declines in early adolescents then rises through late adolescence and emerging adulthood quotThe imaginary audiencequot afraid that others are judging me harshly Adolescents in western cultures are STRONGLY peer oriented and value the opinion of their peers highly Different aspects of selfesteem Baseline selfesteem Stable enduring sense of worth and wellbeing Barometric selfesteem Fluctuating sense of worth and wellbeing as one responds to different thoughts experiences etc The experience sampling method has revealed that rapid uctuations of mood among adolescents in a typical day The more enjoyable and secure their social relationship the more stable their selfesteem The selfperception pro le for Adolescents 8 domains of adolescent selfimage o scholastic competence social acceptance athletic competence physical appearance job competence romantic appeal behavioral conduct cose friendships Each domain in uences goba selfesteem only to the extent that the adolescent views that domain as important 0 Physical appearance most strongly related to global selfesteem followed by social acceptance 0 Girls are more critical of their physical appearance and their selfesteem tends to be lower than boys during adolescence white adolescence OOOOOOO Causes and effects of selfesteem O O 0 Do kids today get too much empty praise Does high selfesteem hep adolescents to do well in school Adolescents selfesteem most in uential factors feeling accepted and approves especially by parents and peers Parental affection concern setting clear and fair rules harmony in the home School success and selfesteem are mutually reinforcing Teach knowledge amp skills that can lead to real achievement 0 In ated selfesteem may lead to conduct problems in classroom 0 Self esteem in emerging adulthood o Improvements in self esteem during emerging adulthood More comfortable with physical appearance Relationship with parents generally improve Left the social pressure cooker of high school More control over social context 0 The emotional self 0 Experience sampling method asses emotions at numerous speci c moments Emotional highs and lows occurs more frequently in adolescents An overall de ation of childhood happiness 0 Biological The amygdala is active in the processing of strong emotions while not much activity in frontal lobes 0 Cognitive and environmental factors likely more in uential Stressors life changes personal transistion romantic experiences social pressures lack of sleep How stressors are interpreted 0000 0 Identity 0 Eriksons theory of human development 0 Each period of life is characterized by a crisis 0 Potential for a healthy path or an unhealthy path of development at each crisis 0 Developing via the healthy path provides Adolescence identity vs identity confusion o Eastablish a clear sense of who you are and how you t in to the world 0 What are your traits abilities interest What are the life choices available to you Ultimately have to make commitments 0 Key areas in which identity is formed love work and ideology o How to develop a healthy identity Re ect on identification reject some embrace others 0 Identity research o It takes a long time to reach identity achievement emrering adulthood or beyong 0 Over recent decades the late teens and early 205 have become a period of quotfree role experimentationquot for an increasing proportion of young people Critiques 0 Identity status model a postmodern perspective Indemnity is not so stable and unitary The postmodern identity diverse elements not always uni ed changes across context and throughout the life course 0 Gender Biased toward male development The healthy standard is striving for an independent identity Girls put more emphasis on relationship and sometime have difficulty integrating their aspirations for love and aspiration for work 0 Culture Eriksons theory assumes an independent self that is allowed to make free choices Psychosocial moratorium period of exploration is considerably more possible in some cultures than others Traditional cultures exploration in love work ideology are limited to nonexistent Chapter 7 Family Relations 0 Family system approach 0 Each subsystem in uences ever other subsystem in the family 0 A change in any family member or subsystem results in a period of DISEQUILIBRIUM until the family adjusts to the change Can be difficult even with a good change 0 3 aspects of the system Parents developing during midlife Sibling relationships Extended family relations Parents developing during midlife o For most people in most respects midlife is a satisfying and enjoyable time of life not usually a midlife crisis 0 Job satisfaction peaks earning power tends to increase typically more adaptable and better at handling stress In general parent s marital satisfaction and overall life satisfaction improve when their children enter emerging adulthood and leave home Exceptions individuals in bluecollar professions more physical work divorce during midlife is more difficult Research issues adolescents family issues 0 O O 0 Sharp declines in amount of time adolescents spent with families around 5th 9th grade Mother more deeply involved with their adolescents mostly positive interactions but also more con ict with mothers Fathers averaged only 12 minutes alone with children 40 of time spent watching tv and when they did talk sports was most common topic Mothers mostly performed household tasks adolescents were little help Adolescents brought home their emotions from the day responsive caring parents relieved adolescents negative emotions Sibling Relationships 0 5 common patterns in adolescents relationships with siblings Caregiver Buddy relationship Critical relationship a lot of ghting negative interactions teasing arguing Rival Relationship built mainly on competition Casual relationship not con ict but ambivalent toward each other 0 Adolescents report more frequent con icts with siblings than with anyone else 0 With age les con ict and less time spent with siblings o In traditional cultures the caregiver relationship is most common form Extended family relationships 0 Traditional cultures O O Household typically include extended family members Adolescents often lose to grandparents Grandparents may focus more on nurturing and supporting adolescents American Minority Cultures Close relationships with grandparents living in same house or nearby Extended family support especially important in reducing the emotional and economic stresses of single parenthood American Majority Culture Relationships with grandparents important but less frequent contact Parenting styles 2 dimensions 0 Demandingness control degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require compliance 0 Responsiveness warmth degree to which parents are sensitive to childrens needs and express love warmth and concern OOOO Authoritative high high Authoritarian high low Permissive low high Disengaged low low 0 Parenting styles as custom complexes 0 Authoritarian parenting discourages independence but the other three re ect parents beliefs that it is good for adolescents to learn autonomy Permissive and disengaged parents promote this outcomes in a negative way through the absence of restraint no guidance Adolescents need to be allowed enough autonomy to develop their capacities and at the same time exercise a greater amount of responsibility Adolescents are more receptive to their parents rules and guidance when parents are warm and loving Children of authoritative parents selfassured socially skilled Children of authoritarian parents conforming creative independent dependent passive gt Children of permissive parents irresponsible conforming immature gt Children of disengaged parents Impulsive delinquent Reciprocal or bidirectional effect 0 Evocative genotype environment interactions adolescents may evoke certain behaviors from parents 0 Parents behaviors is affected by 1 what they believe is best AND 2 how resistant or compliant the adolescent is in response to parents rules 0 Differential parenting adolescent siblings within the same family often give very different account of what their parents are like toward them 0 Parenting in other cultures 0 Most striking difference is how rare authoritative style is in ono western cultures 0 Parents do NOT encourage discussion and debate but not the same as authoritatian 0 Traditional parenting style high responsiveness and high in a kind of demandingness that expects compliance by virtue of cultural beliefs supporting the inherent authority of parental role 0 Parents and children are often very close and spend a lot of time together interdependence mutual obligation 0 Parents in ethnic minority cultures in US may be more like those in traditional cultures Attachment Attachments between parents and children have an evolutionary basis in the need for vulnerably young members of the species to stay in close proximity to adults who will care for and protect them 0 2 types of attachment 0 Secure infants use mother as quotsecure base from which to explorequot seek physical comfort from her if frightened or threatened o Insecure Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort According to Bowlby interactions with primary caregiver help form an internal working model shapes expectations amp interactions in relationships with others throughout life 0 Secure attachment 0 Secure attachment to parents in adolescence is related to a variety of favorable outcomes Effects on adolescents 0 High selfesteem and welling being 0 Better psychological and physical health 0 Closer relationships with friends and romantic partners 0 More autonomous and selfreliant If you push independence before they re ready and capable they are more likely to be clingy and dependent 0 Parent adolescent con ict 0 O Adolescents and their parents agree on many of the most important aspects of their views of life and typically have a great deal of love and respect for one another However con ict increases sharply in early adolescents As con ict increases closeness decreases Sources of con ict Why this time of life 0 Biological changes adolescents are bigger stronger Cognitive changes increased thinkingreasoning abilities make adolescents better arguers Regulating the pace of adolescents autonomy is often a source of con ict Seemingly minor issues could be substitutes for more serious underlying issues 0 Cultureamp con ict with parents 0 0 Con ict is NOT universal or natural even though biological and cognitive changes in adolescents are Uncommon in traditional cultures Economic reasons in nonindustrialized traditional culture families rely on each other economically expected to assist one another routinely Cultural reasons beliefs about parental authority and the appropriate degree of adolescent independence Parents amp adolescents in the West agree that independence selfsufficiency is the ultimate goal for adolescents Learning to suppress disagreements and submit to parents authority prepares adolescents in traditional cultures for an adult life of interdependence amp a designated position in a family hierarchy Emergering Adults relationship with parents 0 In US leaving home typically takes place around ages 18 19 0 Emerging adults report greater closeness and fewer negative feelings toward parents after moving out o No more day to day friction and can control frequency of interactions with parents 0 Emerging adults staying at home more common among latinos blacks and Asian Americans 0 About 40 of American emerging adults return to living at home at least once after they leaveworks best if they learn a mutually respectful form of relating on an adult level 0 In European countries emerging adults tend to live with their parents longer than in the us 0 Cultural values emphasize mutual support within the family while also allowing young people substantial autonomy Historical change amp the family Patterns over 2 centuries in the US 0 Lower birth rate 0 In 1800 women gave birth to an average of 8 children today 2 children Longer life expectancy 0 Many adolescents experienced the death of a parents remarriage Increased urbanization 0 Leaving the farms The changing functions of the family 0 The range of functions that the family serces has been greatly reduced The family today has mainly emotional or affective functions to prove love nurturance and affection 0 Families used to provide all functions for eachother religion education job health The past 50 years 0 Rise in divorce rate 0 Nearly HALF of the current generation of young people are projected to experience their parents divorce by their late teens Rise in rate of singleparent households 0 Currently about one third of white children and two thirds of black children are born to single mothers 0 Only 20 of black and 4045 of whites grow up through age 18 living with both of their biological parents 0 Rise in rate of dualearner families 0 Employment among women with school aged children has increased from about 10 to 70 Effects of Divorce Adolescents adjustment in divorced families 0 Increased risk of o Behavioral problems 0 Psychological distress 0 Lower academic achievement 0 ln emerging adulthood at risk of 0 Greater problems forming close romantic relationships 0 Higher risk of divorce themselves How does divorce affect family process quality of family members relationships degree of warmth or hostility etc 0 Exposure to parents hostility beforeduringafter divorce is stressful and damaging as is high con ict in nondivorced households Mothers tend to be less affectionate more permissive and less consistent in their parenting in 1st year 0 Contact with father declines more negative feelings toward him 0 Income in mother headed household decreses by 4050 on average Effects of remarriage Probably more consistent parenting lessened economic stress 0 Increased risk of variety of problems anxiety depression lower academic achievement conduct disorders delinquent activitites although following divorce adolescents tend to have fewer problems than younger children following remarriage adolescents have MORE problems adjusting compared with younger children Why 0 have to integrate a new person into a family system already strained by divorce adolescents may regard step father as an unwelcome intruder establishing an attachment may be difficult adolescents are less likely than younger children to accept a stepfathers authority Single parenthood 0 increased risk of low school achievement psychological problems Behavioral problems 0 support of extended family is usually bene cial 0 nancial support emotional support sharing of parental responsibilities Effects of Dealearner families 0 gender of the adolescent 0 girls tend to be more con dent and have higher career aspirations 0 boys may have more arguments with mothers7 siblings possibly over greater household responsibilities potential school problems 0 Number of hours parents work 0 High risk for problems if both parents work full time especially if adolescents is regularly unsupervised after school hours Quality of relationship between parents amp the adolescents Parental monitoring demandingness amp responsiveness Physical abuse many abused children are resilient amp grow up and do not abuse their children 0 What leads parents to be physically abusive o Abused themselves 0 Expierence parental con ict harsh discipline or loss of a parent 0 Family stresses poverty amp parents problem depression poor healthy alcohol abuse 0 Poor parenting skills amp poor coping skills Abused adolescents o More aggressive with peers and adults 0 Antisocial behavior substance use depression anxiety poor school performance dif culty in peer relationships Sexual Abuse 0 While physicalabuse l more commonly in icted on boys sexual abuse is usually in icted on girls by their brothers fathers or step fathers Abusers usually insecure and socially awkward with adults not usually aggressive Abused adolescents 0 Dif culty trusting others amp forming intimate realtionships 0 Risk for depression anxiety social withdrawal substance use variety of psychological disorders suicidal thoughtsbehavior 0 Either highly avoidant of sexual contact or highly promiscuous Chapter 8 Friends and Peers Clarifying the difference 0 Peers People who are about the same age 0 FHends People with whom you develop a valued mutual relationship 0 Family amp friends in Adolescents 0 Amount of time spent with family decreases by about half from 5th to 9th grade then decline even more steeply from 9th to 12th 0 More time with peers at school and in leisure time after school weekend summer break 0 Relationship with family and friends also change in quality 0 Adolescents depend more on friends for companionship and intimacy o Adolescents who have secure attachment to parents more likely to develop secure attachment to friends 0 Adolescent more likely to talk to parents about education future occupation o Adolescents more likely to talk to friends about personal issues social relationships 0 Emotional states with friends 0 Adolescents happiest moment are usually with friends amp generally much happier with friends than with family A close friend mirrors their own emotions Often a difference in moods between parents and adolescents Feel free and open with friends 0 Friends are also the sources of adolescents most negative emotions Worry about being like being popular But overall positive feelings are more common with friends than with family Family and Friends in Traditional Cultures 0 Pattern of increasing time with peers decreasing time with parents 0 More likely to have major gender differences 0 Involvement with peers much greater for BOYS 0 GIRLS spend a lot of time with Adult females 0 For both males amp females more of their time is spent with their families than in the west Remain close to families while also developing greater closeness to friends Developmental changes in Friendships o Intimacy o The need for intimacy with friends intensi es in early adolescence 0 Better at perspective taking empathy can truly think about their friends as individuals And their worries cares 0 Abstract thinking can thinktalk about qualities such as trust and loyalty Developmental changes in Friendships 0 Gender in the development of intimacy in adolescents friendships 0 Girls spend more time than boys talking to their friends and they places a higher value on talking together as a component of their friendships 0 Girls friendships are more affectionate nurturing 0 Boys more likely to emphasize shared activities as the basis of friendship Choosing Friends 0 Similarity 0 Age gender 0 Similarities especially important in adolescent f ends Education orientation Mediaamp leisure preferences Participation in risk behavior Ethnicity 0 Ethnic similarities between friends is typical at all ages but adolescence is a time when ethnic boundaries becomes sharper Friend s in uence amp peer pressure 0 Friends in uence is a better term friends can have substantial in uence on adolescents but the effects of the entire peer group are weak 0 Friends in uence rises in early adolescence peaks in midteens declines in late adolescence 0 Can encourage and discourage risk behavior 0 Can provide emotional support and comforting Friends in uence risk behavior 0 Correlation between an adolescents rates of risk behaviors and hisher friends rates of risk behviors 0 Do friends encourage risk behavior Or are they friends because they have similar risk behavior Selective association we choose friends who are similar to ourselves 0 Longitudinal studies both selection AND in uence contribute to similarities in risk behavior Similar before becoming friends and tend to become even more similar throughout the friendship 0 Friends can also in uence each other AGAINST risk behavior Friends in uence Support and Nurturance o 4 types of support friends can provide 0 informational support advice 0 instrumental support help with tasks tutoring o companionship support 0 Esteem support 0 Support and nurturance in adolescents friendships o Positively correlated with psychological health 0 Negatively correlated with depression psychological disturbance o it could be that adolescents with more favorable characteristic attract support from friends 0 longitudinal studies support leads to higher self esteem lower depressive symptoms improvements in academic performance Friendships in Emerging Adulthood 0 similar to friendships in adolescence intimacy is a key component friends can provide 4 types of support 0 the importance of intimacy rises from adolescence to emerging adulthood o more likely to have othersex friendships o the importance of friendships tends to declines as romantic relationships develop Cliques and crowds cliques 0 small groups of friends who know each other well do things together and form a regular social group Crowds 0 Larger reputationbased groups of adolescents who are not necessarily friends and do not necessarily spend time together 0 Help adolescents de ne own identities and the identities of others elites athletes academics deviants others Sarcasm and ridicule 0 Critical evaluation of one another are a typical part of the social interactions in adolescent cliques Antagonistic interactions include sarcasm ridicule o Directed at individuals within cliques 0 Establish dominance hierarchy o Reinforce clique conformity ridiculed if you are doing something that doesn39t t 0 Directed at individuals outside clique o Clarify boundaries between us and them Relational aggressions o Nonphysical aggression that harms other by damaging relationships 0 More common among girls 0 Their gender role prohibits more direct expressions of disagreement and con ict 0 And a way of asserting dominance Developmental changes in crowds Spending so much time around peers on a daily basis elevates the importance of peers as social reference groups 0 From early to midadolescence crowd structure becomes more differentiated and more in uential 0 From mid to late adolescence less hierarchical and less in uential o By 11th grade signi cance of crowds diminishes less important in de ning social status and social perceptions 0 Parallels in identity development Identity issues prominent early to mid adolescence and crowd structures help de ne one identity Late adolescence no longer need to rely on crowds for self definition 0 Crowd membership related to Deviants highest in risk behavior lowest in school performance amp social acceptance Academics lowest in risk behavior highest in school performance Elites highest in social acceptance in between the other groups on risk behavior and school performance Crowds in American Minority Cultures o In high schools with mostly non white students the same kinds of crowds exist 0 In school with multiethnic populations adolescents tend to see fewer crowd distinctions in other ethnic groups than they do in their own Changes in Clique amp crowd composition during adolescence and emerging adulthood 0 Early adolescents spend most of their time with same sex friends Gradually these cliques of same sex friends begin to spend time together in larger mixedsex cliques and crowds 0 Still even in 12th grade more time is spent with samesex friends than with other sex friends Popularity and unpopularity o Sociometry o A research method in which students rate social status of other students 0 May also rate students on attractiveness intelligence friendliness aggressiveness o Popularity related to physical attractiveness amp social skills 0 High intelligence tends to be related to popularity 0 Social intelligence and general intelligence are correlated o What typically makes the nerd amp geeks unpopular is the perception that they LACK social skills and put academics above social life 0 Skills for successfully handling social relations and getting along well with others 0 Sensitive to others needs listen well communicate their own point of View clearly o Con dent without being arrogant 0 Unpopularity 2 types o Rejected adolescents actively disliked aggressive quarrelsome o Neglected adolescents barely noticed withdrawn Rejected adolescents males may have a de cit in social cognition A problem of social information processing 0 Interpret others actions as hostile even when the intention is ambiguous Aggressiveness is not always a unpopularity 0 Popular kids can be aggressive when its helpful for them Controversial adolescents aggressive amp have social skills 0 Strongly liked as well as strongly disliked by different people and by the same people on different occasions Social status is quite stable selfperpetuating 0 Consistency in qualities that contribute o Unpopular kids develop a reputation that is hard to break Rejected children at risk for aggression related problem academic problem dropping out of school Neglected children at risk for depression academic problems low selfesteem alcohol abuse Interventions 0 Manage emotions stress aggressiveness 0 Become better communicators ask questions listen Prosocial behaviors cooperation helping Compromise and negotiate Relate self to peers interests Don39t dominate source of 0000 Bullying 3 components to bullying aggression repetition and power imbalance highest rates in early adolescence Boys are more likely to be bullies as well as victims Victims higher rates of physical symptoms psychological symptoms helplessness anxiety unhappiness 0 Usually low status 0 Rejected by peers o Anxious o Withdrawn o aggressive Bullies also higher rates of psychological problems and problems in relationships with parents and peers 0 Could be any status 0 May bully to gain status 0 Avoid being targeted as a victim Chapter 9 Love and Sexuality Prior to the 1970s adolescents love in western cultures was structured by dating which usually followed more or less formal rules 0 Teens now are more likely to go out in mixed gender groups without any speci c pairing up 0 Boys and girls may go out simply as friends Developmental Course of Adolescence 0 National study of adolescent health by 11th grade 80 of adolescents had experience a romantic relationship at some point 0 Physical maturation typically does NOT predict whether adolescents have begun dating age is a better predictor 0 Why do individuals form love relationships 0 Recreation 0 Learning 0 Status Companionship o Intimacy Courtship Early 6th grade and late 11th report recreation is most important 2nd intimacy 3rd status College students report intimacy followed by companionship o What do adolescents look for in a romantic partner Middle adolescence Boys phsycial attractiveness ranks highest 0 Girls interpersonal qualities support intimacy Late adolescence Both males and females emphasize interpersonal qualities Support intimacy communication commitment passion 0 Dating Scripts Dating scripts are still highly in uenced by GENDER with the power mostly on the side of the boys Males proactive scripts Females reactive scripts Romantic experiences are associative with positive and negative outcomes in adolescence depends on age Have a romantic relationship l tend to be more popular Early Adolescent Girls serious love relationship related to negative outcomes depressed mood o Probably dating older guys Feel pressure Longitudinal Amount of romantic experience associate with 0 social acceptance friendship competence romantic competence o greater substance use more delinquent behavior Sternbergs theory of Love 0 Different types of love involve combining 3 fundamental qualities of love lntimacy Liking Passion lnfatuation Commitment Empty Love Passion intimacy Romantic Love quotin lovequot Passion commitment Fatuous Love lntimacy commitment Companionate Love Commitment intimacy Passion Consummate Love Typically no longterm commitment in adolescence 2 principal types of adolescent love infatuation and Romantic love The prominence of intimacy in romantic relationships tend to grow through adolescence and emerging adulthood 0 Keep in mind In industrialized countries people are not likely to get married until they are in at least their mid 205 Adolescent Passion in NON western cultures 0 Feelings of passion appear to be a universal characteristic of young people 0 However romantic love as the basis for marriage is a new cultural idea 0 Marriages arranged by parents have been the norm Adolescents report falling in love 0 Birds of feather holds true Attachment 0 Attachment to romantic partners mimics attachment to parents Maintain proximity seek comfort psychological secur y Secure attachmentsl emotional support and concern for the partners wellbeing lnsecure either an excess of dependence or an excess of distance When love goes bad breaking up 0 Adolescent egocentrism may contribute to the intense emotions after a breakup Personal fable 0 College student break ups Lower levels of intimacy amp love Less similar in person characteristics attitudes Less balance unequal levels of commitment A lack of common interests Rejected men tend to be lonelier and more depressed after a break up Choosing a marriage partner 0 Study on the importance of traits in mate section over 10000 young people in 37 countires impressive consistencies across countries and across gender Mutual attraction ove Dependable character Emotional stability and maturity Pleasing disposition o Sharpest CROSSCULTURAL division the issue of CHASTITY Arranged Marriages 0 Marriage alliances between two families 0 Economic considerations family status religion wealth 0 Much less is demanded of marriage O 0 People expect to nd intimacy mainly with their family of origin Increasingly young people in these cultures believe they should have at least have some say in a marriage partner quotsemiarranged marriagequot Cohabitation O 0 US and Northern European countries cohabitation before marriage is experienced by at least 23 of emerging adults Tends to be brief and unstable for young Americans Cohabit partly because they want to make it more likely that the marriage will last Cohabitation before marriage is related to HIGHER likelihood of divorce Those who cohabit tend to be different from those who do not in ways that are related to higher risk for divorce Less religious more skeptical of marriage as an institution more accepting of divorce Sexuality O O O 0 Usually progression is masturbations necking amp pecking sexual intercourse oral sex Boys report higher rates of masturbation than girls Social desirability effects could affect reporting Kissing amp necking above waist are usually the rst sexual experience with a partner By age 16 more than half reported Followed by petting below waist By 18 more than half reported Sexual intercourse High school students reported have sex at least once 0 19251965 10 females 25 males 0 2012 46 of students 0 Average age of rst intercourse 17 College students reported having sex at least once 0 Before 19605 40 0 19805 80 has remained stable Ethnic difference High Schools students who have has sex 0 Lowest to highest 0 Asian American white Latino African American Pornography Most popular internet sites Increased use from early adolescence to emerging adu hood More common among boys Viewing porn is correlated with delinquency substance use more favorable attitudes toward premarital sex greater likelihood of reporting sexual activity Degrading ways of depicting women Separation of sex from intimacy Desensitization Cultural beliefs amp adolescents sexuality 0 O O Cultures can be restrictive semirestrictive or permissive No culture punishes violations of male premarital chastity with the severity that they punish female violations of chastity American majority culture semirestrictive Gender amp the meaning of SEX 0 00000 Adolescent boys and girls learn different SEXUAL SCRIPTS Female adolescents learn to link sex with love affection Male experience a lot of peer pressure to have sex Males more likely to take pride in sexual experience Many females report mixed feelings In western countries adolescent sex is more disapproved of for girls than boys Sexually active adolescents O O Adolescents who have sex early before 15 more likely To be early users of drugs and alcohol To be from single parents families To have grown up in poverty less to hope and plan for Parental monitoring is related to alter sexual initiation Friends in uence and selective association Early maturing girls tend to attract older boys and may become sexually active earlier Sexual harassment amp date rape O O O 0 Early maturing girls are especially likely to be targeted for sexual harassment Majority who are harassed also report sexually harassing others Adolescents rate of date rape highest for those who have sex at early age Alcohol plays a big part in date rape on college campuses Lesbian gay and bi sexual Adolescents O O O LGB identity Awareness of LGBT identity usually begins in early adolescence Average age of coming out 16 0 Higher rates of substance abuse school difficulties depression and running away from home are higher among LGB adolescents 0 Possible parent rejection peer abuse Contraceptive Use and Nonuse 0 Many American adolescents who are having sex do not use contraception consistently Around 60 of adolescents report contraception always Most adolescent sexual activity is UNPLANNED and INFREQUENT Personal fable quotim not the type to get pregnantquot Embarrassment over purchasing amp using contraception Late Teens more likely to use contraceptions than early teens Us has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy in developed countries American adoelscents receive missed messages about sexuality sex not strongly prohibited or widely accepted 0 Different socialization sources give different messages 0 School sex ed rarely includes explicit discussion fo contraceptives Discomfort discussing it with parents 0 Religion types of countries with low teenage pregnancy rates 1 the cultures that strongly prohibit sexual activite 2 permissive cultures Pregnancy parenthood and abortion 0 Teenage pregnancies often to single mothers 0 African American and Latino women have higher teenage pregnancies rates Consequences of early parenthood 0 Mom 0 Child Drop out of school Less likely to become employed or go to college Less likely to get married and more likely to get divorced Often had problems before getting pregnancy Less competent at child rearing Babies more likely to be premature to have LBW Behavioral problems School problems All increases risk of problems 0 Mother is young 0 Mother is unmarried Mother is poor The rise of schooling for adolescents The age of adolescents 18901920 state laws requiring school attendance through the early teens A similar trend in other western countries Developing countries adolescents labor is usually needed by their families If economy is not industrialized school based knowledge may be of limited use As economic development continues in developing countries the number of adolescents receiving education will continue to rise Changes in schooling for Adolescents secondary school in America 0 19th century for the wealthy especially males broad liberal arts 1920 framework for American high schools as we know it today was established comprehensive high schools mid20th cent expanding school population curriculum expands to include family life arts music PE 19805 back to basics test scores performance math and science Secondary Education around the world Adolescents attending secondary school 0 Developed countries virtually all secondary about 50 college 0 Developing countries about 50 secondary about 10 college Developed countries Usa Canada japan 0 The comprehensive high school European Countries 0 College prep 0 Vocational school 0 Professional school 0 Some European countries also have apprenticeship systems 0 European systems earlier decision making about career directions 0 American systems greater exibility but everyone in same school classes with widely divergent educational and occupational interest amp abilities Developing countries 0 Northern Africa SubSaharan Africa china latin America 0 Common themes 0 Girls less likely to attend secondary school amp less lkely to work outside of the home 0 Rising enrollment rates for both genders 0 Many schools poorly funded and overcrowded o The wealthy can go to high quality private schools International comparison 0 2012 8th grade test of reading math and science 0 key in uence on academic performance the countries level of economic development What works Characteristics of effective schools high schools 0 Size ideal size is 5001000 students 0 Larger high schools less attachment to teachers and to the school as a whole more diverse range of classes 0 Smaller schools Less diversity in extracurricular activities BUT students are more likely to participate More likely to be place in positions of leadership amp responsibility 0 Class size Variation within typical range 2040 students may not matter much Small class better for students with academic dif culties School system set up 0 Junior middle or neither 6 primary 3 junior 3high school 5primary 3 middle school 4 high school 8 primary 4 high school 0 the rst year of middle school orjunior high is a dif cult time set up more like high school preparing for high school a school transitions taking place in early adolescents are likely to coincide with a variety of other changes puberty growth spurt body shape acne peer relations also changes in school experience a larger more impersonal setting a more dif cult academic work grades are more serious 84 plan might be better for selfesteem student engagement the more transitions and changes the harder the expenence other plansbigger more viared group of peers greaters diversity of classes more independence negative effects may be more about the NATURE of the school experience a less opportunity for close relationships with teachers a teahcers increased emphasis on control is mismatched with early adolescents increase abilities amp desires for autonomy undermines motivation and selfesteem Cultural focuses Japanese high school amp colleges 0 Japan is often at or near the top in international comparisons of academic achievement 0 More schools days a year 0 Focus on rote learning and memorization 0 Cultural beliefs all children are capable Most people in Asian countries believe that success or failure in school depends on EFFORT Americans typically believe that ability matters more 0 National system of entrance exams to high school and collegeintense pressure quotcram schoolsquot after school or private tutoring Characteristics of Effective schools School Climate quality of studentteacher interactions what sort of expectations and standards they have for students and what kinds of methods are used in the classroom 0 Teachers 0 Supportive and involved with students warm 0 Apply rm discipline when necessary 0 Clear communication 0 High expectations for students conduct and academic performance This type of teaching leads to this type of student 0 Students 0 Higher attendance 0 Higher achievement test scores 0 Lower rates of behavior problem 0 Lower rates of depression Engagement and achievement in High School beyond the classroom 0 Engagement the quality of being psychologically committed to learning 0 Being alert attentive trying to truly learn that material 0 A remarkably high proportion of adolescents are disengaged during their time in school 0 Why 0 Possibly school climate 0 But the bigger problems seem to be Family environments Peer relations Work and leisure patterns Cultural beliefs Family Environments amp school Expectations 0 If parents have high expectations adolescents tend to live up to those expectations 0 Parent involvement in adolescents education 0 Relates to adolescents engagement amp academic achievement 0 Authoritative parents 0 Highest levels of engagement in school and school success o Adolescents more persistent responsible Neglectful parenting worst outcomes 0 Parents tend to be less involved in education as child gets older Family Environements amp school 0 Family scoical class 0 As family SES increases adolescents grades amp achievement test scores increases and highest level of Education ultimately attained also increases 0 BEFORE entering school middleclass children score higher than workingclass amplower class children on tests of basic academic skills and the gap continues to widen as they age 0 Social class represents other family characteristics that relate to achievement IQ nutrition amp health care major stresses and day to day stresses 0 Middle class parents more likely to be authoritative amp actively involved in adolescent s education Peers friends and school 0 In high school friends in uence can be freater than parents in uencein o How consistently adolescents attend class 0 How much time they spend on homework o How hard they try in school 0 Grades 0 Friends in uence may be positive support and encouragement for doing well in school 0 By middle school many adolescents are concerned with hiding highachievement orientation from their peers Having friends who belittle bad mouth school tends to be related to lower school success Work leisure amp school 0 Beyond 10 hours a week the more adolescents work The lower their grades The less time spent on homework The more they cut class The more they cheat on schoolwork The less committed they are to school The lower their educational aspirations Abundant leisure also interferes with schoolhomework o Unstructured socializing negatively related to academic performance 0 But organized activities may have positive effects 0 Asian Americans 0 Less time working less time on socializing more non school time spent on academics highest levels of academic achievement of any ethnic groups Cultural beliefs and school 0 School methods and atitudes of parentspeersadolescents are rooted in cultural beliefs about what is valuable and important 0 Asian cultures have a long tradition of valuing education the focus on education often come rst other aspects of life have a much lower priority 0 Americans value education but also want adolescents to be quotwell roundedquot organized activities fun leisure time sports arts etc Academic achievement in high school individual difference 0 Ethnic difference 0 Asian American adolescents highest academic performance 0 White adolescents 0 Black and latino adolescent lowest OOOOO Varies by a Social class a Parental expectations 0 Asian American parents and adolescents tend to believe that academic success is due mainly to effort other groupsability a Friends attitudes toward education a Perception of prejudice amp discrimination Value of education Perception of the consequences of NOT succeeding academically Gender differences 0 From primary school to high school girls tend to get higher grades 0 Girls less likely to have learning disabilities be held back a grade drop out of high school Girls more likely to attend college and graduate 0 Girls tend to enjoy the school environment more Positive experience favorable relationships with teachers 0 Adolescent girls are more likely to Extremes of achievement Adolescents with disabilities 0 Learning disability Achievement is substantially below that expected for age schooling and level of intelligence Not the result of phsycial disabilities mental retardation emotional disorders or environmental disadvantage Diagnosis reading disorder most common mathematics disorder disorder of written expression 0 Boys 2x as likely Blacks and Iatinos more likely High risk of dropping out Interventions should be introduces as soon as children enter school ADHD o Inattention hyperactivity impulsiveness Restlessness distractibility Functional impairment in more than one context Boys are 4x more likely to be diagnosed Causes At least partly inherited Environmental factors prenatale period through cthhood o Combinations of medication and behavioral therapy is most effective Operant conditioning techniques parent training classroom interventions o Stresses and strains with parents peers Extremes of achievement 0 Tracking 0 Upper collegeprep 0 General average students 0 Remedialspecial education Advocates OOOO o All students are engaged in schoolwork that is best suited to their varying levels of ability and achievement 0 Not all students plan to attend college 0 Critics 0 Students in lower tracks get a second rate education Teachers material requirements 0 Students in lower tracks continue to all further behind difficult to ever get out of a low track 0 High school drop outs Only 8 of young Americans had not obtained a high school diploma by age 24 2010 Ethnic difference Latinos have the highest dropout rate In all ethnic groups except Asian Americans equal and very rare males are more likely than females to drop 0 O 0 out What leads to drop out History of school difficulties low grades behavioral problems low scores on achievement amp intelligence tests Dislike school Sometimes aggressive active sensationseeking personalities Learning disabilities Parents n Dropped out themselves In Poverty poor quality schools life stresses parental support not available a Singleparent family Substance use psychological problems Unemployment or low paying jobs Interventions should be implemented as EARLY as possible Education in Emerging Adulthood college and university Dramatic increases in college enrollment Time to explore various possible occupational futures Characteristic of college students in US 70 of HS graduates enter college Females more likely to enter college Ethnic groups 0 O O 90 of Asian americans enter college 71 of whites 60 of Blacks and latinos It takes average 56 years to obtain a quot4 yearquot degree Nearly half of students who enroll at 4 year colleges drop out before getting a degree Gender 0 Females more likely to major in education psychology 0 Males and females about equal in biological sciences business premed and prelaw o Males more likely to major in OCmputer schience amp engineering 0 Women earn 34 of dentistry degree 1 1970 half of MD degrees 8 1970 half of law degrees 51970 nearly half of MBA degrees 4 1970 across eld women earn 57 of post grad degress o tuition rates were over 4x higher in 2007 than 1982 taking in ation into account 0 retention is positively related to students family SES 0 lack of adequate nancial support is a common reason for leaving college before obtaining a degree 0 students learn better in smaller classes that require active involvement and they enjoy those classes more 0 and students at large universities are often in classes of several hundred students 0 still la large majority of students are satis ed overall with the education they are receiving 0 research ahs found a variety of intellectual bene ts from attending college vernal and quantitative skills oral and written communication skills critical thinking 0 many nonacademic bene ts personal growth 0 those who attend college tend to have considerably higher earning occupational status and career attainment over the long run compared to those who do not attend Occupational choice In industrialized economies a huge range of possible occupations how to choose 0 The development of occupation goals Crystallization speci cation Implementation Stabilization ConsoHda on Not everyone follow this linear path Most of todays emerging adults will change career directions at least once 0 Women amp increasingly men have to balance work and family goals 0 Most women in western societies lead a dualcareer life 0 Today in western cultures women have the main responsibility for child care In uences on occupational goals 0 Personality characteristics 0 People seek occupations that are consistent with their interests amp talents 0 There is probably not just one personality type that is well suited to a particularjob OOOO Gender 0 Jobs held many by women service sector teacher nurse secretary childcare worker o Mainly men engineer chemist surgeon computer software designer Tend to differ in pay and status 0 Young women may anticipate the challenge of balancing work amp family some jobs are highly demanding and time consuming o It is rare for young men to take time away from the workplace to raise young children 0 Technologies may allow for more work to be done at home or in exible shifts 0 Work in emerging adulthood Unlike adolescents Most emergin adults are looking for a job that will turn into a career A focus on identity questions The average American hold 78 different jobs between the ages of 1830 Many emergin adults express a sense that they did not really choose their current hobquotjust fell into itquot Unemployment Refers to people who are not in school are not working and are looking for a job In European and US unemployment rate for emerging adult is at least 2x as high as for adults beyond age 25 Higher risk for depression especially emerging adults who lack strong parental support Over HALF of high school drop outs aged 1821 are unemployed Most of the new jobs require at least a minimal level of information skills Recommendations besides providing access to jobs improve quality of education and schoolto work programs Volunteer work community service Work provided to the community without monetary compensation American are more than 2x as likely as people in other western countries to take part in volunteer work What effects does is have on adolescents 0 High sense of personal competence tend to have higher educational goals and performance 0 More likely to volunteer if parents volunteer 0 Want to help others and gain personal satisfaction 0 Become more concerned about political and social issues more conscious of themselves as member of their society 0 Emerging adults who volunteer for military service are typically motivated by patriotism the prospect of receiving money educational support amp job training 0 Often bene ts selfcon dence selfdiscipline leadership skills and ability to work with others 0 Chapter 12 media 0 Media and young peoples development American adolescents 0 Listen to music 4 hr day Tv 2 hrday Over 70 have tv in their bedroom 70 of girls report regular magazine reading over 90 have access to computers both at home and school 0 75 own a digital device internet 0 7 hr day using media theories of media in uence cultivation theory watching television gradually shapes a persons worldview to eventually resemble the world view most frequently depicted on tv mean world syndrome see all the negativity of the media 0 social learning theory vicarious learning models perform behavior that are rewarded 0 both depict the media consumer as relatively passive 0 uses and grati cations approach what sort of uses motivate young people to watch a tv show go to a movie listen to a song read a magazine use the internet what sort of grati cations satisfactions do they receive from the media they choose 2 key principles 0 people differ in numerous ways that lead them to choose different media 0000 0 people consuming the same media product will respond to it in a variety of ways depending on their individual characteristics each adolescents identity motivates the selection of media products paying attention to certain media products leads to an interaction with those products evaluations interpretations adolescents engage in applications of the media content they may incorporate this content into their identities 5 uses of media by adolescents 0 entertainment 0 identity formation ideal selves to emulate feared selves to avoid gender role identity sexual scripts romantic scripts 0 high sensation high sensory and emotional intensity of certain music lms and games o coping relieve stress and negative emotions 0 youth culture identi cation Media an adolescent socialization 0 important identity related aspects of socialization developing values amp beliefs learning gender roles occupational preparation broad socialization freedom of speech diverse media offerings uncensored despite age restrictions most adolescents can access the media they want 0 media is marketdriven a goal is to make money not to promote successful socialization like other socializing agents adolescents have greater control over this socialization source difficult for parents to enforce restrictions on media 0 media may functions as a super peer providing information about sexuality 0 some media content and uses are rebellious to parents society but not all Controversial media television amp aggressiveness o the overwhelming majority o violent crimes all over the world are committed by young males aged 1525 violent television and adolescent violent behaviors are CORRELATED aggressive adolescents prefer aggressive TV programs longitudinal studies have provided some evidence that violent television cause aggression in CHIDLREN 0 tv inspires a lot of imitative behavior in children 0 adolescents can re ect on what they are watching and decide whether to model the behavior or not 0 but it may be a causal factor for adolescents already at risk for violence stronger evidence tv violence in uences adolescents A39ITITUDES toward violence 0 more accepting of violent behaviors less empathic toward victims of violence Controversial media electronic games and aggressiveness most American adolescents have played electronic games some harmless entertainment many of the most popular ones are violent active roleplaying report experience fantasies of power and fame competitions explore exciting new situations stress release Violent games related to heightened aggressiveness hostility anxiety and may cause aggressive behavior but individuals already at risk for violent behavior are more likely to be affect by and attract to the violent games desensitization to violence attitudes and empathy Controversial media tevelesion amp movies amp sex most tv shows watched by American adolescents contain sexual content talkbehavior typically no discussion of sexual risks or responsibilities recreational orientation toward sex strong gender stereotypes 0 boys will be boys girls better be prepared through tv movies adolescents learn 0 beliefs about malefemale roles in sexual interactions 0 what is considered attractive o appropriate sexual scripts may be related to more permissive attitude about sex pornographic movies that portray sexual aggression as pleasurable for the victim increase the acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations Controversial media music Rap hip hop 0 Some of it has controversial themese seual explotation of women violence racism 0 Sexuality as a mans successful assertion of power over women 0 May reinforce racial stereotypes depicts black men as violent women hating and sexobsessed 0 Most popular among adolescents who have high rates of risk behavior only correlational 0 Some rap has positive messages 0 Heavy metal 0 Some of it has very violent themes 0 Heavy metal fan tend to have a dark view of the world alienated from mainstream society 0 Tend to be more reckless than other adolescents 0 May listen to the music to destress distract form or calm anger Controversial advertising the malboro man amp friends 0 90 of smokes begin smoking by age 18 0 age range when smoking initiation is most likely 1417 cigarette advertising campaigns have been directed at adolescents and have proven to be quite effective in in uencing them to smoke o youthful fun and coolness tobacco advertising as well as cigarette smoking among young people has declined in recent years now targeting developing countnes New Media the internet 0 94 of adolescents from high SES families have a computer at home but so do nearly 90 of low SES families and nearly all have an internet connection 0 girl are a little more likely to use it for social purposes boys for games and downloading music 0 A positive or negative in uence Depends on what the content is amp how it is used 0 Online victimization sexual predators 15 adolescents reported receiving a sexual solicitation request for sex or sexual information 0 academic cheating 0 social interactions Relationships for most In internet is more likely to relieve social isolation amp promote social connections 0 Finding likeminded others Social networking websites 0 2010 Rates of use 3 among 1317 year olds 72 among 18 29 year olds 0 pro les are an arena for identity presentation expression of self adolescents and emerging adults use the sites mainly to keep in touch with friends and make new friends blog a public internet journal a personal account of their lives 27 of adolescents have created their own blog about half of adolescents red others blogs 0 content daily activities interaction with friends or family members romantic relationships can connect to other blogs post comments mobile phones amp text messaging us 2010 69 of 1114 year olds and 85of1518 year olds own a mobile phone texting quiet quick don t have to go through the niceties of greetings less social pressure constant contact the world of friends can be a constant presence similar trend in other developed countries Media amp globalization in developing countrie social and economic changes has been extremlely rapid in past 50 years young people growing up with western media parents grandparents not familiar with it and compete with the songs art of local culture Western media amp gender relationsgender roles 0 Mary for love not arranged young women in professional occupations and unashamed of their sexuality outward displays of affections o Teenagers ght with parents go out on unsupervised dates 0 Leading to a desire for more autonmomy more variety in heterosexual interactions more choice ofjob and mate Western media amp physical appearance thin ideal 0 Right now in most places local media are coexisting with American media 0 Problems and resilience The developmental psychopathology approach 0 Establish links between early precursors of problems and outcomes Risk factors more likely and protective factors less likely Biological psychological and socialcultural factors interact O Avenues for both prevention and treatment 0 Examples of protective factors social competencies commitment to learning positive values authoritative parenting social support constructive use of time 0 Treatment approach 0 For example antipoverty programs Services for children academics social skills collegeamp job planning Services for parents mental health job searches job skills health insurance Teach parents to be responsive and attentive to their childrens needs make children feel safe and emotionally connected 0 Having a parent that Is attuned to your needs and meet your need is a huge deal 0 lnternalizing problems Primarily affect a persons internal world 0 Depression anxiety and eating disorders More common among FEMALES o o Externalizing problems Problems that affect a personal external world 0 Behavior problems delinquency substance use risky driving unsafe sex More common among MALES 0 Leading cause of death among adolescents and emerging adults automobile accidents This group 1624 has the highest rates of auto accidents injuries and fatalities compared to all other age groups Why lnexpedence o Ego centrism personal fable the optimistic bias 0 The way young people drive amp the kinds of risks they take more likely to speed follow to closely violate traffic rules allow too little time to merge especially males 0 More likely to drive under the in uence of alcohol 0 Less likely to wear seat belts 0 Parental involvement amp monitoring of adolescents driving behavior 0 Friend in uence promotes risky behavior 0 A sensationseeking personality type Risky automobile driving prevention 0 Driver education 0 Does not seem to have an effect on crash involvement Graduated driver licensing gdl 0 Obtain driving privileges gradually contingent on a safe driving record 0 Restrictions driving with a parent during curfews not during with teenage passengers seat belt use quotzero tolerancequot rule for alcohol use 0 Substance use Alcohol American adolescents relatively low Cigarette smoking relatively low Marijuana relatively high Substance use typically rise through high school of American high school seniors use in the past month 0 40 alcohol 0 31 binge drinking 0 19 cigarette use 0 23 marijuana use substance use in adolescent highest among native Americans 0 followed by white and Latino adolescents 0 African American and Asian American are the lowest Frequent use of other substances is rare 3 or less past month use The peak of substance use comes in emerging adulthood peak in early 205 decline in late 205 Substance use esp alcohol is highest among emerging adult who are college students o A lot of time spent in unstructured socializing 0 Deviant behavior may be explained on the basis of propensity motivation and opportunity Us trend in substance us 0 Rates of most types of substance use past month declined from late 19705 to the early 19905 rose through the rest of the 19905 then declined further during the 20005 0 Use in the past month statistics 0 alcohol 70 in 1974 40 2011 o Cig nearly 40 1974 19 2011 o Marijuana 37 1974 23 2011 Sequence of substance use 0 Typically a a sequence of 4 stages 0 Beer wine 0 Cigarettes hard liquor o Marijuana 0 quothardquot drugs cocaine heroin Research supports the gateway drug theory adolescents who try one type of substance are more likely than adolescents who have not tried it to move along the sequence Substance use and abuse 0 Purpose of substance use 0 Experimental 0 Social 0 Medicinal selfmedication o Addictive o associated with problems 0 young people who engage in experimental or social substance use are healthier psychologically than those who are frequent users frequent users also more likely to have problems in school at home with peers and more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors preventing substance use 0 a variety of drug use prevention programs have been used in schools 0 method Target selfesteem or peer pressure or increase knowledge of health dangers o more successful programs have focused on 0 family functioning o parental monitoring delinquency and crime the great majority of crimes are committed by young people mostly males between the ages of 1225 0 3 kinds of criminal acts status offences crimes that are only crimes because they are committed by juveniles index crimes 0 always crimes 0 violent 0 property nonindex crimes 0 less serious misdemeanors 0 crimes committed by young men in their teens and early 205 usually take place in a group 0 2 kinds of delinquency over threefourths of adolescents commit at least one criminal act some time before the age of 20 but a lot of it is minor 0 lifecourse persistent delinquets neuropsychological de cits lead to difficult temperament in infancy likely ADHD learning disabilities in childhood high risk environment 0 adolescence limited delinquents o preventing crime and Delinquency o few delinquency prevention programs have been very successful punishment works to change behavior if you are punished immediately and every time They are usually forced to participate Programs typically take place in adolescence when problem behaviors are already well established 0 multisystemic therapy vs usual juvenile justice services serious adolescent offenders multisystemic approach is more successful intervene in the home school and neighborhood 0 what factors are involved in Risk behavior o remember that adolescents are active participants in their socialization amp make choices about their environments individual characteristics combine with socialization in uences to lead to behavior 0 family factors authoritative parents l least likely to participate in risk behavior related to substance use problems 0 parents who are permissive disengaged or hostile 0 high levels of family con ict and family disorganization parents lenient attitude toward substance use similarly related to delinquency discipline is inconsistent or lenient Lack of parental monitoring 0 f endsin uence selective association and in uence each other socialized delinquency socialized delinquents in group unsocialized delinquents solo the rst risk factor for delinquency begin in infancy an infant temperament that is aggressive and difficult some parents respond with harsh inconsistent or permissive parenting childhood impulsive and low selfcontrol can only befriend the other aggressive rejected kids 0 these groups become delinquent in adolescence 0 School Factors Poor school performance is associated with various risk behaviors School climate Having a substantial proportion of bright amp achievement oriented students in the school The schools prevailing belief system value of schoolwork fair but rm discipline rewards for good performance 0 Neighborhood amp community factors Neighborhood identity cohesion High rates of residential mobility related to high rates of crime Community norms regarding drug use amp availability of drugs 0 Religious beliefs amp participation Act as a protective factor Also considered self selection type of person to be religiously active 0 Individual factors Aggressiveness Sensation seeking Poor school achievement is a predictor of delinquency not just correlated May be re ection of other characteristics Low impulse control The optimistic bias Males are more at risk than females 0 Culture amp risk behavior Schlegelamp barry s analysis of 186 cultures 0 For boy adolescence is the time when antisocial behavior most often occurs if it occurs at all 0 Found evidence of adolescent antisocial behavior in less than half 0 f cultures studied Us has highest rates of violent crimes At least party due to higher rates of poverty Growing up in a low SES family greater likelihood of delinquency for adolescents of all ethnic groups 0 African American amp latino adolescents more likely to come from a low SES home lnternalizing problems depression 0 Major depressive disorder must be present Depressed mood Reduced interest or pleasure in activities 0 Signi cant increase or decrease in appetite or weight 0 Insomnia or oversleeping Psychomotor agitation or retardation 0 Low energy or fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt 0 Problems thinking or concentrating Recurring thoughts of death or suicide Rates of depressed mood raise steeply from age 10 to about 1517 then decline in the late teensamp 205 Diathesisstress model of mental disorders 0 Begin with a diatheses preexisting vulnerability 0 Expression of that vulnerability requires a stress environmental condition Twin amp adoption studies provide evidence of genetic in uences o Heritability estimate of genetic depression is Not that high 0 Types of stressor related to depression 0 Family Emotional unavailability of parents ow support High family con ict parental divorce Economic dif culties 0 Peers Less contact with friends more experiences of rejection Poor peer relationships tend to be selfperpetuating 0 Cumulative effect of multiple stressors More stressor isn t just the three stresses added up its signi cantly worse because they are at the same time Depression 0 Gender differences greater risk for females 0 Little evidence that biological difference can explain it 0 female gender role gender intensi cation during adolescents body image concerns girls responses to pubertal changes 0 rumination going over something in your head over and over again 0 difference in responses to stress amp con ict distress turned inward OR outward 0 treatment 0 antidepressant drugs ssri nrsi serotonin nuroepinepherine uptake increase in brain have side effects doesn t always have same effect hope that adolescents and children are not on meds bc of developing brain 0 sleep and exercise helps 0 cognitive behavior Therapy CBT change the cognitive habits that are promoted depression negative attributions irrational thinking distortion of reality 0 My situation is permanent and uncontrollable Change behaviors exercise social interactions selftalk More long term bene ts less likely to relapse compared to drugs only Suicide 0 The 3rd most common cause of death among young people ages 1519 after automobile accidents and homicide Suicide attempts often take place as the symptoms of depression appear to be subsiding Females more likely to attempt suicide but males more likely to actually kill themselves 0 Genetic susceptibility to depression amp other mental illness 0 A family life that is chaotic disorganized high in con ict amp low in warmth little emotional nurturance Substance abuse 0 Family life may make them less able to deal with being rejected by peers dumped by a romantic partner school failure or other stressful painful events 0 Eating disorders Extremely distorted thinking Anorexia nervosa o Compulsion to lose weight coupled with certainty about being fat despite being 15 or more underweight Amenorrhea 0 Cognitive distortion of body image 0 0 Extreme body ideal and body dissatisfaction o Intense fear of gaining weight 0 Bulimia o Binge eating combined with pruging Eating disorders more prevalent among white adolescents american girls 0 Cultural roots 0 More common in cultures that emphasize thinness More common in middle to upper SES 0 Typically occure in females in their tend amp early 205 0 Girls in uenced by magazines Eating disordered symptoms are more common than a clinical disorder Individual factors 0 A general susceptibility to internalizing disorders Treatment Anorexia hospital based program 0 Family therapy 0 Cognitive behavior therapy Often deny problem and resist help 0 About 10 of anorexics eventually die from starvation or physical problems cause by weight loss Resilience Good outcomes in spite of serious threats to adaptation and development 0 Protective factors Overcome risk factors High intelligence parenting that is both warm and controlling a caring adult mentor outside the family Strong ethnic identity High prosocia behavior low risk behavior Religiosity Realistic goal setting Selfcontrol emotion amp behavioral regulation 0 Emerging adulthood is a key period for the expression of resilience Military service romantic relationships higher education development of religious faith work opportunities
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