Psych 202 - EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
Psych 202 - EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
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Date Created: 05/13/14
Study Guide for Exam 2 L content was only in lecture T content is only in your textbook Lecture 422 Chapter 5 SENSATION Receptor cells Environmental stimuli neurological signal Labeled lines T Each nerve input reports only particular type of info Transduction Pacinian corpuscle T Vibration and texture Meissner s corpuscle T Light touch and changes Merkel s disc T Edges and points Ruf ni corpuscle T Skin stretching Free nerve endings T Pain receptors in skin Note for the cells listed above know them at a basic level as the textbook describes eg vibration for Pacinian corpuscles Somatosensory system T Skeletal muscle Receptive eld T Area a neuron sees Adaptation T Adapts to same stimulus occurring over and over Progressive loss of receptor sensitivity as stimulation maintained Routing through thalamus to primary sensory cortex in general that thalamus is a relay station for most sensory systems All senses except smell go to thalamus then to other areas Synesthesia All senses merge together Sensation L Stimulus interacting with neurons making neurological signals Perception L Interpreting neurological signals from environment Lectures 422 428 and Chapter 6 HEARING TASTE SMELL Decibels intensity Hertz frequency 50Hzlow l8000high Pinnapinnae outer ear Eardrum gets hit by air molecules and vibrates onto ossicles Ossicles 3 bones that get info from eardrum and they Vibrate and strengthenpinpoint signal send to oval window Middle ear ossicles Oval window connection between middle and inner ear Inner ear Involves cochlea hair cells Cochlea Inner ear does place coding temporal coding snail like structure apex wide and the base is narrow Basilar membrane Place coding inside cochlea low frequency sounds are coded at the apex wider and high frequency sounds are coded at the base narrower Inner hair cells Make neurological signals from mechanical opening of channels communicate most auditory info Tectorial membrane Membrane that hair cells brush against cause cells to bend and tip links open ion channels to depolarize cell Stereocilia Fingers on hair cell open channels to depolarize hair cells Mechanism of transduction see figure 63 Tip links open channels which depolarize cell ca ions come in to make Vesicles sticky and release glutamate Hair cell afferents T Bring info in Hair cell efferents T Send info out Tuning curve T Range of frequencies that hair cells respond to ideal frequencies take little intensity to trigger less ideal frequencies take more intensity to trigger Inferior colliculi T Sound goes from ears to inferior colliculi in midbrain Medial geniculate nuclei MGN thalamus T In thalamus sound goes here before auditory cortex Tonotopic organization Neurons organized based on frequency same frequencies close to each other place coding Place coding Base of basilar membrane narrow high freq detected Apex of basilar membrane wide low freq detected Temporal coding Rate of action potentials correlates to frequency more aphigher frequency Intensity differences Compare sounds from both ears if louder in one ear than the other the sound is closer to ear that heard higher intensity Sound shadow Angle of sound to ears area where sound isn t reaching as quickly Latency differences Sound takes longer to get to one ear than other ear which indicates that it is farther away Conduction deafness Middle ear problem blocks vibrations Sensorineural deafness Cochlea can t convert mechanical signals into neurological signals Central deafness Brain structures can t interpret auditory information Cochlear implants Microphone detects sound the electrically stimulates cochlea at locations that correspond to sound s pitch Vestibular system T Balance and orientation Semicircular canals T Orientation roll yaw pitch Gel moves inside All perpendicular to one another Tell you where your head is in space Proprioception L Body sense where you are in space Muscle spindle L Muscle length sends signal when muscle is stretched Gogli tendon organ L Muscle tension contractions Phantom limbs L Amputees experience pain from limb that is not there nerve endings fixed with mirror and visual stimuli Five basic tastes Salty umami sweet sour bitter Flavors T definition taste smell In uenced by taste smell visual input etc Taste buds Inside rolls of tongue inside papillae Cluster of receptor cells Taste receptor cell Labeled lines responds to one taste type Taste map of tongue myth Can taste each type of taste equally across whole tongue Approximate lifespan of taste cells minutes or days or weeks or years T p 160 10 daysl4 days Labeledline taste coding L and p162 each taste cell responds to one type Experiment in support of labeledline taste coding in mice L transplanted the sour receptor cells onto the bitter receptor created bitter experiences in mice Taste sensitivity across people L supertasters lots of taste buds vs average vs nontasters few taste buds Olfactory epithelium cells in mucus of nose combos of receptors create single scent Olfactory receptor cells aka olfactory sensory neurons molecules caught in mucus and dissolved processed by receptors directly to amygdala and other brain structures dissolving proteins in mucus odorants change receptor proteins and causes reaction Olfactory learning across generations in mice L Learned to fear odor changed sensitivity to odor and response to next generations Vomeronasal Organ System Detects pheromones mating Pheromones Detected by VNO cause sexual attraction and mating in sweat inactive in humans Lectures 430 51 and Chapter 7 VISION Dorsal visual stream WHERE info is processed Ventral visual stream WHAT info is processed Retina Back of the eye that has all the cells and photoreceptors that detect light Lens Focuses on near or far objects by accommodation by ciliary muscles Ciliary muscles Allow accomodation Accommodation Process by which lens focuses on objects like camera focus Myopia T Eyeball is too long so light converges ahead of retina Photoreceptors Rods night vision and cones color that respond to light info in retina Rods Night vision located mostly in periphery away from fovea Cones Color vision located mostly at fovea high visual acuity but need high intensity of light Bipolar cells In between photoreceptors and ganglion cells OFF or ON Ganglion cells On center respond to on center bipolar cells Off center respond to off center bipolar cells Optic nerve Ganglion cell axons turns into optic tract Scotopic system T Rods Photopic system T Cones Rhodopsin Light reacts with rhodopsin and causes less glutamate to release hyperpolarizes cell Hyperpolarization in response to light Excited depolarized by absence of light light hyperpolarizes cell releases less glutamate Photoreceptor adaptation Adapts to changes in light less sensitive to constant ambient light Visual acuity In fovea cones are high intensity of light needed Fovea Part of retina where light hits photoreceptors cones directly high acuity Optic disc T Blind spot optic nerve goes into retina in back of eye can t see in that area Occipital cortex Back of head where visual info is processed Optic chiasm Where optic nerves cross and become optic tract Lateral geniculate nucleus LGN Part of thalamus Ganglions send info to LGN LGN sends info to primary visual cortex Vl striate cortex Responding to line receptive fields put together that respond to dots simple cell Visual pathways in human brain see Fig 710 l retinal image inverted and reversed 2 ganglion axons form optic nerve optic chiasm temporal axons continue into optic tract on same side axons from nasal haves cross to opposite side most axons terminate in LGN of thalamus some axons terminate in superior colliculus Axons sent back and forth btwn LGN and striate cortex Primary visual cortex on medial surface Foveal region large in cortex Left primary cortex right visual field Visual field Where you can see in space at a given time Topographic projection aka retinotopic mapping T Retina extends topographic projection onto cortex map of visual field side by side points Blindsight T Claim to be blind but can sense where things are without realizing it Receptive field Space particular neuron responds to Oncenter offsurround receptive fields dark donut receptive field Space in visual field particular cell bipolarganglion responds to inner circle Offcenter onsurround receptive fields Light donut receptive field Responds to outer donut field releases more glutamate How ONOFF bipolar cells differ ON 0 releases its own glutamate when light is on so no glutamate released from PR 0 does not release glutamate when light is off so glutamate is released from PR OFF 0 releases its own glutamate when light is off so glutamate is released from PR U V 39gt 0 Does not release its own glutamate when light is on so no glutamate is released from PR Lateral inhibition Hcells inhibits cells next to hyperpolarizes so won t fire Context effects on perception of brightness see Fig 715 amp explanation Contrast effects how we see brightness if light should fall in an area seems brighter shadows affect our perception Striate cortex 0 Primary visual cortex Extrastriate cortex T Other visual areas of brain Simple cortical cell Simple cells make up complex cells Respond to lines in specific orientationslocations within receptive field Complex cortical cell Get info from simple cells Combine location information from simples responds to many simple cells can detect movement Hubel amp Weisel expts link to 1minute video in lecture 19 slides L Cat experiments respond to lines Form and movement in higher cortical areas pgs 187189 T Complex cells allow to put simple cells together and perceive motion V5 What and where streams Fig 729 T Dorsal where Ventral what Patient DF explanation T pg 197198 Theory about increase in prevalence of myopia p 199 Used to have to look at far away objects often now only look at things right in front of us Illusions amp past experience TED video link in lecture 19 slides See things how they have been in past best guess of present Illusions amp predicting the near future link in lecture 19 slides L See best guess of future based on past experience and visual cues Lecture 55 and Chapter 9 HUNGER Glucose Energy source of body get from food Glycogen Insulin converts glucose into glycogen Storage form of glucose Insulin Allows body to absorb glucose converts glucose to glycogen Glucagon Converts glycogen to glucose so body can use energy Lipids T Basal metabolism T Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 Obesity T Anorexia nervosa T Familybased treatment T Bulimia T Bingeeating T Lectures 56 57 and Chapter 10 SLEEP Circadian rhythms T cycles biological Freerunning Take away light cues how peoples sleep cycles change without light cues Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN Controls sleep cycle in thalamus Molecular clock DNA proteins degrade over 25 hour period Transplant experiments amp SCN T pgs 275276 Lesion SCN and people lose sleep cycles Retinohypothalamic pathway Specialized retinal ganglion cells Path between retina receives light info and thalamus tells brain to be awake when light and asleep when dark Slowwave sleep SWS Restoration brain waves move slower stage 3 and 4 Note the textbook is wrong here stages 1 and 2 are not slowwave sleep SWS stages 3 amp 4 REM sleep Dreaming rapid eye movement paralyzed rapid brain activity Biological functions of sleep understand differences between four functions see pg 289 Memory consolidation restorerepair clean brain Narcolepsy T Not enough hypocretin fall asleep randomly Cataplexy T rag doll muscles go limp Hypocretin T not enoughnarcolepsy Sleep paralysis T during rem sleep cannot move but eyes move rapidly Lectures 58 512 and Chapter 8 SEX Gender and individual differences in sexual response cycles T Fig 83 General role of hormones in human sexual behavior T p 232 Sexual differentiation generally p 232233 Gender versus Sex L Gender social construct sex biological hormones body structure chromosomes Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia XX too much androgen masculinized genitals Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome XY identify female testes no androgen receptors Guevedoces T XY Genetic condition affects testosterone related hormone enzyme that converts testosterone develop mostly male genitals don t masculinize masculinize at puberty raised as women General concepts and points in pages 243247 T some in L Orientation may be partially or fully biological OLIVER SACKS CHAPTERS There will be questions on the exam that relate to the assigned chapters from The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat Assigned chapters see additional notes in the Oliver Sacks Reading Schedule on the course website Chagter l The Man Who Mistook Chagter 3 The Disembodied Lady Chagter 4 The Man Who Fell out of Bed Chagter 5 Hands Chagter 20 The Visions of Hildegard
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