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SOC 464 Contemporary Society in the People's Republic of China

by: Matthew Venema

SOC 464 Contemporary Society in the People's Republic of China

Marketplace > University of Washington > Sociology > SOC 464 Contemporary Society in the People s Republic of China
Matthew Venema

William Laverly

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About this Document

This is three sections on approximately 100 years of history in China to present based on the lists of terms Professor Laverly gives us. It took hours and hours hence the expense. A lot of the info...
William Laverly
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Date Created: 05/13/14
Notes on China in Revolution Parts I amp II 19111949 Fall of the Qing Ch ing Dynasty 1911 Frustrated by the Qing court39s resistance to reform and by China39s weakness young officials military officers and students began to advocate the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the creation of a republic They were inspired by the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yatsen A revolutionary military uprising the Wuchanq Uprising began on 10 October 1911 in Wuhan The provisional government of the Republic of China was formed in Naning on 12 March 1912 warlords was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the country was divided among military cligues in the mainland regions of Sichuan Shanxi Oinqhai Ninqxia Guanqdonq Guanqxi Gansu Yunnan and Xiniiang The era lasted from the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916 until 1928 when the conclusion of the Northern Expedition with the Northeast Flaq Replacement began the quotNaniing decade however when old warlords such as Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang were deposed new minor warlords persisted into the 19305 and 1940s as the central government struggled to keep its allies under rein a great problem for the Kuomintang KMT through World War II and after the civil war Some of the most notable warlord wars post1928 including the Central Plains War involved nearly a million soldiers The division of the country continued after the Warlord Era until the fall of the Nationalist government at the end of the Chinese Civil War Origins The origins of the armies and leaders which dominated politics after 1912 lie in the military reforms of the late Qing Dynasty These did not establish a national army but utilized regional armies and militias which lacked standardization or consistency The most powerful army was the northernbased Beiyang 4rmy under Yuan Shikai which received the best in training and modern weaponry Officers were loyal to their superiors and formed cliques based upon geography and shared academy experiences Units were composed of men from the same province This policy was meant to reduce dialectal miscommunication but encouraged regionalist tendencies The Xinhai Revolution in 1911 brought widespread mutiny across southern China Soldiers once loyal to the Qing government began to defect to revolutionary forces Rebel troops established a provisional government in Naming the following year under Sun Yatsen The revolutionaries were not strong enough to defeat the Beiyang army and continued fighting would almost certainly lead to defeat Instead Sun negotiated with Beiyang commander Yuan Shikai to bring an end to the Qing and reunlfy China In return Yuan would become president Yuan refused to move to Nanjing and set the capital in Beiiing where his power base was secure Reacting to Yuan 39s growing authoritarianism the southern provinces rebelled in 1913 but were effectively crushed by Beiyang forces Civil governors were replaced by military ones In December 1915 Yuan made clear his intentions to become emperor of China The southern provinces rebelled again in the National Protection War only this time it was more serious because most Beiyang commanders abandoned Yuan He renounced monarchy to woo back his lieutenants but by the time he died in June 1916 China was fractured politically The NorthSouth split would remain during the course of the Warlord Era treaty ports The British established the first treaty ports in China at the conclusion of the First Opium War by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 As well as ceding the island of Hong Kong to the United Kingdom in perpetuity the treaty also established five treaty ports at Shanqhai Canton Ninqpo Fuchow and mg The following year the Chinese and British signed the Treaty of the Boaue which added provisions for extraterritoriality and most favoured nation status for the latter country Subsequent negotiations with the Americans 1843 Treaty of Wanqhia and the French 1844 Treaty of Whampoa led to further concessions for these nations on the same terms as the British The second group of treaty ports was set up following the end of the Arrow War in 1860 and eventually more than 80 treaty ports were established in China alone involving many foreign powers Foreigners who were centered in foreign sections newly built on the edges of existing port cities enjoyed legal extraterritoriality as stipulated in Unequal Treaties Foreign clubs racecourses and churches were established in major treaty ports Some of these port areas were directly leased by foreign powers such as in the concessions in China effectively removing them from the control of local governments Chinese capitulation treaties The treaty port system in China lasted approximately one hundred years It began with the 1841 Opium War and ended with the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor The major powers involved were the British the French and the Americans although by the end of the 19th century all the major powers were involved including Latin American countries and the Congo Free State It is not possible to put an exact date on the end of the treaty port era The Russians relinquished their treaty rights in the wake of the Russian revolution in 1917 and the Germans were forced to concede their treaty rights following their defeat in World War I Norway voluntarily relinquished its treaty rights in a capitulation treaty of 1931 However the three main treaty powers the British the Americans and the French continued to hold their concessions and extraterritorial jurisdictions until the Second World War As regards the British and the Americans it ended in practice when the Japanese stormed into their concessions in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor at the end of 1941 They then formally relinquished their treaty rights in a new equal treaties agreement with Chianq Kaishek39s Nationalist Government in exile in Chungking in 1943 Meanwhile the proJapanese puppet government in Nanking signed a capitulation treaty with the Vichy French government in 1943 This was not recognized by Free French leader Charles de Gaulle In 1946 in order to induce the Chinese to vacate the northern half of French Indochina de Gaulle signed a capitulation treaty with Chiang Kaishek39s nationalist Kuomintang government Whatever residues of the treaty port era were left in the late 1940s were ended when the communists took over China in 1949 spheres of influence In the eld of international relations a sphere of in uence S01 is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural economic military or political exclusivity accommodating to the interests of powers outside the sphere of the state that controls it While there may be a formal alliance or other treaty obligations between the in uence and in uencer such formal arrangements are not necessary and the in uence can often be more of an example of power Similarly a formal alliance does not necessarily mean that one country lies within another39s sphere of in uence High levels of exclusivity have historically been associated with higher levels of con ict In more extreme cases a country within the quotsphere of in uencequot of another may become a subsidiary of that state and serve in effect as a satellite state or de facto colony The system of spheres of in uence by which powerful nations intervene in the affairs of others continues to the present It is often analyzed in terms of superpowers great powers andor middle powers For example during the height of its existence in World War II the Japanese Empire had quite a large sphere of in uence The Japanese government directly governed events in Korea Vietnam Taiwan and parts of China The quotGreater East Asia CoProsperity Spherequot could thus be quite easily drawn on a map of the Paci c Ocean as a large quotbubblequot surrounding the islands of Japan and the i and Paci c nations it controlled Sometimes portions of a single country can fall into two distinct spheres of in uence In the colonial era the buffer states of Iran and Thailand lying between the empires of BritainRussia and BritainFrance respectively were divided between the spheres of in uence of the imperial powers Likewise after World War II Germany was divided into four occupation zones which later consolidated into West Germany and East Germany the former a member of NATO and the latter a member of the Warsaw Pact The term is also used to describe nonpolitical situations eg a shopping mall is said to have a sphere of in uence which designates the geographical area where it dominates the retail trade May 1919 The May Fourth Movement In 1919 the May Fourth Movement began as a response to the terms imposed on China by the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I but quickly became a nationwide protest movement about the domestic situation in China The protests were a moral success as the cabinet fell and China refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles which had awarded German holdings to Japan The New Culture Movement stimulated by the May Fourth Movement waxed strong throughout the 1920s and 1930s According to Ebrey quotNationalism patriotism progress science democracy and freedom were the goals imperialism feudalism warlordism autocracy patriarchy and blind adherence to tradition where the enemies Intellectuals struggled with how to be strong and modern and yet Chinese how to preserve China as a political entity in the world of competing nations 31 The discrediting of liberal Western philosophy amongst leftist Chinese intellectuals led to more radical lines of thought inspired by the Russian Revolution and supported by agents of the Comintern sent to China by Moscow This created the seeds for the irreconcilable conflict between the left and right in China that would dominate Chinese history for the rest of the century The term quotMay Fourth Movement in a broader sense often refers to the period during 19151921 more often called the New Culture Movement The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic founded in 1912 to address China39s problems Scholars like Chen Duxiu Cai Yuanpei Li Dazhao Lu Xun Zhou Zuoren and Hu Shih had classical educations but began to lead a revolt against Confucianism They called for the creation of a new Chinese culture based on global and western standards especially democracy and science Younger followers took up their call for o Vernacular literature 0 An end to the patriarchal family in favor of individual freedom and women39s liberation 0 View that China is a nation among nations not as a uniquely Confucian culture 0 The reexamination of Confucian texts and ancient classics using modern textual and critical methods known as the Doubtinq Antiquity School 0 Democratic and egalitarian values 0 An orientation to the future rather than the past On May 4 1919 students in Beijing protested the Paris Peace Conference giving German rights over Shandonq to Imperial Japan turning this cultural movement into a political one in what became known as the May Fourth Movement 39 Sun Yatsen 18661925 was a Chinese revolutionary first president and founding father of the Republic of China As the foremost pioneer of Republic of China Sun is referred to as the Father of the Nation in the Republic of China ROC and the forerunner of democratic revolution in the People39s Republic of China Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the years leading up to the Double Ten Revolution He was appointed to serve as Provisional President of the Republic of China when it was founded in 1912 He later cofounded the Kuomintang KMT serving as its first leaderL339 Sun was a uniting figure in postImperial China and remains unique among 20thcentury Chinese politicians for being widely revered amongst the people from both sides of the Taiwan Strait Although Sun is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile After the success of the revolution he quickly resigned due to Beiyang Cligue pressure from his post as President of the newly founded Republic of China and led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition His party which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists split into two factions after his death Sun39s chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the 3 Principles of the People nationalism democracy and the people39s livelihoodEquot The Three Peoples Principles nationalism democracy people39s livelihood The Three Principles of the People also translated as Three People 395 Principles Sanmin Doctrine or Tridemism l is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yatsen as part of a philosophy to make China a free prosperous and powerful nation The three principles are often translated and summarized as nationalism democracy and the livelihood of the people Its influence and legacy of implementation is most apparent in the governmental organization of the Republic of China ROC which currently administers Taiwan Penahu Quemoy and Matsu Islands This philosophy has been claimed as the cornerstone of the Republic of China39s policy as carried by the Kuomintang KMT The principles also appear in the first line of the National Anthem of the Republic of China Nationalist Party KMT Guomindang or Kuomingtang The predecessor of the KMT the Revolutionary Alliance was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic The KMT was founded by 11 Jiaoren and Sun Yatsen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 Sun was the provisional president but he did not have military power and ceded the first presidency to the military leader Yuan Shikai After Yuan 39s death China was divided by warlords while the KMT was able to control only part of the south Later led by Chiang Kaishek the KMT formed a military and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of China It was the ruling party from 1928 until its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after being defeated by the Communist Party of China CPC during the Chinese Civil War In Taiwan the KMT continued as the single ruling party until reforms in the late 1970s through the 1990s loosened its grip on power Since 1987 the Republic of China is no longer a singleparty state but the KMT remains one of the main political parties The guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People advocated by Sun Yatsen Its party headquarters are located in Taipei It is currently the ruling party in Taiwan and holds most seats in the Legislative Yuan The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union Current president Yingeou elected in 2008 and reelected in 2012 is the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency Together with the People First Party and Chinese New Party the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese PanBlue Coalition which supports eventual unification with the mainland However the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan The KMT accepts a quotOne China Principle it officially considers that there is only one China but that the Republic of China rather than the People39s Republic of China is its legitimate government However since 2008 in order to ease tensions with the PRC the KMT endorses the threeL 1oes policy as defined by Ma Yingjeou no unification no independence and no use of force 7 Whampoa Military Academy The Kuomintang Army Officer Academy commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy was a military academy of the Republic of China ROC which produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China39s conflicts in the 20th century notably the Northern Expedition the Second SinoJapanese War and the Chinese Civil War The military academy was officially opened on May 1 1924 under the Kuomintang KMT but the first lessons began on June 16 1924 The inauguration was on Chanqzhou Island offshore from the Whampoa Huanqpu dock in Guangzhou thus earning its name During the inaugural ceremonies Sun Yatsen delivered a speech that was later to become the lyrics of the national anthem of the Republic of China Establishment After the death of Yuan Shikai China fragmented into numerous fiefdoms ruled by warlords Sun Yat E attempted in 1917 and 1920 to set up a base in his native Guangdong to launch a northern campaign to unite China under his Three Principles of the People However his government remained militarily weaker than local warlords armies Calls by Sun for arms and money were ignored by the western powers Then in 1921 the representative of Comintern Henk Sneevliet using the name Maring met with Sun in Guangxi He proposed setting up a military academy to train the revolutionary army which confirmed Sun39s ideas and he eventually accepted The Chinese Communist y sent Li Dazhao and Lin Bogu to discuss with Sun and his party on how to set up the academy In 1924 in the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang the policy of alliance with the Soviet Union and CCP was passed as guidance for KMT As a result the final decision of establishment of a military academy was made and preparatory committee was set up accordingly The money necessary for the construction and support of the Academy in 19241925 was provided by the Soviets Organization training and students In the beginning the Academy had only one department which provided soldiers with basic training While the main Academy goal was preparation of infantry units it also provided special classes for artillery engineering communication logistical and machine gun units A special department for preparation of political agitators was established later The academy concentrated the revolutionary military talents at the time Sun took the job of Premier of this academy in person although it was just an honorary title Sun39s favorite and rising star Chiang Kaishek was appointed the first commandant of the academy Liao Zhongkai the famous leftist in the Kuomintang and Sun39s treasury secretary was appointed as representative of KMT to the academy Zhou Enlai Hu Hanmin and Wang Chinawei were one of the instructors in the political department He Yinggin and Ye Jianying were once military instructors The serious lack of expert teachers was the biggest problem for the Academy That is why lectures delivered by Soviet officers were extremely popular with students AS Bubnov G I Gilev M I Dratvin S N Naumov prepared lectures which explained the development of military thought throughout human history and the division between western and Soviet schools of military thought Soviet officers taught different military subjects in the Academy using their broad experience gained during the Russian Civil War Among them were I Vasilevich Janovsky N Korneev M Nefedov F Kotov Katyushin P Lunev V Akimov Galina Kolchugina wife of Vasily Blyukher who was CommanderinChief of all Soviet volunteer forces sent to China read a course of lectures on political agitation The first two groups of students prepared by the Academy became the core for the formation of the first two National Revolutionary Army regiments VA Stepanov was an advisor provided by the Soviet Union to help in this matter The first two prepared groups of students included 500 officers the third one had 800 officers and the fourth group had 2000 Legendary graduates include Nationalist commanders Chen Chenq Du Yuminq Xue Yue Hu Zonqnan Hu Lian and Guan Linzheng and Communist commanders Lin Biao Xu Xianqaian Zuo Quan Liu Zhidan and Chen Geng The young cadets first showed their training and courage in the war against local warlord and dissident of Sun Chen Jiongming and later the unification of Guangdong province Then they made greater contributions in the Northern Expedition The Muslim Ma cligue General Ma Zhongying who commanded the 36th Division National Revolutionary Army attended the Whampoa military academy in Naning in 1929mL2151 Influence The Whampoa Military Academy plays an important role in Chinese history Although it is primarily a military academy aiming to train military elites like the United States Military Academy it has exhibited a broad influence on Chinese history It not only supplied many military commanders for both the KMT and CCP but also its graduates have much more influence on both parties policies and governance Especially for Chiang and KMT the Whampoa Clique was pivotal for his governance It competed with other cliques of KMT such as the New Guanaxi Cliaue led by Li Zongren and Bai Chonqxi CC Cliaue led by Chen Lifu and Chen Guofu Politics Research Group led by Yang Yongtai and Zhang Qun At the same time when the CCP built its first Red Army after the Nanchanq Uprisinq in 1927 most of its commanders were from Whampoa and in the following two decades the CCP trained its army in the Whampoa way The motto of the academy Camaraderie Chinese literally quotFraternity Dexterity incerity was proclaimed by Sun Yatsen at the opening ceremonies The irony is that during the Chinese Civil War both the commanders from KMT and CCP were trained and educated in Whampoa They fought for different beliefs and ideals although they used to live and study together like brothers in arms The academy also had significant influence over the 20th century history of other Asian countries The fourth term of the Academy saw students not only from all parts of China but also from different parts of Asia enroll For example there were 30 Koreans among them Some of them were brought up in China others were active participants during the national liberation movement of Korea in 19171926 and emigrated to China later only to take up arms for struggle for freedom of their country after their education was over A large number of students were originally from Vietnam This group was led by the exiled leader to be of the Communist Party of Vietnam and future leader of the Vietnamese struggle for independence Ho Chi Minh Chiang Kaishek 18871975 was a Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975 Chiang was an influential member of the Kuomintang KMT the Chinese Nationalist Party and was a close ally of Sun Yatsen He became the Commandant of the Kuomintang39s Whampoa Military Academy and took Sun 39s place as leader of the KMT when Sun died in 1925 In 1926 Chiang led the Northern Expedition to unify the country becoming China39s nominal leaderL31 He served as Chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist government of the Republic of E ROC from 1928 to 1948 Chiang led China in the Second SinoJapanese War the Chinese theater of World War II consolidating power from the party39s former reqional warlords Unlike Sun Yatsen Chiang Kaishek was socially conservative promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement and rejecting western democracy and the nationalist democratic socialism that Sun embraced in favour of an authoritarian government Chiang39s predecessor Sun Yatsen was wellliked and respected by the Communists but after Sun 39s death Chiang was not able to maintain good relations with the Chinese Communist Party CCP A maor split between the Nationalists and Communists occurred in 1927 and under Chiang39s leadership the Nationalists fought a nationwide civil war against the Communists Afterg invaded China in 1937 Chiang agreed to a temporary truce with the CCP Despite some ily cooperative military successes aqainst Japan by the time that the Japanese surrendered in 1945 neither the CCP nor the KMT trusted each other or were actively cooperating After Americansponsored attempts to negotiate a coalition government failed in 1946 the Chinese Civil War resumed The CCP defeated the Nationalists in 1949 Westad says the Communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang KaiShek and because in his search for a powerful centralized government Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China Furthermore his party was weakened in the war against Japan Meanwhile the Communists told different groups such as peasants exactly what they wanted to hear and cloaked themselves in the cover of Chinese NationalismEquot Chiang39s government and army retreated to Taiwan where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted people critical of his rule in a period known as the White Terrorquot After evacuating to Taiwan Chiang39s government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China Chiang ruled the island securely as President of the Republic of China and General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975 He ruled mainland China for 22 years and Taiwan for 30 years Zhou Enlai 18981976 was the first Premier of the People39s Republic of China Prime Minister serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976 Zhou served under Mao Zedong and was instrumental in consolidating the control of the Communist Party39s rise to power forming foreign policy and developing the Chinese economy A skilled and able diplomat Zhou served as the Chinese foreign minister from 1949 to 1958 Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West after the stalemated Korean War he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and helped orchestrate Richard Nixon39s 1972 visit to China He helped devise policies regarding the bitter disputes with the U Taiwan the Soviet Union after 1960 India and Vietnam Zhou is best known as the longtime top aide to Mao Zedong specializing in foreign policy Their contrasting personalities made them an effective team according to Henry Kissinger the American diplomat who had extensive dealings with both men Mao dominated any gathering Zhou suffused it Mao39s passion strove to overwhelm opposition Zhou39s intellect would seek to persuade or outmaneuver it Mao was sardonic Zhou penetrating Mao thought of himself as a philosopher Zhou saw his role as an administrator or a negotiator Mao was eager to accelerate history Zhou was content to exploit its currents 39 Largely due to his expertise Zhou was able to survive the purges of other top officials during the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s His attempts at mitigating the Red Guards damage and his efforts to protect others from their wrath made him immensely popular in the Revolution39s later stages As Mao Zedong39s health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 Zhou and the Gang of Four struggled internally over leadership of China Zhou39s health was also failing however and he died eight months before Mao on 8 January 1976 The massive public outpouring of grief in Beijing turned to anger towards the Gang of Four leading to the Tiananmen Incident Although succeeded by Hua Guofeng it was E1 Xiaoping Zhou39s ally who was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and eventually take Mao39s place as Paramount leader by 1977 The Premier is the highest administrative position in the Government of the People39s Republic of China The Premier is responsible for organizing and administering the Chinese civil bureaucracy For example the Premier is tasked with planning and implementing national economic social development and the state budget 39 This includes overseeing the various ministries departments commissions and statutory agencies and announcing their candidacies to the National People39s Congress for Vice Premiers State Councillors and ministerial offices The Premier39s powers and responsibilities are codified into the constitution unlike the Prime Minister from the Westminster system as by convention or traditions 39 The Premier does not have command authority over the People39s Liberation Army but the Premier is the Head of the National Defense Mobilization Committee of China which is a department of the armed forces In recent years there has been a division of responsibilities between the Premier and the President wherein the Premier is responsible for the technical details of implementing government policy while the President gathers the political support necessary for government policy In 1989 then Premier Li Peng in cooperation with the then Chairman of the Central Military Commission Deng Xiaoping was able to use the office of the Premier to declare martial law in Beijing and order the military crackdown of the Tiananmen Sauare protests of 1989 The Premier has been supported by four VicePremiers since Deng Xiaoping39s reform in 1983 The First ranked Vice Premier will act in the premier39s capacity in their absence Mao Zedong Mao Tsetung 18931976 commonly referred to as Chairman Mao December 26 1893 September 9 1976 was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People39s Republic of China which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976 His MarxistLeninist theories military strategies and political policies are collectively known as Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought Born the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan Hunan Mao adopted a Chinese nationalist and Lt imperialist outlook in early life particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919 Mao converted to MarxismLeninism while working at Peking University and became a founding member of the Communist Party of China CPC leading the Autumn Harvest Uprisinq in 1927 During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang KMT and the CPC Mao helped to found the Red Army led the Jiangxi Soviet39s radical land policies and ultimately became head of the CPC during the Long March Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second SinoJapanese War 193745 after Japan39s defeat China39s civil war resumed and in 1949 Mao39s forces defeated the Nationalists who withdrew to Taiwan On October 1 1949 Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People39s Republic of China PRC a one party socialist state controlled by the CPC In the following years Mao solidified his control through land reforms and through a psychological victory in the Korean War and through campaigns against landlords people he termed quotcounterrevolutionaries392 and other perceived enemies of the state In 1957 he launched a campaign known as the Great Leap Forward that aimed to rapidly transform China39s economy from an agrarian economy to an industrial one This campaign along with natural disasters that occurred at the time led to the Great Chinese Famine In 1966 he initiated the E Proletarian Cultural Revolution a program to remove counterrevolutionary elements in Chinese society that lasted 10 years and was marked by violent class struggle widespread destruction of cultural artefacts and unprecedented elevation of Mao39s personality cult and which is officially regarded as a quotsevere setback for the PRC 39 In 1972 he welcomed American president Richard Nixon in Beijing signalling a policy of opening China A controversial figure Mao is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world historyL239 Mao is officially held in high regard in the People39s Republic of China Supporters regard him as a great leader and credit him with numerous accomplishments including modernising China and building it into a world power promoting the status of women improving education and health care providing universal housing and increasing life expectancy as China39s population grew from around 550 to over 900 million during the period of his leadershipL3M39 Maoists furthermore promote his role as theorist statesman poet and visionaryL539 In contrast critics and historians have characterised him as a dictator who oversaw systematic human rights abuses and whose rule is estimated to have contributed to the deaths of 4070 million people through starvation forced labour and executions ranking his tenure as the top incidence of democide in human historyL539L73939 Chinese Communist Party founded 1921 is the founding and leading political party of the People39s Republic of China The CPC is the sole governing party of China although it coexists alongside 8 other legal parties that make up the United Q It was founded in 1921 chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao The party grew quickly and by 1949 the CPC had defeated the Kuomintang in a 10year civil war thus leading to the establishment of the People39s Republic With a membership of 826 million it is the largest political party in the world The CPC is organized on the basis of democratic centralism a principle conceived by Russian Marxist theoretician Vladimir Lenin which entails democratic and open discussion on policy on the condition of unity in upholding the agreed upon policies The highest body of the CPC is the National Congress convened every fifth year When the National Congress is not in session the Central Committee is the highest body but since the body meets normally only once a year most duties and responsibilities are vested in the Politburo and its Standing Committee The party39s leader holds the offices of General Secretary responsible for civilian party duties Chairman of the Central Military Commission responsible for military affairs and state president a largely ceremonial position Through these posts the party leader is the country39s paramount leader The current party leader is Xi Jinping elected at the 18th National Congress held in 2012 While the CPC is still committed to communist thouaht mainstream foreign opinion believes the party to be nonideological According to the party constitution the CPC adheres to Marxism Leninism Mao Zedong Thouqht socialism with Chinese characteristics Deng Xiaoping Theory Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development The official explanation for China39s economic reforms is that the country is in the primary stage of socialism a developmental stage similar to the capitalist mode of production The planned economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy the current economic system on the basis that Practice is the Sole Criterion for the Truth i e the planned economy was deemed inefficient Since the collapse of Eastern European communist reaimes in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet M in 1991 the CPC has emphasized its partytoparty relations with the ruling parties of the remaining socialist states While the CPC still maintains partytoparty relations with nonruling communist parties around the world it has since the 1980s established relations with several non communist parties most notably with ruling parties of oneparty states whatever their ideology dominant parties in democratic systems whatever their ideology and social democratic parties Communist International Comintern The Communist International abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International 19191943 was an international communist organization initiated in Moscow during March 1919 The International intended to fight by all available means including armed force for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State 1 The Comintern was founded after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference in which Vladimir 1 had organized the Zimmerwald Leftquot against those who refused to approve any statement explicitly endorsing socialist revolutionary action and after the 1916 dissolution of the Second International The Comintern had seven World Congresses between 1919 and 1935 It also had thirteen quotEnlarged Plenums of its governing Executive Committee which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses The Comintern was officially dissolved by Joseph Stalin during 1943 Northern Expedition 192627 In early 1927 the KMTCPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks The CPC and the left wing of the KMT had decided to move the seat of the KMT government from Guangzhou to Wuhan where communist influence was strong1 But Chiang and Li Zongren whose armies defeated warlord Sin Chuanfang moved eastward toward Jiangxi The leftists rejected Chiang39s demand to eliminate Communists influence within KMT and Chiang denounced the leftists for betraying Sun Yatsen39s 3 Principles of the People by taking orders from the Soviet Union According to Mao Zedong Chiang39s tolerance of the CPC in the KMT camp decreased as his power increased l On April 7 Chiang and several other KMT leaders held a meeting arguing that communist activities were socially and economically disruptive and must be undone for the national revolution to proceed On April 12 in Shanghai the KMT was purged of leftists by the arrest and execution of hundreds of CPC memberslzl It was directed by General Bai Chongxi This was called the April 12 Incident or Shanqhai Massacre by the CPC The Shanghai massacre widened the rift between Chiang and Wang Jingwei39s Wuhan Eventually leftwing KMT also expelled CPC from the Wuhan government who in turn were toppled by Chiang Kaishek The KMT resumed the campaign against warlords and captured Beijing in June 1928ampquot Afterwards most of eastern China was under the Nanjing central government39s control and the Nanjing government received prompt international recognition as the sole legitimate government of China The KMT government announced in conformity with Sun Yatsen the formula for the three stages of revolution military unification political tutelage and constitutional democracyZ539 The roots of the April 12 Incident go back to the Kuomintang39s alliance with the Soviet Union formally initiated by KMT39s founder Sun Yatsen after discussions with Soviet diplomat Adolph Jofjfe in January 1923 This alliance included both financial and military aid and a small but important group of Soviet political and military advisors headed by Michael BorodinH39 The Soviet Union39s conditions for alliance and aid included cooperation with the small Chinese Communist Party Sun agreed to let the Communists join the KMT as individuals but ruled out an alliance with them or their participation as an organized bloc in addition once in the KMT he demanded that the Communists support KMT39s party ideology and observe party discipline Following their admission Communist activities within the KMT often covert soon attracted opposition to this policy among prominent KMT membersL539 Internal conflicts between left and rightwing leaders of the KMT with regards to the CCP problem continued right up to the launch of the Northern Expedition Plans for a Northern Expedition originated with Sun Yatsen After his expulsion from the government in Peking by 1920 Sun made a military comeback gaining control of some parts of Guangdong province His goal was to extend his control over all of China particularly Peking After Sun39s death from cancer in March 1925 KMT leaders continued to push the plan and finally launched the Expedition in June 1926 Initial successes in the first months of the Expedition soon saw the KMT39s National Revolutionary Army NRA in control of Guangdong and large areas in Hunan Hubei Jianqxi and Fujian With the growth of KMT authority and military strength the struggle for control of the Party39s direction and leadership intensified In January 1927 the NRA commanded by Chiang Kaishek captured Wuhan and went on to attack Nanchang while KMTleader Wang Jingwei and his leftwing allies along with the Chinese Communists and Soviet agent Borodin transferred the seat of the Nationalist Government from Guangzhou to Wuhan On March 1 1927 the Nationalist government reorganized the Military Commission and placed Chiang under its jurisdiction while secretly plotting to arrest him Later Chiang found out about this plot which most likely led to his determination to purge the CCP from KMTL539 In response to the advances of the NRA Communists in Shanghai began to plan uprisings against the warlord forces controlling the city On March 2122 1927 KMT and CCP union workers led by L ELlai and Chen Duxiu launched an armed uprising in Shanghai defeating the warlord forces of the ZLI 7ue The victorious union workers occupied and governed urban Shanghai except for the international settlements prior to the arrival of the NRA 39s Eastern Route Army led by Generals Bai Chongxi and Li Zongren After the Nanjinq Incident in which foreign concessions in Nanjing were attacked and looted both the right wing of the K uomintang and western powers became alarmed by the growth of Communist influence while CCP continued to organize daily mass student protests and labor strikes demanding the return of Shanghai international settlements to Chinese controlL739 With Bai39s army firmly in control of Shanghai on April 2 1927 the Central Control Commission of KMT led by former Chancellor of Peking University Cai Yuanpei determined that CCP actions were anti revolutionary and undermined the national interest of China and voted unanimously to purge the communists from KMT39 Shanghai Massacre 1927 The Shanghai massacre of 12 April 1927 sometimes called the April 12 Incident was the violent suppression of Communist Party organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kaishek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang Chinese Nationalist Party or KMT Following the incident conservative KMT elements carried out a fullscale purge of Communists in all areas under their control and even more violent suppressions occurred in cities such as Guangzhou and Changsha 1 The purge led to an open split between KMT left and right wings with Chiang Kaishek establishing himself as the leader of the right wing at Naning in opposition to the original leftwing KMT government led by Wang Jinqwei in Wuhan By July 15 1927 the Wuhan regime had also expelled the Communists in its ranks effectively ending the KMT39s fouryear alliance with Soviet Russia and its cooperation with the Chinese Communist Party During the remainder of 1927 the Communists launched several revolts in an attempt to win back power marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War With the failure of the Guanqzhou Uprisinq December 1113 1927 the Chinese Communist Party39s eclipse was complete it was two decades before they were able to launch another major urban offensiveL21 The incident was a key moment in the complex sequence of events that set the stage for the first ten years of the Nationalist government Nanking Nanjing Decade 19271936 The Nanjing Decade of 192837 was one of consolidation and accomplishment under the leadership of the Nationalists with a mixed but generally positive record in the economy social progress development of democracy and cultural creativity Some of the harsh aspects of foreign concessions and privileges in China were moderated through diplomacy In May 1930 the government regained the right to set its tL39if1 which before then had been set by the foreign powers The Nationalist Government also acted energetically to modernize the legal and penal systems stabilize prices amortize debts reform the banking and currency systems build railroads and highways improve public health facilities legislate against traffic in narcotics and augment industrial and agricultural production On November 3 1935 the government instituted the fiat currency fapi reform immediately stabilizing prices and also raising revenues for the government Great strides also were made in education and in an effort to help unify Chinese society in a program to popularize Modern Standard Chinese and overcome other varieties of Chinese Newspapers magazines and book publishing flourished and the widespread establishment of communications facilities further encouraged a sense of unity and pride among the people Laws were passed and campaigns mounted to promote the rights of women The ease and speed of communication also allowed a focus on social problems including those of the villages The Rujml Reconstruction Movement was one of many which took advantage of the new freedom to raise social consciousness On the other hand political freedom was considerably curtailed because of the Kuomintang39s oneparty domination through political tutelage and often violent means in shutting down antigovernment protests During this time a series of massive wars took place in western China including the Kumul Rebellion the SinoTibetan War and the Soviet Invasion of Xiniianq Although the central government was nominally in control of the entire country during this period large areas of China remained under the semiautonomous rule of local warlords provincial military leaders or warlord coalitions Nationalist rule was strongest in the eastern regions around the capital Nanjing but regional militarists such as Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan retained considerable local authority The Central Plains War in 1930 the Japanese aggression in 1931 and the Red Army39s Long March in 1934 led to more power for the central government but there continued to be footdragging and even outright defiance as in the Fuian Rebellion of 1933 34396 quotquotquot quot quot quot Soong Chingling Song Qingling was the second wife of Sun Yatsen leader of the 1911 revolution that established the Republic of China and was often referred to as Madame Sun Yatsen She was a member of the Soong family and together with her siblings played a prominent role in China39s politics prior to 1949 After the establishment of the People39s Republic of China in 1949 she held several prominent positions in the new government and traveled abroad during the early 1950s representing it at a number of international activities During the Cultural Revolution however she was heavily criticized in one incident in 1966 her parents grave was destroyed by Red Guards 39 Soong survived the Cultural Revolution but appeared less frequently after 1976 During her final illness in May 1981 she was given the special title of Honorary President of the People39s Republic of China Soong was held in great esteem by the victorious Communists who reckoned her as a link between their movement and Sun39s earlier movementL739 After the formal establishment of the People39s Republic of China in 1949 she became one of six vice chairmen of the Central People39s GovernmentL939 and one of several vicechairmen of the SinoSoviet Friendship AssociationL939 In April 1951 it was announced that she had been awarded the Stalin Peace Prize for 195039 In 1950 Soong became chairman of the Chinese People39s Relief Administration which combined several organizations dealing with welfare and relief issues Her China Welfare Fund was reorganized as the China Welfare Institute and began publishing the magazine China Reconstructs now published as China Today In 1953 a collection of her writings Struggle for New China was published39 In 1953 Soong served on the committees preparing for elections to the new National People39s Congress and the drafting of the 1954 constitution Soong was elected a Shanghai deputy to the first NPC which adopted the constitution at its first meeting in September 1954 She was elected one of 14 vice chairmen of the NPC39s standing committee chaired by Liu Shaogi In December of the same year she was elected a vicechairman of the CPPCC which became a consultative body and replaced Liu Shaoqi as chairman of the SinoSoviet Friendship Association During this period Soong traveled abroad several times visiting Austria India Burma Pakistan and Indonesia Her trips included a January 1953 visit to the Soviet Union where she was received by Stalin shortly before his death She visited Moscow again in 1957 with Mao Zedong39s delegation to the 40th anniversary of the Russian Revolution39 In April 1959 Soong again served as a Shanghai deputy at the Second National People39s Congress At this Congress Mao Zedong and Zhu De stepped down as Chairman and ViceChairman of the People39s Republic of China Liu Shaoqi was elected Chairman Head of State and Soong Chingling and E1 Biix a senior Communist Party 39elder39 were elected Vice Chairpersons of the People39s Republic of China Soong resigned at this time from her positions as vicechairwoman of the CPPCC and the NPC39 She was reelected to the post of Vicechairperson of the PRC at the Third National People39s Congress in 1965 and appeared frequently in the early 1960s on ceremonial occasions often greeting important visitors from abroad During the Cultural Revolution 196676 Soong was heavily criticized by Red Guard factions and in one incident the marker of her parents grave was toppled and their bodies exposed 39 According to Soong39s biographer following this incident Zhou Enlai recommended that Soong Chingling be put on a List of Cadres to be protected Zhou39s recommendation was approved by Mao Zedongml Late in the Cultural Revolution during the 4th NPC which approved the 1975 Constitution in January 1975 Soong was removed as ViceChairperson of the People39s Republic of China and again appointed one of the vicechairwomen of the NPC Standing Committeelzl Soong Meiling Song Meiling Soong Mayling or Soong Meiling also known as Madame Chiang Kaishek or Madame Chiang was a First Lady of the Republic of China ROC the wife of Generalissimo and President Chiana Kaishek She was a politician painter and the chairman of Fu Jen Catholic University The youngest and the last surviving of the three Soong sisters she played a prominent role in the politics of the Republic of China and was the sisterinlaw of Sun Yatsen the leader of the Republic of China preceding her husband Madame Chiang initiated the New Life Movement and became actively engaged in Chinese politics She was a member of the Legislative Yuan from 1930 to 1932 and SecretaryGeneral of the Chinese Aeronautical Affairs Commission from 1936 to 1938 In 1945 she became a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintanq As her husband rose to become Generalissimo and leader of the Kuomintang Madame Chiang acted as his English translator secretary and advisor She was his muse his eyes his ears and his most loyal champion During World War II Madame Chiang tried to promote the Chinese cause and build a legacy for her husband on a par with Roosevelt Churchill and J39 Wellversed in both Chinese and Western culture she became popular both in China and abroad Her prominence led Joseph Stilwell to quip that she ought to be appointed minister of defense Though Soong Mayling initially avoided the public eye after marrying Chiang she soon began an ambitious social welfare project to establish schools for the orphans of Nationalist soldiers The children of Communist soldiers were not welcome The orphanages were unusually wellappointed with playgrounds swimming pools a gymnasium model classrooms and dormitories Soong Mayling was deeply involved in the project and even picked all of the teachers herself There were two schools one for boys and one for girls built on a thousand acre site at the foot of Purple Mountain in Nanjing She referred to these children as her warphansquot and made them a personal causem39 The fate of the children of fallen soldiers became a much more important issue in China after the beginning of the war with Japan in 1937 In order to better provide for these children she established the Chinese Women39s National War Relief Society She made frequent mention of her warphans in her many campaigns for foreign military aid Jiangxi Soviet Was the largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil War Geographically the J iangXi Fujian Soviet occupied China39s J iangxi and Fujian provinces and was home to the town of Ruijin the county seat and headquarters of the Chinese Soviet government The J iangxiFujian base area was defended ably by the First Red Front Army but in 1934 was finally overrun by the Kuomintang government39s National Revolutionary Army in the Fifth of its Encirclement Campaigns This last campaign in 193435 precipitated the most famous of the grand retreats known collectively as the Long March 0 1930 Unofficial founding of the Jianqxi Fuiian Soviet by Mao Zedong and Zhu De 0 1931 December Zhou Enlai arrives in Ruijin and replaces Mao as leader of the CCP o 1932 October at the Ninqdu Conference major CCP military leaders criticize Mao39s tactics Mao is demoted to figurehead status 0 1933 Bojciu and Otto Braun Li De arrive from the USSR reorganize the Red Army and take control of Party affairs They defeat four encirclement campaigns 0 1933 September 25 start of the Fifth Encirclement Campaiqn Bo and Braun are defeated o 1934 October 16 breakout of 130000 soldiers and civilians led by Bo Gu and Otto Braun beginning the Long March 0 1934 November 25 December 3 Battle of Xiang River 0 1935 January 1517 Zunyi Conference The leadership of B0 and Braun is denounced Zhou becomes the most powerful person in the Party Mao becomes Zhou39s assistant 0 1935 June July troops under Zhou and Mao meet with Zhang Guotao39s troops The two forces disagree on strategy and separate 0 1935 April 29 May 8 crossing of the Jinsha River a major tributary of the Yangtze o 1935 May 22 Yihai Alliance with the Yi people 0 1935 May 29 CCP forces capture Luding Bridge 0 1935 July CCP forces cross the Jade Draqon Snow Mountains 0 1935 August CCP forces cross the Zoig Marsh 0 1935 September 16 CCP forces cross the Lazikou Pass 0 1935 October 22 Union of the three armies in Shaanxi end of the Long March 0 1935 November Mao becomes leader of the CCP Zhou becomes Mao39s assistant peasant associations In the summer of 1922 Peng Pai was dismissed from the Education Commissioner position because of his organizing the May Day paradeL339 Soon after he left that position Peng Pai launched and led the peasant revolution movement in Haifeng He advocated socialism by editing a journal Red Heart Weekly or Sincere Heart Weekly am and using a gramophone to play music and songs to gather the villagers and try to convince them to form peasant organizations39 To politically awaken peasants and encourage them to fight for their own rights and to liberate themselves from social injustice Peng Pai burned all the title deeds of his inherited lands in public and announced to his peasants that the lands they were cultivating henceforth belonged to them39 After such unusual and sincere efforts he succeeded informing the first countywide Peasant Association in China the Haifeng County Peasant Association The association campaigned for lower rents led antilandlord boycotts and organized welfare activities He was elected the Association President on New Year39s Day in 1923 By that time the Association claimed its membership of about 20000 families covering 100000 persons or one quarter of the population of the entire county39L939 Zhu De was a Chinese general warlord politician revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Chinese Communist Party After the founding of the People39s Republic of China in 1955 Zhu became one of the Ten Marshals of the People39s Liberation Army of which he is regarded as a principal founder Zhu39s close affiliation with Mao Zedong began in 1928 when under the assistance of Chen Yi and Q Biao Zhu defected from Fan Shisheng39s protection and marched his army of 10000 men to the Jinaqana Mountains1 Here Mao had formed a soviet in 1927 and Zhu began building up his army into the Red Army consolidating and expanding the Soviet areas of controlgl Zhu39s leadership made him a figure of immense prestige locals even credited him with supernatural abilities During this time Mao and Zhu became so closely connected that to the local peasant farmers they were known collectively as Zhu Mao homophonic to 23 or pig39s pelage In 1929 Zhu and Mao were forced to flee Jinaaanashan to Ruiiin following Kuomintang military pressure Here they formed the Jiangxi Soviet which would eventually grow to cover some 30000 square kilometers 11584 square miles and include some three million peopleamp51 In 1931 Zhu was appointed leader of the Red Army in by the CPC leadershipamp5l Zhu successfully led a conventional military force against the Kuomintang in the lead up to the Fourth Counter Encirclement Campaigm l however he was not able to do the same during the Fifth Counter Encirclement Campaign and the CPCfled1 Zhu helped form the 1934 break out that began the Long March Z91 Red Army leader During the Long March Zhu and Zhou Enlai organized some battles There were few positive effects since the real power was in the hands of Bojciu and Otto Braun In the Zunyi Conference Zhu supported Mao Zedong s criticisms of Bo and Braunl After the Zunyi Conference Zhu coopered with Mao and Zhou on military affairs In July 1935 Zhu and Liu Bocheng were with the Fourth Red Army while Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai with the First Red Armyglazl When separation between the two divisions occurred Zhu was forced by Zhang Guotao the leader of Fourth Red Army to go southamp3l The Fourth Red Army barely survived the retreat through Sichuan Province Arriving in Yan39an Zhu directed the reconstruction of the Red Army under the political guidance of Maoml During the Second SinoJapanese War and the Chinese Civil War he held the position of Commander inChief of the Red Armyw and in 1940 Zhu alongside Peng Dehuai devised and organized the Hundred Reqiments Offensive Mao supported this offensive at firstamp51 While a successful campaign Mao attributed it as the main provocation for the devastating Japanese Three Alls Policy later and used it to criticize Peng at the Lushan Conference l Later life In 1949 Zhu was named CommanderinChief of the People39s Liberation Army PLA thus posterity regards him as a principal founder of the PLAl He was also the ViceChairman of the Communist Party 19561966 and ViceChairman of the People39s Republic of China 1954 1959amp9l In 1950 Zhu oversaw the PLA during the Korean War within his authority as CommanderinChief In 1955 he was conferred to the rank of marshalml In 1959 he tried to protect Peng Dehuai in the Lushan Conference He just gave some mild criticisms of Peng Mao Zedong wasn39t satisfied with Zhu De 39s behavionizl After the conference Zhu was dismissed from vice chairmen of Central Military Commissionamp31 In April 1969 during the summit of the Cultural Revolution Zhu was dismissed from his position on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China and the activity of the National People39s Congress was haltedM However due to the support of Zhou Enlai he was not harmed or imprisonedamp51 In August 1969 Lin Biao issued a command that dispatched important martial figures to distant areas due to the tension between China and Soviet Union and Zhu De was driven to Guangzhouamp51 In 1973 Zhu was reinstated in the Standing CommitteeM Otto Braun Li De was a German Communist with along and varied career His most significant role was as a Comintern agent sent to E in 1934 to advise the Communist Party of China CPC on military strategy during the Chinese Civil War At the time Braun adopted a Chinese name Li De it was only many years later that Otto Braun and Li De came to be known as one and the same person In 1932 following his graduation at the Frunze Academy Soviet Military Intelliqence39s Fourth Directorate dispatched Braun to Harbin in Manchuria China From there he traveled to Shanghai where joined the local Comintern bureau There he was in military affairs under the orders of General Kleber nom de querre of Manfred Stern who maintained a military section in the city and in political issues under Arthur E wert a fellow German Communist However Shanghai was at that time a backwater in Chinese revolutionary affairs the local Communist movement having been effectively crushed by Chiana Kaishek39s Kuomintana KMT in the Shanghai massacre of 1927 The Chinese Communists had subsequently retreated to the countryside and started to organize in the province of Jiangxi l In the later part of 1933 Braun arrived in PJ at that time capital of the Chinese Soviet Republic set up by the surviving Chinese Communists where he became a military adviser The precise circumstances of his getting this appointment and his activities in the following years are still debated with some aspects remaining unclear As noted by Freddy Litten who thoroughly researched this part of Otto Braun39s career Braun39s memoirs are an important though dubious source for the events of these years 2 At that time the Kuomintang perceiving the Communists as a dangerous threat to its rule launched a series of vigorous attacks on the CPC in urban areas Its forces came near to Ruijin which was in danger of being surrounded and became untenable The CPC initiated the Long March to escape this danger Braun under his assumed Chinese name Li De was nearly the only foreigner to participate in the Long March and might have even been the original proposer of the idea of embarking on such a march in an effort to reach the safer interior of China In the later part of 1934 BraunLi De assumed a position of command in the early First Front Army together with Zhou Enlai and BojGu with authority to make all military decisions Braun advocated that the First Front Army directly attack the far larger and better equipped KMT Army The First Front Army39s suffered great casualties so that CPC forces fell drastically from 86000 to about 25000 within a year In 1935 the CPC met at the Zunyi Conference where Mao Zedong and Peng Dehuai expressed their opposition to Braun Bo Gu and their tactics Mao argued that the direct attacks were costing lives and suggested that their smaller poorer equipped forces should run and surround the KMT using the guerrilla tactics for which Mao was to become famed Mao was already distrusting towards European advisors from the Comintern especially considering that in the 1920s earlier such advisers like the Dutch Henk Sneevliet had given Chinese Communists disastrous advice Other military wing leaders agreed with Mao so Braun and Bo Gu were removed as the military commanders and Mao become the leader of the Long March l After this conference the Comintern was pushed aside and Native Communists took control of the CPC Still Braun stayed in China until 1939 and participated in the Long March along with the CPC No longer holding a military command he was mainly involved in advisory work and some teaching of tactics Though never returning to China after leaving in 1939 for the rest of his life he continued to show interest in Chinese affairs Long March begins Oct 1934 was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China the forerunner of the People39s Liberation Army to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party army There was not one Long March but a series of marches as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west The most well known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934 The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic led by an inexperienced military commission was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiana Kai Eds troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province The Communists under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north which reportedly traversed over 9000 kilometers 6000 miles over 370 days l The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west then north to Shaanxi The Long March began Mao Zedong39s ascent to power whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party The bitter struggles of the Long March which was completed by only about onetenth of the force that left Jiangxi would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China and would seal the personal prestige of Mao and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades However the true role of Mao in the Long March remains hotly disputed with some claiming the official Communist Party line to be truthful while many historians mainly Western claim Mao39s role was heavily exaggerated and some events in the Long March entirely fabricated Zunyi Conference was a meeting of the Communist Party of China CPC in January 1935 during the Long March This meeting involved a power struggle between the leadership of Bojciu and Otto Braun and the opposition led by Mao Zedong The result was that Mao left the meeting in position to take over military command and become the leader of the Communist Party The conference was completely unacknowledged until the 1950s and still no detailed descriptions were available until the fiftieth anniversary in 1985 In August 1934 with the Red Army depleted by the prolonged Chinese Civil War a spy placed by Zhou Enlai in the E army headquarters in Nanchang brought news that Chiang Kaishek was preparing a major offensive against the Communist capital Rui39jin The Communist leadership decided on a strategic retreat to regroup with other Communist units and to avoid annihilation The original plan was for the First Red Army to link up with the Second Red Army commanded by He Long thought to be in Hujbed to the west and north Communications between divided groups of the Red Army had been disrupted by the Kuomintang campaign and during the planning to evacuate Jiangxi the First Red Army was unaware that these other Communist forces were also retreating westward Initially the First Red Army with its baggage of top communist officials records currency reserves and other trapping of the exiled Chinese Soviet Republic fought through several lightly defended Kuomintang checkpoints crossing the Xinfeng River and through the province of Guangdong south of Hunan and into Guangxi At the g river Chiang Kaishek had reinforced the KMT defenses In two days of bloody fighting 30 November to 1 December 1934 the Red Army lost more than 40000 troops and all of the civilian porters and there were strongly defended Nationalist defensive lines ahead Personnel and material losses after the battle of the Xiang river affected the morale of the troops and desertions began By a 12 December 1934 meeting of Party leaders in Tongdao discontent with Bo Gu and Otto Braun appeared Under these conditions the Communists met in ZLni to reshuffle the Party politburo The main agenda of this conference was to examine the Party39s failure in the Jiangxi region and to look at the options now available to them Bo Gu was the first to speak with a general report He acknowledged that the strategy used in Jiangxi had failed without taking any blame He claimed the lack of success was not due to poor planning Next Zhou gave a report on the military situation in an apologietic style In contrast to Bo he admitted mistakes had been made Then Zhang Wentian in a long critical oration condemned the leaders for the debacle in Jiangxi This was supported by Mao and Wang Mao39s comparative distance from power over the past two years had left him blameless of the recent failures and in a strong position to attack the leadership Mao insisted that Bo Gu and Otto Braun had made fundamental military mistakes by using tactics of pure defense rather than initiating a more mobile war Mao39s supporters gained momentum during the meeting and Zhou Enlai eventually moved to back Mao Under the principle of democracy for majority the secretariat of the Central Committee and Central Revolution amp Military Committee of CCP were reelected Bo and Braun were demoted while Zhou maintained his position now sharing military command with Zhu De Zhang Wentian took Bo 39s previous position while Mao once again joined the Central Committee The Zunyi Conference confirmed that the CCP should turn away from the 28 Bolsheviks and towards Mao The Red Army regained its military power survived in Yan39an and ultimately defeated the KMT with using a guerrilla strategy and later through conventional warfare as it gained mass peasant support It could be seen as a victory for those old CCP members who had their roots in China and on the contrary it was a great loss for those CCP members such as the 28 Bolsheviks who had studied in Moscow and had been trained by the Comintern and the Soviet Union and could be regarded as proteges or agents of Comintern accordingly After the Zunyi Conference the influence and involvement of the Comintern in CCP affairs was greatly reduced Zhang Xueliang Chang Hsuehliang was the effective ruler of Manchuria and much of northern China after the assassination of his father Zhang Zuolin by the Japanese on 4 June 1928 As an instigator of the Xi39an Incident he spent over fifty years under house arrest and is regarded by the People39s Republic of China as a patriotic hero The Japanese believed that Zhang Xueliang who was known as a womanizer and an opium addict would be much more subject to Japanese influence than was his father An officer of the Japanese K wantunq Army therefore killed his father Zhang Zuolin by exploding a bomb above his train while it crossed under a railroad bridge Surprisingly the younger Zhang proved to be more independent than anyone had expected With the assistance of William Henry Donald he overcame his opium addiction and declared his support for Chiang Kaishek He was given the nickname of Hero of history by PRC historians not because it was good that he was supporting the KMT but because he wanted China to be reunited and was willing to pay the price and become quotvice leader of China In order to rid his command of Japanese influence he had two prominent proTokyo officials executed in front of the assembled guests at a dinner party in January 1929 It was a hard decision for him to make The two had powers over the heads of others Zhang also tried to eliminate Soviet influence from Manchuria but relented in the face of a Soviet military buildup At the same time however he developed closer relations with the United States In 1930 when warlords Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan attempted to overthrow Chiang Kaishek39s K uomintang government Zhang Xueliang stepped in to support the Naniing government against the northern warlords in exchange for control of the key railroads in Hejbe Province and the customs revenues from the port city of Tianin Following the Mukden Incident and the Japanese invasion of Zhang39s own domain of Manchuria in 1931 Zhang39s armies withdrew from the front lines without significant engagements There has been speculation that Chiang KaiShek wrote a letter to Zhang asking him to pull his forces back but later Zhang stated that he himself issued the orders Apparently Zhang was aware of how weak his forces were compared to the Japanese and wished to preserve his position by retaining a sizeable army Nonetheless this would still be in line with Chiang39s overall strategic standings Zhang later traveled in Europe before returning to China to take command of the Communist Suppression Campaigns first in HebeiHenanAnhui and later in the Northwest Xi39an incident house arrest and later life On 6 April 1936 Zhang Xueliang met with Zhou Enlai to plan the end of the Chinese Civil War In the Xi39an incident 12 December 1936 Zhang and another general Yang Hucheng kidnapped Chiang Kai shek and imprisoned the head of the Kuomintang government until he agreed to form a united front with the Communists against the Japanese invasion Chiang at the time took a nonaggressive position against Japan and considered the Communists to be a greater danger to the government of Republic of China than the Japanese and his overall strategy was to annihilate the Communists before focusing his efforts on the Japanese He believed that quotcommunism was a cancer while the Japanese represented a superficial woundquot However growing nationalist anger against Japan made this position very unpopular leading to Zhang39s action against Chiang After the negotiations Chiang agreed to unite with the Communists and drive the Japanese out of China When Chiang was released Zhang chose to return to the capital with him However once they were away from Zhang39s loyal troops Chiang had him put under house arrest From there he was always watched and lived near the Nationalist capital wherever it moved to In 1949 Zhang was transferred to Taiwan where he remained under a loose house arrest for the next 40 years in a villa in Taipei 39s northern suburbs He spent his time studying Ming dynasty literature Manchu language and the Bible receiving occasional guests and collected Chinese fan paintings calligraphy and other works of art by illustrious artists A collection of more than 200 works using his studio39s name Dingyuanzhai quot was auctioned with tremendous success by Sotheby39s on 10 April 1994 He and his wife Edith Chao became devout Baptists and also regularly attended Sunday services at the Methodist chapel in Shilin a Taipei suburb with Chiang KaiShek39s family After Chiang Kai Shek39s death in 1975 his freedom was restored officially Manchukuo 1932 was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy The area collectively known as Manchuria was designated by is erstwhile Qing Dynasty as the homeland of the ruling family39s ethnic group the Manchus In 1931 Q1 seized the region following the Mukden Incident and installed a proJapanese government one year later with yi the last Qing emperor as the nominal regent and emperorQ39 Manchukuo39s government was abolished in 1945 after the defeat of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II The territories formally claimed by the puppet state were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 194551 and then formally transferred to Chinese administration in the following yearEquot39 quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot source Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese The population of Koreans increased during the Manchukuo period and there were also Japanese Monqols White Russians and other minorities The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there The southern part of the Liaodonq Peninsula was ruled by Japan as the K wantunq Leased Territory Sian Xi39an Incident 1936 an important turning point in Chinese modern history took place in the city of Xi 39an during the Chinese Civil War between the ruling Kuomintang KMT and the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and just before the Second SinoJapanese War On 12 December 1936 Generalissimo Chianq Kaishek the leader of the K uomintang was arrested by Marshal Zhang Xueliang a former warlord of Manchuria and Commander of the North Eastern Army who had fought against the Japanese occupation of Manchuria and subsequent expansion into Inner Mongolia by the Japanese and troops of the puppet state of Manchukuo that had been created in Manchuria The incident led to a ti between the Nationalists and the Communists so as to form a united front against the threat posed by Q1 Some facts about the incident still remain unclear today as most of those involved died without revealing details Before the Xi39an Incident the Chinese Communist Party had established itself in Shaanxi province following being driven from Jiangxi and other regions in southern China in 1934 Japan had invaded northeast China in 1931 only coming to a temporary halt in 1933 after having captured Rehe Province Chiang Kaishek39s response to the invasion had been weak and he had failed to support commanders such as Marshal Zhang who had fought back to halt Japan39s advance He Yinggin a proJapanese senior general in the K uomintang was preparing to lead military forces to Xi39an from the KMT capital Naniing at the time of the incident This appeared to be putting more of northern China at risk of conquest by the Japanese something which was to come true in 1937 Some believe the steps taken by Marshal Zhang were inspired by the Soviets but there were sufficient grounds for Zhang and Yang Hucheng to act on their own behalf in order to develop an effective resistance to the Japanese invasion The Xi39an Incident is seen as turning point for the Chinese Communist Party as before the incident the party itself was facing a new round of assaults by Kuomintang forces Chinese nationalism had been roused by the Japanese invasion but potential Chinese resistance was strengthened by the Xi39an Incident leading to the United Front of Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party Ultimately it would benefit the Chinese Communists once the Chinese Civil War revived after the de eat o Ja an in 1945 However Joseph Stalin always remained ambivalent in his support of the Chinese Communist Party and he and its leader Mao Zedong became hostile to each other by the early 1950s Yenan Yan an Base Area In December 1936 at the start of the Second United Front Yan39an was taken over by the Chinese Communists l They had arrived in the area in October 1935 after making the famous Long March from Jiangxi When Edgar Snow went there in 1936 it was under Kuomintang control and a Red army siege had recently been liftedL21 Unknown to him at the time there had also been contacts there between the Communists and the generals who later staged the Xi39an Incident Snow actually met Mao at Bao39an Pao An Having rebelled against Chiang the local warlords decided to hand over Yan39an to the Communists who were now allies They pulled out and the Red Army walked in without a fight This is described by Agnes Smedley in her book Battle Hymn of China She was in Xi39an at the time and got to Yan39an shortly after the takeover From 1937 Yan39an became the seat of the communist government of what became known as the ShaanxiGansuNinqxia Border Reqion It became the center for intensive training of party members and army troops In 1941 Mao Zedong put special influence on a series of training programs to correct unorthodox tendenciesquot and essentially mold the peasantry to the communist model One of the first CPC programs launched was the Yan39an Rectification Movement Second United Front 19361941 The Second United Front was the brief alliance between the Chinese Nationalists Party K uomintang or KMT and Communist Party of China CPC to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino Japanese War which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1946 In the midst of the Second United Front the Communists and the Kuomintang were still vying for territorial advantage in Free China ie those areas not occupied by the Japanese or ruled by puppet governments The uneasy alliance began to break down by late 1938 as a result of the Communists efforts to aggressively expand their military strength through absorbing Chinese guerrilla forces behind enemy lines For Chinese militia who refused to switch their allegiance the CCP would call them quotcollaborators and then attack to eliminate their forces For example the Red Army led by g 11 attacked and wiped out a brigade of Chinese militia led by Zhang Yinwu in Hejlad in June 193951 The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when there were major clashes between the Communist and KMT forces In December 1940 Chiang Kaishek demanded that the CCP s New Fourth 4U39my evacuate Aui and Jiangsu Provinces Under intense pressure the New Fourth Army commanders complied but they were ambushed by Nationalist troops and soundly defeated in January 1941 This clash which would be known as the New Fourth Army Incident weakened the CCP position in Central China and effectively ended any substantive cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists and both sides concentrated on jockeying for position in the inevitable Civil War L51 It also ended the Second united front formed earlier to fight the JapaneseL51 Afterwards within the Japanese occupied provinces and behind enemy lines the KMT and CCP forces carried on warfare with each other with the Communists eventually destroying or absorbing the KMT partisan forces or driving them into the puppet forces of the Japanese The communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong also began to focus most of their energy on building up their sphere of influence wherever opportunities were presented mainly through rural mass organizations administrative Iii and t reform measures favoring poor peasants while the KMT allocated many divisions of its regular army to carry out military blockade of the CCP areas in an attempt to neutralize the spread of Communist influence until the end of the Second SinoJapanese Warm Marco Polo Bridge Incident July 7 1937 was a battle between the Republic of China39s National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army often used as the marker for the start of the Second SinoJapanese War 19371945 At around 0330 on the morning of 8 July 1937 Japanese reinforcements in the form of four mountain gum and a company of machine aunners arrived from nearby Fengtai The Chinese also rushed an extra division of troops to the area At around 0450 two Japanese investigators were allowed into Wanping The presence of the Japanese investigators within the town notwithstanding the Japanese Army opened fire with machine guns at around 0500 Japanese infantry backed with armoured vehicles attacked the Marco Polo Bridge along with a modern railway bridge to the southeast of town Colonel Ji Xingwen led the Chinese defences with about 100 men with orders to hold the bridge at all costs After inflicting severe casualties the Japanese forces partially overran the bridge and its vicinity in the afternoon but the reinforced Chinese soon outnumbered the Japanese Taking advantage of mist and rain on the morning of 9 July the Chinese were able to retake the bridge by 0600 At this point the Japanese military and members of the Foreign Service began negotiations in Beijing with the Chinese Nationalist government A verbal agreement with General Qin was reached whereby an apology would be given to the Chinese punishment would be dealt to those responsible control of Wanping would be turned over to the Hopei civilian constabulary and not with the 219th Regiment and better control of quotcommunists in the area This was agreed upon though Japanese Garrison Infantry Brigade commander General Masakazu Kawabe initially rejected the truce and continued to shell Wanping against his superiors orders for the next three hours until prevailed upon to cease and to move his forces to the northeast Aftermath If the truce and ceasefire had remained in place with both forces returning their original positions the Marco Polo Bridge Incident would have ended as a minor skirmish However from midnight of July 9 Japanese and Chinese violations of the ceasefire began to increase and a buildup of reinforcements on both sides continued with four divisions of Chinese troops moved to the border and three on the Japanese side Confronted with the threat of another battle General Kani Ishiwara requested the Japanese government make public statements on the matter which ironically were more hardline than what the K wantung Army had wished for Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe39s statements threatened continued Japanese mobilization even though Japan had begun pulling back its troops on the evening of the 11 July A lull in tension occurred when Lieutenant General Kanichiro Tashiro commander of Japanese China Garrison Army died of a heart attack on 13 July and was replaced by Lieutenant General Kiyoshi Katsuki Efforts to defuse the escalating conflict failed largely due to actions by the Japanese Northern China Area Army commanders and militarists within the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Wanping was shelled on 20 July and full scale fighting erupted at Langfang on 25 July After launching a bitter and bloody attack on the Japanese lines on the 27 July General Sung was defeated and forced to retreat behind the Yongding River by the next day The Japanese gave Sung and his troops free passage then moved in to pacify areas surrounding Beijing and Tianjin However the Japanese Army had been given orders not to advance further than the Yongding River In a sudden volteface the Konoe government39s foreign minister opened negotiations with Chiang Kaihek39s government in Nanjing and stated Japan wants Chinese cooperation not Chinese land Nevertheless negotiations failed to move further than preparation as on 9 August 1937 a Japanese naval officer was shot in Shanghai instigating the war proper Consequences The heightened tensions of the Marco Polo bridge incident led directly into fullscale war with the Battle of Beipinq Tianiin at the end of July and the Battle of Shanghai in August There are some disputes among historians over the incident Some historians believe the incident was an unintentional accident Some believe that the incident may have been fabricated by the Japanese Army to provide a pretext for the invasion of China a thesis supported by the expansionist colonial ambitions of Japan at the time reflecting a sentiment felt by many Japanese at the time that Asia should be ruled by Asians replacing European colonial rulers with Japanese rulers throughout Asia51 One farright Japanese historian has alleged that the incident was staged by the Chinese Communist y who hoped that the incident would lead to a war of attrition between the Japanese army and the Kuomintang GuomingdangL5l Rape of Nanking Nanjing 1937 The Nanking Massacre also known as the Rape of Nanking was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against Nanking current official spelling Nanjing during the Second SinoJapanese War The massacre occurred during a sixweek period starting December 13 1937 the day that the Japanese captured Nanking which was then the Chinese capital See Republic of China During this period tens of thousands If not hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants were murdered by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese ArmymL21 Widespread rape and looting also occurredL3M Several of the key perpetrators of the atrocities at the time labelled as war crimes were later tried and found guilty at the International Military Tribunal of the Far East and the Nanjinq War Crimes Tribunal and were executed Another key perpetrator Prince Asaka a member of the Imperial Family escaped prosecution by having earlier been granted immunity by the Allies An accurate estimation of the death toll in the massacre has not been achieved because most of the Japanese military records on the killings were deliberately destroyed or kept secret shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945 The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimated in 1948 over 200000 Chinese were killed in the incident51 China39s official estimate is more than 300000 dead based on the evaluation of the Naniinq War Crimes Tribunal in 1947 The death toll has been actively contested among scholars since the 1980s with typical estimates ranging from 40000 to over 300 0005131 The event remains a contentious political issue as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalistsL21 who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes1L9l1 As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes the controversy surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in SinoJapanese relations as well as Japanese relations with other AsiaPacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines Although the Japanese government has admitted to the acts of killing of a large number of Q combatants looting and other violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nankingmllzl and Japanese veterans who served in Nanking at that time have confirmed that a massacre took place a small but vocal minority within both the Japanese government and society have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred Denial of the massacre and a divergent array of revisionist accounts of the killings has become a staple of Japanese nationalism In Japan public opinion of the massacres varies and few deny the occurrence of the massacre outright Nonetheless recurring attempts by negationists to promote a revisionist history of the incident have created controversy that periodically reverberates in the international media particularly in China South Korea and other East Asian nationsM Chongqing Chungking In 1929 Chongqing then known almost universally as Chungking became a municipality in the Republic of China During the Second SinoJapanese War 19371945 it was Generalissimo Chiang Kaishek39s provisional capital More than 50 embassies moved to Chongqing with the Kuomintang KMT government at the time and by now some of which are still well protected During this time the Allies set up the Chinese Antifascist headquarters in Chongqing which was responsible for directing the allied army of China Vietnam Thailand Burma and Malaysia It was under the direction of Generalissimo Chiang Kaishek and General Joseph Stilwell The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed E Due to its mountainous environment many people were saved from the bombing Due to the bravery contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city guerilla warfare is Mao Zedong s case for the extensive use of an irregular form of warfare in which small groups of combatants use mobile military tactics in the forms of ambushes and raids to combat a larger and less mobile formal army Mao wrote the book in 1937 to convince Chinese political and military leaders that guerilla styletactics were necessary for the Chinese to use in the Second SinoJapanese War Chapter 1 What is Guerrilla Warfare Mao states that guerrilla warfare is a powerful special weapon with which we resist the Japanese and without which we cannot defeat them Mao explains how querrilla warfare can only succeed if employed by revolutionaries because it is a political and military style According to Mao guerrilla warfare is a way for the Chinese to expel an intruder that has more arms equipment and troops Chapter 2 The Relation of Guerrilla Hostilities to Regular Operations quotA primary feature of guerrilla operations is their dependence upon the people themselves to organize battalions and other units In chapter 2 Mao explains the differences and the relationship between guerilla and regular troops Guerilla warfare needs to be decentralized to allow quickness and detachment However orthodox troops can temporarily adopt guerrilla strategy and vice versa Chapter 3 Guerrilla Warfare in History Mao refers to a bevy of wars from different continents to support his belief that guerilla warfare is necessary to expel more powerful potential conquerors He refers specifically to Russian resistance during the French invasion of Russia the Abyssinians39 failures to resist Italian aggression in the Second ItaloAbyssinian War and Sun Yuan Li39s leadership against the British in the Taipinq Rebellion He also states that guerilla warfare cannot succeed on its own without orthodox warfare The two should work together in an effort to defeat a larger stronger enemy Chapter 4 Can Victory be Attained by Guerrilla Operations Mao explains that Japan39s military efforts do not have complete citizen and soldier support He believes that China can defeat the enemy If they use guerrilla warfare and extend the duration of the war Chapter 5 Organization for Guerrilla Warfare Mao says that guerrilla bands can be created from the masses or soldiers Guerrilla units should learn to be independent of higher leadership because they may need to function without it The most important natural quality is that of complete loyalty to the idea of the people39s emancipation If this is present the others will develop If it is not present nothing can be done Guerrilla troops should acquire supplies ammunition and weapons from the Japanese after victories on the battle field Chapter 6 The Political Problems of Guerrilla Warfare Mao explains the inalienable political aspects of guerrilla warfare and any warfare in general Military action is a method used to attain a political goal While military action and political affairs are not identical it is impossible to isolate one from the other Chinese guerrilla soldiers must be self disciplined and committed to the revolutionary cause or the effort will fail Soldiers must sacrifice some democratic privileges in the effort to defeat the Japanese Chapter 7 The Strategy of Guerrilla Resistance against Japan Mao explains that guerrilla troops should have no conception of defense or battle lines They should attack orthodox Japanese troops from the front the sides and the rear Guerrilla troops should always dictate the timing of conflicts with the enemy They should be prepared to flee If need be Joseph Stillwell was a United States Army fourstar general known for service in the China Burma India Theater His caustic personality was reflected in the nickname Vine ar Joe Although distrustful of his allies Stilwell showed himself to be a capable and daring tactician in the field but a lack of resources meant he was continually forced to improvise He famously differed as to strategy ground troops versus air power with his subordinate Claire Chennault who had the ear of Generalissimo Chiang Kaishek George Marshall acknowledged he had given Stilwell one of the most difficultquot assignments of any theater commander l After Stilwell left the defeated Chinese troops that he had been given nominal command by Chiang Kaishek Chinese generals admitted later that they had considered Stilwell as an 39adviser39 and sometimes took orders directly from Chiang he escaped Burma in 194233 Chiang was outraged by what he saw as tilwell39s blatant abandonment of his best army without orders and began to question tilwell39s capability and judgment as a military commanden Chiang was also infuriated at tilwell39s strict control of U lend lease supplies to China But instead of confronting Stilwell or communicating his concerns to Marshall and Roosevelt when they asked Chiang to assess tilwell39s leadership after the Allied disaster in Burma Chiang reiterated his quotfull confidence and trust in the generalgl while countermanding some orders to Chinese units issued by Stilwell in his capacity as Chief of Staff An outraged Stilwell began to call Chiang the little dummy or quotPeanut in his reports to Washington Peanutquot originally being intended as a code name for Chiang in official radio messages while Chiang repeatedly expressed his pentup grievances against Stilwell for his recklessness insubordination contempt and arrogance to U envoys to Chinaamp Stilwell would press Chiang and the British to take immediate actions to retake Burma but Chiang demanded impossibly large amounts of supplies before he would agree to take offensive action and the British refused to meet their previous pledges to provide naval and ground troops due to Churchill39s Europe first strategyamp5l Eventually Stilwell began to complain openly to Roosevelt that Chiang was hoarding U lend lease supplies because he wanted to keep Chinese Nationalist forces ready to fight the Communists under Mao Zedong after the end of the war with the Japaneseamp51 even though from 1942 to 1944 98 percent of U military aid over the Hump had gone directly to the 14th Air Force and U military personnel in Chinaamp71 Recall from China With the rapid deterioration of the China front after Japanese launched Operation IchiGo in 1944 Stilwell saw this as an opportunity to gain full command of all Chinese armed forces In a separate effort based on the same appreciation of the situation Roosevelt sent an ultimatum to Chiang threatening to end all American aid unless Chiang at once place Stilwell in unrestricted command of all your forces M An exultant Stilwell immediately delivered this letter to Chiang despite pleas from Patrick Hurley Roosevelt39s special envoy in China to delay delivering the message and work on a deal that would achieve tilwell39s aim in a manner more acceptable to Chiang1 Seeing this act as a move toward the complete subjugation of China Chiang gave a formal reply in which he said that Stilwell must be replaced immediately and he would welcome any other qualified U general to fill tilwell39s positionl On October 19 1944 Stilwell was recalled from his command by President Franklin D Roosevelt Partly as a result of controversy concerning the casualties suffered by U forces in Burma and partly due to continuing difficulties with the British and Chinese commanders tilwell39s return to the United States was not accompanied by the usual ceremony Upon arrival he was met by two Army generals at the airport who told him that he was not to answer any media questions about China whatsoever Stilwell was replaced by General Albert C Wedemeyer who received a telegram from General Marshall on October 27 1944 directing him to proceed to China to assume command of the China theatre and replace General Stilwell Wedemeyer later recalled his initial dread over the assignment as service in the China theater was considered a graveyard for American officials both military and diplomatic39 When Wedemeyer actually arrived at Stilwell s headquarters after Stilwell s dismissal Wedemeyer was dismayed to discover that Stilwell had intentionally departed without seeing him and did not leave a single briefing paper for his guidance though departing US military commanders habitually greeted their replacement in order to thoroughly brief them on the strengths and weaknesses of headquarters staff the issues confronting the command and planned operations Searching the offices Wedemeyer could find no documentary record of Stilwell39s plans or records of his former or future operations39 General Wedemeyer then spoke with Stilwell s staff officers but learned little from them because Stilwell according to the staff kept everything in his hip pocket 7quot 91 Dixie Mission United States Observation Group to Yan an The United States Army Observation Group commonly known as the Dixie Mission was the first US effort to establish official relations with the Communist Party of China and the People39s Liberation ML then headquartered in the mountainous city of Yan39an This mission was launched on 22 July 1944 during World War II and lasted until 11 March 1947 In addition to establishing relations the goal was to investigate the Communist Party politically and militarily and determine if the US would benefit from establishing liaison John S Service of the United States Department of State was responsible for political analysis and Colonel David D Barrett of the United States Army performed the military analysis Initially they reported that the Chinese Communists might be useful wartime and postwar ally and that the atmosphere in Yan39an was more energetic and less corrupt than in Nationalist areas After the war the Dixie Mission39s reports and Service and Barrett were condemned by proChinese Nationalist factions in the American government and fell victim to McCarthyism Service was fired from his position at the State Department and Barrett was denied a promotion to briqadier qeneral The Dixie Mission hosted the Patrick Hurley and George Marshall diplomatic missions to negotiate a unification of the Chinese Communists and Nationalists Both diplomatic efforts failed Later the brief existence of the Dixie Mission served as a positive memory between the People39s Republic of China and the United States during the administration of President Richard M Nixon when official relations between the two countries were reestablished Veterans of the Dixie Mission like John Service and Koji Ariyoshi were among the first Americans invited to visit the People39s Republic of China Mao Zedong Thought People 39s war and the mass line The party must not be separate from the popular masses either in policy or in revolutionary struggle To conduct a successful revolution the needs and demands of the masses must be the most important issues New Democracy In so called backward countries socialism cannot be introduced before the country has gone through a period in which the material conditions improve This cannot be done by the bourgeoisie as its progressive character is long since replaced by a regressive character Contradictions as the most important feature of society Society is dominated by a wide range of contradictions that call for varying strategies Revolution is necessary to resolve fully antagonistic contradictions such as those between labour and capital Contradictions arising within the revolutionary movement call for ideological correction to prevent them from becoming antagonistic Cultural revolution The revolution does not wipe out bourgeois ideology the classstruggle continues and even intensifies during socialism Therefore a constant struggle against these ideologies and their social roots must be conducted Cultural Revolution is directed also against traditionalism Three Worlds Theory During the Cold War two imperialist states formed the first world the United States and the Soviet Union The second world consisted of the other imperialist states in their spheres of influence The third world consisted of the nonimperialist countries Both the first and the second world exploit the third world but the first world is the most aggressive part The workers in the first and second world are bought up by imperialism preventing socialist revolution The people of the third world on the other hand have not even a shortsighted interest in the prevailing circumstances Hence revolution is most likely to appear in third world countries which again will weaken imperialism opening up for revolutions in other countries too39 39 Chinese Civil War 19461949 After the end of the Second SinoJapanese War the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Communists and the Chinese Nationalists While the Communists were struggling for supremacy in Manchuria they were supported by the North Korean government with mat riel and manpoweramp539 According to Chinese sources the North Koreans donated 2000 railway cars worth of mat riel while thousands of Koreans served in the Chinese People39s Liberation Army PLA during the wan North Korea also provided the Chinese Communists in Manchuria with a safe refuge for noncombatants and communications with the rest of Chinai539 The North Korean contributions to the Chinese Communist victory were not forgotten after the creation of the People39s Republic of China in 1949 As a token of gratitude between 50000 to 70000 Korean veterans that served in the PLA were sent back along with their weapons and they later played a significant role in the initial invasion of South KoreaE539 China promised to support the North Koreans in the event of a war against South Korea39 The Chinese support created a deep division between the Korean Communists and Kim IlSung39s authority within the Communist party was challenged by the Chinese faction led by Pak llyu who was later purged by Kim39 After the formation of the People39s Republic of China in 1949 the Chinese government named the Western nations led by the US as the biggest threat to its national security39 Basing this judgment on China39s century of humiliation beginning in the early 19th century39 American support for the Nationalists during the Chinese Civil War39 and the ideological struggles between revolutionaries and reactionaries39 the Chinese leadership believed that China would become a critical battleground in the United States crusade against Communismquot As a countermeasure and to elevate China39s standing among the worldwide Communist movements the Chinese leadership adopted a foreign policy that actively promoted Communist revolutions throughout territories on China39s periphery39 land reform movement Land reform also aararian reform though that can have a broader meaning involves the changing of laws regulations or customs regarding land ownership 39 Land reform may consist of a government initiated or governmentbacked property redistribution generally of agricultural land Land reform can therefore refer to transfer of ownership from the more powerful to the less powerful such as from a relatively small number of wealthy or noble owners with extensive land holdings eg plantations large ranches or agribusiness plots to individual ownership by those who work the landL239 Such transfers of ownership may be with or without compensation compensation may vary from token amounts to the full value of the landL339 Land reform may also entail the transfer of land from individual ownership even peasant ownership in smallholdings to governmentowned collective farms it has also in other times and places referred to the exact opposite division of governmentowned collective farms into smallholdingsEquot The common characteristic of all land reforms however is modification or replacement of existing institutional arrangements governing possession and use of land Thus while land reform may be radical in nature such as through largescale transfers of land from one group to another it can also be less dramatic such as regulatory reforms aimed at improving land administration51 Nonetheless any revision or reform of a country39s land laws can still be an intensely political process as reforming land policies serves to change relationships within and between communities as well as between communities and the state Thus even smallscale land reforms and legal modifications may be subject to intense debate or conflictL61 Land ownership and tenure can be perceived as controversial in part because ideas defining what it means to access or control land such as through quotland ownership or land tenure can vary considerably across regions and even within countriesL71 Land reforms which change what it means to control land therefore create tensions and conflicts between those who lose and those who gain from these redefinitions see next section1 Western conceptions of land have evolved over the past several centuries to place greater emphasis on individual land ownership formalized through documents such as land titlesL91 Control overland however may also be perceived less in terms of individual ownership and more in terms land use or through what is known as land tenuremquot Historically in many parts of Africa for example land was not owned by an individual but rather used by an extended family or a village community Different people in a family or community had different rights to access this land for different purposes and at different times Such rights were often conveyed through oral history and not formally documentedml These different ideas of land ownership and tenure are sometimes referred to using different terminology For example quotformalquot or quotstatutory land systems refer to ideas of land control more closely affiliated with individual land ownership Informalquot or customary land systems refer to ideas of land control more closely affiliated with land tenurelzl Terms dictating control over and use of land can therefore take many forms Some specific examples of present day or historic forms of formal and informal land ownership include 0 Traditional land tenure as in the indigenous nations or tribes of North America in the 3 Columbian era 0 Feudal land ownership through fiefdoms 0 Life estate interest in real property that ends at death 0 Fee tail hereditary nontransferable ownership of real property 0 Fee simple Under common law this is the most complete ownership interest one can have in real property 0 Leasehold or rental 0 Rights to use a common 0 Sharecropping o Easements 0 Agricultural labor under which someone works the land in exchange for money payment in kind or some combination of the two o Collective ownership 0 Access to land through a membership in a cooperative or shares in a corporation which owns the land typically by fee simple or its equivalent but possibly under other arrangements 0 Government collectives such as those that might be found in communist states whereby government ownership of most agricultural land is combined in various ways with tenure for farming collectives nationalist retreat to Taiwan Jan 1949 In 1945 E emerged from the war nominally a great military power but economically weak and on the verge of allout civil war The economy was sapped by the military demands of a long costly war and internal strife by spiraling inflation and by corruption in the Nationalist government that included profiteerinq speculation and hoarding Furthermore as part of the Yalta Conference allowing a Soviet sphere of influence in Manchuria the Soviets dismantled and removed more than half of the industrial equipment left there by the Japanese before handing over Manchuria to China Large swathes of the prime farming areas had been ravaged by the fighting and there was starvation in the wake of the war Many towns and cities were destroyed and millions were rendered homeless by floods The problems of rehabilitation and reconstruction from the ravages of a protracted war were staggering and the war left the Nationalists severely weakened and their policies left them unpopular Meanwhile the war strengthened the Communists both in popularity and as a viable fighting force At Yan39an and elsewhere in the communist controlled areas Mao Zedong was able to adapt Marxism Leninism to Chinese conditions He taught party cadres to lead the masses by living and working with them eating their food and thinking their thoughts The Chinese Red Army fostered an image of conducting querrilla warfare in defense of the people Communist troops adapted to changing wartime conditions and became a seasoned fighting force With skillful organizational and propaganda the Communists increased party membership from 100000 in 1937 to 12 million by 1945 Mao also began to execute his plan to establish a new China by rapidly moving his forces from Yan39an and elsewhere to Manchuria This opportunity was available to the Communists because although Nationalist representatives were not invited to Yalta they had been consulted and had agreed to the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in the belief that the Soviet Union would deal only with the Nationalist government after the war However the Soviet occupation of Manchuria was long enough to allow the Communist forces to move in en masse and arm themselves with the military hardware surrendered by the Japanese army quickly establish control in the countryside and move into position to encircle the Nationalist government army in major cities of northeast China The Chinese Civil War broke out between the Nationalists and Communists following that which concluded with the Communist victory in mainland E and the retreat of the Nationalists to Taiwan in 1949 Founding of the People39s Republic of China October 1 1949 Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China and the Kuomintang retreating offshore reducing the ROC39s territory to only Taiwan Hainan and their surrounding islands On 1 October 1949 Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People39s Republic of ChinaZ31 In 1950 the People39s Liberation Army succeeded in capturing Hainan from the ROCM and occupying TibetZ51 However remaining Nationalist forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 195051 Questions for Discussion 1 What produced the crisis in the waning years of the Qing Dynasty 2 Who was Sun Yatsen What solution did he propose for China 3 What is the role of nationalism in the Chinese revolution 4 What was the May Forth movement and what brought it about 5 Who was Mao Zedong What was the appeal of the communism for the founders of the Chinese Communist Party 6 Why were the KMT and the CCP similar in organization What is the origin of the Chinese one party state 7 What was the Long March What is its significance 8 What accounts for the failure of the KMT and the success of the CCP 9 What is the significance of the anti Japanese war to the CCP Notes on China in Revolution 19491976 land to the tiller land reform New Democratic revolution The theory of the New Democracy was known to the Chinese revolutionaries from the late 40s This thesis held that for the majority of the peoples of the planet the long road to socialism could only be opened by a 39national popular democratic anti feuda and anti imperiaist revolution the language of the day run by the communists And in the context of New Democratic revolution the rationality of such economic policies as to destroy feudalism on the basis of and to the tiller to confiscate all foreign and domestic economic establishments with a monopolistic character and to limit control and guide private capital that do not control public life have been proved in practice class struggle Class conflict frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes The view that the class struggle provides the ever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin However the discovery of the existence of class struggle is not the product of their theories their theories can instead be seen as a response to the existence of class struggles Class conflict can take many different forms direct violence such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor indirect violence such as deaths from poverty starvation illness or unsafe working conditions coercion such as the threat of losing a job or pulling an important investment or ideology either intentionally as with books and articles promoting capitalism or unintentionally as with the promotion of consumerism through advertising Additionally political forms of class conflict exist legally or illegally lobbying or bribing government leaders for passage of partisan desirable legislation including labor laws tax codes consumer laws acts of congress or other sanction injunction or tariff The conflict can be open as with a lockout aimed at destroying a labor union or hidden as with an informal slowdown in production protesting low wages or unfair labor practices Korean War June 1950 The Korean War 25 June 1950 27 July 1953amp9M 1 was a war between the Republic of Korea South Korea supported by the United Nations and the Democratic People39s Republic of Korea North Korea at one time supported by E and the Soviet Union It was primarily the result of the political division of E by an agreement of the victorious at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II The Korean Peninsula was ruled by the Empire of Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II Following the surrender of the Empire of Japan in September 1945 American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th parallel with US military forces occupying the southern half and Soviet myfoil occupying the northern half l The failure to hold free elections throughout the Korean Peninsula in 1948 deepened the division between the two sides the North established a communist government while the South established a riqhtwinq government The 38th parallel increasingly became a political border between the two Korean states Although reunification negotiations continued in the months preceding the war tensions intensified Crossborder skirmishes and raids at the 38th parallel persisted The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950 The United States and other countries looked to help defend South Korea Outmaneuvered and suffering heavy casualties in the first two months of the conflict the defenders were forced back to the Pusan perimeter With the Soviet Union boycotting the United Nations Security Council in 1950 a Security Council resolution was passed authorizing military intervention Twentyone countries of the United Nations contributed to the defense of South Korea with the United States providing 88 of the soldiers An amphibious U N counteroffensive was launched which cut off many of the North Korean attackers Those that escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north all the way to the Yalu River at the KoreaChina border At this point Chinese forces crossed over the Yalu and entered the war on the side of North Koreaamp31 Chinese intervention forced the Southernallied forces back behind the 38th parallel The fighting ended on 27 July 1953 when the armistice agreement was signed The agreement maintained the border between the Koreas near the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone DMZ a 25mile 40 km wide fortified buffer zone between the two Korean nations Border incidents continue to the present For the major world powers the war was a proxy conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union one of many that would mark the Cold War While not directly committing forces to the conflict the Soviet Union provided strategic planning weapons and material aid to both the North Korean and Chinese armies From a military science perspective the Korean War was initially fought using the mobile operations of World War II but after the first year the conflict settled down into a holding operation while an armistice was argued over and the static tactics of World Warl trench warfare became the norm for the last two years of the conflict Douglas MacArthur On 25 June 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea starting the Korean Wang The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 82 which authorized a United Nations UN force to assist South Koreaamp5l The UN empowered the American government to select a commander and the Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously recommended MacArthur1 He therefore became CommanderinChief of the United Nations Command UNCOM while remaining SCAP in Japan and Commander of the USAFFEl All South Korean forces were also placed under his command As they retreated before the North Korean onslaught MacArthur received permission to commit US ground forces All the first units to arrive could do was trade men and ground for time falling back to the Pusan PerimeterL939 By the end of August the crisis subsided North Korean attacks on the perimeter had tapered off While the North Korean force numbered 88000 troops Lieutenant General Walton Walker39s Eighth Army now numbered 180000 and he had more tanks and artillery pieces39 Peng Dehuai 18981974 Peng was one of the few senior military leaders who supported Mao39s suggestions to involve China directly in the 19501953 Korean War and he served as the direct commander of the Chinese People39s Volunteer Army for the first half of the war though Mao and Zhou Enlai were technically more senior Peng39s experiences in the Korean War in which Chinese forces suffered over a million casualties more than any other nation involved in the fighting convinced him that the Chinese military had to become more professional organized and wellequipped in order to prepare itself for the conditions of modern technical warfare Because the Soviet Union was the only communist country then equipped with a fully modern professional army Peng attempted to reform China39s military on the Soviet model over the next several years making the army less political and more professional contrary to the political goals of Mao Peng resisted Mao39s attempts to develop a personality cult throughout the 1950s and when Mao39s economic policies associated with the Great Leap Forward caused a nationwide famine Peng became critical of Mao39s leadership The rivalry between Peng and Mao culminated in an open confrontation between the two at the 1959 Lushan Conference Mao won this confrontation labeled Peng as a leader of an quotanti Party cliquequot and purged Peng from all influential positions for the rest of his life Peng lived in virtual obscurity until 1965 when the reformers Liu Shaogi and Deng Xiaoping supported Peng39s limited return to government developing military industries in Southwest China In 1966 following the advent of the Cultural Revolution Peng was arrested by Red Guards From 19661970 radical factions within the Communist Party led by Lin Biao and Mao39s wife Jiang Qing singled out Peng for national persecution and Peng was publicly humiliated in numerous largescale struggle sessions and subjected to physical and psychological torture in organized efforts to force Peng to confess his quotcrimesquot against Mao Zedong and the Communist Party In 1970 Peng was formally tried and sentenced to life imprisonment and he died in prison in 1974 After Mao died in 1976 Peng39s old ally Deng Xiaoping emerged as China39s paramount leader Deng led an effort to formally rehabilitate people who had been unjustly persecuted during the Cultural Revolution and Peng was one of the first leaders to be posthumously rehabilitated in 1978 In modern China Peng is considered one of the most successful and highly respected generals in the history of the early Chinese Communist Party Zhongnanhai an imperial garden in central Beiiing M adjacent to the Forbidden City which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council Central government of the People39s Republic of China The term Zhongnanhai is closely linked with the central government and senior Communist Party officials It is often used as a metonym for the Chinese leadership at large in the same sense that the term White House frequently refers to the President of the United States and his associates The state leaders including Xi Jinping and Hu Jintao and other top CPC and PRC leadership figures carry out many of their daytoday administrative activities inside the compound such as meetings with foreign dignitaries China Central Television frequently shows footage of meetings inside the compound but limits its coverage largely to views of the interior of buildings Tiananmen Tiananmen Square has been the site of a number of political events and student protests Perhaps the most notable events are protests during the May Fourth Movement in 1919 the proclamation of the People39s Republic of China by Mao Zedong on October 1 1949 the Tiananmen Square protests in 1976 after the death of Premier Zhou Enlai and the Tiananmen Square protests of E which resulted in military suppression and the deaths of hundreds if not thousands of civilian protestors39 39 One of the most famous images that appears during these protests was when a man stands in front of a moving tank and refuses to move This became a revolutionary icon in fighting against the government at the time Other notable events include annual mass military displays on each anniversary of the 1949 proclamation until 1 October 1959 the 1984 military parade for the 35th anniversary of the People39s Republic of China which coincided with the ascendancy of Deng Xiaoping the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre military displays and parades on the 50th anniversary of the People39s Republic in 1999 the Tiananmen Square selfimmolation incident in 2001 military displays and parades on the 60th anniversary of the People39s Republic in 2009 and an incident in 2013 mutual aid teams During the 19505 the government of the new People39s Republic made a concerted effort to redistribute land more equitably Although many peasants owned part or all of the small holdings they farmed before 1949 tenancy was common especially in south China The Chinese Communist Party CCP implemented land reforms in areas under its control even before 1949 and subsequently landlords and wealthy peasants became targets of party attack Their elimination as a class was a major aim of the land reform movement begun under the Agrarian Reform Law of June 28 1950 Collectivization of agriculture which was accomplished in several stages began about 1952 The first stage of land reform was characterized by mutual aid teams The mutual aid system was kept simple at first involving only the temporary sharing of labor and some capital individual households remained the basic unit of ownership and production In 1954 mutual aid teams were organized with increasing rapidity into agricultural producers cooperatives which differed from mutual aid teams in that tools draft animals and labor were shared on a permanent basis Cooperative members retained ownership of their land but secured a share in the cooperative by staking their plots along with those of other members in the common land pool By 1956 the transformation of mutual aid teams into agricultural cooperatives was nearly complete By the end of that year moreover the great majority of cooperatives had moved to a still higher stage of collectivization having become advanced producers cooperatives These cooperatives contrasted with those of the earlier stage in that members no longer earned income based on shares of land owned Instead collective farm profits were distributed to members primarily on the basis of labor contributions The average cooperative was made up of 170 families and more than 700 people Although small private plots were permitted most of the land was owned collectively by the cooperative Another development in this period was the establishment of state farms in which land became the property of the state grain quota The grain rationing system was imposed by the People39s Republic of China in the 1950s to control the production of food and to boost industrialization Urban families were given grain coupons with which they could buy a certain amount of grain at a low stateimposed price Any quantity exceeding the coupon quota would have to be purchased at market price Urban households in China therefore face a kinked budget constraint line With this system urban households were able to buy grain at a cheaper price and at the same time rural areas once they fulfilled the sateimposed quotas were allowed to sell the excess supply at market price 100 flowers 1956 Was a period in 1956 in the People39s Republic of Chinaquot39 during which the Communist Party of China CPC encouraged its citizens to openly express their opinions of the communist regime Differing views and solutions to national policy were encouraged based on the famous expression by Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong The policy of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend is designed to promote the flourishing of the arts and the progress of science L239L339 After this brief period of liberalization Mao abruptly changed course The crackdown continued through 1957 as an AntiRightist Campaign against those who were critical of the regime and its ideology Those targeted were publicly criticized and condemned to prison labor campsm Mao remarked at the time that he had enticed the snakes out of their caves EquotL539 The first part of the phrase is often remembered in the West as let a hundred flowers bloom It is used to refer to an orchestrated campaign to flush out dissidents by encouraging them to show themselves as critical of the regime and then subsequently imprison them This view is supported by authors Clive James and Jung Chang who posit that the campaign was from the start a ruse intended to expose rightists and counterrevolutionaries and that Mao Zedong persecuted those whose views were different from the party39s Mao39s personal physician Li Zhisui on the other hand suggests that the campaign was a gamble based on a calculation that genuine counterrevolutionaries were few that rebels like Hu Feng had been permanently intimidated into silence and that other intellectuals would follow Mao39s lead speaking out only against the people and practices Mao himself most wanted to subject to reform L539 Only when criticisms began shifting toward him personally did Mao move to suppress the Hundred Flowers movement and punish some of its participants The ideological crackdown following the campaign39s failure reimposed Maoist orthodoxy in public expression and catalyzed the AntiRightist Movement Quemoy Jinmen Crisis 1958 The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis began on August 23 1958 with air and naval engagements between the PRC and the ROC military forces leading to intense artillery bombardment of Quemoy by the PRC and lay by the ROC and ended on November of the same year39 PLA patrol boats blockaded the islands from ROC supply ships Though the United States rejected Chiang Kaishek39s proposal to bomb mainland China artillery batteries it quickly moved to supply fighter jets and antiaircraft missiles to the ROC It also provided amphibious assault ships to land supplies as a sunken ROC naval vessel was blocking the harbor On September 7 the United States escorted a convoy of ROC supply ships and the PRC refrained from firing Despite the end of the hostilities the two sides have never signed any agreement or treaty to officially end the war Tibetan rebellion 1959 The 1959 Tibetan Uprising or 1959 Tibetan Rebellion began on 10 March 1959 when a revolt erupted in Lhasa the capital of E which had been under the effective control of the Communist Party of E since the Seventeen Point Agreement in 1951 39 Although the 14th Dalai Lama39s flight occurred in 1959 armed conflict between Tibetan rebels and the Chinese army started in 1956 in the Khl and Amjrjca regions which were subjected to socialist reform The querrilla warfare later spread to other areas of Tibet and lasted through 1962 The anniversary of the uprising is observed by some Tibetan exiles as the Tibetan Uprisinq Day The anniversary of its end is celebrated in Tibet as Serfs Emancipation Day Great Leap Forward 1958 In January 1958 Mao launched the second FiveYear Plan known as the Great Leap Forward a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party Under this economic program the relatively small agricultural collectives which had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people39s communes and many of the peasants were ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on the production of iron and steel Some private food production was banned livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership Under the Great Leap Forward Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes Combined with the diversion of labour to steel production and infrastructure projects these projects combined with cyclical natural disasters led to an approximately 15 drop in grain production in 1959 followed by a further 10 decline in 1960 and no recovery in 1961L539 In an effort to win favour with their superiors and avoid being purged each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them Based upon the fabricated success party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of the true harvest for state use primarily in the cities and urban areas but also for export The net result which was compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods left rural peasants with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the largest famine known as the Great Chinese Famine This famine was a direct cause of the death of some 30 million Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962L539 Further many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962L539 The extent of Mao39s knowledge of the severity of the situation has been disputed Mao39s physician believed that he may have been unaware of the extent of the famine partly due to a reluctance to criticise his policies and decisions and the willingness of his staff to exaggerate or outright fake reports regarding food productionM39 Upon learning of the extent of the starvation Mao vowed to stop eating meat an action followed by his staff quot In the beginning commune members were able to eat for free at the commune canteens This changed when food production slowed to a halt Hong Kongbased historian Frank Dikotter L91 challenged the notion that Mao did not know about the famine until it was too late The idea that the state mistakenly took too much grain from the countryside because it assumed that the harvest was much larger than it was is largely a myth at most partially true for the autumn of 1958 only In most cases the party knew very well that it was starving its own people to death At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March 25 1959 Mao specifically ordered the party to procure up to one third of all the grain much more than had ever been the case At the meeting he announced that quotWhen there is not enough to eat people starve to death It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill 190 In Hungry Ghosts Jasper Becker notes that Mao was dismissive of reports he received of food shortages in the countryside and refused to change course believing that peasants were lying and that rightists and kulaks were hoarding grain He refused to open state granariesl and instead launched a series of antigrain concealment drives that resulted in numerous purges and suicidesL21 Other violent campaigns followed in which party leaders went from village to village in search of hidden food reserves and not only grain as Mao issued quotas for pigs chickens ducks and eggs Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to deathL31 Whatever the case the Great Leap Forward caused Mao to lose esteem among many of the top party cadres and was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962 while losing some political power to moderate leaders perhaps most notably Liu Shaogi and Deng Xiaoping in the process However Mao supported by national propaganda claimed that he was only partly to blame As a result he was able to remain Chairman of the Communist Party with the Presidency transferred to Liu Shaoqi The Great Leap Forward was a tragedy for the vast majority of the Chinese Although the steel quotas were officially reached almost all of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in homemade furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal This meant that proper smelting conditions could not be achieved According to Zhang Rongmei a geometry teacher in rural Shanghai during the Great Leap Forward We took all the furniture pots and pans we had in our house and all our neighbours did likewise We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state As Jasper Becker explains The most vulnerable section of China39s population around five per cent were those whom Mao called enemies of the people Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 39black element was given the lowest priority in the allocation of food Landlords rich peasants former members of the nationalist regime religious leaders rightists counterrevolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers 195 backyard furnaces were used by the people of China during the Great Leap Forward 1958 These small steel E furnaces were constructed in the backyards of the communes hence their names People used every type of u gtl they could to power these furnaces from gal to the if of coffins Where iron ore was unavailable they melted any steel objects they could get their hands on including pots and pans and even bicycles to make steel girders but these girders were useless as the steel was impure and of poor quality and thus cracked easily Unbeknownst to the Communist Party officials the result was not steel but high carbon pig iron which needs to be decarburized to make steel 52 1L21 The results varied from region to region In regions where the steelmaking tradition had survived unbroken where the old skills of the ironmasters had not been forgotten the pig iron was indeed further refined into steel and the steel production actually did increase In regions that had no traditions of steelmaking or the old ironmasters had been killed or if there was no theoretical understanding of the blast furnace process and refining of the pig iron the results were unsatisfactory At worst the fuel used was highsulfur coal rendering even the resulting pig iron useless needing to be resmelted and desulfurized This was one of the major failures of the Great Leap Forward people39s communes An experimental commune was established at Chayashan in Henan in April 1958 Here for the first time private plots were entirely abolished and communal kitchens were introduced At the Politburo meetings in August 1958 it was decided that these people39s communes would become the new form of economic and political organization throughout rural China By the end of the year approximately 25000 communes had been set up with an average of 5000 households each The communes were relatively selfsufficient cooperatives where wages and money were replaced by work points Based on his fieldwork Ralph A Thaxton Jr describes the people39s communes as a form of apartheid system quotfor Chinese farm households The commune system was aimed at maximizing production for provisioning the cities and constructing offices factories schools and social insurance systems for urbandwelling workers cadres and officials Citizens in rural areas who criticized the system were labeled dangerous Escape was also difficult or impossible and those who attempted were subjected to partyorchestrated public struggle which further jeopardized their survival Besides agriculture communes also incorporated some light industry and construction projects Lushan Conference July 1959 officially the 8th Plenum of the Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China began on July 2 1959 and was an informal discussion about the Great Leap Forward The conference39s name is derived from the meeting place a resort on Mount Lu in the district of the same name in Jiangxi Province southeastern China The original objective of the conference was to review the developments in China during 1958 and solve some practical issues brought forth by those developments Mao Zedong also intended to use the conference to contain the leftist tendency elements in the Great Leap Forward On July 14 Peng Dehuai then ifs defense minister wrote a private letter to Mao criticizing some elements of the Great Leap Forward In the letter he cautiously framed his words and did not deny the great achievement of Mao but meanwhile showed his disapproval for elements like the quotwinds of exaggeration ie overreporting of grain production the communal dining and also the establishment of commune militia which he felt would undermine the strength of the People39s Liberation Army He expressed Lllvis quotconfusion towards rather large losses and epidemic of bragging in the Great Leap Forward 1 For this reason Mao extended the conference for more than ten days On July 23 Mao showed Peng39s letter to his comrades and asked them to express their views on the issue However not long afterwards Mao bitterly criticised Peng as being part of a group wavering in the face of difficulties and who were only 30 kilometres away from the rightists L239 He was subsequently dismissed arrested and replaced by Lin Biao Although the criticism of Peng Dehuai resulted in a victory for Mao Zedong it also led the leadership to conclude that he had been treated unfairly and that the party39s norms had been violated The Lushan Conference marked a key point of departure in Mao39s rule Criticism of party actions and policies were now equated with criticism of Mao Mao39s speech at Lushan was incredibly passionate and bellicose He defended himself by saying that he like all of the great writers Confucius Karl Marx and Lenin had made mistakes and that focusing on them would not help the situation Moreover he insisted that not one commune had collapsed yet His personal victory over Peng Dehuai at the Lushan Conference gave Mao confidence and led him to proceed with the Cultural Revolution More than 3 million officials within the party were indicted and quotclass struggle was brought in for the first time into the upper echelon of the Party apparatus The Threeyear Natural Disaster 195961 Term the gov t came up with to explain the famine that happened as a result of the Great Leap Forward Liu Shaoqi 18981969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist He was Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee from 1954 to 1959 and President of the People39s Republic of China China39s head of state from 1959 to 1968 during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China Shaoqi fell out of favour in the later 1960s during the Cultural Revolution because of his perceived 39right wing39 viewpoints and because Mao viewed Liu as a threat to his power He disappeared from public life in 1968 and was labelled China39s premier 39Capitalistroader39 and a traitor He died under harsh treatment in late 1969 He was posthumously rehabilitated by Dena Xiaopinq39s government in 1980 and given a state funeral Liu spoke very strongly in favour of the Great Leap Forward at the Eighth CCP National Congress in May 195851 At this Congress Liu stood together with Deng Xiaoping and Peng Zhen in support of Mao39s policies against those who were more critical such as Chen Yun and Zhou Enlai As a result Liu gained influence within the party and in April 1959 he succeeded Mao as President of the People39s Republic of China However Liu began to voice indications of concern about the outcomes of the Great Leap in the August 1959 Lushan PlenumL939 In order to correct the mistakes of the Great Leap Forward Liu and Deng led economic reforms which bolstered their prestige among the party apparatus and the national populace Once he said to Mao People write books about cannibalism M The economic policies of Deng and Liu were notable for being more moderate than Mao39s radical ideas Liu was publicly acknowledged as Mao39s chosen successor in 196131 but by 1962 his opposition to Mao39s policies had led Mao to distrust Liu After Mao succeeded in restoring his prestige during the 1960sl239 Liu39s eventual downfall became inevitable Liu39s position as the second most powerful leader of the CCP contributed to Mao39s rivalry with Liu at least as much as Liu39s political beliefs or factional allegiances in the 1960s indicating that Liu39s later persecution was the result of a power struggle that went beyond the goals and wellbeing of either China or the Party By 1966 there were few senior leaders in China that questioned the need for a widespread reform to combat the growing problems of corruption and bureaucratization within the Party and the government With the goal of reforming the government to be more efficient and true to the Communist ideal Liu himself chaired the enlarged Politburo meeting that officially began the Cultural Revolution However Liu and his political allies quickly lost control of the Cultural Revolution soon after it was called as Mao used the movement to monopolize political power and to destroy his perceived enemiesl339 Whatever its other causes the Cultural Revolution declared in 1966 was overtly proMaoist and gave Mao the power and influence to purge the Party of his political enemies at the highest levels of government Along with closing China39s schools and universities and Mao39s exhortations to young Chinese to randomly destroy old buildings temples and art and to attack their teachers school administrators party leaders and parentsM the Cultural Revolution also increased Mao39s prestige so much that entire villages adopted the practice of offering prayers to Mao before every meal In both national politics and Chinese popular culture Mao established himself as a demigod accountable to no one purging any that he suspected of opposing himl539 and directing the masses and Red Guards to destroy virtually all state and party institutions quot After the Cultural Revolution was announced most of the most senior members of the CPP who had voiced any hesitation in following Mao39s direction including Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were removed from their posts almost immediately and with their families subjected to mass criticism and humiliationM Liu and Deng along with many others were denounced as capitalist roaders Liu was labeled as a quottraitor and quotthe biggest capitalist roader in the Partyquot In July 1966 Liu was displaced as Party Deputy Chairman by Lin Biao By 1967 Liu and his wife Wanq Guanqmei were placed under house arrest in Beijing Liu was removed from all his positions and expelled from the Party in October 1968 After his arrest Liu disappeared from public view After his arrest in 1967 Liu was beaten regularly at public denunciation meetings He was denied medicine for his diabetes by then a longterm illness and for pneumonia which he developed after his arrest Liu was eventually given treatment only when Jiang Qing feared he would die she desired that Liu be kept alive to serve as a living target during the Ninth Party Congress in 1969M At the Congress Liu was denounced as a traitor and an enemy agent Zhou Enlai read the Party verdict that Liu was a criminal traitor enemy agent and scab in the service of the imperialists modern revisionists Russians and the Kuomintang reactionaries Liu39s conditions did not improve after he was denounced in the Congress and he died soon afterwardM39 Interviews with Mao39s surviving colleagues show Mao seemed to enjoy toying with his victims before eliminating them For example he called Liu in from house arrest and told him he was pleased with Liu39s selfcriticism however almost immediately afterward he permitted Liu39s public beating and torture which continued for more than a year subsequently killing him in 1969l939 Liu died within a month of his expulsion from the Party39 Several weeks after his death Red Guards discovered Liu lying on the floor covered in diarrhea and vomit At midnight under secrecy his remains were brought in a jeep to a crematorium his legs hanging out the back and he was cremated under the name Liu Weihuang The cause of death was recorded as illness Liu39s family was not informed for another three years after this date and his death was not made public to the people in China for ten years In February 1980 two years after Deng Xiaoping came to power the Fifth Plenum of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued the Resolution on the Rehabilitation of Comrade Liu Shaoqi The resolution not only declared Liu39s ouster to be unjust but called him a great Marxist and proletarian revolutionary and one of the principal leaders of the Party It also removed the labels of renegade traitor and scabquot that had been attached to him at the time of his death It blamed Liu39s ouster on Lin Biao charging him with quotconcocting false evidencequot against Liu and working with the g o Four to subject him to politicalframeup and physical persecution A memorial was held for Liu on May 17 1980 and his ashes were scattered into the sea at Qingdao in accordance with his last wishesgllzl Deng Xiaoping 19041997 Mao feared that the reformist economic policies of Deng and Liu could lead to restoration of capitalism and end the Chinese Revolutionl939 For this and other reasons Mao launched the Cultural Revolution in 1966 during which Deng fell out of favor and was forced to retire from all his positions During the Cultural Revolution he and his family were targeted by Red Guards who imprisoned Deng39s eldest son Deng Pufang Deng Pufang was tortured and jumped out the window of a fourstory building in 1968 becoming a paraplegic In October 1969 Deng Xiaoping was sent to the Xinjian County Tractor Factory in rural Jiangxi province to work as a regular worker39 In his four years there 39 Deng spent his spare time writing He was purged nationally but to a lesser scale than Liu Shaogi After Lin Biao was killed in an air crash according to official reports he was trying to flee from China after unsuccessfully trying to stage a coup against Mao Deng Xiaoping who had led a large field army during the civil war became the most influential of the remaining army leadersl939 When Premier Zhou Enlai fell ill with cancer Deng became Zhou39s choice as successor and Zhou was able to convince Mao to bring Deng back into politics in 1974 as First VicePremier in practice running daily affairs Deng focused on reconstructing the country39s economy and stressed unity as the first step by raising productionquotquotquotquot quot 8quot He remained careful however to avoid contradicting Maoist ideology at least on paper The Cultural Revolution was not yet over and a radical leftist political group known as the Gang of Four led by Mao39s wife Jiang Qing competed for power within the Party The Gang saw Deng as their greatest challenge to poweramp239 Mao too was suspicious that Deng would destroy the positive reputation of the Cultural Revolution which Mao considered one of his greatest policy initiatives Beginning in late 1975 Deng was asked to draw up a series of selfcriticisms Although he admitted to having taken an inappropriate ideological perspective while dealing with state and party affairs he was reluctant to admit that his policies were wrong in essence His antagonism with the Gang of Four became increasingly clear and Mao seemed to sway in the Gang 39s favour Mao refused to accept Deng39s self criticisms and asked the party39s Central Committee to discuss Deng39s mistakes thoroughly 39Criticize Deng campaign Zhou Enlai died in January 1976 to an outpouring of national grief Zhou was a very important figure in Deng39s political life and his death eroded his remaining support within the Party39s Central Committee After delivering Zhou39s official eulogy at the state funeral the Gang of Four with Mao39s permission began the socalled Criticize Deng and Oppose the Rehabilitation of Rightleaning Elements campaign Hua Guofeng not Deng was selected to become Zhou39s successor On 2 February 1976 the Central Committee issued a TopPriority Directive officially transferring Deng to work on external affairs and thus removing Deng from the party39s power apparatus Deng stayed at home for several months awaiting his fate The political turmoil halted the economic progress Deng had laboured for in the past year39 On 3 March Mao issued a directive reaffirming the legitimacy of the Cultural Revolution and specifically pointed to Deng as an internal rather than external problem This was followed by a Central Committee directive issued to all local party organs to study Mao39s directive and criticize Deng Deng39s reputation as a reformer suffered a severe blow when the Oinqminq Festival after the mass public mourning of Zhou on a traditional Chinese holiday culminated the Tiananmen Incident of 1976 an event the Gang of Four branded as counterrevolutionary and threatening to their power Furthermore the Gang deemed Deng the mastermind behind the incident and Mao himself wrote that the nature of things has changed amp339 This prompted Mao to remove Deng from all leadership positions although he retained his party membership Reemergence postCultural Revolution After the Gang of Four was purged in October 1976 Deng gradually emerged as the de facto leader of China following Mao39s death on 9 September 1976 Prior to Mao39s death the only governmental position he held was that of First Vice Premier of the State Council Q but Hua Guofeng wanted to rid the Party of extremists and successfully marginalised the Gang of Four On 22 July 1977 Deng was restored to the posts of ViceChairman of the Central Committee ViceChairman of the Military Commission and Chief of the General Staff of the People39s Liberation Armyamp539 By carefully mobilizing his supporters within the party Deng outmaneuvered Hua who had pardoned him then ousted Hua from his top leadership positions by 1980 In contrast to previous leadership changes Deng allowed Hua to retain membership in the Central Committee and quietly retire helping to set the precedent that losing a highlevel leadership struggle would not result in physical harm Deng repudiated the Cultural Revolution and in 1977 launched the Beiing Spring which allowed open criticism of the excesses and suffering that had occurred during the period Meanwhile he was the impetus for the abolition of the class background system Under this system the CPC removed employment barriers to Chinese deemed to be associated with the former landlord class its removal allowed a faction favoring the restoration of the private market to enter the Communist Party Deng gradually outmaneuvered his political opponents By encouraging public criticism of the Cultural Revolution he weakened the position of those who owed their political positions to that event while strengthening the position of those like himself who had been purged during that time Deng also received a great deal of popular support As Deng gradually consolidated control over the CPC Hua was replaced by Zhao Ziyang as premier in 1980 and by Hu Yaobang as party chief in 1981 despite the fact that Hua was Mao Zedong39s designated successor as the quotparamount leaderquot of the Communist Party of China and the People39s Republic of China Important decisions were always taken in Deng39s home with a caucus of eight senior party cadres called Eight Eldersquot Deng ruled as paramount leader although he never held the top title of the party and was able to successively remove three party leaders including Hu Yaobangamp539 Deng remained the most influential of the CPC cadre although after 1987 his only official posts were as chairman of the state and Communist Party Central Military Commissions Although the president was conceived of as a figurehead of state actual state power rested in the hands of the premier and the party chief both offices conceived as held by separate people in order to prevent a cult of personality similar to that of Mao The ideal sought a situation where the party developed policy implemented by the state Deng39s elevation to China39s new numberone figure meant that the historical and ideological questions around Mao Zedong had to be addressed properly Because Deng wished to pursue deep reforms it was not possible for him to continue Mao39s hardline quotclass strugglequot policies and mass public campaigns In 1982 the Central Committee of the Communist Party released a document entitled On the Various Historical Issues since the Founding of the People39s Republic of China Mao retained his status as a great Marxist proletarian revolutionary militarist and general and the undisputed founder and pioneer of the country and the People39s Liberation Army His accomplishments must be considered before his mistakes the document declared Deng personally commented that Mao was seven parts good three parts bad The document also steered the prime responsibility of the Cultural Revolution away from Mao although it did state that Mao mistakenly began the Cultural Revolutionquot to the counter revolutionary cliques of the Gang of Four and Lin Biao In November 1978 after the country had stabilized following political turmoil Deng visited Bangkok Kuala Lumpur and Singapore and met with Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew who advised him to open up and institute reforms as well as to stop exporting Communist ideologies in Southeast Asia Later Deng sent tens of thousands of Chinese to Singapore to study Thanks to the support of other party leaders who had already recovered their official positions in 1978 the rise to power of Deng was inevitable Even though Hua Guofeng formally monopolized the top positions in the People39s Republic his position with little support was becoming increasingly difficult In December 1978 during the Third Plenum of the 11th Central Committee Congress of the Communist Party of China Deng took over the reins of power Beginning in 1979 the economic reforms accelerated the market model while the leaders maintained old Communiststyle rhetoric The commune system was gradually dismantled and the peasants began to have more freedom to manage the land they cultivated and sell their products on the market At the same time China39s economy opened to foreign trade On 1 January of that year the United States recognized the People39s Republic of China leaving the Republic of China39s Nationalist government to one side and business contacts between China and the West began to grow In late 1978 the aerospace company Boeing announced the sale of 747 aircraft to various airlines in the PRC and the beverage company CocaCola made public their intention to open a production plant in Shanghai In early 1979 Deng undertook an official visit to the United States meeting President Jimmy Carter in Washington as well as several Congressmen The Chinese insisted that exPresident Richard Nixon be invited to the formal White House reception a symbolic indication of their assertiveness on the one hand and their desire to continue with the Nixon initiatives on the other During the visit Deng visited the Johnson Space Center in Houston as well as the headquarters of CocaCola and Boeing in Atlanta and Seattle respectively With these visits so significant Deng made it clear that the new Chinese regime39s priorities were economic and technological development SinoJapanese relations also improved significantly39 Deng used Japan as an example of a rapidly progressing power that set a good example for China economically private plots Deng39s first reforms began in agriculture a sector long neglected by the Communist Party By the late 1970s food supplies and production had become so deficient that government officials were warning that China was about to repeat the disaster of 1959quot the famines which killed tens of millions during the Great Leap ForwardL939 Deng responded by decollectivizing agriculture and emphasizing the Householdresponsibility system which divided the land of the People39s communes into private plots Farmers were able to keep the land39s output after paying a share to the state This move increased agricultural production increased the living standards of hundreds of millions of farmers and stimulated rural industry39 Lin Biao 19071971 was a major Chinese Communist military leader who was pivotal in the communist victory in the Chinese Civil War especially in Northeastern China Lin was the general who commanded the decisive Liaoshen and Pinqiin Campaiqns coled the Manchurian Field Army of the People39s Liberation Army into Beijing and crossed the Yangtze River in 1949 He ranked third among the Ten Marshals Zhu De and E1 Dehuai were considered senior to Lin and Lin ranked directly ahead of He Long and Liu Bocheng Lin abstained from taking an active role in politics after the civil war but became instrumental in creating the foundations for Mao Zedong39s cult of personality in the early 1960s Lin was rewarded for his service to Mao by being named Mao39s designated successor during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 until his death Lin died in September 1971 when his plane crashed in Mongolia following what appeared to be a failed g to oust Mao Because little inside information is available to the public on what has been dubbed as the quotLin Biao incidentquot the exact events preceding Lin 39s death have been a source of speculation ever since Following Lin 39s death he was officially condemned as a traitor by the Communist Party of i39 He and Jiang Qing are still considered to be the two major Counterrevolutionary cliquesquot blamed by the Communist Party for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution After the KuomintanqCommunist split Lin 39s commander Ye Ting joined forces with He Long and participated in the Nanchanq Uprisinq on August 1 1927L239L739 During the campaign Lin worked as a company commander under a regiment led by Chen Yi39 Following the failure of the revolt Lin escaped to the remote Communist base areas and joined Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the Jianqxi Fuiian Soviet in 1928 After joining forces with Mao Lin became one of Mao39s closest supportersL539 Lin became one of the most senior military field commanders within the Jiangxi Soviet He commanded the First Army Group and achieved a degree of power comparable to that of Peng Dehuai who commanded the Third Army Group According to Comintern representative Otto Braun Li De Lin was politically a blank sheet on which Mao could write as he pleased during this period After Mao was removed from power in 1932 by his rivals the 28 Bolsheviks Lin frequently attended strategic meetings in Mao39s name and openly attacked the plans of Mao39s enemiesL939 Within the Jiangxi Soviet Lin 39s First Army Group was the bestequipped and arguably most successful force within the Red Army Lin 39s First Army became known for its mobility and for its ability to execute successful flanking maneuvers Between 1930 and 1933 Lin 39s forces captured twice the amount of prisoners of war and military equipment as the Third and Fifth Army Groups combined The successes of Lin 39s forces are due partially to the division of labour within the Red Army Lin 39s forces were more offensive and unorthodox than other groups allowing Lin to capitalize on other Red Army commanders successes39 During the Communists defense against Chiang39s 193334 Fifth Encirclement Campaiqn Lin advocated a strategy of protracted guerilla warfare and opposed the positional warfare advocated by Braun and his supporters Lin believed that the best way to destroy enemy soldiers was not to pursue them or defend strategic points but to weaken the enemy through feints ambushes encirclements and surprise attacks Lin 39s views generally conformed with the tactics advocated by Maoml After Chiang39s forces successfully occupied several strategic locations within the Jiangxi Soviet in 1934 Lin was one of the first Red Army commanders to publicly advocate the abandonment of the Jiangxi Soviet but he was opposed by most Red Army commanders especially Braun and Peng Dehuailzl After the Communists finally resolved to abandon their base later in 1934 Lin continued his position as one of the most successful commanders in the Red Army during the Long March Under the direction of Mao and Zhou the Red Army finally arrived at the remote Communist base of Yan39an Shaanxi in December 1936 Lin and Peng Dehuai were generally considered the Red Army39s best battlefield commanders and were not rivals during the Long March Both of them had supported Mao39s rise to de facto leadership at ZlJni in January 1935 Lin may have become privately dissatisfied with Mao39s strategy of constant evasion by the end of the Long March but continued to support Mao publicly continuous revolution By the early 1960s many of the Great Leap 39s economic policies were reversed by initiatives spearheaded by Liu Deng and Zhou Enlai This moderate group of pragmatists were unenthusiastic about Mao39s utopian visions Owing to his loss of esteem within the party Mao developed a decadent and eccentric lestyle39 m By 1962 while Zhou Liu and Deng managed affairs of state and the economy Mao had effectively withdrawn from economic decisionmaking and focused much of his time on further contemplating his contributions to MarxistLeninist social theory including the idea of continuous revolution B39 This theory39s ultimate aim was to set the stage for Mao to restore his brand of Communism and his personal prestige within the Party The 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was a pivotal Communist Party Congress in E during the height of the Cultural Revolution It was held in Beiiing China between April 1 and 24 1969 The Congress formally ratified the political purge of Liu Shaogi and Deng Xiaoping and elevated Mao39s radical allies formally to power Lin Biao delivered the keynote political report at the congress The report lauded the ideology of continuous revolution i e that the bourgeoisie continues to attempt capitalist restoration after they have been overthrown from power and that such attempts should be struck down preemptively Lin 39s keynote address was strongly applauded by the delegates and frequently interrupted by rounds of sloganchanting The Congress labeled Liu Shaoqi as the headquarters of the bourgeoisie 1512 delegates were represented at the Congress although they were not all members of the Party A significant number represented Red Guard groups and there was a marked increase in the size of the PLA delegation many of whom were loyal to Lin Biao 39 At the Congress Mao39s continuous revolution ideology was written into the Party Constitution Lin Biao was named the close comradeinarms of Chairman Mao and his successor After Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978 the Congress was deemed to have been quotincorrect ideologically politically and organizationally The guiding directions of the congress were on the whole wrongquot Part of the Long Live the Victory of Mao Zedong Thouqht statue includes a group of soldiers and civilians propagating the appeal of the 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of ChinaL239 Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution commonly known as the Cultural Revolution was a social political movement that took place in the People39s Republic of China from 1966 Set into motion by Zedong then Chairman of the Communist Party of China its stated goal was to enforce communism in the country by removing capitalist traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society and to impose Maoist orthodoxy within the Party The Revolution marked the return of Mao Zedong to a position of power after the failed Great Leap Forward The movement paralyzed China politically and significantly affected the country economically and socially The Revolution was launched in May 1966 Mao alleged that bourgeois elements were infiltrating the government and society at large aiming to restore capitalism He insisted that these revisionistsquot be removed through violent class struggle China39s youth responded to Mao39s appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country The movement spread into the military urban workers and the Communist Party leadership itself It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life In the top leadership it led to a mass purge of senior officials who were accused of taking a capitalist roadquot most notably Liu Shaogi and Deng Xiaoping During the same period Mao39s personality cult grew to immense proportions Millions of people were persecuted in the violent factional struggles that ensued across the country and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation arbitrary imprisonment torture sustained harassment and seizure of property A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed Cultural and religious sites were ransacked Mao officially declared the Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969 but its active phase lasted until the death of the military leader Lin Biao in 1971 After Mao39s death and the arrest of the Gan o Four in 1976 reformers led by Deng Xiaoping ended the Maoist reforms associated with the Cultural Revolution In June 1981 the Central Committee announced the official verdict The 39cultural revolution which lasted from May 1966 to October 1976 was responsible for the most severe setback and the heaviest losses suffered by the Party the state and the people since the founding of the People39s Republic M red guards The first students to call themselves Red Guards in China were a group of students at the Tsinghua University Middle School who were given the name Red Guards to sign two biacharacter posters issued on May 25 and June 2 of 196631 The students believed that the criticism of the play Hai Rui Dismissed from Office was a political issue and needed greater attention The group of students led by Zhang Chengzhi at Tsinghua University Middle School and Nie Yuanzi at Peking University originally wrote the posters as a constructive criticism of Tsinghua University and Peking University39s administration which were accused of harboring quotintellectual elitism and bourgeoisquot tendenciesL339 However they were denounced as counterrevolutionaries and radicals by the school administration and fellow students and were forced to secretly meet amongst the ruins of the Old Summer Palace Nevertheless Chairman Mao Zedong ordered that the manifesto of the Red Guards be broadcast on national radio and published in the People 39s Daily newspaper This action gave the Red Guards political legitimacy and student groups quickly began to appear across ChinaH39 Due to the factionalism already beginning to emerge in the Red Guard movement Liu Shaogi made the decision in early June 1966 to send in Communist Party of China CPC work teamsL239 These work groups were led by Zhanq Chunaiao head of China39s Propaqanda Department and were the attempt by the Party to keep the movement under its control Rival Red Guard groups led by the sons and daughters of cadres were formed by these work teams to deflect attacks away from those in positions of power towards bourgeois elements in society mainly intellectualsEquot In addition these Partybacked rebel groups also attacked students with 39bad39 class backgrounds these included the children of former landlords and capitalistsampquot These actions were all attempts by the CPC to preserve the existing state government and apparatusL239 Mao concerned that these work teams were hindering the course of the Cultural Revolution dispatched Chen Boda Jianq Oinq Kanq Shenq and others to join the Red Guards and combat the work teamsL339 In July 1966 Mao ordered the removal of the remaining work teams against the wishes of Liu Shaogi and condemned their 39fifty days of White Terror39L539 The Red Guards were now free to organise without the restrictions of the Party and within a few weeks on the encouragement of Mao39s supporters Red Guard groups had appeared in almost every school in ChinaL639 Role in the Cultural Revolution Mao expressed personal approval and support for the Red Guards in a letter to Tsinghua University Red Guards on 1 August 196631 He gave the movement a more public boost at a massive rally on the 18th of August at Tiananmen Square Mao appeared atop Tiananmen wearing an olive green military uniform the type favored by Red Guards but which he had not worn in many yearsL739 He personally greeted 1500 Red Guards and waved to 800000 Red Guards and onlookers belowL739 The rally was led by Chen Boda and Lin Biao gave a keynote speechL739 Red Guard leaders led by Nie Yuanzi also gave speechesL739 A high school Red Guard put a red arm band enscribed with the characters for Red Guard on the Chairman who stood for six hoursL739 The 818 rally as it was known was the first of eight receptions the Chairman gave to Red Guards in Tiananmen in the fall of 1966 It was this rally that signified the beginning of the Red Guards involvement in implementing the aims of the Cultural Revolution39 The second rally held on 31 August was led by Kang Sheng and Lin Biao also donned a red arm band The last rally was held on 26 November 1966 In all the Chairman greeted eleven to twelve million Red Guards most of whom traveled from afar to attend the ralliesL939L739 The 11th Plenum which was meeting in August had ratified the 39Sixteen Articles a document that stated the aims of the Cultural Revolution and highlighted the role students would be asked to play in the movement After the August rally the Cultural Revolution Group directed the Red Guards to attack the 39Four Olds39 of Chinese society old customs old culture old habits and old ideas For the rest of the year Red Guards marched across China in a campaign to eradicate the 39Four Olds39 Old books and art were destroyed museums were ransacked and streets were renamed with new revolutionary names and adorned with pictures and the sayings of Mao39 Many famous temples shrines and other heritage sites in Beijing were attackedml However attacks on culture quickly descended into attacks on people Ignoring guidelines in the Sixteen Articles that stipulated that persuasion rather than force were to be used to bring about the Cultural Revolution officials in positions of authority and perceived 39bourgeois elements were denounced and suffered physical and psychological attacks39 Intellectuals were to suffer the brunt of these attacks Many were ousted from official posts such as university teaching and allocated manual tasks such as quotsweeping courtyards building walls and cleaning toilets from 7am to 5pm daily which would encourage them to dwell on past quotmistakesquot An official report in October 1966 reported that the Red Guards had already arrested 22000 39counterrevolutionaries39 393 The Red Guards were also tasked with rooting out 39capitalist roaders39 those with supposed 39right wing views in positions of authority This search was to extend to the very highest echelons of the CPC with many top party officials such as Liu Shaoai Deng Xiaoping and Peng Dehuai being attacked both verbally and physically by the Red Guardsml Liu Shaogi was especially targeted as he had taken Mao39s seat as Chairman of the People39s Republic following the Great Leap Forward Although Mao stepped down from his post as a sign of accepting responsibility he was angered that a capitalist roader like Liu could take the reins of communist China However the Red Guards were not to go about their activities completely unchallenged The Red Guards were not permitted to enter Zhongnanhai the Forbidden City or any military facility which was tasked with classified information i e special intelligence Nuclear Weapons development Several times Red Guards attempted to storm Zhongnanhai and the 8341 Special Reqiment who were responsible for Mao39s security fired upon the Red Guards When Jiang Qing promoted the idea that the Red Guards should crush the PLA and Lin Biao being seemingly supportive of her plans such as allowing Red Guards to loot barracks while at the same time oblivious to the ongoing chaos the PLA had to deal with several military commanders disregarded their chain of command and attacked Red Guards whenever their bases or people were threatened When Red Guards entered factories and other areas of production they encountered resistance in the form of worker and peasant groups who were keen to maintain the status quo In addition there were bitter divisions within the Red Guard movement itself especially along social and political lines The most radical students often found themselves in conflict with more conservative Red GuardsL939 The leadership in Beiiing also simultaneously tried to restrain and encourage the Red Guards adding confusion to an already chaotic situation On the one hand the Cultural Revolution Group reiterated calls for nonviolence but on the other hand the People39s Liberation Army was told to assist the Red Guards with transport and lodging and help organize ralliesL939 However by the end of 1966 most of the Cultural Revolution Group were of the opinion that the Red Guards had become too much of a political liabilityL939 The campaign against 39capitalistroaders39 had led to anarchy the Red Guards actions had led to conservatism amongst China39s workers and the lack of discipline and the factionalism in the movement had made the Red Guards politically dangerousl539 1967 would see the decision to dispel the student movement Factionalism within the Red Guards Enveloped in a trance of excitement and change all student Red Guards pledged their loyalty to their beloved Chairman Mao ZedongM Many worshipped Mao above everything and this was typical of a quotpure and innocent generation quot39 Excited youths took inspiration from Mao39s often vague pronouncements generally believing the sanctity of his words and making serious efforts to figure out what they meant Factions quickly formed based on individual interpretations of Mao39s statements All groups pledged loyalty to Mao and claimed to have his best interests in mind yet they continually engaged in verbal and physical skirmishes all throughout the Cultural Revolution39 Youth from families with partymembers and of revolutionary origin joined conservative factions These factions focused on the sociopolitical status quo keeping within their localities and working to challenge existing distributions of power and privilegelgl Those from the countryside and without ties to the Chinese Communist Party often joined radical groups who sought to change and uproot local government leadership The primary goal of the radicals was to restructure existing systems to benefit those of poorer backgrounds as supposed capitalist roaders were corrupting the Socialist agenda Primarily influenced by travel and a freer exchange of ideas from different regions of China more joined the radical rebel factions of the Red Guards by the second half of the Cultural Revolution39 Some historians one being Andrew Walder argue that individuals and their political choices also influenced the development of Red Guard factions all across China Interests of individuals interactions with authority figures and social interactions all altered identities to forge factions that would fight for new grievances against the system quotl939 Following Mao Zedong39s idea of permanent revolution the factions and their identities continually evolved as new ideas and people were brought in Ultimately the struggle between factions led to the chaotic civilwarlike atmosphere which foiled Mao39s original intent to have the people carry out an orderly permanent revolution against the existing regime End of the movement By February 1967 political opinion at the center had decided on the removal of the Red Guards from the Cultural Revolution scene in the interest of stabilityml The People39s Liberation Army PLA forcibly suppressed the more radical Red Guard groups in Sichuan Anhui Hunan Fuiian and Hujbej provinces in February and March Students were ordered to return to schools student radicalism was branded 39counterrevolutionary39 and banned There was a wide backlash in the spring against the suppression with student attacks on any symbol of authority and PLA units An order from Mao the Cultural Revolution Group the State Council and the Central Military Affairs Committee of the PLA on September 5 1967 instructed the PLA to restore order to Chinaamp339 The PLA violently put down the national Red Guard movement in the year that followed with the suppression often brutal A radical alliance of Red Guard groups in Hunan province called the Sheng Wu Lil was involved in clashes with local PLA units for example and in the first half of 1968 was forcibly suppressedgquot At the same time the PLA carried out mass executions of Red Guards in Guangxi province that were unprecedented in the Cultural Revolutionampquot The final remnants of the movement were defeated in Peking in the summer of 1968 Reportedly in an audience of the Red Guard leaders with Mao the Chairman informed them gently of the end of the movement with a tear in his eye The repression of the students by the PLA was not as gentleamp539 After the summer of 1968 some moreradical students continued to travel across China and play an unofficial part in the Cultural Revolution but by then the movement39s official and substantial role was over quotfour olds The Four Olds or the Four Old Things simplified Chinese EH traditional Chinese ME Qinyin sijiu were Old Customs Old Culture Old Habits and Old Ideas One of the stated goals of the Cultural Revolution in the People39s Republic of China was to bring an end to the Four Olds 39 The campaign to destroy the Four Olds began in Beiiing on August 19 1966 shortly after the launch of the Cultural RevolutionL239 Popular Slogans o quotbeating down the bad elementsquot 0 quotbeating down imperialismquot o quotbeating down foreign religionquot 0 quotbeating down Jesus followingquot o quotbeating down the counter revoutionistsquot quotrevolution is not a dinner party Revolution is Not a Dinner Party begins in 1972 6 years into the Cultural Revolution in China Ling Chang is a nine year old girl whose parents are doctors which are part of the ugger class society in China When Ling39s father Dr Chang had free time he would teach Ling English and they would listen to American radio shows such as Voice of America Dr Chang39s colleague from the United States Dr Smith kept close contact with Dr Chang in the time before the Cultural Revolution via mail A political officer Comrade Li moves into part of the Chang39s apartment room and conducts his operations from there With the presence of Comarade Li next door the Changs were forced to speak about controversial topics in hushed voices and listen to the American radio underneath blankets as well as displaying a revolutionary mindset through putting up pictures of Chairman Mao Zedong and assisting Comrade Li Shortly after the officer moved in the father of the Chang39s neighbor family is taken away and branded as an antirevolutionary After this Ling was fearful her father would be taken as well Shortly thereafter the neighbor39s mother was taken away as well and their son Niu was forced to join the Red Guards Meanwhile Ling is constantly being harassed at school by children of the working class who believe Ling is bourgeois Ling39s clothing and long hair are constantly used as a means to make her look bourgeois Ling39s family were marked as bourgeois sympathizers and her father was removed from surgery and was forced to work as a janitor at the hospital One day Ling and her father rescue a counterrevolutionary writer who was trying to commit suicide by drowning himself Because Ling and Dr Chang rescued him Niu and his gang the Red Guard came and arrested her father for being an antirevolutionary Ling spends nights alone by herself during the night because her mother worked nights in the hospital and her father was no longer there She became old enough to take over shopping for her mother and began to haggle and barter for food bought with ration tickets and by any possible means One day at school the teacher is thrown out and Gao one of the young revolutionaries tries to cut her hair Ling retaliates and him with her schoolbag and gets away unscathed She then receives news that her father will be operating on Gao s father at the hospital As Ling attempts to sneak into the compound the guards catch her and throw her into a room with mats that are infected with Iii Ling sleeps on them and gets lice infested in her hair The next morning the gardener comes into the room and let her go When Ling got back to her apartment her mother had to cut all of her hair Chairman Mao dies in 1976 but his death does not bring an end to the bleak lives of the people Instead different revolutionary factions begin fighting with each other Jiang Qing Mao39s wife is arrested and accused of plotting to overthrow the government A few weeks later Ling is forced by Comarade Li into a public apology to Gao However before further punishment is inflicted on Ling Comrade Li is arrested as a revolutionary criminal for his association with Chairman Jiang Qing At the same time Ling39s father is released and Ling her mother and Dr Chang go home together Jiang Qing 19141991 was the pseudonym used by the major Communist Party of China political figure who was Mao Zedong39s last wife In the West Jiang was known as Madame Mao She went by the stage name L n Ping during her acting career and was known by various other names during her life She married Mao in Yan39an in November 1938 and served as Communist China39s first first lady Jiang Qing was best known for playing a major role in the Cultural Revolution 196676 and for forming the radical political alliance known as the quotGan o Four She was named the Great Flagcarrier of the Proletarian Culture Jiang Qing served as Mao39s personal secretary in the 1940s and was head of the Film Section of the CPC Propaganda Department in the 1950s In the early 1960s she made a bid for power during the Cultural Revolution 19661976 In 1966 she was appointed deputy director of the Central Cultural Revolution Group and claimed real power over Chinese politics for the first time Before Mao39s death the Gang of Four maintained control of many of China39s political institutions including the media and propaganda However Jiang39s political success was limited When Mao died in 1976 she lost the support and justification for her political activities She was arrested in October 1976 by Hua Guofeng and his allies and was subsequently accused of being counterrevolutionary Since then Jiang Qing and Lin Biao have been branded by official historical documents in China as the Lin Biao and Jiang Qing Counterrevolutionary Cliquesquot to which most of the blame for the damage and devastation caused by the Cultural Revolution was assigned The assessments of western scholars have not been as uniformly critical Though initially sentenced to execution her sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1983 and in May 1991 she was released for medical treatment Before returning to prison she committed suicide m Cultural Revolution Group The Cultural Revolution Group CRG was formed in May 1966 as a replacement organisation to the Central Committee Secretariat and the ive Man Groupquot and was initially directly responsible to the Standing Committee of the Politburo It consisted mainly of radical supporters of Mao including E E1 the Chairman39s wife Jianq Qing Kanq Shenq Yao Wenyuan Zhanq Chunaiao Wanq Li and Le Fujzhi The CRG had a central role to play in the Cultural Revolution 39s first few years and for a period of time the group replaced the Politburo Standing Committee PSC as the de facto top power organ of China Its members were also involved in many of the major events of the Cultural Revolution Wang Guangmei 19212006 rebel factions loyalty dance They were at the Red Guard Stadium in Harbin in northern China along with hundreds of thousands of Communist Party cadres workers peasants and other soldiers who had gathered for a marathon conference on the teachings of Chairman Mao Zedong This was 1968 nearly two years into the Cultural Revolution Mao39s attempt to purge Chinese society of supposed bourgeois elements and escalate his own cult of personality The conferees seemed to be trying to outdo one another in their professions of love for their nation39s leader On April 28 the last day of the 23day gathering a 5yearold kindergartner was performing the loyalty dance quot as it was known In front of the soldiers in the stadium stands she skipped in place and sang No matter how close our parents are to us they are not as close as our relationship with Mao How absurd thought Li who was then a photographer for the Heilongjiang Daily a party newspaper The girl certainly was lovely and eager to please but the photojournalist found the excess of zeal discomforting quotThey had to love him to the extreme quot says Li now 68 and retired In the cult of Mao everyone was expected to perform the loyalty dance from miners to office workers to toddlers to old ladies whose feet had been bound quotThe movements were always toward the sky that way you could show how respectful you were to Mao quot Li says quotEveryone knew how to dance itquot Shanghai Communiqu February 1972 The Joint Communiqu of the United States of America and the People 395 Republic of China also known as the Shanghai Communiqu 1972 was an important diplomatic document issued by the United States of America and the People39s Republic of China on February 28 1972 during President Richard Nixon39s visit to China 39 The document pledged that it was in the interest of all nations for the United States and China to work towards the normalization of their relations although this would not occur until the Joint Communiqu on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations seven years later The US and China also agreed that neither they nor any other power should seek hegemony in the Asia Pacific region 39 This was of particular importance to China who shared a militarized border with the Soviet Union Regarding the political status of Taiwan in the communiqu the United States acknowledged the 1 China policy but did not endorse the PRC 39s version of the policy and agreed to cut back military installations on Taiwan This constructive ambiguity in the phrase of US Secretary of State y Kissinger who oversaw the American side of the negotiations would continue to hinder efforts for complete normalization The communiqu included wishes to expand the economic and cultural contacts between the two nations although no concrete steps were mentioned barefoot doctors are farmers who received minimal basic medical and paramedical training and worked in rural villages in the People39s Republic of China Their purpose was to bring health care to rural areas where urbantrained doctors would not settle They promoted basic hyqiene preventive health care and family planning and treated common illnesses The name comes from southern farmers who would often work barefoot in the rice paddies In the 1930s the Rural Reconstruction Movement had pioneered village health workers trained in basic health as part of a coordinated system and there had been provincial experiments after 1949 but after Mao Zedong39s healthcare speech in 1965 the concept was developed and institutionalized In his speech Mao Zedong criticized the urban bias of the medical system of the time and called for a system with greater focus on the well being of the rural population 39 China39s health policy changed quickly after this speech and in 1968 the barefoot doctors program became integrated into national policy 39 These programs were called rural cooperative medical systems RCMS and strove to include community participation with the rural provision of health servicesL239 Barefoot doctors became a part of the Cultural Revolution which also radically diminished the influence of the Weishengbu China39s health ministry which was dominated by Westerntrained doctors Qingming demonstration April 1976 The Qingming Festival also known as Tomb Sweeping Day or Ching Ming quot339 is a traditional Chinese festival on the first day of the fifth solar term of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar This makes it the 15th day after the Spring Eguinox either April 4th or ih in a given year39 quot539 Other common translations include Chinese Memorial Day and Ancestors Day The Tiananmen Incident took place on April 5 1976 at Tiananmen Square in Beijing China The incident occurred on the traditional day of mourning the Qinqminq Festival after the Naniinq Incident and was triggered by the death of Premier Zhou Enlai earlier that year Some people strongly disapproved of the removal of the displays of mourning and began gathering in the Square to protest against the central authorities then largely under the auspices of the Gang of Four who ordered the Square to be cleared The event was labeled as counterrevolutionary immediately after its occurrence by the Communist Party39s Central Committee and served as a gateway to the dismissal and house arrest of thenVice Premier Deng Xiaoping who was accused of planning the event The Central Committee39s decision on the event was reversed after Deng came to power in 1978 as it would later be officially hailed as a display of patriotism The death of Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai on January 8 1976 prompted the protest Zhou Enlai was a widely respected senior Chinese leader For several years before his death he was involved in a political power struggle with other senior leaders in the Politburo of the Communist Party of China39 Premier Zhou39s most visible and powerful antagonists were the four senior members who came to be called the Gan o Four39 The leader of the clique Jiang Qing was married to Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong To defuse an expected popular outpouring of sentiment at Zhou39s death the Communist Party of China limited the period of public mourning for example the national flag was lowered to halfmast for only one hour39 Mourning In Chinese culture people celebrate the 106th day after the winter solstice as Qinqminq Festival also known as Tomb Sweeping Day In 1976 the Oing Ming festival fell on April 5 Even before the tomb sweeping Day that year citizens who mourned Premier Zhou39s death began to place paper wreaths and white paper chrysanthemums at the foot of the Monument to the People39s Heroes in Tiananmen Square On April 4 for example hundreds of thousands of Beijing residents came to the square to lay wreaths at the Monument Hundreds of mourners posted handwritten poems there as well Many of the poems seemed to refer to and commemorate ancient Chinese historical events but most were intended to criticize China39s current leaders It was an indirect way of expression without compromising the possibility of arrest by security forces see Jan Wong39s account of these poems in Red China Blues An example is a poem implicitly criticizing Jiang Oing by attacking the Empress Wu Zetian a 7thcentury Tang Dynasty empress who ruled after her husband died The large number of mourners and intensity of the public outpouring of sentiment alarmed government and Communist Party officials The Politburo met in emergency sessions in the Great Hall of the People which lies a few yards west of Tiananmen Square The leaders decided to remove all the wreaths flowers and poems Public security forces acted during the night of April 45 and cleaned the area around the Monument On April 5 tens of thousands of Beijing residents returned to the Monument in Tiananmen Square and were dismayed to find the wreaths and other commemorative materials removed In addition public security officers cordoned off the area around the Monument preventing mourners from approaching Government response China39s leaders namely Jiang Oing Mao Zedong39s wife and Mao Yuanxin saw the popular gathering as a threat to the forward movement of the Cultural Revolution They consulted with Party Chairman Mao Zedong claiming these people to be capitalist roadersquot who were hitting back at the Proletarian Revolution Action was taken on the night of April 5 when the number of mourners were a few thousand Controlled by Jiang Oing and the mayor of Beijing the militia encircled the area then went in with clubs and batons to drive the people away from the monument Four thousand were arrested According to Jan Wong in Red China Blues around 60 were dragged into the Great Hall of the People beheaded and secretly cremated The media subsequently linked the event to Deng Xiaoping then carrying out the daily duties of the Premier It was rumored that the Gang of Four had become apprehensive of Deng 39s influence and thus attempted his removal Deng was an ally of Zhou Enlai and was placed under house arrest in Guangzhou After Mao39s death and the fall of the Gang of Four in October 1976 Party leaders rehabilitated Deng and brought him back to Beijing where he emerged as China39s Paramount Leader in 1978 Tangshan earthquake July 1976 The Tangshan Earthquake also known as the Great Tangshan EarthquakeL239 was a natural disaster that occurred on Wednesday July 28 1976 It is believed to be the largest earthguake of the 20th century by death to51 The epicenter of the earthquake was near Tanqshan in Hebei People 39s Republic of China an industrial city with approximately one million inhabitants The number of deaths initially reported by the Chinese qovernment was 655000 but this number has since been stated to be around 240000 to 255 00051 Another report indicates that the actual death toll was much higher at approximately 650000 and explains that the lower estimates are limited to Tangshan and exclude fatalities in the densely populated surrounding areasm A further 164000 people were recorded as being severely injured The earthquake occurred between a series of political events involving the Communist Party of China ultimately leading to the expulsion of the ruling Gan o Four by Mao39s chosen successor Hua Guofeng In traditional Chinese thought natural disasters are seen as a precursor of dynastic changeL 1 The earthquake hit in the early morning at 0342538 local time 1976 July 27 1942538 1 and lasted 14 to 16 secondsL71 Chinese government official sources state a magnitude of 78 on the Richter maqnitude scae l though some sources listed it as high as 82 It was followed by a major 71 magnitude aftershock some 16 hours later increasing the death toll to over 255000 The earthquake was generated by the 25mie long Tangshan Fault which runs near the city and ruptured due to tectonic forces caused by the Amurian Plate sliding past the Eurasian Plate Aftermath Hi A Tangshan earthquake memorial in Tianjin The Chinese qovernment refused to accept international aid from the United Nations and insisted on sefreiance l Shanghai sent 56 medical teams to Tangshan in addition to the People 39s Liberation Army who were assisting while also trying to fix their tarnished image of Red guards destructions earier Rebuilding infrastructure started immediately in Tangshan and the city was completely rebuilt Today Tangshan city is home to nearly three million people and is known as quotBrave City of China quot Political aftermath The earthquake came in one of the most dramatic years in the history of the People 39s Republic The earthquake was preceded by the death of Zhou Enlai in earlier months and followed by the death of Zedong in September The political repercussions of the disaster and its aftermath contributed to the end of the Cultural Revolution Mao39s chosen successor Hua Guofeng showed concern thereby solidifying his status as China39s leader He with Chen Yonggui made a personal visit to Tangshan on August 4 to survey the damage and was photographed in the tasks of cleaning up and comforting the survivorsM Leaders who opposed the return of Deng Xiaoping especially the group which became known as Gang of Four filled the press with concern for the victims but explicitly said that the nation should not be diverted by the earthquake and that the priority was to denounce Deng instead Jiang Qing was widely quoted as saying quotThere were merely several hundred thousand deaths So what Denouncing Deng Xiaoping concerns 800 million people Ml Other Gang of Four slogans said quotBe alert to Deng Xiaoping s criminal attempt to exploit earthquake phobia to suppress reV01utionquot1 61 Hua Guofeng 19212008 Su Zhu 16 February 1921 20 August 2008 better known by the nom de guerre Hua Guofeng was Mao Zedong39s designated successor as the paramount leader of the People39s Republic of China and Chairman of the Communist Party of China A regional official in Hunan between 1949 and 1971 he became the head of the party leadership in the province during the latter stages of the Cultural Revolution Hua was elevated to the national stage in early 1976 and was known for his loyalty to Mao Upon Zhou Enlai39s death in January 1976 Hua succeeded Zhou as Premier of the People39s Republic of China After Mao39s death Hua took on the titles of Chairman of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission to the surprise and dismay of Jiang Qing and the rest of the Gan o Four Hua is the only leader to have simultaneously held the three highest offices of the PRC leading the Communist Party State Council and the Central Military Commission On 6 October 1976 Hua brought the Cultural Revolution to an end and ousted the Gan o Four from political power by arranging for their arrests in Beijing He attempted moderate reforms and reversing some of the excesses of Cultural Revolutionera policies However because of his insistence on continuing the Maoist line he was himself outmaneuvered in December 1978 by Deng Xiaoging a pragmatic reformer who forced Hua into early retirement As Hua faded into political obscurity he continued to insist on the correctness of Maoist principles He is remembered as a largely benign transitional figure in modern Chinese political history Questions for Discussion 1 What were the first tasks of Chinese Communist cadres in the process of land reform 2 What is quotclass status and how was it assigned and used by the Party 3 What was the nature of quotcivil society in a rural village before and after the political transformation 4 Did Communist economic reforms improve living standards for the peasantry Did they reduce the tax burden 5 What was the purpose of land reform What was the rationale for land reform offered by the Chinese Communist Party 6 What accounts for the China39s remarkably smooth transition to collective agriculture 7 What was the rationale for the Great Leap Forward 8 What was the content of the Great Leap as an economic and as a social program 9 Why did the Great Leap fail so spectacularly 10 What were the causes of the great famine of 195961 11 What were the effects of the famine in social economic demographic and political terms 12 What were the origins of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 13 What were the consequences of the GPCR in social economic and political terms 14 What was the program of rustication of educated youth What was its rationale Notes on the Reform Era 19762001 sentdown youth rusticated youth The sentdown youth or rusticated youth literally educated youth shortened to zhiqing of the People39s Republic of China refers to educated young people who beginning in the 1950s until the end of the Cultural Revolution willingly or under coercion left the urban areas and were sent down to live and work in rural areas during the Up to the mountains and down to the countryside movement 39L239 The vast majority of those who went had received elementary to high school education and only a small minority had matriculated to the postsecondary or university levelL339 Origins After the People39s Republic of China was established in order to resolve employment problems in the cities starting in the 1950s youth from urban areas were organized to move to the rural countryside especially in remote towns to establish farms As early as 1953 the People 395 Daily published the editorial Organize school graduates to participate in agricultural production labor In 1955 Mao Zedong asserted that the countryside is a vast expanse of heaven and earth where we can flourish which would become the slogan for the Down to the Countryside Movement Beginning in this year the Communist Youth League organized farming and encouraged the youth to cultivate the land From 1962 it was suggested that the Down to the Countryside Movement be nationally organized and in 1964 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China established an oversight group In 1966 under the influence of the Cultural Revolution university entrance examinations were suspended and until 1968 many students were unable to receive admittance into university or become employedEquot Additionally the chaos surrounding the Revolution from 1966 to 1968 caused the Communist Party to realize that a way was needed to assign the youth to working positions to avoid losing control of the situation On December 22 1968 Chairman Mao directed the People39s Daily to publish a piece entitled We too have two hands let us not laze about in the city which quoted Mao as saying The intellectual youth must go to the country and will be educated from living in rural poverty In 1969 many youth were rusticatedL539 Middle school students were organized and assigned on a national level to the countryside In 1971 numerous problems with the movement began to come to light at the same time as the Communist Party allocated jobs to the youth who were returning from the country However the majority of these reurbanized youth had taken advantage of personal relations to leave the countryside Those directed to deal with the quotProject 571 coup denounced the entire movement as being disguised labor reform In 1976 even Mao realized the severity of the rustication movement and decided to reexamine the issue But in the meantime over a million youth continued to be rusticated every year Rehabilitation After Mao39s death in 1976 many of the rusticated youth remained in the countryside some of whom had married into their villages In 1977 university entrance exams were reinstated inspiring the majority of rusticated youth to attempt to return to the cities In the winter of 1978 in Yunnan the youth implored the government to hear their plight in the form of strikes and petitions which reinforced the pressing nature of the issue to party authoritiesL539 On March 8 1980 Hu Yaobana General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party proposed ending rustication On October 1 of the same year the party essentially decided to end the movement and allow the youth to return to their families in the cities In addition under age and marriage restriction one child per family of the rusticated youth were permitted to accompany their parents to their native cities In the late 1970s the socalled scar literature included many vivid and realistic descriptions of their experiences becoming the first public exploration of the cost of the Cultural Revolution Gang of Four The Gang of Four was the name given to a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials They came to prominence during the Cultural Revolution 196676 and were subsequently charged with a series of treasonous crimes The members consisted of Mao Zedong39s last wife E1 Qing the leading figure of the group and her close associates Zhanq Chunaiao Yao Wenyuan and Wang Hongwen The Gang of Four controlled the power organs of the Communist Party of China through the latter stages of the Cultural Revolution although it remains unclear which major decisions were made by Mao Zedong and carried out by the Gang and which were the result of the Gang of Four39s own planning The Gang of Four together with disgraced general Lin Biao were labeled the two major counter revolutionary forces of the Cultural Revolution and officially blamed by the Chinese government for the worst excesses of the societal chaos that ensued during the ten years of turmoil Their downfall on October 6 1976 a mere month after Mao39s death brought about major celebrations on the streets of Beijing and marked the end of a turbulent political era in China Hua Guofeng 19212008 Su Zhu 16 February 1921 20 August 2008 better known by the nom de guerre Hua Guofeng was Mao Zedong39s designated successor as the paramount leader of the People39s Republic of China and Chairman of the Communist Party of China A regional official in Hunan between 1949 and 1971 he became the head of the party leadership in the province during the latter stages of the Cultural Revolution Hua was elevated to the national stage in early 1976 and was known for his loyalty to Mao Upon Zhou Enlai39s death in January 1976 Hua succeeded Zhou as Premier of the People39s Republic of China After Mao39s death Hua took on the titles of Chairman of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission to the surprise and dismay of Jiang Qing and the rest of the Gan o Four Hua is the only leader to have simultaneously held the three highest offices of the PRC leading the Communist Party State Council and the Central Military Commission On 6 October 1976 Hua brought the Cultural Revolution to an end and ousted the Gan o Four from political power by arranging for their arrests in Beijing He attempted moderate reforms and reversing some of the excesses of Cultural Revolutionera policies However because of his insistence on continuing the Maoist line he was himself outmaneuvered in December 1978 by Deng Xiaoping a pragmatic reformer who forced Hua into early retirement As Hua faded into political obscurity he continued to insist on the correctness of Maoist principles He is remembered as a largely benign transitional figure in modern Chinese political history Deng Xiaoping 19041997 was a politician and reformist leader of the People39s Republic of China who after Mao Zedong39s death led his country towards a market economy While Deng never held office as the head of state head of government or General Secretary of the Communist Party of China the highest position in Communist China he nonetheless was the quotparamount leader of the People39s Republic of China from 1978 to 1992 As the core of the second generation leaders Deng shared his power with several powerful older politicians commonly known as the Eight Elders Born into a peasant background in Guanq39an Sichuan Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s where he was influenced by MarxismLeninism He joined the Communist Party of China in 1923 Upon his return to China he worked as a political commissar in rural regions and was considered a revolutionary veteran of the Long March 39 Following the founding of the People39s Republic of China in 1949 Deng worked in E and other southwestern regions to consolidate Communist control Deng was instrumental in China39s economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward in the early 1960s His economic policies however were at odds with the political ideologies of Chairman Zedong As a result he was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution but regained prominence in 1978 by outmaneuvering Mao39s chosen successor Hua Guofeng Inheriting a country fraught with social and institutional woes resulting from the Cultural Revolution and other mass political movements of the Mao era Deng became the core of the second qeneration of Chinese leadership He is considered quotthe architect of a new brand of socialist thinking having developed ocialism with Chinese characteristics and led Chinese economic reform through a synthesis of theories that became known as the socialist market economy Deng opened China to foreign investment the global market and limited private competition He is generally credited with developing China into one of the fastest growing economies in the world for over 30 years and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions of Chinesam Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870 39 Pragmatism is a rejection of the idea that the function of thought is to describe represent or mirror reality Instead pragmatists develop their philosophy around the idea that the function of thought is as an instrument or tool for prediction action and problem solving Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics such as the nature of knowledge language concepts meaning belief and science are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes rather than in terms of representative accuracy A few of the various but interrelated positions often characteristic of philosophers working from a pragmatist approach include o Epistemology justification a coherentist theory of justification that rejects the claim that all knowledge and justified belief rest ultimately on a foundation of noninferential knowledge or justified belief Coherentists hold that justification is solely a function of some relationship between beliefs none of which are privileged beliefs in the way maintained by foundationalist theories of justification o Epistemology truth a deflationary or praqmatist theory of truth the former is the epistemological claim that assertions that predicate truth of a statement do not attribute a property called truth to such a statement while the latter is the epistemological claim that assertions that predicate truth of a statement attribute the property of usefultobelieve to such a statement 0 Metaphysics a pluralist view that there is more than one sound way to conceptualize the world and its content 0 Philosophy of science an instrumentalist and scientific antirealist view that a scientific concept or theory should be evaluated by how effectively it explains and predicts phenomena as opposed to how accurately it describes objective reality 0 Philosophy of language an antirepresentationalist view that rejects analyzing the semantic meaning of propositions mental states and statements in terms of a correspondence or representational relationship and instead analyzes semantic meaning in terms of notions like dispositions to action inferential relationships andor functional roles e g behaviorism and inferentialism Not to be confused with pragmatics a subfield of linguistics with no relation to philosophical pragmatism 0 Additionally forms of empiricism fallibilism verificationism and a Quineian naturalist metaphilosophy are all commonly elements of pragmatist philosophies Many pragmatists are epistemoloaical relativists and see this to be an important facet of their pragmatism e g Richard Rorty but this is controversial and other pragmatists argue such relativism to be seriously misguided e g Hilary Putnam Susan Haack Charles Sanders Peirce and his praqmatic maxim deserves much of the credit for pragmatismL21 along with later twentieth century contributors William James and John DeweyL31 Pragmatism enjoyed renewed attention after W V O Quine and Wilfrid Sellars used a revised pragmatism to criticize logical positivism in the 1960s Inspired by the work of Quine and Sellars a brand of pragmatism known sometimes as neopragmatism gained influence through Richard Rorty the most influential of the late twentieth century pragmatists along with Hilary Putnam and Robert Brandom Contemporary pragmatism may be broadly divided into a strict analytic tradition and a quotneoclassical pragmatism such as Susan Haack that adheres to the work of Peirce James and Dewey The word pragmatism derives from Grj gteJlt np iyua pragma a thing a factquot which comes from npdzoow prasso to pass over to practise to achieve E391 The word Pragmatism as a piece of technical terminology in philosophy refers to a specific set of associated philosophical views originating in the late twentiethcentury However the phrase is often confused with quotpraamatism in the context of politics which refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations rather than ideological notions and with a non technical use of pragmatism in ordinary contexts referring to dealing with matters in one39s life realistically and in a way that is based on practical rather than abstract considerations reversal of verdicts Democracy Wall Autumn 1978 The Democracy Wall was a long brick wall on Xidan Street l Xichenq District Beijing which became the focus for democratic dissent Beginning in October 1978 in line with the Communist Party of China39s policy of seekinq truth from factsquot activists in the Democracy movement such as Xu Wenli recorded news and ideas often in the form of biqcharacter posters dazibao during a period known as the Beijing Spring The first posting on the Wall was by a poet from Guizhou province named Huang Xiang In October 1978 Huang Xiang was feeling restless and one day was moved to take out of concealment the political poems he had written during the Mao Years He then conceived of going to Beijing to post them so people could see them in spite of the danger still inherent in antiMao sentiments Word of Huang Xiang39s plan got around in his circle of friends and soon three of them decided to accompany him on the 1500 mile trip to Beijing Mo Jiangang Li Jiahua and Fang Jiahua On October 11 1978 with a bucket of flour paste they proceeded to an alley off Wangfujing Avenue in downtown Beijing near the offices of The People39s Daily and began to glue up the hundredodd sheets of Huang Xiang39s poetry The four brushed as big characters Huang Xiang39s epic poem The Fire God Symphony A curious crowd gathered and soon spilled out onto the avenue causing a huge traffic jam Sympathizers linked arms to protect the four from the surge of the crowd Huang Xiang encouraged by the crowd recited all of his poems from memory some six hundred lines That night people crowded the alley trying to read the poems by torch light On November 24 1978 they returned and posted big character posters on seventy yards offence near Mao Zedong39s mausoleum in Tiananmen Square Huang Xiang then brushed two big character posters on the spot The Cultural Revolution Must Be Reevaluated and Mao Zedong was thirty percent right and seventy percent wrong Both were absolute heresies even two years after Mao39s death These astonishing statements in full sight of the usual people lined up to enter Mao39s mausoleum caused a sensationL239 We 39set fire on Wangfujing Avenue in Beijing Myself and my three friends Li Jiahua Fang Jiahua and Mo Jiangang put up my poem 39The Fire God Symphony in big character posters This first batch of posters lit a spark for seeking enlightenment and freedom in Communist China We founded and published the first independent periodical ever called Enlightenment and staged a poetic campaign to advocate human rights and freedom of expression This act sparked a movement that became known worldwide as The Democracy Wall Huang Xiang 539 These activists were initially encouraged to criticize the Gang of Four and previous failed government policies as part of Deng Xiaoping39s struggle to gain power but the wall was closed in December 1979 when the leadership and the communist party system were being criticized along with acknowledged mistakes and previous leaders The shutdown coincided with suppression of political dissent The Democracy Wall was moved to Ritan Park prior to being closed down As visitors to the wall then had to show identification to enter the park the open and free access to the wall was curtailed The Fifth Modernization was a signed wall poster placed by Wei Jingsheng on December 5 1978 on the Democracy Wall in Beijing It was the first poster that openly advocated further individual liberties It caused a spectacle espousing that freedom was the only quotmodernization that really mattered rather than improved living standards The poster was in response to the government39s quotFour Modernizations campaign Wei Jingsheng 1950 is a Chinese human rights activist known for his involvement in the Chinese democracy movement He is most prominent for having authored the essay Fifth Modernization which was posted on the Democracy Wall in Beijing in 1978 Due to the manifesto Wei was arrested and convicted of counterrevolutionary activities and was detained as a political prisoner from 1979 93 39L239 Released briefly in 1993 Wei continued with his dissident activities by speaking to visiting journalists and was imprisoned again from 199497 spending a total of 18 years in different prisons He was deported to the United States on November 16 1997 on medical parole539 Still a Chinese citizen in 1998 Wei established the Wei Jingsheng Foundation in New York City now based in Washington D C whose stated aim is to work to improve human rights and democratization in China Wei did not publicly voice his feelings until 1978 when he decided to take part in the newly emerged Democracy Wall movement taking place in Beijing On 5 December 1978 he posted an essay he authored to the wall entitled the Fifth Modernization as a response to Paramount leader Dena Xiaoping39s essay the Four Modernizations Wei 39s basic theme in the essay is that democracy should be also be a modernization goal for China along with the other four proposed by Deng the four being industry agriculture science and technology and national defenseL739 Wei signed the essay with his real name and address The essay immediately caused a stir because of its boldness and because it was not anonymous It was also the only essay to address Deng Xiaoping by name and refer to him as a dictatorL739 Third Plenum of the 11th Central Committee December 1978 Before the plenum demands for a repudiation of the Cultural Revolution increased especially by those who were persecuted during Mao Zedong39s last year In October 1976 the radical Gan o Four led by Mao39s widow Jiang Qing was arrested and Deng Xiaoping himself Mao39s chief rival from 1975 to 1976 was officially rehabilitated in 1977 Although Hua Guofeng who succeeded the great helmsmanquot in 1976 tried to carry on the Maoist rhetoric and to gain an authority like that of Mao39s he also allowed the rehabilitation of many of Deng39s allies who then revolted against him calling for economic reform During the 1978 working conference held in November preparing the plenum Chen Yun raised the six issues Bo Yibo Tao Zhu Wanq Heshou and Peng Dehuai the 1976 Tiananmen Incident and Kang heng s errors to undermine the leftists At the same conference Deng said it was necessary to go over ideological barriers Relevant decisions Trying to distance from the Cultural Revolution practice which put politics before economy the Third Plenary Session argued that extensive criticism campaigns against Lin Biao and the Gang of Four were to be abandoned in favour of a greater attention to economics The four modernizations of industry agriculture national defence and sciencetechnology were considered the Party39s key tasks for the new period Former President Liu haoai39s theory that under socialism mass class struggle came to an end and it was necessary to develop relations of production in order to follow the growth of social forces was openly endorsed while Mao39s theory of continued revolution under socialism was abandoned Changes in economic management were called for The new slogan was to make China a modern powerful socialist country before the end of this century Although it did not take any open resolution against Mao the Plenary Session attacked his leadership implying that it did not guarantee full democracy or collective leadership Particularly it criticized the use of issuing Mao39s quotinstructions as it was said that quotNo personal view by a Party member in a position of responsibility including leading comrades of the Central Committee is to be called an 39instruction quot39 It also put an end to the extensive personality cult towards Mao and Hua avoiding them from being called quotChairman Mao and quotChairman Hua Putting forward the Seeking truth from facts principle the plenum started the repudiation of the Cultural Revolution the oppose the Rightdeviationist wind to reverse correct verdicts campaign aimed against Deng was openly rejected and Penq Dehuai Tao Zhu Bo Yibo and Yang Shangkun were rehabilitated The Cultural Revolution was openly rejected only in 1981 at the Sixth Plenary Session The weakness of the National People39s Congress and the Supreme People39s Court during this period was criticized as well production responsibility system shengchan zerenzhi According to the postMao leadership a major drawback of the collective system was that it did not provide incentives for workers to improve their productivity Consequently at the Third Plenum of the Eleventh Central Committee 1978 a form of what later became known as the production responsibility system shengchan zerenzhi was introduced with the aim of improving production incentives by linking production and remuneration more closely It allowed a system of contracting output to the group in which the production quotas and workpoint remuneration for a particular piece of work Accounting planning control of tools and draught animals irrigation and capital construction continued to be the production team39s responsibility but the internal distribution of workpoints among its members was undertaken by the group 2quotquot version contracting output to the household the household signed a contract with the production team which stipulated an allocation of land to the household and the proportion of produce that the household was to give the team in return for a specified number of workpoints Machinery and draught animals were either managed by the team or divided between households Land was usually allocated according to the number of people or the number of labour powers in the household or according to both In theory any changes to the population of the household such as a birth or death the exit of a daughter or the entry of a wife were to be followed by an adjustment of the household39s land holdings Hu Yaobang 19151989 was a highranking official of the People39s Republic of China He achieved his most senior status within the Communist Party of China from 1981 to 1987 first as Party chairman from 1981 to 1982 then as General Secretary of the Communist Party from 1982 to 1987 Hu joined the Chinese Communist Party in the 1930s and rose to prominence as a comrade of Deng Xiaoping During the Cultural Revolution 19661976 Hu was purged recalled and purged again following the political career of Deng After Deng rose to power following the death of Mao Zedong Deng promoted Hu to a series of high political positions Throughout the 1980s Hu pursued a series of economic and political reforms under the direction of Deng Hu39s political and economic reforms made him the enemy of several powerful y elders who opposed free market reforms and attempts to make China39s government more transparent When widespread student protests occurred across China in 1987 Hu39s political opponents successfully blamed Hu for the disruptions claiming that Hu39s quotlaxness and bourgeois liberalization had either led to or worsened the protests Hu was forced to resign as Party general secretary but was allowed to retain a seat in the Politburo Hu39s position as Party general secretary was taken by Zhao Ziyang who continued many of Hu39s economic and political reforms A day after Hu39s death in 1989 a smallscale demonstration commemorated him and demanded that the government reassess his legacy A week later the day before Hu39s funeral some 100000 students marched on Tiananmen Square leading to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Following the government39s suppression of the 1989 protests the Chinese government censored the details of Hu39s life inside mainland China but it officially rehabilitated his image and lifted its censorship restrictions on the 90th anniversary of Hu39s birth in 2005 Special Economic Zones SEZs Special Economic Zones of the People 395 Republic of China SEZs are special economic zones located in mainland China The government of the People39s Republic of China gives SEZs special more free marke oriented economic policies and flexible governmental measures This allows SEZs to utilize an economic management system that is more attractive to doing business than in the rest of mainland China As part of its economic reforms and policy of opening to the world between 1980 and 1984 China established special economic zones SEZs in Shantou Shenzhen and Zhuhai in Guangdong Province and Xiamen in Fuiian Province and designated the entire island province of Hainan a special economic zone In 1984 China opened 14 other coastal cities to overseas investment listed north to south Dalian Qinhuangdao Tianiin Yantai Qingdao Lianyungang Nantong Shanghai Ningbo Wenzhou Fuzhou Guangzhou Zhaniiang and Beihai Then beginning in 1985 the central government expanded the coastal area by establishing the following open economic zones listed north to south Liaodong Peninsula Hebei Province which surrounds Beiiing and Tianiin Shandong Peninsula Yangtze River Delta XiamenZhangzhouQuanzhou Triangle in southern Fujian Province Pearl River Delta and Guangxi In 1990 the Chinese government decided to open the Pudong New Zone in Shanghai to overseas investment as well as more cities in the Yang Zi River Valley Since 1992 the State Council has opened a number of border cities and all the capital cities of inland provinces and autonomous regions In addition 15 freetrade zones 32 statelevel economic and technological development zones and 53 new and hightech industrial development zones have been established in large and mediumsized cities As a result a multilevel diversified pattern of opening and integrating coastal areas with river border and inland areas has been formed in China Economic policies of SEZs 1 Special tax incentives for foreign investments in the SEZs 2 Greater independence on international trade activities 3 Economic characteristics are represented as 4 principles 1 Construction primarily relies on attracting and utilizing foreign capital 2 Primary economic forms are Sinoforeign oint ventures and partnerships as well as wholly foreignowned enterprises 3 Products are primarily exportoriented 4 Economic activities are primarily driven by market forces Shenzhen SEZ Hong Kong and Shenzhen have very close business trade and social links as demonstrated by the statistics presented below Except where noted the statistics are taken from sections of the Hong Kong Government HKG websiteamp51 is a major city in the south of Southern China39s Guanqdonq Province situated immediately north of E1 E1 Special Administrative Region The area became China39s first and one of the most successful Special Economic Zones SEZsL339 It currently also holds subprovincial administrative status with powers slightly less than a province Shenzhen39s modern cityscape is the result of the vibrant economy made possible by rapid foreign investment since the institution of the policy of reform and openingquot establishment of the SEZ in late 1979 before which it was only a small village Both Chinese citizens and foreign nationals have invested enormous amounts of money in the Shenzhen SEZ More than US30 billion in foreign investment has gone into both foreignowned and joint ventures at first mainly in manufacturing but more recently in the service industries as well Shenzhen is now considered one of the fastestgrowing cities in the worldEquot one countrytwo systems One Country Two Systems also officially translated as One China Two Systemsquot is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping the Paramount Leader of the People39s Republic of E PRC for the reunification of China during the early 1980s He suggested that there would be only one China but distinct Chinese regions such as Hong Kong Macau and Taiwan could retain their own capitalist economic and political systems while the rest of China uses the socialist system Under the principle each of the three regions could continue to have its own political system legal economic and financial affairs including external relations with foreign countries Taiwan could continue to maintain its own military forceQ39 El In 1984 Deng Xiaoping proposed to apply the principle to Hong Kong in the negotiation with the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher over the future of Hong Kong when the lease of the New Territories including New Kowloon of Hong Kong to the United Kingdom was to expire in 1997 The same principle was proposed in talks with Portugal about Macau The principle is that upon reunification despite the practice of socialism in mainland China both Hong Kong and Macau which were colonies of the UK and Portugal respectively can retain their established system under a high degree of autonomy for at least 50 years after reunification What will happen after 2047 Hong Kong and 2049 Macau has never been publicly stated Chapter 1 Article 5 of the Hong Kong Basic Law the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region readsL339 The socialist system and policies shall not be practised in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the previous capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 yearsEquotL539 The establishment of these regions called special administrative regions SARs is authorized by Article 31 of the Constitution of the People39s Republic of China which states that the State may establish SARs when necessary and that the systems to be instituted in them shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People39s Congress in light of the specific conditions The SARs of Hong Kong and Macau were formally established on 1 July 1997 and 20 December 1999 respectively immediately after the People39s Republic of China PRC assumed the sovereignty over the respective regions spiritual pollution campaign 1983 The AntiSpiritual Pollution Campaign was a political campaign spearheaded by conservative factions within the Communist Party of China that lasted from October 1983 to December 1983 In general its advocates wanted to curb Westerninspired liberal ideas among the Chinese populace a byproduct of nascent economic reforms begun in 1978 Spiritual Pollution has been called a deliberately vague term that embraces every manner of bourgeois import from erotica to existentialism and is supposed to refer to obscene barbarous or reactionary materials vulgar taste in artistic performances indulgence in individualismquot and statements that run counter to the country39s social system according to Deng Ligun the Party39s Propaganda Chief at the time of the campaign 39 The campaign reached a climax in mid November 1983 and largely faded into obscurity into 1984 after intervention from Deng Xiaoping However elements of the campaign were rehashed during the anti Bourgeois liberalization campaign of the late 1980s against liberal party general secretary lt10l9wvgL239 In October 1983 during the Second Plenum of the Twelfth Party Congress Deng Xiaoping identified several types of individuals and intellectual trends as undermining the party39s objectives On the left he targeted the remnant leftist ideas of the Cultural Revolution and those who rose to power by following Lin Biao or the Gang of Four To appease the conservative factions he then turned to criticize intellectuals and party members who had focused their attention on questions of humanism Deng criticized humanism as unMarxistquot saying it leads youth astray Deng emphasized the need to combat spiritual pollution brought about by liberalization39 Although Deng attempted to warn Party comrades against taking extreme measures to rectify problems on the right or the left almost immediately after the speech the staterun press began publishing shrill attacks on the bourgeoisie liberal ideas of humanism and condemning the spiritual pollution that such liberal influenced engendered Deng Liqin a prominent conservative in the party was rumored399 39 have been behind the attacks on humanism and spiritual pollution 1390 Spiritual pollution was described as taking many forms including but not limited to excessive individualism an obsession with money the practice of quotfeudal superstitionsquot and the proliferation of pornography Western hairstyles clothing and facial hair were also criticized as being symptomatic of spiritual pollution In December 1983 less than two months after the campaign began Deng Xiaoping intervened to end the campaign against spiritual pollution township and village enterprises TVEs are marketoriented public enterprises under the purview of local governments based in townships and villages in the People39s Republic of China The State Council of the People39s Republic of China first officially used the term TVE in March 1984 39 Previously Commune and Brigade Enterprises dating from the Great Leap Forward of 1958 to 1961 had served the rural areas During that time TVEs had a limited role and were restricted to the production of iron steel cement chemical fertilizer hydroelectric power and farm toolsL239 Most TVEs however emerged during the Reform period in the 1980s Huang 2008 Though there were 12 million TVEs by 1985 there were only 15 million in 1978 at the start of the Reform period As Huang summarizes Clearly the vast majority of TVEs had nothing to do with the Great Leap Forward stateowned enterprises SOEs After 1949 all business entities in the People39s Republic of China were created and owned by the government In the late 1980s the government began to reform the stateowned enterprise and during the 1990s and 2000s many midsized and small sized stateowned enterprises were privatized and went public There are a number of different corporate forms which result in a mixture of public and private capital In PRC terminology a stateowned enterprise refers to a particular corporate form which is increasingly being replaced by the listed company Stateowned enterprises are governed by both local governments and in the central government the national Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission As of 201 1 35 of business activity and 43 of profits in the People39s Republic of China resulted from companies in which the state owned a majority interest Critics such as The New York Times have alleged that China39s stateowned companies are a vehicle for corruption by the families of ruling party leaders who have sometimes amassed fortunes while managing them Hong Kong retrocession 1997 No longer under UK rule goes back to PRC work unit danwei A unit or danwei is the name given to a place of employment in the People39s Republic of China While the term danwei remains in use today it is more properly used to refer to a place of employment during the period when the Chinese economy was still more heavily socialist or when used in the context of one of stateowned enterprises Prior to Dena Xiaopinq39s economic reforms a work unit acted as the first step of a multitiered hierarchy linking each individual with the central Communist Party infrastructure Work units were the principal method of implementing party policy Also workers were bound to their work unit for life Each danwei created their own housing child care schools clinics shops services post offices etc The influence of a work unit on the life of an individual was substantial and permission had to be obtained from the work units before undertaking everyday events such as travel marriage or having children Amongst other things the work unit assigned individuals living quarters and provided them with food which was eaten in centralized canteens The danwei system was crucial to the implementation of the one child policy as the reproductive behavior of workers could be monitored through the danwei system Workers not complying with policy could have their pay docked incentives withheld or living conditions downgraded The increasing liberalization of China39s economy led to state owned enterprises being put into competition with private enterprise and increasingly foreign Multinational corporations The iron rice bojvuIquot the policy of job security for certain public sector employees continued to prevent work units from dismissing workers while private enterprises were able to hire and fire workers as they saw fit The decision by the central and provincial governments to offer tax and financial incentives to foreign investors in order to encourage them to invest in China led to further difficulties for the danwei system as the state run enterprises were increasingly unable to compete At the same time the role of the work unit has changed as China has moved from a socialist ideology to ocialism with Chinese characteristics By 2000 much of the work unit39s power had been removed In 2003 for example it became possible to marry or divorce someone without needing authorization from ones work unit Dazhai Brigade A production brigade was formerly the basic accounting and farm production unit in the people 39s commune system of the People39s Republic of China Production teams in the Chinese system were largely disbanded during the agricultural reforms of 1982 85 In the administrative hierarchy the team was the lowest level the next higher levels being the production brigade and people39s commune Typically the team owned most of the land and was responsible for income distribution Since 1984 most teams have been replaced by villages In 1952 Chen Yonggui was appointed secretary of the CPC branch committee of Dazhai succeeding Jia Jincai He led a peasant movement to turn the harsh environment surrounding Dazhai into an environment favourable to agriculture The plan was a success and later grain output increased steadily passing from 237 kg per mu in 1952 to 774 kg per mu in 1962 This progress was brutally halted by a series of natural disasters in 1963 which destroyed 180 acres of arable land as well as some of the production brigade 39s buildings Despite this setback the brigade refused any help from the state and completed rebuilding efforts in one year All of this came to the attention of Mao Zedong who declared that Dazhai was an example to be followed in the field of selfreliance launching the directive Learn from Dazhai in agriculturequot In December 1964 while attending the 3rd National People39s Congress Chen Yonggui had a dinner with Mao Zedong himself When the Cultural Revolution began Dazhai39s model was emphasized even more During a meeting with Zhou Enlai Chen Yonggui was encouraged to create Dazhai39s own Red Guard organization which was later established under the name Jinzhong Field Army He was appointed vicechairman of the Shanxi Revolutionary Committee in 1967 in the same year the Cultural Revolution Group approved his ive recommendations quotfor conducting the Cultural Revolution in rural areas published in the CPC Central Committee Document No 339 In 1969 he was elected member of the CPC Central Committee and a secretary of the CPC Shanxi Committee in 1971 He once again gained Mao Zedong39s approval in 1972 by firmly opposing CPC Shanxi First Secretary Xie Zhenhua39s request to downgrade the Dazhai production brigade to production team Talks at the Yan an Forum on Arts and Literature May 1942 was a May 1942 forum held at the city of Yan an in Communistcontrolled China and significant event in the Yan an Rectification Movement It is most notable for the speeches given by Mao Zedong later edited and published as Talks at the Yan an Forum on Literature and Art which dealt with the role of literature and art in the country The two main points were that 1 all art should reflect the life of the working chi and consider them as an audience and 2 that art should serve politics and specifically the advancement of socialism The excesses of the latter point during the Cultural Revolution led to current y policy rejecting that point but retaining Mao39s encouragement of peasantfocused art and literature An immediate change in Chinese music that resulted from the Yan39an Talks was the growth in respectability of folk stylesL239 Key quotations from Yan39an Talks form the basis of the section on Culture and Art in the Maoist text Quotations from Chairman Mao ZedonqEquot The Gan o Four39s dramatic interpretation of the Yan39an Talks during the Cultural Revolution led to a new Partysanctioned form of political art revolutionary opera Conversely certain forms of art such as the works of Beethoven Respiahi Dvorak and Chopin were condemned in Party papers as bourgeois decadence L239 After the death of Mao and the rise of reformist leaders like Deng Xiaoping who condemned the Cultural Revolution the Yan39an talks were officially reevaluated In 1982 the Party declared that Mao39s doctrine that literature and art are subordinate to politics was an incorrect formulation but it reaffirmed his main points about art needing to reflect the reality of the workers and peasantryL539 Sixfour liu si June 4 1989 The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 commonly known as the June Fourth Incident or more accurately 3989 Democracy Movement Chinese39239 were studentled popular demonstrations in Beiiina which took place in the spring of 1989 and received broad support from city residents exposing deep splits within China39s political leadership The protests were forcibly suppressed by hardline leaders who ordered the military to enforce martial law in the country39s capitalL3M39 The crackdown that initiated on June 34 became known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre or the June 4 Massacre as troops with assault rifles and tanks inflicted casualties on unarmed civilians trying to block the military39s advance towards Tiananmen Square in the heart of Beijing which student demonstrators had occupied for seven weeks The scale of military mobilization and the resulting bloodshed were unprecedented in the history of Beiiing a city with a rich tradition of popular protests in the 20th centuryL539 The Chinese government condemned the protests as a counterrevolutionary riot and has prohibited all forms of discussion or remembrance of the events sinceL539L739 Due to the lack of information from China many aspects of the events remain unknown or unconfirmed Estimates of the death toll range from a few hundred to the thousandsamp3939 The protests were triggered in April 1989 by the death of former Communist Party General Secretary Yaobang a liberal reformer who was deposed after losing a power struggle with hardliners over the direction of political and economic reformL939 University students marched and gathered in Tiananmen Square to mourn Hu had also voiced grievances against inflation limited career prospects and corruption of the party elite39 The protesters called for government accountability freedom of the press freedom of speech and the restoration of workers control over industrymllzl At the height of the protests about a million people assembled in the Square The government initially took a conciliatory stance toward the protestersml The studentled hunger J galvanized support for the demonstrators around the country and the protests spread to 400 cities by midMayl539 Ultimately China39s paramount leader Deng Xiaoping and other party elders resolved to use forcel539 Party authorities declared martial law on May 20 and mobilized as many as 300000 troops to Beijingamp539 In the aftermath of the crackdown the government conducted widespread arrests of protesters and their supporters cracked down on other protests around China expelled foreign journalists and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the domestic press The police and internal security forces were strengthened Officials deemed sympathetic to the protests were demoted or purqedM Zhao Ziyanq was ousted in a party leadership reshuffle and replaced with Jiang Zemin Political reforms were largely halted and economic reforms did not resume until Denq Xiaopinq39s 1992 southern tour39L939 The Chinese government was widely condemned internationally for the use of force against the protesters Western governments imposed economic sanctions and arms embargoes household registration hukou A hukou is a record in the system of household registration required by law in the People39s Republic of China mainland China The system itself is more properly called huji and has origins in ancient China A household registration record officially identifies a person as a resident of an area and includes identifying information such as name parents spouse and date of birth A hukou can also refer to a family register in many contexts since the household registration record is issued per family and usually includes the births deaths marriages divorces and moves of all members in the family The hukou system is often regarded as a caste system of China 1L21L31 In present times a similar household registration system exists within the public administration structures of y koseki Vietnam H6 khdu and North Korea Hoiu In South Korea the jg system was abolished on 1 January 2008 Propiska in the Soviet Union had a similar purpose The Communist Party instigated a command economy when it came to power in 1949 In 1958 the Chinese government officially promulgated the family register system to control the movement of people between urban and rural areas Individuals were broadly categorised as a rural or urban workerL71 A worker seeking to move from the country to urban areas to take up nonagricultural work would have to apply through the relevant bureaucracies The number of workers allowed to make such moves was tightly controlled Migrant workers would require six passes to work in provinces other than their own People who worked outside their authorized domain or geographical area would not qualify for grain rations employerprovided housing or health careL9l There were controls over education employment marriage and so onL71 El Rationale With its large rural population of poor farm workers hukou limited mass migration from the land to the cities to ensure some structural stability The hukou system was an instrument of the command economy By regulating labour it ensured an adequate supply of low cost workers to the plethora of state owned businessesm Like the internal passports of the Soviet Union the hukou system allowed the state to provide preferential treatment to industrial workers and intelligentsia who would be more likely to protest and even revolt during periods of unrest For some time the Chinese Ministry of Public Security continued to justify the hukou system on public order grounds and also provided demographic data for government central planningml The Hukou system has been justified by some scholars as increasing the stability of China by better monitoring of quottargeted persons people who are politically dubious by the Party39s standards This is still a significant function as of 2006 Prior to the Chinese economic reform that began in the late 1970s the system succeeded in limiting population growth in the cities Enforcement From around 1953 to 1976 police periodically rounded up those who were without valid residence permits placed them in detention centres and expelled them from citiesM Administration regulations issued in 1982 known as custody and repatriation authorized police to detain people and repatriate them to their permanent residency location Although an individual is technically required to live in the area designated on hisher permit in practice the system has largely broken down After the Chinese economic reforms it became possible for somem to unofficially migrate and get a job without a valid permit Economic reforms also created pressures to encourage migration from the interior to the coast It also provided incentives for officials not to enforce regulations on migration Technology has made it easier to enforce the Hukou system as now the police force has a national database of official Hukou registrations This was made possible by computerisation in the 1990s as well as greater cooperation between the different regional police authoritieslzl During the Great Leap Fomrard39s famine During the mass famine of the Great Leap Forward from 1958 to 1962 having an urban versus a rural hukou could mean the difference between life and death During this period nearly all of the approximately 600 million rural hukou residents were collectivized into village communal farms where their agricultural output after state taxes would be their only source of food With institutionalized exaggeration of output figures by local Communist leaders and massive declines in production state taxes during those years confiscated nearly all food in many rural communes leading to mass starvation and the deaths of more than 30 million Chineselq The 100 million urban hukou residents however were fed by fixed food rations established by the central government which declined to an average of 1500 calories per day at times but still allowed survival for almost all during the famine An estimated 95 or higher of all deaths occurred among rural hukou holders With the suppression of news internally many city residents were not aware that mass deaths were occurring in the countryside at all which was essential to preventing organized opposition to Mao39s policiesM Many of the starving peasants tried to flee to the cities to beg for food but tight security at entry points and through regular inspections of resident documents on the streets led to the deportation and subsequent death of most In fact it was only when rural family members of higher military officers who were often isolated from the countryside in cities or bases began dying from starvation that higher Communist officials began seriously worrying about the stability of the state and eventually forced Mao to end the program This was the most extreme demonstration of how much impact a different hukou could have in China but significant interference in all aspects of life only began declining in the 1980s and 1990s Effect on rural workers The hukou system is closely associated with social issues regarding migration in China and excludes migrant workers also known as farm workers or peasant workers from citywide social welfares in urban areas39 From around 1953 to 1976 the restriction of a citizen39s rights by his domicile caused rural citizens to be separated into an underclass Urban citizens enjoyed a range of social economic and cultural benefits that China39s rural citizens did not receivemquot The ruling party did however make some concessions to rural workers to make life in rural areas more tolerablel939 From 1978 to 2001 while China changed from state socialism to state capitalism exportprocessing zones were created in city suburbs and migrants most of them female39 worked there under conditions far below the contemporary standard of western countries lgl There were restrictions upon the mobility of migrant workers that forced them to live precarious lives in company dormitories or shanty towns where they were exposed to abusive treatment The impact of the hukou system upon migrant laborers became onerous in the 1980s after hundreds of millions were ejected from state corporations and cooperatives39 Since the 1980s an estimated 200 million Chinese live outside their officially registered areas and under far less eligibility to education and government services living therefore in a condition similar in many ways to that of illegal immiqrants39 The millions of peasants who have left their land remain trapped at the margins of the urban society They are often blamed for rising crime and unemployment and under pressure from their citizens the city governments have imposed discriminatory rulesL739 For example the children of farm workers Chinese Z E39E pinyin nongmin gong are not allowed to enroll in the city schools and even now must live with their grandparents or other relatives in order to attend school in their hometowns They are commonly referred to as the homestaying children There are around 130 million such homestaying children living without their parents as reported by Chinese researchersamp239 Reform Reformation of hukou has been controversial in the PRC It is a system widely regarded as unfair by citizens of the PRC but there is also fear that its liberalization would lead to massive movement of people into the cities causing strain to city government services damage to the rural economies and increase in social unrest and crime And yet there has been recognition that hukou is an impediment to economic development China39s accession to the World Trade Organization has forced it to allow reformation to hukou in order to liberate the movement of labor for the benefit of the economyamp339 Further relaxation of the system has happened since the 1990s A provision was made to allow the rural resident to buy quottemporary urban residency permits so the resident could work legally within the cities The fee for these permits decreased over time and have become reasonably affordable The inheritance of hukou was changed to allow succession through the lines of both the father and the mother which corrected the disadvantage of hukou against rural womenampquot Hukou has been further weakened since 2001 In 2003 after protests over the death of Sun Zhigang alarmed the government the laws of custody and repatriation were repealed39 By 2004 over 100 million rural citizens were working in cities according to the estimate of the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture Chan and Buckingham 39s 2008 article Is China Abolishing the Hukou System Z539 argues that previous reforms have not fundamentally changed the hukou system but have only decentralized the powers of hukou to local governments The present hukou system remains active and continues to contribute to China39s rural and urban disparity On March 2008 over 30 leading intellectuals had wrote open letter to Government asking for the immediate abolition of the ruralurban dual hukou system In 200809 web posted essays remarked Hukou system as quotcaste system of China and China a great country of discrimination quot351 The system is currently only partially enforced and it has been argued that the system will have to be further relaxed in order to increase availability of skilled workers to industries On 6 March 2013 Premier Wen Jiabao called for speeding up reform of the Hukou system to advance urbanization actively yet prudently 39 Premier Wen said this in a speech during the opening of the annual National People39s Congress39 downward transfer xiafang If you pissed off your boss you could be moved down in the production into a crappy job that you hate class labels Lei Feng 19401962 was a soldier of the People39s Liberation Army of China After his death Lei was characterised as a selfless and modest person who was devoted to the Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong and the people of China In 1963 he became the subject of a nationwide posthumous propaganda campaign Follow the examples of Comrade Lei Feng Lei was portrayed as a model citizen and the masses were encouraged to emulate his selflessness modesty and devotion to Mao After Mao39s death Lei Feng remained a cultural ii representing earnestness and service his name entered daily speech and his imagery appeared on t shirts and memorabilia 39 Although someone named Lei Feng probably existed the accounts of his life as depicted by Party propaganda are heavily disputedL239L339 leading him to become a source of cynicism and subject of derision among segments of the Chinese populationEquot Nevertheless Lei 39s image as a role model serviceman has survived decades of political change in ChinaL539 manufactured deviance communist neotraditionalism The neotraditional image of communist society differs fundamentally from the images of totalitarianism and group theory It shares with the totalitarian idea a focus on the distinctive communist institutions that foster organized political control and it shares the premise that these forms of organization shape patterns of association and political behavior in distinctive ways The neotraditional image stresses the social network as its main structural concept The elements of workplace organization generic features of modern communism give rise to several other features of factory political life and authority relations that complete the definition of the type Communist neotraditionalism guides comparisons of industrial authority by focusing on organized dependence and institutional culture of the factory small group xiaozu A leading small group LSGis an ad hoc supraministerial coordinating and consulting body formed to build consensus on issues that cut across the government party and military systems when the existing bureaucratic structure is unable to do soml The authorization for the formation of leading groups comes from Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Communist Party of Chinaamp2l There are two types of LSG Party leading small groups manage policy for the Politburo and Secretariat and State Council leading small groups coordinate policy implementation for the governmentamp31 These groups provide a mechanism for top decisionmakers to exchange views both formally and informally and to develop recommendations for the Politburo and the State Council LSGs do not formulate concrete policies but rather issue guiding principles about the general direction in which bureaucratic activity should move A fangzhen provides the framework for the development of zhengce The recommendations of leading groups are likely to have considerable influence on the policymaking process because they represent the consensus of the leading members of the relevant government party and military agencies In some cases the Chinese leadership will adopt an LSG s recommendation with little or no modification LSGs which have no permanent staff rely on their offices to manage daily operations and for research and policy recommendations Consequently the effectiveness of an LSG often depends on the effectiveness of its officeM biaoxian manifestation of attitude performance performance was measured in terms of the zeal or effort shown during periodic political campaigns However in secondary schools and institutions of higher learning although attitude during political campaigns was a major indicator of a person39s biaoxian the concept extended to other realms such as labour study and interpersonal relations Political performance political behaviour political quality political manifestations personal performance it was a person39s political attitude that mattered Children whose family origins were landlord or capitalist were considered to have bad family backgrounds However someone from that background who followed current party line and made a clear break with her family ideologically would theoretically not be discriminated against politically II dossier dang an is a Chinese word meaning record Used in the political and administrative context it means an archival system that records the performance and attitudes of citizens of mainland China l Together with the hukou it has been an important part of the government39s efforts to maintain control of its people Majority of the records are kept by the local archive bureaus some by the State Archives Administration of China at the national level During the Maoist era these dossiers were consulted by work unit officials as they made decisions about the major life events of those under their control Urban residents were assigned jobs by the state Thereafter permission from the work unit was needed for marriage childbirth and transferring the dang39an ie changing workplace During the Cultural Revolution era there even used to determine which individuals and families would be sent to carry out manual labour in the countryside under the theory of bloodlines As late as 2003 academic Zhou Jinghao could write that A work unit controls employees basically through the dangan personnel dossier system An employee cannot transfer to another work unit without his dangan 8 As Chinese economic reform has proceeded the situation has been less clearcut as the dang39an system conflicts with marketoriented labour contracts Graduates have been able to choose their own employment since the mid1990s in most regions the latest E in 2006 and marriage has not required work unit consent since 2003 Some private companies in prosperous Guangdong do not even require access to the files which remains with the employee39s neiqhbourhood committeeL939 However individuals may still be granted or denied passports promotions and other benefits based on information in their dang39an According to if journalist Rupert WingfieldHayes A black mark against you a bad school report a disagreement with your boss a visit to a psychiatrist all can travel with you for the rest of your life M They are also used in investigations by the Ministry of State ecuritym39 An embryonic dang39an is created when individuals enter the school system This is similar to the permanent file of a school student in some Western school systems and is transferred from school to school but in China it is required for entry to university or a work unit to which the file is then transferred Millions of peasants who work on family farms or in small businesses never acquire a dang39an Those who do are classified as either cadres Chinese ganbu or workers Chinese gongr n It is difficult to cross this boundaryM According to Zhou quotprivate and foreignfunded enterprises are no longer required to receive the dang39an when they hire employees l539 Instead foreign firms transfer them to the Ministry of Commercel539 The future of dang39an was questioned by Qiao Shi PR China39s number three leader in the mid90s In 1996 he proposed to the National People39s Congress that the dang39an system be abolished Both Qiao and the proposal fell out of favour the following yearM civil society FaungongFaIun Gong or Falun Dafa literally means quotDharma Wheel Practicequot or Law Wheel Practice is a spiritual discipline first introduced in China in 1992 through public lectures by its founder Li Hongzhi It combines the practice of meditation and slowmoving gigong exercises with a moral philosophy Falun Gong emphasizes morality and the cultivation of virtue in its central tenets of Truthfulness Compassion and Forbearance and identifies as a qigong practice of the Buddhist school though its teachings also incorporate elements drawn from Taoist traditions Through moral rectitude and the practice of meditation practitioners of Falun Gong aspire to better health and ultimately spiritual enlightenment Falun Gong emerged at the end of China39s qigong boom a period which saw the proliferation of similar practices of meditation slowmoving exercises and regulated breathing It differs from other qigong schools in its absence of fees or formal membership lack of daily rituals of worship its greater emphasis on morality and the theological nature of its teachings Western academics have described Falun Gong as a qigong discipline a quotspiritual movementquot based on the teachings of its founder a cultivation system in the tradition of Chinese antiquity and sometimes a religion or new reliqious movement Although the practice initially enjoyed considerable support from Chinese officialdom by the mid to late1990s the Communist Party and public security organs increasingly viewed Falun Gong as a potential threat due to its size independence from the state and spiritual teachings By 1999 some estimates placed the number of Falun Gong adherents in the tens of millions Tensions culminated in April 1999 when over 10000 Falun Gong practitioners gathered peacefully near the central government compound in Beijing to request legal recognition and freedom from state interference This demonstration is widely seen as catalyzing the suppression that followed On 20 July 1999 the Communist Party leadership initiated a nationwide crackdown and multifaceted propaganda campaign intended to eradicate the practice In October 1999 it declared Falun Gong a heretical organization that threatened social stability and blocked Internet access to websites that mention Falun Gong Human rights groups report that Falun Gong practitioners in China are subject to a wide range of human rights abuses hundreds of thousands are believed to have been imprisoned extrajudicially and practitioners in detention are subject to forced labor psychiatric abuse torture and other coercive methods of thought reform at the hands of Chinese authorities In the years since the suppression campaign began Falun Gong adherents have emerged as a prominent voice in the Chinese dissident community advocating for greater human rights and an end to Communist Party rule Falun Gong founder Li Hongzhi has lived in the United States since 1996 and Falun Gong has a sizable global constituency inside China some sources estimate that millions may continue to practice Falun Gong in spite of suppression Hundreds of thousands are believed to practice Falun Gong outside China across some 70 countries worldwide


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