Week 1 and Week 2 lecture notes
Week 1 and Week 2 lecture notes LIFE 103
Popular in Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Isabel Hernandez on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Bundle belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous; Graham Peers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 494 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
0 most notable separation of biotic from abiotic is metabolism and reproduction 0 using metabolism to get energy to reproduce C02 and water are the products of metabolism utilization of oxygen re ects metabolism The three domain system include 0 Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 0 History of life in order 0 Earth formed life rst appeared eukaryotic fossil multicellular organisms OOOO cambrian explosion o hominids There have been 5 major extinction events in Which 50 of organisms die Evolution is signi ed by the increase in the complications of organisms 0 mutations allow better adaptations to enVironment Early Earth 0 Conditions on early earth made origin of life possible 0 chemical and physical processes produced simple cells 0 First abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules I lots of gas high heat meant a lot of energy 0 Then small molecules joined into macromolecules 0 Next packaging molecules into protocells 0 Finally origin of self replicating molecules Early conditions still exist in some places today adding clay can accelerate the formations of molecules the rst type of genetic material was RNA based 0 RNA replicates faster but is less stable Self Replicating RNA 0 ribozymes catalyze different reactions 0 natural selection backs self replicating RNA 0 the most stablemost replicated RNA is passed on to descendants Life Origin of earth Prokaryotes rst life forms Atmospheric oxygen a organisms start using sunlight for energy i 02 better electron acceptor 1 more ef cient metabolism b triggers rst major extinction event Single cell eukaryotes a higher metabolism need more energy to reproduce Multicellular eukaryotes Animals a cambrian explosion b hard bodied animals i rst arrival of predators c vertebrates colonization of land a bacteria on land i rst plants on land ii more 02 less C02 Plants were the rst major multicellular organisms then aquapods a insects on land introduced vertebrates to land oldest known fossils stromatolites 0 rock structures of bacteria and sediment from 35 billion years ago prokaryotes were Earth s sole inhabitants for 21 billion years Eukaryotes o endosymbiotic event 0 mitochondria and chloroplast absorbed by cells I have their own plasma membrane DNA and ribosomes greater adaptation of cells to many environments second period of diversity introduced multicellularity O algae plants fungi animals having energy allows organisms and their cells to reproduce prokaryotic cells reproduce faster because they have less to replicate and require less energy when animals came to land 02 levels decreased Multicellular Eukaryotes o from up to 12 billion years ago 0 rst underwater because land was still too hot for anything to exist 0 proteins denature at too high of temperature 0 too high temperature cannot keep water in body 0 water was a much more stable environment temperature wise Periods O Ediacaran 0 soft bodied invertebrates O Cambrian O sudden diversity 0 Ordovician O fungi plants animals colonize land 0 Cretaceous O reptilian dinosaurs went extinct after having been dominant life forms Climate 0 ocean currents dictate climate 0 Pangaea largest land mass largest desert O continental drift water at coastlines Extinction O 6 extinction events 5 include only multicellular organisms 0 after extinction there is an increase in diversity Phylogeny 0 history of the evolution of a species 0 systematics classi es organisms based on anatomical similarities 0 determines evolutionary relationship of organisms molecular systematics looks at the genes of organisms phylogenetic tree hypothesizes evolutionary relationships 0 taxon group of 1 populations of organisms O sister taxa from the same ancestor O basal taxon no other branch points after ancestor O polytomy many branch points unresolved pattern rooted tree branch for last common ancestor Molecular systematics 0 genes used to categorize 0 mutations cause organisms to separate genetically 0 rates of reproduction determines adaptation 0 degree of homology how similar genes are 0 random average is 25 0 8090 sufficient to show homology Cladistics O organisms grouped by common descent O clade group of species including ancestral species and all its descendants o monophyletic O paraphyletic ancestor but not all descendant O polyphyletic descendants but not common ancestor Shared and Derived 0 characteristics to place organisms into different groups 0 shared ancestral characteristic is seen in ancestor and descendants 0 shared derived in descendants but not ancestor O can be both depending on context Gene duplication O can increase number of genes in genome O amphibians have huge genomes 0 provides more opportunities for evolutionary changes 0 repeated gene duplications families 0 orthologous genes O duplication of ancestral gene with divergence that separates into different species 0 found in a single copy homologous between species paralogous gene 0 result from duplication found in 1 copy of genome 0 functional differences Bacteria and Archaea O can accomplish everything we humans do as a single cell 0 eXisted for longest time o no multicellular organism can eXist without prokaryotes Prokaryotes o extremophiles survive in extreme circumstances 0 all unicellular 0 may live in a colony 0 two domains 0 bacteria and archaea O structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success 0 spherical rod shaped spiral O eXist and respond to environment NO nuclues HAS DNA Cell surface structures cell wall 0 not all eukaryotic cells have cell wall I cell wall in plants made of cellulose 0 why animals cannot digest plants 0 Bacteria cell walls contain peptidoglycan I sugar polymers and polypeptides O Archaea cell wall contain polysaccharides and proteins gram positive 0 bacteria that have sipler walls with a lot of peptidoglycan O reacts with gram stain gram negative 0 lipids and proteins instead of peptidoglycan 0 usually infectious and fever inducing 0 more likely to be antibiotic resistant many antibiotics target peptidoglycan 0 kills bacteria cells but not human cells 0 capsule polysaccharide cover layer of many prokaryotes O can also be targeted by antibiotics o f1mbriae 0 allow prokaryotes to stick to substrates 0 pili 0 generated during sexual reproduction in bacteria I direct transfer of gene from one cell to another Motility O prokaryotes can move faster and more efficiently comparatively toward or away from stimuli O movement taxis chemotaXis towards or away from chemical stimuli 0 most bacteria use agella to move 0 hair like projections I made of different proteins for bacteria and archaea O evolved independently O agellum I motor unit sits within cell wall I hook projects outside of cell wall I filament is used to move 0 on one end or two sides of bacteria Genetic Material 0 prokaryotic genome has less DNA than eukaryotic o mostly circular chromosomes 0 chromosome in nucleoid O plasmids smaller rings of DNA 0 used for genetic transfer Reproduction and Adaptation O prokaryotes can reproduce every 13 hours in correct conditions 0 key features 0 small reproduce by binary ssion short generation times the more you reproduce DNA the more opportunities there are fro mutations O endospore metabolically inactive prokaryote that has dehydrated system and condensed O can eXist for centuries rapid reproduction mutation and genetic recombination allow for adaptability binary ssion lowers mutation rates BUT rapid reproduction increases mutation rate 0 genetic recombination O ability to bring in DNA from outside through 3 methods I transformation transduction conjugation 0 horizontal gene transfer 0 movement of genes among indiViduals from different species 0 increase adaptability
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