Anatomy midterm 2- lung and respiration objectives
Anatomy midterm 2- lung and respiration objectives
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Date Created: 05/15/14
Lungs and Respiration Reading and Objectives 1 LECTURE OBJECTIVES 1 Understand how the thoracic cavity is enclosed within the rib cage and diaphragm What are the three tubes that run through the diaphragm a Right and Left lungs are on either side of the heart b Lungs occupy all the space not taken up by heart esophagus trachea or blood vessels c 3 tubes that run through the diaphragm are the esophagus trachea and aorta 2 Be able to picture how the heart sits between the lungs a The heart is asymmetrical b Left side of heart is bigger so left lung is smaller less space for lung c Right lung has 3 lobes left lung has 2 lobes 3 Know what the function of respiration is As a consequence what 3 sets of tubes enter the lungs What is the aperature that they run through a Functions of respiration i Removal of Carbon Dioxide ii oxygenation of blood b The bronchus a large pulmonary artery and 2 pulmonary veins enter the lungs c The aperature that they run through is the hilum 4 Know why blood in the pulmonary arteries and veins is the wrong color a Blood in the pulmonary arteries is leaving the heart and going to the lungs to be oxygenated i Since it is leaving the heart it is called an artery ii But in this case the blood is blue because it has not yet been oxygenated by the lungs b Blood in the Pulmonary veins are red and oxygenated i Since it is going back to the heart it is called a vein ii It has just been oxygenated by the lungs so that is why it is red and not blue 5 Know how you can tell the difference between the left and right lungs hint count the lobes Why are the two lungs different a You can tell the difference between the left and right lungs because the right lung has 3 lobes and the left lung has two lobes b They are different because the heart is assymetrical and takes up more space on the left side Lungs and Respiration Reading and Objectives 2 6 Learn what the pleura is and what it is called when it covers the lungs as opposed to lining the inside of the thoracic cavity What is its function during breathing a The pleura is a serous membrane that covers the lungs and the thoracic cavity b Visceral Pleura covers the surfaces of the lungs c Parietal Pleura lines the inside of the thoracic cavity d Function during breathing i Coats the lungs to reduce friction when the lungs expand and constrict 7 What is the mediastinum What structures are inside it Can uid or air cross the mediastinum from the left pleural cavity to the right pleural cavity or vice versa a The mediastinum refers to the space between the lungs filled with structures b The heart is the biggest structure in the mediastinum but it also contains the Descending Aorta Vena Cava Esophagus and Thoracic Duct c Mediastinum is an impenetrable barrier between the lungs and pleural cavity 8 Learn how the thoracic cavity expands so that air is sucked into the lungs Know the roles of the Diaphragm It helps to picture the 3D shape of the diaphragm during exhalation maximally domed shape and during maximum inspiration most nearly attened shape ribs Understand the bucket handle model 9 What muscles rotate the ribs up during inspiration Which muscles are active during quiet breathing versus deep breathing forced respiration a Extemal intercostal muscles rotate the ribs up during inspiration b The diaphragm is active during quiet breathing c Stemocleidomastoid is used for forced respiration deep breathing 10 Normally exhalation is passive no muscles are needed But during coughing sneezing or other activities requiring a forceful outward air stream muscles actively rotate the ribs downward What muscles a The internal intercostal muscles pull the ribs downward 11 Understand the neural control of respiratory muscles Why is injury to the brain that causes pressure on the medulla lifethreatening a The respiratory center is in the medulla of the brain b If too much pressure is put on the medulla it can squish the medulla and the respiration center will not be able to work properly Lungs and Respiration Reading and Objectives 3 12 Know what the bronchial tree is Be able to identify its different parts and know which ones have cartilage armor and which do not Why do some parts have cartilage a The bronchus splits off from the trachea and has cartilage rings surrounding it b The primary bronchi have cartilage rings surrounding it and the rest of the bronchi have cartilage plates instead to make sure the airway stays open without expanding c Bronchioles are the smallest and do not have any cartilage on them Because of this they are able to expand when filled with air 13 Understand how the autonomic nervous system controls the diameter of bronchioles When you are breathing quietly why do you want your bronchioles to have small diameters a When you are breathing quietly you want your bronchioles to have small diameters in order to breathe efficiently If they were expanded too much it would increase the amount of dead air in the lungs 14 Know what the difference is between intrapulmonary space and the intrapleural cavity Which one has air in it Which one always has lower pressure inside a The intrapulmonary space is the space inside the lungs b The intrapleural cavity is the potential space in the thoracic cavity outside of the lungs The pressure in the intrapleural cavity is always negative pressure and lower than the intrapulmonary space 15 Understand how inspiration causes pressure inside intrapulmonary space and the intrapleural cavity to drop and suck air into the intrapulmonary space a As you inhale the lungs grow and the pressure is lowered volume goes up pressure goes down 16 Know how injury to the chest wall can let air into the intrapleural cavity resulting in a pneumothorax What is the other way that a pneumothorax can occur a If a pneumothorax occurs because there is a hole poked in the chest wall air will rush into that space because it is negative pressure To get rid of it the air has to be either suctioned out or the hole repaired and the body will take care of the extra air b Another way a pneumothorax can occur is if there is a hole in the lung Since the pressure is lower outside of the lung all of the air goes into the intrapleural space To fix this a tube has to be put in through the chest to let the air out until the lung repairs itself Lungs and Respiration Reading and Objectives 4 17 Picture an alveolus with its adjoining alveoli making up an alveolar sac now picture a capillary pressed up against it There is such a thin barrier between the air in the alveolus and the inside of the capillary that oxygen can easily diffuse across it Going the other direction from inside the blood in the capillary to the air in the alveolus carbon dioxide diffuses equally readily The diffusion of these 2 gases across this barrier is the entire purpose of respiration a 18Know the difference between quiet breathing and deep breathing a Quiet breathing is when you breathe while sitting or resting It only uses your diaphragm as a muscle b Deep breathing uses your external intercostal muscles and stemocleidomastoid to assist in breathing deeply 19 What is COPD Why does the breakdown of walls of alveoli make breathing inefficient a COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease b When the alveoli walls breakdown it reduces the surface area making it harder to get enough air 20 Know that the upper airway consists of the nasal cavity the pharynx and the larynx 21 Learn the key parts of the larynx besides its cartilage structure it has a movable epiglottis and it contains the vocal cords What is the glottis a Key parts of the larynx 3 cartilage pieces epiglottis trachea vocal cords glottis aperture formed by vocal cords 22 Know what happens during swallowing what parts move what passages get closed off and what get opened up a When swallowing epiglottis covers entrance to trachea so food doesn t go down b Tongue pushes the soft palate back to block of nasopharynx c Hyoid bone pulls larynx up via small muscles to constrict the space that the epiglottis is covering 23 Understand how the vocal cords allow you to make sounds speak sing and hum a 24 Know what the trachea and bronchi look like in crosssection The inner lining is an epithelium that is part of a mucosa The key features of a mucosa are 1 ciliated epithelial cells and 2 goblet cells that secrete mucus Same as in the lining of the nasal Lungs and Respiration Reading and Objectives 5 cavity also a mucosa Recall that mucus is useful for trapping particulates including dust mold bacteria and Viruses stuff you don39t Want in your lungs 25 Understand that asthma is a disease of the bronchioles and can be caused either by an abnormally intense reaction to particulates or by an allergic reaction to inhaled material such as pollen
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